|Adopt entire chapter||X||X||X||X||X|
|Adopt entire chapter as amended (amended sections listed below)||X||X||X||X|
|Adopt only those sections that are listed below|
|Chapter / Section|
|2410 & Subsections||X||X||X||X|
The Office of the State Fire Marshal's adoption of this chapter or individual sections is applicable to structures regulated by other state agencies pursuant to Section 1.11.
Each pane shall bear the manufacturer's mark designating the type and thickness of the glass or glazing material. The identification shall not be omitted unless approved and an affidavit is furnished by the glazing contractor certifying that each light is glazed in accordance with approved construction documents that comply with the provisions of this chapter. Safety glazing shall be identified in accordance with Section 2406.3.
Each pane of tempered glass, except tempered spandrel glass, shall be permanently identified by the manufacturer. The identification mark shall be acid etched, sand blasted, ceramic fired, laser etched, embossed or of a type that, once applied, cannot be removed without being destroyed.
Tempered spandrel glass shall be provided with a removable paper marking by the manufacturer.
- The construction documents and analysis or test data required per Section 2403.2 shall be submitted to the enforcement agency for approval.
- Glass firmly supported on all four edges shall be glazed with minimum laps and edge clearances set forth in Table 2403.2.1.
MINIMUM GLAZING REQUIREMENTS
|FIXED WINDOWS AND OPENABLE WINDOWS OTHER THAN HORIZONTAL SIDING|
|Glass Area||Up to 6 sq. ft.||6 to 14 sq. ft.||14 to 32 sq. ft.||32 to 50 sq. ft.||Over 50 sq. ft.|
|× 0.0929 for m2, × 25.4 for mm|
|1. Minimum Frame Lap||1/4"||1/4"||5/16"||3/8"||1/2"|
|2. Minimum Glass Edge Clearance||1/8"1,2||1/8"1,2||3/16"1||1/4"||1/4"1|
|3. Continuous Glazing Rabbet and Glass Retainer3||Required|
|4. Resilient Setting Material4||Not Required||Required|
|SLIDING DOORS AND HORIZONTAL SLIDING WINDOWS|
|Glass Area||Up to 14 sq. ft.||14 to 32 sq. ft.||32 to 50 sq. ft.||Over 50 sq. ft.|
|× 0.0929 for m2, × 25.4 for mm|
|5. Minimum Glass Frame Lap||1/4"||5/16"||3/8"||1/2"|
|6. Minimum Glass Edge Clearance||1/8"2||3/16"||1/4"||1/4"|
|7. Continuous Glazing Rabbet and Glass Retained3||Required above third story||Required|
|8. Resilient Setting Material4||Not Required||Required|
- Glass edge clearance in fixed openings shall not be less than required to provide for wind and earthquake drift.
- Glass edge clearance at all sides of pane shall be a minimum of 3/16 inch (4.8 mm) where height of glass exceeds 3 feet (914 mm).
- Glass retainers such as metal, wood or vinyl face stops, glazing beads, gaskets, glazing clips and glazing channels shall be of sufficient strength and fixation to serve this purpose.
- Resilient setting material shall include preformed rubber or vinyl plastic gaskets or other materials which are proved to the satisfaction of the building official to remain resilient.
Float, wired and patterned glass in louvered windows and jalousies shall be no thinner than nominal 3/16 inch (4.8 mm) and no longer than 48 inches (1219 mm). Exposed glass edges shall be smooth.
Wired glass with wire exposed on longitudinal edges shall not be used in louvered windows or jalousies.
Where other glass types are used, the design shall be submitted to the building official for approval.
Glass sloped 15 degrees (0.26 rad) or less from vertical in windows, curtain and window walls, doors and other exterior applications shall be designed to resist the wind loads due to ultimate design wind speed, Vult, in Section 1609 for components and cladding. Glass in glazed curtain walls, glazed storefronts and glazed partitions shall meet the seismic requirements of ASCE 7, Section 13.5.9. The load resistance of glass under uniform load shall be determined in accordance with ASTM E1300.
