- American Forest and Paper Association (AF&PA); Wood Frame Construction Manual (WFCM).
- American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) Standard for Cold-Formed Steel Framing—Prescriptive Method for One- and Two-Family Dwellings(AISI S230). (COFS/PM) with Supplement to Standard for Cold-Formed Steel Framing — Prescriptive Method for One-and Two-Family Dwellings.
- ICC Standard on the Design and Construction of Log Structures (ICC 400).
- Federal Emergency Management Administration, Homebuilders' Guide to Earthquake Resistant Construction, FEMA 232-June 2006.
- American Wood Council Prescriptive Residential Wood Deck Construction Guide (DCA6).
- National Frame Builders Association Post Frame Building Design Manual.
| GROUND |
|WIND DESIGN|| SEISMIC |
|SUBJECT TO DAMAGE FROM|| WINTER |
| ICE BARRIER |
| FLOOD |
| AIR |
| MEAN |
| Speedd |
| Topographic |
| Special wind |
| Wind-borne |
|Weatheringa|| Frost line |
- Weathering may require a higher strength concrete or grade of masonry than necessary to satisfy the structural requirements of this code. The weathering column shall be filled in with the weathering index, "negligible," "moderate" or "severe" for concrete as determined from Figure R301.2(3). The grade of masonry units shall be determined from ASTM C 34, C 55, C 62, C 73, C 90, C 129, C 145, C 216 or C 652.
- The frost line depth may require deeper footings than indicated in Figure R403.1(1). The jurisdiction shall fill in the frost line depth column with the minimum depth of footing below finish grade.
- The jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table to indicate the need for protection depending on whether there has been a history of local subterranean termite damage.
- The jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with the wind speed from the basic wind speed map [Figure R301.2(4)A]. Wind exposure category shall be determined on a site-specific basis in accordance with Section R301.2.1.4.
- The outdoor design dry-bulb temperature shall be selected from the columns of 971/2-percent values for winter from Appendix D of the International Plumbing Code. Deviations from the Appendix D temperatures shall be permitted to reflect local climates or local weather experience as determined by the building official.
- The jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with the seismic design category determined from Section R301.2.2.1.
- The jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with (a) the date of the jurisdiction's entry into the National Flood Insurance Program (date of adoption of the first code or ordinance for management of flood hazard areas), (b) the date(s) of the Flood Insurance Study and (c) the panel numbers and dates of the currently effective FIRMs and FBFMs or other flood hazard map adopted by the authority having jurisdiction, as amended.
- In accordance with Sections R905.1.2, R905.4.3.1, R905.5.3.1, R905.6.3.1, R905.7.3.1 and R905.8.3.1, where there has been a history of local damage from the effects of ice damming, the jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with "YES." Otherwise, the jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with "NO."
- The jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with the 100-year return period air freezing index (BF-days) from Figure R403.3(2) or from the 100-year (99 percent) value on the National Climatic Data Center data table "Air Freezing Index-USA Method (Base 32°F)."
- The jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with the mean annual temperature from the National Climatic Data Center data table "Air Freezing Index-USA Method (Base 32°F)."
- In accordance with Section R301.2.1.5, where there is local historical data documenting structural damage to buildings due to topographic wind speed-up effects, the jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with "YES." Otherwise, the jurisdiction shall indicate "NO" in this part of the table.
- In accordance with Figure R301.2(4)A, where there is local historical data documenting unusual wind conditions, the jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with "YES" and identify any specific requirements. Otherwise, the jurisdiction shall indicate "NO" in this part of the table.
- In accordance with Section R301.2.1.2.1, the jurisdiction shall indicate the wind-borne debris wind zone(s). Otherwise, the jurisdiction shall indicate "NO" in this part of the table.
TABLE R301.2(2) COMPONENT AND CLADDING LOADS FOR A BUILDING WITH A MEAN ROOF HEIGHT OF 30 FEET LOCATED IN EXPOSURE B (ASD) (psf)a, b, c, d, e
|ZONE|| EFFECTIVE |
|ULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED, VULT (mph)|
|Roof 0 to 7 degrees||1||10||10.0||-13.0||10.0||-14.0||10.0||-15.0||10.0||-18.0||10.0||-21.0||9.9||-24.0||11.2||-27.0||12.6||-31.0||14.2||-35.0|
|Roof > 7 to 27 degrees||1||10||10.0||-11.0||10.0||-13.0||10.0||-14.0||10.5||-16.0||12.2||-19.0||14.0||-22.0||15.9||-25.0||17.9||-28.0||20.2||-32.0|
|Roof > 27 to 45 degrees||1||10||11.9||-13.0||13.1||-14.0||14.2||-15.0||16.7||-18.0||19.4||-21.0||22.2||-24.0||25.3||-27.0||28.5||-31.0||32.0||-35.0|
- The effective wind area shall be equal to the span length multiplied by an effective width. This width shall be permitted to be not less than one-third the span length. For cladding fasteners, the effective wind area shall not be greater than the area that is tributary to an individual fastener.
- For effective areas between those given, the load shall be interpolated or the load associated with the lower effective area shall be used.
- Table values shall be adjusted for height and exposure by multiplying by the adjustment coefficient in Table R301.2(3).
- See Figure R301.2(7) for location of zones.
- Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting toward and away from the building surfaces.
TABLE R301.2(3) HEIGHT AND EXPOSURE ADJUSTMENT COEFFICIENTS FOR TABLE R301.2(2)
|MEAN ROOF HEIGHT||EXPOSURE|
FIGURE R301.2(1) ISOLINES OF THE 971/2 -PERCENT WINTER (DECEMBER, JANUARY AND FEBRUARY) DESIGN TEMPERATURES (°F)
FIGURE R301.2(2) SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES—SITE CLASS D
FIGURE R301.2(2)—continued SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES—SITE CLASS D
FIGURE R301.2(2)—continued SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES—SITE CLASS D
FIGURE R301.2(2)—continued SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES—SITE CLASS D
FIGURE R301.2(2)—continued SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES—SITE CLASS D
|a. Alaska and Hawaii are classified as severe and negligible, respectively.|
|b. Lines defining areas are approximate only. Local conditions may be more or less severe than indicated by region classification. A severe classification is where weather conditions result in significant snowfall combined with extended periods during which there is little or no natural thawing causing deicing salts to be used extensively.|
FIGURE R301.2(3) WEATHERING PROBABILITY MAP FOR CONCRETEa, b
FIGURE R301.2(4)A ULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEEDS
FIGURE R301.2(4)B REGIONS WHERE WIND DESIGN IS REQUIRED
FIGURE R301.2(5) GROUND SNOW LOADS, Pg, FOR THE UNITED STATES (lb/ft2)
- In CS areas, site-specific Case Studies are required to establish ground snow loads. Extreme local variations in ground snow loads in theses areas preclude mapping at this scale.
- Numbers in parentheses represent the upper elevation limits in feet for the ground snow load values presented below. Site-specific case studies are required to establish ground snow loads at elevations not covered.
FIGURE R301.2(5)—continued GROUND SNOW LOADS, Pg, FOR THE UNITED STATES (lb/ft2)
FIGURE R301.2(6) TERMITE INFESTATION PROBABILITY MAP
|For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 degree = 0.0175 rad.|
|Note: a = 4 feet in all cases.|
FIGURE R301.2(7) COMPONENT AND CLADDING PRESSURE ZONES
||Basic ultimate wind speed, Vult shall be 115 mph (51.4 m/s) for all Kentucky counties.
Topographic effects shall be investigated. d, e
|Seismic Design Category shall be in accordance with Table R301.2.2.1.|
|WEATHERING||Weathering probability for concrete shall be classified as SEVERE for all Kentucky
counties and meet requirements of Table R402.2.
|FROST LINE DEPTH||Frost depth shall be in accordance to Table 403.1.4.|
|TERMITE PROTECTION||Termite infestation probability shall be MODERATE TO HEAVY for all Kentucky
|FLOOD HAZARDS||Buildings in identified floodways shall be designed in accordance to Section
- Listed values of ground snow load, pg, shall be used in accordance to Section R301.2.3 of this code
- Ground snow load values for elevations above 2600 feet (792.480 m) in this county shall be based on site-specific case studies or by other approved means of rational analysis.
