Chapter A4 Earthquake Risk Reduction in Wood-Frame Residential Buildings With Soft, Weak or Open Front Walls
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The Office of the State Fire Marshal's adoption of this chapter or individual sections is applicable to structures regulated by other state agencies pursuant to Section 1.11.
Notwithstanding the applicable definitions, symbols and notations in the building code, the following definitions shall apply for the purposes of this chapter:
[BS] ASPECT RATIO. The span-width ratio for horizontal diaphragms and the height-length ratio for shear walls.
[BS] GROUND FLOOR. Any floor whose elevation is immediately accessible from an adjacent grade by vehicles or pedestrians. The ground floor portion of the structure does not include any floor that is completely below adjacent grades.
[BS] NONCONFORMING STRUCTURAL MATERIALS. Wall bracing materials other than wood structural panels or diagonal sheathing.
[BS] OPEN-FRONT WALL LINE. An exterior wall line, without vertical elements of the lateral force-resisting system, that requires tributary seismic forces to be resisted by diaphragm rotation or excessive cantilever beyond parallel lines of shear walls. Diaphragms that cantilever more than 25 percent of the distance between lines of lateral force-resisting elements from which the diaphragm cantilevers shall be considered excessive. Exterior exit balconies of 6 feet (1829 mm) or less in width shall not be considered excessive cantilevers.
[BS] SOFT WALL LINE. A wall line whose lateral stiffness is less than that required by story drift limitations or deformation compatibility requirements of this chapter. In lieu of analysis, a soft wall line may be defined as a wall line in a story where the story stiffness is less than 70 percent of the story above for the direction under consideration.
[BS] STORY. A story as defined by the building code, including any basement or underfloor space of a building with cripple walls exceeding 4 feet (1219 mm) in height.
[BS] STORY STRENGTH. The total strength of all seismic-resisting elements sharing the same story shear in the direction under consideration.
[BS] WALL LINE. Any length of wall along a principal axis of the building used to provide resistance to lateral loads. Parallel wall lines separated by less than 4 feet (1219 mm) shall be considered one wall line for the distribution of loads.
[BS] WEAK WALL LINE. A wall line in a story where the story strength is less than 80 percent of the story above in the direction under consideration.
All modifications required by the provisions in this chapter shall be designed in accordance with the California Building Code provisions for new construction, except as modified by this chapter.
Exception: Buildings for which the prescriptive measures provided in Section A404 apply and are used.
No alteration of the existing lateral force-resisting system or vertical load-carrying system shall reduce the strength or stiffness of the existing structure, unless the altered structure would remain in conformance to the building code and this chapter.
This chapter requires the alteration, repair, replacement or addition of structural elements and their connections to meet the strength and stiffness requirements herein. The lateral-load-path analysis shall include the resisting elements and connections from the wood diaphragm immediately above any soft, weak or open-front wall lines to the foundation soil interface or to the uppermost story of a podium structure comprised of steel, masonry, or concrete structural systems that supports the upper, wood-framed structure. Stories above the uppermost story with a soft, weak, or open-front wall line shall be considered in the analysis but need not be modified. The lateral-load-path analysis for added structural elements shall also include evaluation of the allowable soil-bearing and lateral pressures in accordance with the building code. Where any portion of a building within the scope of this chapter is constructed on or into a slope steeper than one unit vertical in three units horizontal (33-percent slope), the lateral force-resisting system at and below the base level diaphragm shall be analyzed for the effects of concentrated lateral forces at the base caused by this hillside condition.
Exception: When an open-front, weak or soft wall line exists because of parking at the ground floor of a two-story building and the parking area is less than 20 percent of the ground floor area, then only the wall lines in the open, weak or soft directions of the enclosed parking area need comply with the provisions of this chapter.
The design base shear in a given direction shall be permitted to be 75 percent of the value required for similar new construction in accordance with the building code. The value of R used in the design of the strengthening of any story shall not exceed the lowest value of R used in the same direction at any story above. The system overstrength factor, Δ0, and the deflection amplification factor, Cd, shall be not less than the largest respective value corresponding to the R factor being used in the direction under consideration.
- For structures assigned to Seismic Design Category B, values of R, Δ0 and Cd shall be permitted to be based on the seismic force-resisting system being used to achieve the required strengthening.
- For structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C or D, values of R, Δ0 and Cd shall be permitted to be based on the seismic force-resisting system being used to achieve the required strengthening, provided that when the strengthening is complete, the strengthened structure will not have an extreme weak story irregularity defined as Type 5b in ASCE 7 Table 12.3-2.
- For structures assigned to Seismic Design Category E, values of R, Δ0 and Cd shall be permitted to be based on the seismic force-resisting system being used to achieve the required strengthening, provided that when the strengthening is complete, the strengthened structure will not have an extreme soft story, a weak story, or an extreme weak story irregularity defined, respectively, as Types 1b, 5a and 5b in ASCE 7 Table 12.3-2.
The strength of an existing horizontal diaphragm sheathed with wood structural panels or diagonal sheathing need not be investigated unless the diaphragm is required to transfer lateral forces from vertical elements of the seismic force-resisting system above the diaphragm to elements below the diaphragm because of an offset in placement of the elements.
Rotational effects shall be accounted for when asymmetric wall stiffness increases shear demands.
To qualify for these prescriptive measures, the following additional conditions need to be satisfied by the retrofitted structure:
- Diaphragm aspect ratio L/W is less than 0.67, where W is the diaphragm dimension parallel to the soft, weak or open-front wall line and L is the distance in the orthogonal direction between that wall line and the rear wall of the ground floor open area.
- Minimum length of side shear walls = 20 feet (6096 mm).
- Minimum length of rear shear wall = three-fourths of the total rear wall length.
- No plan or vertical irregularities other than a soft, weak or open-front wall line.
- Roofing weight less than or equal to 5 pounds per square foot (240 N/m2).
- Aspect ratio of the full second floor diaphragm meets the requirements of the building code for new construction.
Shear walls shall have a referenced schedule on the plans that includes the correct shear wall capacity in pounds per foot (N/m); the required fastener type, length, gage and head size; and a complete specification for the sheathing material and its thickness. The schedule shall also show the required location of 3-inch (76 mm) nominal or two 2-inch (51 mm) nominal edge members; the spacing of shear transfer elements such as framing anchors or added sill plate nails; the required hold-down with its bolt, screw or nail sizes; and the dimensions, lumber grade and species of the attached framing member.
Notes shall show required edge distance for fasteners on structural wood panels and framing members; required flush nailing at the plywood surface; limits of mechanical penetrations; and the sill plate material assumed in the design. The limits of mechanical penetrations shall also be detailed showing the maximum notching and drilled hole sizes.
Structural observation, in accordance with Section 1709 of the California Building Code, shall be required for all structures in which seismic retrofit is being performed in accordance with this chapter. Structural observation shall include visual observation of work for conformance to the approved construction documents and confirmation of existing conditions assumed during design.
Structural testing and inspection for new construction materials shall be in accordance with the building code, except as modified by this chapter.