The design of vertical glazing shall be based on Equation 24-1.
Fga = Short duration load on the glass as determined in accordance with ASTM E1300.
Glass sloped more than 15 degrees (0.26 rad) from vertical in skylights, sunrooms, sloped roofs and other exterior applications shall be designed to resist the most critical combinations of loads determined by Equations 24-2, 24-3 and 24-4.
D = Glass dead load psf (kN/m2).
For glass sloped 30 degrees (0.52 rad) or less from horizontal,
= 13 tg (For SI: 0.0245 tg).
For glass sloped more than 30 degrees (0.52 rad) from horizontal,
= 13 tg cos θ (For SI: 0.0245 tg cos θ).
Fg = Total load, psf (kN/m2) on glass.
S = Snow load, psf (kN/m2) as determined in Section 1608.
tg = Total glass thickness, inches (mm) of glass panes and plies.
θ = Angle of slope from horizontal.
The design of sloped glazing shall be based on Equation 24-5.
Fg = Total load on the glass as determined by Equations 24-2, 24-3 and 24-4.
Fga = Short duration load resistance of the glass as determined in accordance with ASTM E1300 for Equations 24-2 and 24-3; or the long duration load resistance of the glass as determined in accordance with ASTM E1300 for Equation 24-4.
Wired glass sloped 15 degrees (0.26 rad) or less from vertical in windows, curtain and window walls, doors and other exterior applications shall be designed to resist the wind loads in Section 1609 for components and cladding according to the following equation:
Fge = Nonfactored load from ASTM E1300 using a thickness designation for monolithic glass that is not greater than the thickness of wired glass.
Wired glass sloped more than 15 degrees (0.26 rad) from vertical in skylights, sunspaces, sloped roofs and other exterior applications shall be designed to resist the most critical of the combinations of loads from Section 2404.2.
For Equations 24-2 and 24-3:
For Equation 24-4:
Fg = Total load on the glass as determined by Equations 24-2, 24-3 and 24-4.
Fge = Nonfactored load in accordance with ASTM E1300.
Patterned glass sloped 15 degrees (0.26 rad) or less from vertical in windows, curtain and window walls, doors and other exterior applications shall be designed to resist the wind loads in Section 1609 for components and cladding according to Equation 24-9.
Fge = Nonfactored load in accordance with ASTM E1300. The value for patterned glass shall be based on the thinnest part of the glass. Interpolation between nonfactored load charts in ASTM E1300 shall be permitted.
Patterned glass sloped more than 15 degrees (0.26 rad) from vertical in skylights, sunspaces, sloped roofs and other exterior applications shall be designed to resist the most critical of the combinations of loads from Section 2404.2.
For Equations 24-2 and 24-3:
For Equation 24-4:
Fg = Total load on the glass as determined by Equations 24-2, 24-3 and 24-4.
Fge = Nonfactored load in accordance with ASTM E1300. The value for patterned glass shall be based on the thinnest part of the glass. Interpolation between the nonfactored load charts in ASTM E1300 shall be permitted.
Sandblasted glass sloped 15 degrees (0.26 rad) or less from vertical in windows, curtain and window walls, doors, and other exterior applications shall be designed to resist the wind loads in Section 1609 for components and cladding according to Equation 24-12.
Fge = Nonfactored load in accordance with ASTM E1300. The value for sandblasted glass is for moderate levels of sandblasting.
Sloped glazing shall be any of the following materials, subject to the listed limitations.
- For monolithic glazing systems, the glazing material of the single light or layer shall be laminated glass with a minimum 30-mil (0.76 mm) polyvinyl butyral (or equivalent) interlayer, wired glass, light-transmitting plastic materials meeting the requirements of Section 2607, heat-strengthened glass or fully tempered glass.
- For multiple-layer glazing systems, each light or layer shall consist of any of the glazing materials specified in Item 1 above.