- Ground snow load values for elevations above 2500 feet (762 m) in this county shall be based on site-specific case studies or by other approved means of rational analysis.
- See Section 301.2.1.3 for conversion to nominal design wind speeds, Vasd when reference documents are based on nominal or ASD speeds.
- See Section 602.12 for alternative methods for wind design
- For concrete construction, the wind provisions of this code shall apply in accordance with the limitations of Sections R404 and R608.
- For structural insulated panels, the wind provisions of this code shall apply in accordance with the limitations of Section R610.
- For cold-formed steel light-frame construction, the wind provisions of this code shall apply in accordance with the limitations of Sections R505, R603 and R804.
- AF&PA; Wood Frame Construction Manual (WFCM).
- ICC Standard for Residential Construction in High-Wind Regions (ICC 600).
- ASCE Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE 7).
- AISI Standard for Cold-Formed Steel Framing—Prescriptive Method For One- and Two-Family Dwellings (AISI S230).
- International Building Code.
Where ASCE 7 or the International Building Code is used for the design of the building, the wind speed map and exposure category requirements as specified in ASCE 7 and the International Building Code shall be used.
Category I: A thermally isolated sunroom with walls that are open or enclosed with insect screening or 0.5 mm (20 mil) maximum thickness plastic film. The space is nonhabitable and unconditioned.
Category II: A thermally isolated sunroom with enclosed walls. The openings are enclosed with translucent or transparent plastic or glass. The space is nonhabitable and unconditioned.
Category III: A thermally isolated sunroom with enclosed walls. The openings are enclosed with translucent or transparent plastic or glass. The sunroom fenestration complies with additional requirements for air infiltration resistance and water penetration resistance. The space is nonhabitable and unconditioned.
Category IV: A thermally isolated sunroom with enclosed walls. The sunroom is designed to be heated or cooled by a separate temperature control or system and is thermally isolated from the primary structure. The sunroom fenestration complies with additional requirements for water penetration resistance, air infiltration resistance and thermal performance. The space is nonhabitable and conditioned.
Category V: A sunroom with enclosed walls. The sunroom is designed to be heated or cooled and is open to the main structure. The sunroom fenestration complies with additional requirements for water penetration resistance, air infiltration resistance and thermal performance. The space is habitable and conditioned.
|FASTENER TYPE||FASTENER SPACING (inches)a, b|
| Panel |
| 4 feet < |
≤ 6 feet
| 6 feet < |
≤ 8 feet
| No. 8 wood screw based |
anchor with 2-inch embedment
| No. 10 wood screw based |
anchor with 2-inch embedment
| 1/4-inch lag screw based anchor |
with 2-inch embedment length
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.448 N, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.
- This table is based on 180 mph ultimate design wind speeds, Vult, and a 45-foot mean roof height.
- Fasteners shall be installed at opposing ends of the wood structural panel. Fasteners shall be located not less than 1 inch from the edge of the panel.
- Anchors shall penetrate through the exterior wall covering with an embedment length of not less than 2 inches into the building frame. Fasteners shall be located not less than 21/2 inches from the edge of concrete block or concrete.
- Panels attached to masonry or masonry/stucco shall be attached using vibration-resistant anchors having an ultimate withdrawal capacity of not less than 1,500 pounds.
2.2 ASCE Standard:
ASCE 7-10 American Society of Civil Engineers Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures
The text of Section 6.2.2 of ASTM E1996 shall be substituted as follows:
6.2.2 Unless otherwise specified, select the wind zone based on the ultimate design wind speed, Vult, as follows:
220.127.116.11 Wind Zone 1—130 mph ≤ ultimate design wind speed, Vult < 140 mph.
18.104.22.168 Wind Zone 2—140 mph ≤ ultimate design wind speed, Vult < 150 mph at greater than 1 mile (1.6 km) from the coastline. The coastline shall be measured from the mean high water mark.
22.214.171.124 Wind Zone 3—150 mph (58 m/s) ≤ ultimate design wind speed, Vult ≤ 170 mph (76 m/s), or 140 mph (54 m/s) ≤ ultimate design wind speed, Vult ≤ 170 mph (76 m/s) and within 1 mile (1.6 km) of the coastline. The coastline shall be measured from the mean high water mark.
126.96.36.199 Wind Zone 4—ultimate design wind speed, Vult > 170 mph (76 m/s).
- Linear interpolation is permitted.
- Exposure B. Urban and suburban areas, wooded areas or other terrain with numerous closely spaced obstructions having the size of single-family dwellings or larger. Exposure B shall be assumed unless the site meets the definition of another type exposure.
- Exposure C. Open terrain with scattered obstructions, including surface undulations or other irregularities, having heights generally less than 30 feet (9144 mm) extending more than 1,500 feet (457 m) from the building site in any quadrant. This exposure shall also apply to any building located within Exposure B type terrain where the building is directly adjacent to open areas of Exposure C type terrain in any quadrant for a distance of more than 600 feet (183 m). This category includes flat, open country and grasslands.
- Exposure D. Flat, unobstructed areas exposed to wind flowing over open water, smooth mud flats, salt flats and unbroken ice for a distance of not less than 5,000 feet (1524 m). This exposure shall apply only to those buildings and other structures exposed to the wind coming from over the unobstructed area. Exposure D extends downwind from the edge of the unobstructed area a distance of 600 feet (183 m) or 20 times the height of the building or structure, whichever is greater.
In these designated areas, topographic wind effects shall apply only to buildings sited on the top half of an isolated hill, ridge or escarpment where all of the following conditions exist:
- The average slope of the top half of the hill, ridge or escarpment is 10 percent or greater.
- The hill, ridge or escarpment is 60 feet (18 288 mm) or greater in height for Exposure B, 30 feet (9144 mm) or greater in height for Exposure C, and 15 feet (4572 mm) or greater in height for Exposure D.
- The hill, ridge or escarpment is isolated or unobstructed by other topographic features of similar height in the upwind direction for a distance measured from its high point of 100 times its height or 2 miles (3.2 km), whichever is less. See Figure R301.2.1.5.1(3) for upwind obstruction.
- The hill, ridge or escarpment protrudes by a factor of two or more above the height of other upwind topographic features located in any quadrant within a radius of 2 miles (3.2 km) measured from its high point.
Structures located on the top half of isolated hills, ridges or escarpments meeting the conditions of Section R301.2.1.5 shall be designed for an increased basic wind speed as determined by Table R301.2.1.5.1. On the high side of an escarpment, the increased basic wind speed shall extend horizontally downwind from the edge of the escarpment 1.5 times the horizontal length of the upwind slope (1.5L) or 6 times the height of the escarpment (6H), whichever is greater. See Figure R301.2.1.5.1(2) for where wind speed increase is applied.
TABLE R301.2.1.5.1 ULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED MODIFICATION FOR TOPOGRAPHIC WIND EFFECTa, b
| ULTIMATE DESIGN |
WIND SPEED FROM
|AVERAGE SLOPE OF THE TOP HALF OF HILL, RIDGE OR ESCARPMENT (percent)|
|Required ultimate design wind speed-up, modified for topographic wind speed-up (mph)|
|For SI: 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.|
|a. Table applies to a feature height of 500 feet or less and dwellings sited a distance equal or greater than half the feature height.|
|b. Where the ultimate design wind speed as modified by Table R301.2.1.5.1 equals or exceeds 140 miles per hour, the building shall be considered as "wind design required" in accordance with Section R301.2.1.1.|
FIGURE R301.2.1.5.1(1) TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURES FOR WIND SPEED-UP EFFECT
FIGURE R301.2.1.5.1(2) ILLUSTRATION OF WHERE ON A TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURE, WIND SPEED INCREASE IS APPLIED
FIGURE R301.2.1.5.1(3) UPWIND OBSTRUCTION
Townhouses in Seismic Design Categories C, D0, D1 and D2.
- Detached one- and two-family dwellings, townhomes and their accessory structures located in Seismic Design Categories , D0, D1 and D2 A, B or C..
- Those dwellings which conform to the standards and principles set forth in the "Home Builder's Guide to Seismic Resistant Construction" issued by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) in FEMA 232 (June 2006), which is incorporated by reference.
- Where exceptions to the required provisions for Seismic Design Categories D1, and D2 can be shown to be justified by implementing the provisions of the Kentucky Building Code, a rational analysis design in accordance to the International Building Code may be used, subject to the approval of the building official.
TABLE R301.2.2.1.1 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY DETERMINATION
|CALCULATED SDS||SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY|
|SDS ≤ 0.17g||A|
|0.17g < SDS ≤ 0.33g||B|
|0.33g < SDS ≤ 0.50g||C|
|0.50g < SDS ≤ 0.67g||D0|
|0.67g < SDS ≤ 0.83g||D1|
|0.83g < SDS ≤ 1.25g||D2|
|1.25g < SDS||E|
- A more detailed evaluation of the seismic design category is made in accordance with the provisions and maps of the International Building Code. Buildings located in Seismic Design Category E in accordance with Table R301.2.2.1.1, but located in Seismic Design Category D in accordance with the International Building Code, shall be permitted to be designed using the Seismic Design Category D2 requirements of this code.
- Buildings located in Seismic Design Category E that conform to the following additional restrictions are permitted to be constructed in accordance with the provisions for Seismic Design Category D2 of this code:
- Fifteen pounds per square foot (720 Pa) for exterior light-frame wood walls.
- Fourteen pounds per square foot (670 Pa) for exterior light-frame cold-formed steel walls.
- Ten pounds per square foot (480 Pa) for interior light-frame wood walls.
- Five pounds per square foot (240 Pa) for interior light-frame cold-formed steel walls.
- Eighty pounds per square foot (3830 Pa) for 8-inch-thick (203 mm) masonry walls.
- Eighty-five pounds per square foot (4070 Pa) for 6-inch-thick (152 mm) concrete walls.
- Ten pounds per square foot (480 Pa) for SIP walls.
- Roof and ceiling dead loads not exceeding 25 pounds per square foot (1190 Pa) shall be permitted provided that the wall bracing amounts in Section R602.10.3 are increased in accordance with Table R602.10.3(4).
- Light-frame walls with stone or masonry veneer shall be permitted in accordance with the provisions of Sections R702.1 and R703.
- Fireplaces and chimneys shall be permitted in accordance with Chapter 10.
- Where exteriorWhen shear wall lines or braced wall panels are not in one plane vertically from the foundation to the uppermost story in which they are required.
Exception: For wood light-frame construction, floors with cantilevers, offsets, or setbacks not exceeding four times the nominal depth of the wood floor joists are permitted to support braced wall panels that are out of plane with braced wall panels below provided that:
- Floor joists are nominal 2 inches by 10 inches (51 mm by 254 mm) or larger and that: spaced not more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center.
- The ratio of the back span to the designed cantilever is not less thanat least 2 to 1.
- Floor joists at ends of braced wall panels are doubled.
- For wood-frame construction, a continuous rim joist is connected to ends of all cantilever joists. When spliced, the rim joists shall be spliced using a galvanized metal tie not less than 0.058 inch (1.5mm) (16 gage) and 11/2 inches (38 mm) wide fastened with six 16d nails on each side of the splice or a block of the same size as the rim joist of sufficient length to fit securely between the joist space at which the splice occurs, fastened with eight 16d nails on each side of the splice; and
- Gravity loads carried at the end of cantilevered joists are limited to uniform wall and roof loads and the reactions from headers having a span of 8 feet (2438 mm) or less.
- WhereWhen a section of floor or roof is not laterally supported by shear walls or braced wall linespanels on all edges.
- Portions of floors that do not support shear walls or braced wall panels above, or roofs, shall be permitted to extend notno more than 6 feet (1829mm) beyond a shear wall or braced wall line.
- Portions of floors that do not support shear walls or braced wall panels above or roofs, shall be permitted to extend no more than 25 feet (7620mm) or two-thirds of the width of the cantilever portion, whichever is less, beyond a shear wall or braced wall line provide that:
- If a roof deck, the overhang is continuously braced by a wood truss designed for the lateral load effects of the overhang, or the shear walls or braced wall panels between the roof deck and ceiling. The bracing element shall be directly over the line of the lower braced wall system.
- All unsupported deck edges are continuously blocked and all edges are nailed with 8d common nails on not greater than 6" (152mm) on centers.
- A continuous double rim joist matching the dimensions of the joists, purlins or rafters is provided along the three open sides.
- WhereWhen the end of a braced wall panel occurs over an opening in the wall below and ends at a horizontal distance greater than 1 foot (305 mm) from the edge of the opening. This provision is applicable to shear walls and braced wall panels offset in plane and to braced wall panels offset out of plane as permitted by the exception to item 1 above.
Exception: For wood light-frame wall construction, one end of a braced wall panel shall be permitted to extend more than 1 foot (305 mm) over an opening not more than 8 feet (2438 mm) in widthwide in the wall below provided that the opening includes a header in accordance with the following:
- The building width, loading condition and framing member species limitations of Table R602.7(1)R502.5(1) shall apply; and
- Not less than one 2×12 or two 2×10 for an opening not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) wide; or
- Not less than two 2×12 or three 2×10 for and opening not more than 68 feet (1829 mm) in width;wide or
- Not less than three 2 × 12 or four 2 × 10 for an opening not more than 8 feet (2438 mm) in width;wide and
- The entire length of the braced wall panel does not occur over an opening in the wall below.
- Where When an opening in a floor or roof exceeds the lesser of 12 feet (36587 mm) or 50 percent of the least floor orof roof dimension.
- WhereWhen portions of a floor level are vertically offset.
- Framing supported directly by continuous foundations at the perimeter of the building.
- For wood light-frame construction, floors shall be permitted to be vertically offset when the floor framing is lapped or tied together as required by Section R502.6.1.
- The offset occurs at a braced wall system over continuous foundations or a basement slab.
- WhereWhen shear walls and braced wall lines do not occur in two perpendicular directions.
- WhereWhen stories above-grade plane partially or completely braced by wood wall framing in accordance with Section R602 or cold-formed steel wall framing in accordance with Section R603 include masonry or concrete construction. Where this irregularity applies, the entire story shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
- Where only one side of the section is unbraced, the length perpendicular to the unbraced side shall not exceed 25 feet nor have a ratio to the unbraced dimension of 1 for a one-story structure or 0.67 for other structures, whichever is less, provided:
- All unsupported deck edges within the section are continuously blocked and all edges are nailed with 8d common nails on not greater than 6-inch (152mm) on center.
- A continuous rim joist matching the dimensions of the joists, purlins or rafters is provided along the unbraced side. On the other three sides, there shall be a continuous joist, rim joist or blocking directly over the braced walls.
- For wood wall framing, the story height shall not exceed 11 feet 7 inches (3531 mm) and the laterally unsupported bearing wall stud height permitted by Table R602.3(5).
- For cold-formed steel wall framing, the story height shall be not more than 11 feet 7 inches (3531 mm) and the unsupported bearing wall stud height shall be not more than 10 feet (3048 mm).
- For masonry walls, the story height shall be not more than 13 feet 7 inches (4140 mm) and the bearing wall clear height shall be not greater than 12 feet (3658 mm).
Exception: An additional 8 feet (2438 mm) of bearing wall clear height is permitted for gable end walls.
- For insulating concrete form walls, the maximum story height shall not exceed 11 feet 7 inches (3531 mm) and the maximum unsupported wall height per story as permitted by Section R608 tables shall not exceed 10 feet (3048 mm).
- For structural insulated panel (SIP) walls, the story height shall be not greater than 11 feet 7 inches (3531 mm) and the bearing wall height per story as permitted by Section R610 tables shall not exceed 10 feet (3048 mm).