Annealed glass is permitted to be used as specified in Exceptions 2 and 3 of Section 2405.3.
Where used in monolithic glazing systems, heat-strengthened and fully tempered glass shall have screens installed below the glazing material. The screens and their fastenings shall: (1) be capable of supporting twice the weight of the glazing; (2) be firmly and substantially fastened to the framing members and (3) be installed within 4 inches (102 mm) of the glass. The screens shall be constructed of a noncombustible material not thinner than No. 12 B&S gage (0.0808 inch) with mesh not larger than 1 inch by 1 inch (25 mm by 25 mm). In a corrosive atmosphere, structurally equivalent noncorrosive screen materials shall be used. Heat-strengthened glass, fully tempered glass and wired glass, when used in multiple-layer glazing systems as the bottom glass layer over the walking surface, shall be equipped with screening that conforms to the requirements for monolithic glazing systems.
Exception: In monolithic and multiple-layer sloped glazing systems, the following applies:
- Fully tempered glass installed without protective screens where glazed between intervening floors at a slope of 30 degrees (0.52 rad) or less from the vertical plane shall have the highest point of the glass 10 feet (3048 mm) or less above the walking surface.
- Screens are not required below any glazing material, including annealed glass, where the walking surface below the glazing material is permanently protected from the risk of falling glass or the area below the glazing material is not a walking surface.
- Any glazing material, including annealed glass, is permitted to be installed without screens in the sloped glazing systems of commercial or detached noncombustible greenhouses used exclusively for growing plants and not open to the public, provided that the height of the greenhouse at the ridge does not exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) above grade.
In Type I and II construction, sloped glazing and skylight frames shall be constructed of noncombustible materials. In structures where acid fumes deleterious to metal are incidental to the use of the buildings, approved pressure-treated wood or other approved noncorrosive materials are permitted to be used for sash and frames. Framing supporting sloped glazing and skylights shall be designed to resist the tributary roof loads in Chapter 16. Skylights set at an angle of less than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) from the horizontal plane shall be mounted at least 4 inches (102 mm) above the plane of the roof on a curb constructed as required for the frame. Skylights shall not be installed in the plane of the roof where the roof pitch is less than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) from the horizontal.
Exception: Installation of a skylight without a curb shall be permitted on roofs with a minimum slope of 14 degrees (three units vertical in 12 units horizontal) in Group R-3 occupancies. All unit skylights installed in a roof with a pitch flatter than 14 degrees (0.25 rad) shall be mounted at least 4 inches (102 mm) above the plane of the roof on a curb constructed as required for the frame unless otherwise specified in the manufacturer's installation instructions.
2405.5.1 Skylights Rated for the Same Performance Grade for Both Positive and Negative Design Pressure
The design of skylights rated for performance grade for both positive and negative design pressures shall be based on Equations 24-14 and 24-15.
PGPos = Performance grade rating of the skylight under positive design pressure;
PGNeg = Performance grade rating of the skylight under negative design pressure; and
Fgi and Fgo are determined in accordance with the following:
For 0.6Wo ≥ D,
Fgi = Maximum load on the skylight determined from Equations 24-3 and 24-4 in Section 2404.2.
Fgo = Maximum load on the skylight determined from Equation 24-2.
For 0.6 Wo < D,
Fgi = Maximum load on the skylight determined from Equations 24-2 through 24-4 in Section 2404.2.
Fgo = 0.
Where required by other sections of this code, glazing shall be tested in accordance with CPSC 16 CFR Part 1201. Glazing shall comply with the test criteria for Category II, unless otherwise indicated in Table 2406.2(1).
Exception: Glazing not in doors or enclosures for hot tubs, whirlpools, saunas, steam rooms, bathtubs and showers shall be permitted to be tested in accordance with ANSI Z97.1. Glazing shall comply with the test criteria for Class A, unless otherwise indicated in Table 2406.2(2).