TABLE R301.5 MINIMUM UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LIVE LOADS (in pounds per square foot)
|Uninhabitable attics without storageb||10|
|Uninhabitable attics with limited storageb, g||20|
|Habitable attics and attics served with fixed stairs||30|
|Balconies (exterior) and deckse||40|
|Guards and handrailsd||200h|
|Guard in-fill componentsf||50h|
|Passenger vehicle garagesa||50a|
|Rooms other than sleeping rooms||40|
For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 square inch = 645 mm2, 1 pound = 4.45 N.
- Elevated garage floors shall be capable of supporting a 2,000-pound load applied over a 20-square-inch area.
- Uninhabitable attics without storage are those where the clear height between joists and rafters is not more than 42 inches, or where there are not two or more adjacent trusses with web configurations capable of accommodating an assumed rectangle 42 inches in height by 24 inches in width, or greater, within the plane of the trusses. This live load need not be assumed to act concurrently with any other live load requirements.
- Individual stair treads shall be designed for the uniformly distributed live load or a 300-pound concentrated load acting over an area of 4 square inches, whichever produces the greater stresses.
- A single concentrated load applied in any direction at any point along the top.
- See Section R507.1 for decks attached to exterior walls.
- Guard in-fill components (all those except the handrail), balusters and panel fillers shall be designed to withstand a horizontally applied normal load of 50 pounds on an area equal to 1 square foot. This load need not be assumed to act concurrently with any other live load requirement.
- Uninhabitable attics with limited storage are those where the clear height between joists and rafters is 42 inches or greater, or where there are two or more adjacent trusses with web configurations capable of accommodating an assumed rectangle 42 inches in height by 24 inches in width, or greater, within the plane of the trusses.
The live load need only be applied to those portions of the joists or truss bottom chords where all of the following conditions are met:
- The attic area is accessible from an opening not less than 20 inches in width by 30 inches in length that is located where the clear height in the attic is not less than 30 inches.
- The slopes of the joists or truss bottom chords are not greater than 2 inches vertical to 12 units horizontal.
- Required insulation depth is less than the joist or truss bottom chord member depth.
- Glazing used in handrail assemblies and guards shall be designed with a safety factor of 4. The safety factor shall be applied to each of the concentrated loads applied to the top of the rail, and to the load on the in-fill components. These loads shall be determined independent of one another, and loads are assumed not to occur with any other live load.
|ROOF SLOPE|| TRIBUTARY LOADED AREA IN |
SQUARE FEET FOR ANY
|0 to 200||201 to 600||Over 600|
|Flat or rise less than 4 inches per |
|Rise 4 inches per foot (1:3) to |
less than 12 inches per foot (1:1)
|Rise 12 inches per foot (1:1) |
|STRUCTURAL MEMBER|| ALLOWABLE
|Rafters having slopes greater than 3:12 with
finished ceiling not attached to rafters
|Interior walls and partitions||H/180|
|Ceilings with brittle finishes (including plaster
|Ceilings with flexible finishes (including gypsum
|All other structural members||L/240|
|Exterior walls—wind loadsa with plaster or
|Exterior walls—wind loadsa with other brittle
|Exterior walls—wind loadsa with flexible finishes||H/120d|
|Lintels supporting masonry veneer wallse||L/600|
- For the purpose of the determining deflection limits herein, the wind load shall be permitted to be taken as 0.7 times the component and cladding (ASD) loads obtained from Table R301.2(2).
- For cantilever members, L shall be taken as twice the length of the cantilever.
- For aluminum structural members or panels used in roofs or walls of sunroom additions or patio covers, not supporting edge of glass or sandwich panels, the total load deflection shall not exceed L/60. For continuous aluminum structural members supporting edge of glass, the total load deflection shall not exceed L/175 for each glass lite or L/60 for the entire length of the member, whichever is more stringent. For sandwich panels used in roofs or walls of sunroom additions or patio covers, the total load deflection shall not exceed L/120.
- Deflection for exterior walls with interior gypsum board finish shall be limited to an allowable deflection of H/180.
- Refer to Section R703.8.2.
Construction, projections, openings, and penetrations of exterior walls of dwellings and accessory buildings shall comply with Table R302.1(1). or dwellings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section P2904 shall comply with Table R302.1(2)
- Walls, projections, openings or penetrations in walls perpendicular to the line used to determine the fire separation distance.
- Walls of dwellings and accessory structures located on the same lot.
- Detached tool sheds and storage sheds, playhouses, and similar structures exempted from permits are not required to provide wall protection based on location on the lot. Projections beyond the exterior wall shall not extend over the lot line.
- Detached garages accessory to a dwelling located within 2 feet (610 mm) of a lot line are permitted to have roof eave projections not exceeding 4 inches (102 mm).
- Foundation vents installed in compliance with this code are permitted.
- For building applications that have received local zoning approvals for plats or for preliminary concept or master plans prior to July 1, 2007, dwellings with a fire separation distance of less than three (3) feet from the property line shall be required to have at least a one-hour fire resistance rating and exposure from both sides and openings shall not be permitted. Projections and penetrations shall comply with Table R302.1(1).
- Minimum fire separation distances for exterior walls may be decreased to a minimum of three (3) feet from the property line if the exterior wall of the dwelling on the adjacent site is held by deed or other recorded land restriction at a distance from the property line which affords at least ten (10) feet between the exterior walls of the dwellings. Projections more than 12 inches beyond the exterior wall are prohibited.
|EXTERIOR WALL ELEMENT||MINIMUM
|Walls||Fire-resistance rated||1 hour—tested in accordance with ASTM E 119 or UL 263 with exposure from both sides||< 5 feet|
|NotNon fire-resistance rated||0 hours||> ≥ 5 feet|
|Not allowed||N/A||< 2 feet|
|Projections||Fire-resistance rated||1 hour on the undersidea, b1 layer 5/8 type exterior sheetrock or other approved material on the underside||>≥ 2 feet to < 54 feet|
|Not fire-resistance rated||0 hours||> ≥ 5 feet|
|Openings in walls||Not allowed||N/A||< 3 feet|
|25% maximum of wall areaa||0 hours||< 5 feet to > 3 feet|
|Unlimited||0 hours||> 5 feet|
|Penetrations||All||Comply with Section R302.4||< 3 5 feet|
|None required||3 > 5 feet|
|25% maximum of wall areaa||0 Hours||< 5 feet to > 3 feet|
- Shall be the aggregate of Openings and Penetrations in walls that are > 3 feet and < 5 feet to a property line.
N/A = Not Applicable.
- Roof eave fire-resistance rating shall be permitted to be reduced to 0 hours on the underside of the eave if fireblocking is provided from the wall top plate to the underside of the roof sheathing.
- Roof eave fire-resistance rating shall be permitted to be reduced to 0 hours on the underside of the eave provided that gable vent openings are not installed.
TABLE R302.1(2) EXTERIOR WALLS—DWELLINGS WITH FIRE SPRINKLERS
|EXTERIOR WALL ELEMENT||MINIMUM
|Walls||Fire-resistance rated||1 hour — tested in accordance with ASTM E
119 or UL 263 with exposure from the outside
|Not fire-resistance rated||0 hours||3 feeta|
|Projections||Not allowed||N/A||< 2 feet|
|Fire-resistance rated||1 hour on the undersideb, c||2 feeta|
|Not fire-resistance rated||0 hours||3 feet|
|Openings in walls||Not allowed||N/A||< 3 feet|
|Unlimited||0 hours||3 feeta|
|Penetrations||All||Comply with Section R302.4||< 3 feet|
|None required||3 feeta|
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
N/A = Not Applicable
- For residential subdivisions where all dwellings are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section P2904, the fire separation distance for nonrated exterior walls and rated projections shall be permitted to be reduced to 0 feet, and unlimited unprotected openings and penetrations shall be permitted, where the adjoining lot provides an open setback yard that is 6 feet or more in width on the opposite side of the property line.
- The roof eave fire-resistance rating shall be permitted to be reduced to 0 hours on the underside of the eave if fireblocking is provided from the wall top plate to the underside of the roof sheathing.
- The roof eave fire-resistance rating shall be permitted to be reduced to 0 hours on the underside of the eave provided that gable vent openings are not installed.
- The wall is not required to be fire-resistance rated in accordance with Table R302.1(1).
- When the entire building is provided with a Class C roof covering, the exterior walls shall be permitted to terminate at the underside of the roof sheathing or deck provided:
- The roof sheathing or deck is constructed of approved noncombustible materials or of fire retardant-treated wood for a distance of 4 feet (1220mm); or
- The roof is protected with one layer of 5/8 (15.9mm) Type X gypsum board directly beneath the roof sheathing or deck, supported by a minimum of nominal 2-inch (51mm) ledgers attached to the sides of the roof framing members for a minimum distance of 4 feet (1220mm).
- Where the exterior wall is permitted to have a maximum of 25% unprotected openings based on fire separation distance based on Table R302.1(1).
Common walls separating townhouses shall be assigned a fire-resistance rating
- Where a fire sprinkler system in accordance with Section P2904 is provided, the common wall shall be not less than a 1-hour fire-resistance-rated wall assembly tested in accordance with ASTM E 119 or UL 263.
- Where a fire sprinkler system in accordance with Section P2904 is not provided, the common wall shall be not less than a 2-hour fire-resistance-rated wall assembly tested in accordance with ASTM E 119 or UL 263.
- Where roof surfaces adjacent to the wall or walls are at the same elevation, the parapet shall extend not less than 30 inches (762 mm) above the roof surfaces.
- Where roof surfaces adjacent to the wall or walls are at different elevations and the higher roof is not more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the lower roof, the parapet shall extend not less than 30 inches (762 mm) above the lower roof surface.
Exception: A parapet is not required in the preceding two cases where the roof covering complies with a minimum Class C rating as tested in accordance with ASTM E108 or UL 790 and the roof decking or sheathing is of noncombustible materials or approved fire-retardant-treated wood for a distance of 4 feet (1219 mm) on each side of the wall or walls, or one layer of 5/8-inch (15.9 mm) Type X gypsum board is installed directly beneath the roof decking or sheathing, supported by not less than nominal 2-inch (51 mm) ledgers attached to the sides of the roof framing members, for a distance of not less than 4 feet (1219 mm) on each side of the wall or walls and any openings or penetrations in the roof are not within 4 feet (1219 mm) of the common walls.
- A parapet is not required where roof surfaces adjacent to the wall or walls are at different elevations and the higher roof is more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the lower roof. The common wall construction from the lower roof to the underside of the higher roof deck shall have not less than a 1-hour fire-resistance rating. The wall shall be rated for exposure from both sides.
- Foundations supporting exterior walls or common walls.
- Structural roof and wall sheathing from each unit fastened to the common wall framing.
- Nonstructural wall and roof coverings.
- Flashing at termination of roof covering over common wall.
- Townhouses separated by a common wall as provided in Section R302.2, Item 1 or 2.
- A fire-resistance rating of 1/2 hour shall be permitted in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with NFPA 13.
- Wall assemblies need not extend through attic spaces where the ceiling is protected by not less than 5/8-inch (15.9 mm) Type X gypsum board, an attic draft stop constructed as specified in Section R302.12.1 is provided above and along the wall assembly separating the dwellings and the structural framing supporting the ceiling is protected by not less than 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board or equivalent.
- In concrete or masonry wall or floor assemblies, concrete, grout or mortar shall be permitted where installed to the full thickness of the wall or floor assembly or the thickness required to maintain the fire-resistance rating, provided that both of the following are complied with:
- The nominal diameter of the penetrating item is not more than 6 inches (152 mm).
- The area of the opening through the wall does not exceed 144 square inches (92 900 mm2).
- The material used to fill the annular space shall prevent the passage of flame and hot gases sufficient to ignite cotton waste where subjected to ASTM E 119 or UL 263 time temperature fire conditions under a positive pressure differential of not less than 0.01 inch of water (3 Pa) at the location of the penetration for the time period equivalent to the fire-resistance rating of the construction penetrated.
- Membrane penetrations of not more than 2-hour fire-resistance-rated walls and partitions by steel electrical boxes that do not exceed 16 square inches (0.0103 m2) in area provided that the aggregate area of the openings through the membrane does not exceed 100 square inches (0.0645 m2) in any 100 square feet (9.29 m2) of wall area. The annular space between the wall membrane and the box shall not exceed 1/8 inch (3.1 mm). Such boxes on opposite sides of the wall shall be separated by one of the following:
- By a horizontal distance of not less than 24 inches (610 mm) where the wall or partition is constructed with individual noncommunicating stud cavities.
- By a horizontal distance of not less than the depth of the wall cavity where the wall cavity is filled with cellulose loose-fill, rockwool or slag mineral wool insulation.
- By solid fireblocking in accordance with Section R302.11.
- By protecting both boxes with listed putty pads.
- By other listed materials and methods.
- Membrane penetrations by listed electrical boxes of any materials provided that the boxes have been tested for use in fire-resistance-rated assemblies and are installed in accordance with the instructions included in the listing. The annular space between the wall membrane and the box shall not exceed 1/8 inch (3.1 mm) unless listed otherwise. Such boxes on opposite sides of the wall shall be separated by one of the following:
- The annular space created by the penetration of a fire sprinkler provided that it is covered by a metal escutcheon plate.
TABLE R302.6 DWELLING-GARAGE SEPARATION
|From the residence and attics||Not less than 1/2-inch gypsum board or equivalent applied to the garage side|
|From habitable rooms above the garage||Not less than 5/8-inch Type X gypsum board or equivalent|
|Structure(s) supporting floor/ceiling assemblies used for separation required by this section||Not less than 1/2-inch gypsum board or equivalent|
|Garages located less than 3 feet from a dwelling unit on the same lot||Not less than 1/2-inch gypsum board or equivalent applied to the interior side of exterior walls that are within this area|
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
Exception: Flame spread index requirements for finishes shall not apply to trim defined as picture molds, chair rails, baseboards and handrails; to doors and windows or their frames; or to materials that are less than 1/28 inch (0.91 mm) in thickness cemented to the surface of walls or ceilings if these materials exhibit flame spread index values not greater than those of paper of this thickness cemented to a noncombustible backing.
The interior finish shall comply with the following:
- During the 40 kW exposure, flames shall not spread to the ceiling.
- The flame shall not spread to the outer extremity of the sample on any wall or ceiling.
- Flashover, as defined in NFPA 286, shall not occur.
- The peak heat release rate throughout the test shall not exceed 800 kW.
- The total smoke released throughout the test shall not exceed 1,000 m2.
- Where such materials are installed in concealed spaces, the flame spread index and smoke-developed index limitations do not apply to the facings, provided that the facing is installed in substantial contact with the unexposed surface of the ceiling, floor or wall finish.
- Cellulosic fiber loose-fill insulation, which is not spray applied, complying with the requirements of Section R302.10.3, shall not be required to meet a flame spread index requirement but shall be required to meet a smoke-developed index of not more than 450 when tested in accordance with CAN/ULC S102.2.
- Foam plastic insulation shall comply with Section R316.
Exception: Cellulosic fiber loose-fill insulation shall not be required to be tested in accordance with CAN/ULC S102.2, provided such insulation complies with the requirements of Sections R302.10.1 and R302.10.3.
Fireblocking shall be provided in wood-framed construction in the following locations:
- In concealed spaces of stud walls and partitions, including furred spaces and parallel rows of studs or staggered studs, as follows:
- Vertically at the ceiling and floor levels.
- Horizontally at intervals not exceeding 10 feet (3048 mm).
- At interconnections between concealed vertical and horizontal spaces such as occur at soffits, drop ceilings and cove ceilings.
- In concealed spaces between stair stringers at the top and bottom of the run. Enclosed spaces under stairs shall comply with Section R302.7.
- At openings around vents, pipes, ducts, cables and wires at ceiling and floor level, with an approved material to resist the free passage of flame and products of combustion. The material filling this annular space shall not be required to meet the ASTM E 136 requirements.