MINIMUM CATEGORY CLASSIFICATION OF GLAZING USING CPSC 16 CFR PART 1201
|EXPOSED SURFACE AREA OF ONE SIDE OF ONE LITE||GLAZING IN STORM OR COMBINATION DOORS (Category class)||GLAZING IN DOORS (Category class)||GLAZED PANELS REGULATED BY SECTION 2406.4.3 (Category class)||GLAZED PANELS REGULATED BY SECTION 2406.4.2 (Category class)||DOORS AND ENCLOSURES REGULATED BY SECTION 2406.4.5 (Category class)||SLIDING GLASS DOORS PATIO TYPE (Category class)|
|9 square feet or less||I||I||No requirement||I||II||II|
|More than 9 square feet||II||II||II||II||II||II|
For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
MINIMUM CATEGORY CLASSIFICATION OF GLAZING USING ANSI Z97.1
|EXPOSED SURFACE AREA OF ONE SIDE OF ONE LITE||GLAZED PANELS REGULATED BY SECTION 2406.4.3 (Category class)||GLAZED PANELS REGULATED BY SECTION 2406.4.2 (Category class)||DOORS AND ENCLOSURES REGULATED BY SECTION 2406.4.5a (Category class)|
|9 square feet or less||No requirement||B||A|
|More than 9 square feet||A||A||A|
For SI: square foot = 0.0929 m2.
- Use is only permitted by the exception to Section 2406.2.
Except as indicated in Section 2406.3.1, each pane of safety glazing installed in hazardous locations shall be identified by a manufacturer's designation specifying who applied the designation, the manufacturer or installer and the safety glazing standard with which it complies, as well as the information specified in Section 2403.1. The designation shall be acid etched, sand blasted, ceramic fired, laser etched, embossed or of a type that once applied, cannot be removed without being destroyed. A label meeting the requirements of this section shall be permitted in lieu of the manufacturer's designation.
- For other than tempered glass, manufacturer's designations are not required, provided the building official approves the use of a certificate, affidavit or other evidence confirming compliance with this code.
- Tempered spandrel glass is permitted to be identified by the manufacturer with a removable paper designation.
Glazing in an individual fixed or operable panel adjacent to a door where the nearest vertical edge of the glazing is within a 24-inch (610 mm) arc of either vertical edge of the door in a closed position and where the bottom exposed edge of the glazing is less than 60 inches (1524 mm) above the walking surface shall be considered a hazardous location.
- Decorative glazing.
- Where there is an intervening wall or other permanent barrier between the door and glazing.
- Where access through the door is to a closet or storage area 3 feet (914 mm) or less in depth. Glazing in this application shall comply with Section 2406.4.3.
- Glazing in walls on the latch side of and perpendicular to the plane of the door in a closed position in one- and two-family dwellings or within dwelling units in Group R-2.
Glazing in an individual fixed or operable panel that meets all of the following conditions shall be considered a hazardous location:
- The exposed area of an individual pane is greater than 9 square feet (0.84 m2).
- The bottom edge of the glazing is less than 18 inches (457 mm) above the floor.
- The top edge of the glazing is greater than 36 inches (914 mm) above the floor.
- One or more walking surface(s) are within 36 inches (914 mm), measured horizontally and in a straight line, of the plane of the glazing.
- Decorative glazing.
- Where a horizontal rail is installed on the accessible side(s) of the glazing 34 to 38 inches (864 to 965 mm) above the walking surface. The rail shall be capable of withstanding a horizontal load of 50 pounds per linear foot (730 N/m) without contacting the glass and be a minimum of 11/2 inches (38 mm) in cross-sectional height.
- Outboard panes in insulating glass units or multiple glazing where the bottom exposed edge of the glass is 25 feet (7620 mm) or more above any grade, roof, walking surface or other horizontal or sloped (within 45 degrees of horizontal) (0.79 rad) surface adjacent to the glass exterior.