- For the fireblocking of chimneys and fireplaces, see Section R1003.19.
- Fireblocking of cornices of a two-family dwelling is required at the line of dwelling unit separation.
- Two-inch (51 mm) nominal lumber.
- Two thicknesses of 1-inch (25.4 mm) nominal lumber with broken lap joints.
- One thickness of 23/32-inch (18.3 mm) wood structural panels with joints backed by 23/32-inch (18.3 mm) wood structural panels.
- One thickness of 3/4-inch (19.1 mm) particleboard with joints backed by 3/4-inch (19.1 mm) particleboard.
- One-half-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board.
- One-quarter-inch (6.4 mm) cement-based millboard.
- Batts or blankets of mineral wool or glass fiber or other approved materials installed in such a manner as to be securely retained in place.
- Cellulose insulation installed as tested in accordance with ASTM E119 or UL 263, for the specific application.
- Ceiling is suspended under the floor framing.
- Floor framing is constructed of truss-type open-web or perforated members.
- Floor assemblies located directly over a space protected by an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section P2904, NFPA 13D, or other approved equivalent sprinkler system.
- Floor assemblies located directly over a crawl space not intended for storage or fuel-fired appliances.
- Portions of floor assemblies shall be permitted to be unprotected where complying with the following:
- Wood floor assemblies using dimension lumber or structural composite lumber equal to or greater than 2-inch by 10-inch (50.8 mm by 254 mm) nominal dimension, or other approved floor assemblies demonstrating equivalent fire performance.
Exception: Where heat-producing devices are listed for lesser clearances, combustible insulation complying with the listing requirements shall be separated in accordance with the conditions stipulated in the listing.
Recessed luminaires installed in the building thermal envelope shall meet the requirements of Section N1102.4.5 of this code.
- The glazed areas need not be openable where the opening is not required by Section R310 and a whole-house mechanical ventilation system is installed in accordance with Section M1507.
- The glazed areas need not be installed in rooms where Exception 1 is satisfied and artificial light is provided that is capable of producing an average illumination of 6 footcandles (65 lux) over the area of the room at a height of 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor level.
- Use of sunroom and patio covers, as defined in Section R202, shall be permitted for natural ventilation if in excess of 40 percent of the exterior sunroom walls are open, or are enclosed only by insect screening.
Exception: Openings required for light or ventilation shall be permitted to open into a sunroom with thermal isolation or a patio cover, provided that there is an openable area between the adjoining room and the sunroom or patio cover of not less than one-tenth of the floor area of the interior room and not less than 20 square feet (2 m2). The minimum openable area to the outdoors shall be based upon the total floor area being ventilated.
Exception: The glazed areas shall not be required where artificial light and a local exhaust system are provided. The minimum local exhaust rates shall be determined in accordance with Section M1507. Exhaust air from the space shall be exhausted directly to the outdoors.
For the purpose of this section, the exhaust from dwelling unit toilet rooms, bathrooms and kitchens shall not be considered as hazardous or noxious.
- The 10-foot (3048 mm) separation is not required where the intake opening is located 3 feet (914 mm) or greater below the contaminant source.
- Vents and chimneys serving fuel-burning appliances shall be terminated in accordance with the applicable provisions of Chapters 18 and 24.
- Clothes dryer exhaust ducts shall be terminated in accordance with Section M1502.3.
Exception: A switch is not required where remote, central or automatic control of lighting is provided.
- Required glazed openings that face into a roofed porch where the porch abuts a street, yard or court and the longer side of the porch is not less than 65 percent unobstructed and the ceiling height is not less than 7 feet (2134 mm).
- Eave projections shall not be considered as obstructing the clear open space of a yard or court.
- Required glazed openings that face into the area under a deck, balcony, bay or floor cantilever where a clear vertical space not less than 36 inches (914 mm) in height is provided.
- For rooms with sloped ceilings, the required floor area of the room shall have a ceiling height of not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) and not less than 50 percent of the required floor area shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet (2134 mm).
- The ceiling height above bathroom and toilet room fixtures shall be such that the fixture is capable of being used for its intended purpose. A shower or tub equipped with a showerhead shall have a ceiling height of not less than 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm) above an area of not less than 30 inches (762 mm) by 30 inches (762 mm) at the showerhead.
- Beams, girders, ducts or other obstructions in basements containing habitable space shall be permitted to project to within 6 feet 4 inches (1931 mm) of the finished floor.
- For other than tempered glass, manufacturer's designations are not required provided that the building official approves the use of a certificate, affidavit or other evidence confirming compliance with this code.
- Tempered spandrel glass is permitted to be identified by the manufacturer with a removable paper designation.
Exception: Glazing not in doors or enclosures for hot tubs, whirlpools, saunas, steam rooms, bathtubs and showers shall be permitted to be tested in accordance with ANSI Z97.1. Glazing shall comply with the test criteria for Class A unless indicated in Table R308.3.1(2).
TABLE R308.3.1(1) MINIMUM CATEGORY CLASSIFICATION OF GLAZING USING CPSC 16 CFR 1201
| EXPOSED SURFACE |
AREA OF ONE SIDE
OF ONE LITE
| GLAZING IN |
| GLAZING IN |
| GLAZED PANELS |
| GLAZED PANELS |
| GLAZING IN |
| SLIDING GLASS |
DOORS PATIO TYPE
|9 square feet or less||I||I||NR||I||II||II|
|More than 9 square feet||II||II||II||II||II||II|
|For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.|
|NR = "No Requirement."|
TABLE R308.3.1(2) MINIMUM CATEGORY CLASSIFICATION OF GLAZING USING ANSI Z97.1
| EXPOSED SURFACE AREA |
OF ONE SIDE OF ONE LITE
| GLAZED PANELS REGULATED BY |
| GLAZED PANELS REGULATED BY |
| DOORS AND ENCLOSURES REGULATED |
BY SECTION R308.4.5a
|9 square feet or less||No requirement||B||A|
|More than 9 square feet||A||A||A|
|For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.|
|a. Use is permitted only by the exception to Section R308.3.1.|
- Where the glazing is within 24 inches (610 mm) of either side of the door in the plane of the door in a closed position.
- Where the glazing is on a wall perpendicular to the plane of the door in a closed position and within 24 inches (610 mm) of the hinge side of an in-swinging door.
- Decorative glazing.
- Where there is an intervening wall or other permanent barrier between the door and the glazing.
- Where access through the door is to a closet or storage area 3 feet (914 mm) or less in depth. Glazing in this application shall comply with Section R308.4.3.
- Glazing that is adjacent to the fixed panel of patio doors.
- The exposed area of an individual pane is larger than 9 square feet (0.836 m2),
- The bottom edge of the glazing is less than 18 inches (457 mm) above the floor,
- The top edge of the glazing is more than 36 inches (914 mm) above the floor; and
- One or more walking surfaces are within 36 inches (914 mm), measured horizontally and in a straight line, of the glazing.
- Decorative glazing.
- Where a horizontal rail is installed on the accessible side(s) of the glazing 34 to 38 inches (864 to 965 mm) above the walking surface. The rail shall be capable of withstanding a horizontal load of 50 pounds per linear foot (730 N/m) without contacting the glass and have a cross-sectional height of not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm).
- Outboard panes in insulating glass units and other multiple glazed panels where the bottom edge of the glass is 25 feet (7620 mm) or more above grade, a roof, walking surfaces or other horizontal [within 45 degrees (0.79 rad) of horizontal] surface adjacent to the glass exterior.
Exception: Glazing that is more than 60 inches (1524 mm), measured horizontally and in a straight line, from the water's edge of a bathtub, hot tub, spa, whirlpool or swimming pool or from the edge of a shower, sauna or steam room.
- Where a rail is installed on the accessible side(s) of the glazing 34 to 38 inches (864 to 965 mm) above the walking surface. The rail shall be capable of withstanding a horizontal load of 50 pounds per linear foot (730 N/m) without contacting the glass and have a cross-sectional height of not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm).
- Glazing 36 inches (914 mm) or more measured horizontally from the walking surface.
Exception: The glazing is protected by a guard complying with Section R312 and the plane of the glass is more than 18 inches (457 mm) from the guard.
FIGURE R308.4.7 PROHIBITED GLAZING LOCATIONS AT BOTTOM STAIR LANDINGS
- Laminated glass with not less than a 0.015-inch (0.38 mm) polyvinyl butyral interlayer for glass panes 16 square feet (1.5 m2) or less in area located such that the highest point of the glass is not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) above a walking surface or other accessible area; for higher or larger sizes, the interlayer thickness shall be not less than 0.030 inch (0.76 mm).
- Fully tempered glass.
- Heat-strengthened glass.
- Wired glass.
- Approved rigid plastics.
- Glass area 16 square feet (1.49 m2) or less. Highest point of glass not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) above a walking surface or other accessible area, nominal glass thickness not more than 3/16 inch (4.8 mm), and (for multiple glazing only) the other pane or panes fully tempered, laminated or wired glass.
- Glass area greater than 16 square feet (1.49 m2). Glass sloped 30 degrees (0.52 rad) or less from vertical, and highest point of glass not more than 10 feet (3048 mm) above a walking surface or other accessible area.
- Structural wind load design pressures for glass-glazed unit skylights smaller than the size tested in accordance with Section R308.6.9 shall be permitted to be higher than the design value of the tested unit provided that such higher pressures are determined by accepted engineering analysis. Components of the smaller unit shall be the same as those of the tested unit. Such calculated design pressures shall be validated by an additional test of the glass-glazed unit skylight having the highest allowable design pressure.
- In accordance with WDMA I.S. 11.
Exception: Asphalt surfaces shall be permitted at ground level in carports.
The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway.
- Elevated to or above the design flood elevation as determined in accordance with Section R322; or
- Located below the design flood elevation provided that the floors are at or above grade on not less than one side, are used solely for parking, building access or storage, meet the requirements of Section R322 and are otherwise constructed in accordance with this code.
Exception: Storm shelters and basements used only to house mechanical equipment not exceeding a total floor area of 200 square feet (18.58 m2).
Exception: A drainage system for window wells is not required where the foundation is on well-drained soil or sand-gravel mixture soils in accordance with the United Soil Classification System, Group I Soils, as detailed in Table R405.1.
- The replacement window is the manufacturer's largest standard size window that will fit within the existing frame or existing rough opening. The replacement window is of the same operating style as the existing window or a style that provides for an equal or greater window opening area than the existing window.
- The replacement window is not part of a change of occupancy.
Exception: A drainage system for bulkhead enclosures is not required where the foundation is on well-drained soil or sand-gravel mixture soils in accordance with the United Soil Classification System, Group I Soils, as detailed in Table R405.1.
- An emergency escape and rescue opening is not required in a new basement that contains a sleeping room with an emergency escape and rescue opening.
- An emergency escape and rescue opening is not required in a new basement where there is an emergency escape and rescue opening in an existing basement that is accessible from the new basement.
Exception: Exterior balconies less than 60 square feet (5.6 m2) and only accessible from a door are permitted to have a landing less than 36 inches (914 mm) measured in the direction of travel.
Where exterior landings or floors serving the required egress door are not at grade, they shall be provided with access to grade by means of a ramp in accordance with Section R311.8 or a stairway in accordance with Section R311.7.
- Where the nosings of treads at the side of a flight extend under the edge of a floor opening through which the stair passes, the floor opening shall be allowed to project horizontally into the required headroom not more than 43/4 inches (121 mm).
- The headroom for spiral stairways shall be in accordance with Section R3188.8.131.52.
- The use of a volute, turnout or starting easing shall be allowed over the lowest tread.
- Where handrail fittings or bendings are used to provide continuous transition between flights, transitions at winder treads, the transition from handrail to guard, or used at the start of a flight, the handrail height at the fittings or bendings shall be permitted to exceed 38 inches (956 mm).
- Handrails shall be permitted to be interrupted by a newel post at the turn.
- The use of a volute, turnout, starting easing or starting newel shall be allowed over the lowest tread.
- Handrails within a dwelling unit shall be permitted to be discontinuous between the top and bottom of a flight of stairs where the ends of the discontinued rail are returned to a wall or post and the maximum distance between the ends of discontinued rails is not greater than 4 inches (102 mm).
- Type I. Handrails with a circular cross section shall have an outside diameter of not less than 11/4at least 1 1/4 inches (32 mm) and not greater than 2 5/8 inches (5167 mm). If theOther handrail shapes, including those complying with Figure R311.7 (a-f) are considered to be equivalent in graspability. If the handrail is not circular, it shall have a perimeter dimension of not less thanat least 4 inches (102 mm) and not greater than 6 1/4 inches (160 mm) with a maximum cross section of dimension of not more than 2 1/4 inches (57 mm). Edges shall have a radius of not less than 0.01 inch (0.25 mm).
- Type II. Handrails with a perimeter greater than 6 1/4 inches (160 mm) shall have aprovide a graspable finger recess area on both sides of the profile. The finger recess shall begin within a distance of 3/4 inch (19 mm) measured vertically from the tallest portion of the profile and achieve a depth of not less thanat least 5/16 inch (8 mm) withinwith 7/8 inch (22 mm) below the widest portion of the profile. This required depth shall continue for not less thanat least 3/8 inch (10 mm) to a level that is not less than 13/4 inches (45 mm) below the tallest portion of the profile. The minimum width of the handrail above the recess shall be not less than 11/43/4 inches (3245 mm) and not more thanto a maximum of 2 3/4 inches (70 mm). Edges shall have a minimum radius of not less than 0.01 inch (0.25 mm).
Exception: Where it is technically infeasible to comply because of site constraints, ramps shall have a slope of not more than 1 unit vertical in 8 units horizontal (12.5 percent).
- Guards on the open sides of stairs shall have a height not less than 34 inches (864 mm) measured vertically from a line connecting the leading edges of the treads.
- Where the top of the guard serves as a handrail on the open sides of stairs, the top of the guard shall be not less than 34 inches (864 mm) and not more than 38 inches (965 mm) as measured vertically from a line connecting the leading edges of the treads.
- Operable windows with openings that will not allow a 4-inch-diameter (102 mm) sphere to pass through the opening where the opening is in its largest opened position.
- Operable windows that are provided with window fall prevention devices that comply with ASTM F2090.
- Operable windows that are provided with window opening control devices that comply with Section R312.2.2.
Exception: An automatic residential fire sprinkler system shall not be required for additions or alterations to existing buildings that are not already provided with an automatic residential sprinkler system.
- Work involving the exterior surfaces of dwellings, such as the replacement of roofing or siding, the addition or replacement of windows or doors, or the addition of a porch or deck, are exempt from the requirements of this section.
- Installation, alteration or repairs of plumbing or mechanical systems are exempt from the requirements of this section.
- In each sleeping room.
- Outside each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms.
- On each additional story of the dwelling, including basements and habitable attics and not including crawl spaces and uninhabitable attics. In dwellings or dwelling units with split levels and without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level.
- Smoke alarms shall be installed not less than 3 feet (914 mm) horizontally from the door or opening of a bathroom that contains a bathtub or shower unless this would prevent placement of a smoke alarm required by Section R314.3.
- Ionization smoke alarms shall not be installed less than 20 feet (6096 mm) horizontally from a permanently installed cooking appliance.
- Ionization smoke alarms with an alarm-silencing switch shall not be installed less than 10 feet (3048 mm) horizontally from a permanently installed cooking appliance.
- Photoelectric smoke alarms shall not be installed less than 6 feet (1828 mm) horizontally from a permanently installed cooking appliance.
Exception: Interconnection of smoke alarms in existing areas shall not be required where alterations or repairs do not result in removal of interior wall or ceiling finishes exposing the structure, unless there is an attic, crawl space or basement available that could provide access for interconnection without the removal of interior finishes.
- Smoke alarms shall be permitted to be battery operated where installed in buildings without commercial power.
- Smoke alarms installed in accordance with Section R314.2.2 shall be permitted to be battery powered.