Glazing in walls, enclosures or fences containing or facing hot tubs, spas, whirlpools, saunas, steam rooms, bathtubs, showers and indoor or outdoor swimming pools where the bottom exposed edge of the glazing is less than 60 inches (1524 mm) measured vertically above any standing or walking surface shall be considered a hazardous location. This shall apply to single glazing and all panes in multiple glazing.
Exception: Glazing that is more than 60 inches (1524 mm), measured horizontally and in a straight line, from the water's edge of a bathtub, hot tub, spa, whirlpool or swimming pool.
Glazing where the bottom exposed edge of the glazing is less than 60 inches (1524 mm) above the plane of the adjacent walking surface of stairways, landings between flights of stairs and ramps shall be considered a hazardous location.
Glazing adjacent to the landing at the bottom of a stairway where the glazing is less than 60 inches (1524 mm) above the landing and within a 60-inch (1524 mm) horizontal arc that is less than 180 degrees (3.14 rad) from the bottom tread nosing shall be considered a hazardous location.
Glass used in a handrail, guardrail or a guard section shall be laminated glass constructed of fully tempered or heat-strengthened glass and shall comply with Category II or CPSC 16 CFR Part 1201 or Class A of ANSI Z97.1. Glazing in railing in-fill panels shall be of an approved safety glazing material that conforms to the provisions of Section 2406.1.1. For all glazing types, the minimum nominal thickness shall be 1/4 inch (6.4 mm).
Exception: Single fully tempered glass complying with Category II of CPSC 16 CFR Part 1201 or Class A of ANSI Z97.1 shall be permitted to be used in handrails and guardrails where there is no walking surface beneath them or the walking surface is permanently protected from the risk of falling glass.
Each handrail or guard section shall be supported by a minimum of three glass balusters or shall be otherwise supported to remain in place should one baluster panel fail. Glass balusters shall not be installed without an attached handrail or guard.
Exception: A top rail shall not be required where the glass balusters are laminated glass with two or more glass plies of equal thickness and the same glass type when approved by the building official. The panels shall be designed to withstand the loads specified in Section 1607.8.
Test methods and loads for individual glazed areas in racquetball and squash courts subject to impact loads shall conform to those of CPSC 16 CFR Part 1201 or ANSI Z97.1 with impacts being applied at a height of 59 inches (1499 mm) above the playing surface to an actual or simulated glass wall installation with fixtures, fittings and methods of assembly identical to those used in practice.
Glass walls shall comply with the following conditions:
- A glass wall in a racquetball or squash court, or similar use subject to impact loads, shall remain intact following a test impact.
- The deflection of such walls shall be not greater than 11/2 inches (38 mm) at the point of impact for a drop height of 48 inches (1219 mm).
Glass doors shall comply with the following conditions:
Glass in elevator car enclosures, glass elevator car doors and glass used for lining walls and ceilings of elevator cars shall be laminated glass conforming to Class A in accordance with ANSI Z97.1 or Category II in accordance with CPSC 16 CFR Part 1201.
Exception: Tempered glass shall be permitted to be used for lining walls and ceilings of elevator cars provided:
- The glass is bonded to a nonpolymeric coating, sheeting or film backing having a physical integrity to hold the fragments when the glass breaks.
- The glass is not subjected to further treatment such as sandblasting; etching; heat treatment or painting that could alter the original properties of the glass.
- The glass is tested to the acceptance criteria for laminated glass as specified for Class A in accordance with ANSI Z97.1 or Category II in accordance with CPSC 16 CFR Part 1201.
Design of structural sealant glazing (SSG) shall satisfy the following requirements:
- SSG shall be weather tight and serviceable, as defined in AAMA 501.4, under design story drifts associated with the design earthquake and no glass fallout shall occur at the drifts determined by ASCE 7, Section 13.5.9.
- The sealant utilized in the insulated glass units used in SSG shall be designed in accordance with ASTM C1249. The insulated glass unit design shall be in accordance with ASTM C1249, Section 6.7.2.
- Allowable stress for SSG shall not exceed 20 psi and shall have a minimum factor of safety of 5 as required by ASTM C1401.
- Design methodology shall address seismic movement in accordance with ASTM C1401, Section 30.3.4.
- SSG systems shall be supported for self-weight and lateral loading at each floor level of the building.
- Unitized SSG framing shall be anchored to the building floor bearing plate by screws or bolts and shall not rely upon gravity or frictional forces for attachment.
- Framing shall satisfy the out-of-plane deflection requirements of this code.
Testing and inspection of structural sealant glazing (SSG) shall satisfy the following requirements:
- The seismic drift capability of structural sealant glazing shall be determined by tests in accordance with AAMA 501.6, AAMA 501.4 and ASCE 7, Section 220.127.116.11.
- The applicability of the specific AAMA 501.6 and AAMA 501.4 testing shall be subject to approval by the building official.
- The panel test specimens used in the AAMA 501.6 and AAMA 501.4 testing shall include all glass types (annealed, heat strengthened, laminated, tempered) and insulated glass units that comprise more than 5 percent of the total glass curtain wall area used in the building.
- AAMA 501.4 test specimen shall include the same materials, sections, connections, and attachment details to the test apparatus as used in the building.
- Serviceability tests of SSG test specimen shall be performed in accordance with AAMA 501.4 after seismic displacement tests to the design story drift.
- The window wall system using structural sealant by different manufacturer/product category shall be qualified in accordance with AAMA 501.6 and AAMA 501.4 testing for the seismic drift required. Analysis as an alternative to testing is not acceptable for the purposes of satisfying the seismic drift requirements of the SSG system.
- Where unitized SSG is used with horizontal stack joints at each floor level and split vertical mullions that can move independently, only a story height single unit need to be tested under AAMA 501.6. Where continuous horizontal bands of SSG are used in the building, either two or four sided, the aspect ratio (height-to-length) of the test specimen shall be less than 1.0, contain not less than two interior vertical joints and all joints (vertical in the case of two sided), including the perimeter of the glass, shall be glazed with SSG.
- Where SSG continues around corners, the AAMA 501.4 test specimen shall include one corner panel to verify the kinematics of the corner condition under seismic drift.
- Quality assurance and inspection requirements shall include formalized post-installation tests using the point load testing procedure in accordance with ASTM C1392. The point load tests shall be done after the initial installation.
- Where the SSG is field assembled, hand pull tab tests in accordance with ASTM C1401, Section X2.1, one test every 100 linear feet, but not less than one test for each building elevation view shall be required.
Short- and long-term periodic performance monitoring shall be provided in accordance with ASTM C1401, C1392 and C1394. Inspection frequencies recommended in ASTM C1392 Section 5.1 shall be followed.
Complete design of the SSG system for gravity, wind and seismic forces shall be subject to review by the enforcement agency. Construction documents shall show structural details of glass and curtain wall system including:
- A design narrative explaining how the SSG is supported by the building and the mechanism used to accommodate seismic racking.
- Type of SSG and whether field or shop built.
- The means of supporting the glass during structural sealant curing time shall be shown in the construction documents.
- Typical curtain wall panel elevation, plan view and sections.
- Details of building corner joint to verify how the corner vertical mullion will move to accommodate the seismic drift.
- Joints between panel and floors at top and bottom.
- Joint between panels — including vertical and horizontal stack joints at intermediate and edge mullion.
- Member sizes for curtain wall panels.
- Glass pane sizes, thickness and type of glass.
- Contact width and thickness of structural sealant and sealant materials for shop and field installation/reglazing.
- Glass to aluminum joints (including primers, if any).
- Maximum roof/floor dead and live load deflection of the roof/floor framing members supporting the exterior curtain wall system.
- Required seismic separation or gap distance between the structural sealant glazing curtain wall and other adjacent cladding units.
- Mitigation of galvanic reactions between the roof/floor slab anchors, steel screw connections of aluminum sections and the aluminum anchorage components, if any.