- Work involving the exterior surfaces of dwellings, such as the replacement of roofing or siding, or the addition or replacement of windows or doors, or the addition of a porch or deck, is exempt from the requirements of this section.
- Installation, alteration or repairs of plumbing or mechanical systems are exempt from the requirements of this section.
- Carbon monoxide alarms shall be permitted to be battery operated where installed in buildings without commercial power.
- Carbon monoxide alarms installed in accordance with Section R315.2.2 shall be permitted to be battery powered.
Exception: Foam plastic insulation more than 4 inches (102 mm) thick shall have a flame spread index of not more than 75 and a smoke-developed index of not more than 450 where tested at a thickness of not more than 4 inches (102 mm), provided that the end use is approved in accordance with Section R316.6 using the thickness and density intended for use.
- Attic access is required by Section R807.1.
- The space is entered only for purposes of repairs or maintenance.
- The foam plastic insulation has been tested in accordance with Section R316.6 or the foam plastic insulation is protected against ignition using one of the following ignition barrier materials:
- 11/2-inch-thick (38 mm) mineral fiber insulation.
- 1/4-inch-thick (6.4 mm) wood structural panels.
- 3/8-inch (9.5 mm) particleboard.
- 1/4-inch (6.4 mm) hardboard.
- 3/8-inch (9.5 mm) gypsum board.
- Corrosion-resistant steel having a base metal thickness of 0.016 inch (0.406 mm).
- 11/2-inch-thick (38 mm) cellulose insulation; or
- 1/4-inch (6.4 mm) fiber-cement panel, soffit or backer board.
- Crawl space access is required by Section R408.4.
- Entry is made only for purposes of repairs or maintenance.
- The foam plastic insulation has been tested in accordance with Section R316.6 or the foam plastic insulation is protected against ignition using one of the following ignition barrier materials:
- The foam plastic insulation is separated from the interior of the building by not less than 2 inches (51 mm) of mineral fiber insulation;
- The foam plastic insulation is installed over existing exterior wall finish in conjunction with re-siding; or
- The foam plastic insulation has been tested in accordance with Section R316.6.
- The density is not less than 20 pounds per cubic foot (320 kg/m3).
- The thickness of the trim is not more than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) and the width is not more than 8 inches (204 mm).
- The interior trim shall not constitute more than 10 percent of the aggregate wall and ceiling area of any room or space.
- The flame spread index does not exceed 75 when tested per ASTM E 84 or UL 723. The smoke-developed index is not limited.
- The thickness of the foam plastic shall be not more than 31/4 inches (83 mm).
- The density of the foam plastic shall be in the range of 0.5 to 2.0 pounds per cubic foot (8 to 32 kg/m3).
- The foam plastic shall have a flame spread index of 25 or less and an accompanying smoke-developed index of 450 or less when tested in accordance with ASTM E84 or UL 723.
- Wood joists or the bottom of a wood structural floor when closer than 18 inches (457 mm) or wood girders when closer than 12 inches (305 mm) to the exposed ground in crawl spaces or unexcavated area located within the periphery of the building foundation.
- Wood framing members that rest on concrete or masonry exterior foundation walls and are less than 8 inches (203 mm) from the exposed ground.
- Sills and sleepers on a concrete or masonry slab that is in direct contact with the ground unless separated from such slab by an impervious moisture barrier.
- The ends of wood girders entering exterior masonry or concrete walls having clearances of less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) on tops, sides and ends.
- Wood siding, sheathing and wall framing on the exterior of a building having a clearance of less than 6 inches (152 mm) from the ground or less than 2 inches (51 mm) measured vertically from concrete steps, porch slabs, patio slabs and similar horizontal surfaces exposed to the weather.
- Wood structural members supporting moisture-permeable floors or roofs that are exposed to the weather, such as concrete or masonry slabs, unless separated from such floors or roofs by an impervious moisture barrier.
- Wood furring strips or other wood framing members attached directly to the interior of exterior masonry walls or concrete walls below grade except where an approved vapor retarder is applied between the wall and the furring strips or framing members.
- Horizontal members such as girders, joists and decking.
- Vertical members such as posts, poles and columns.
- Both horizontal and vertical members.
- Columns exposed to the weather or in basements where supported by concrete piers or metal pedestals projecting 1 inch (25 mm) above a concrete floor or 6 inches (152 mm) above exposed earth and the earth is covered by an approved impervious moisture barrier.
- Columns in enclosed crawl spaces or unexcavated areas located within the periphery of the building when supported by a concrete pier or metal pedestal at a height more than 8 inches (203 mm) from exposed earth and the earth is covered by an impervious moisture barrier.
- Deck posts supported by concrete piers or metal pedestals projecting not less than 1 inch (25 mm) above a concrete floor or 6 inches (152 mm) above exposed earth.
- Identification of the treating plant.
- Type of preservative.
- The minimum preservative retention.
- End use for which the product was treated.
- Standard to which the product was treated.
- Identity of the approved inspection agency.
- The designation "Dry," if applicable.
R317.3 Fasteners and Connectors in Contact With Preservative-Treated and Fire-Retardant-Treated Wood
- 1/2-inch-diameter (12.7 mm) or greater steel bolts.
- Fasteners other than nails and timber rivets shall be permitted to be of mechanically deposited zinc-coated steel with coating weights in accordance with ASTM B 695, Class 55 minimum.
- Plain carbon steel fasteners in SBX/DOT and zinc borate preservative-treated wood in an interior, dry environment shall be permitted.
R317.3.3 Fasteners for Fire-Retardant-Treated Wood Used in Exterior Applications or Wet or Damp Locations
- Chemical termiticide treatment in accordance with Section R318.2.
- Termite baiting system installed and maintained in accordance with the label.
- Pressure-preservative-treated wood in accordance with the provisions of Section R317.1.
- Naturally durable termite-resistant wood.
- Physical barriers in accordance with Section R318.3 and used in locations as specified in Section R317.1.
- Cold-formed steel framing in accordance with Sections R505.2.1 and R603.2.1.
- Buildings where the structural members of walls, floors, ceilings and roofs are entirely of noncombustible materials or pressure-preservative-treated wood.
- Where in addition to the requirements of Section R318.1, an approved method of protecting the foam plastic and structure from subterranean termite damage is used.
- On the interior side of basement walls.
Exception: Owner-occupied lodging houses with five or fewer guestrooms constructed in accordance with the International Residential Code are not required to be accessible.
- The base flood elevation at the depth of peak elevation of flooding, including wave height, that has a 1 percent (100-year flood) or greater chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year; or
- The elevation of the design flood associated with the area designated on a flood hazard map adopted by the community, or otherwise legally designated.
- Obtain and reasonably use data available from a federal, state or other source; or
- Determine the design flood elevation in accordance with accepted hydrologic and hydraulic engineering practices used to define special flood hazard areas. Determinations shall be undertaken by a registered design professional who shall document that the technical methods used reflect currently accepted engineering practice. Studies, analyses and computations shall be submitted in sufficient detail to allow thorough review and approval.
Exception: Locating electrical systems, equipment and components; heating, ventilating, air conditioning; plumbing appliances and plumbing fixtures; duct systems; and other service equipment is permitted below the elevation required in Section R322.2 or R322.3 provided that they are designed and installed to prevent water from entering or accumulating within the components and to resist hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and stresses, including the effects of buoyancy, during the occurrence of flooding to the design flood elevation in accordance with ASCE 24. Electrical wiring systems are permitted to be located below the required elevation provided that they conform to the provisions of the electrical part of this code for wet locations.
- Buildings and structures in flood hazard areas, including flood hazard areas designated as Coastal A Zones, shall have the lowest floors elevated to or above the base flood elevation plus 1 foot (305 mm), or the design flood elevation, whichever is higher.
- In areas of shallow flooding (AO Zones), buildings and structures shall have the lowest floor (including basement) elevated to a height above the highest adjacent grade of not less than the depth number specified in feet (mm) on the FIRM plus 1 foot (305 mm), or not less than 3 feet (915 mm) if a depth number is not specified.
- Basement floors that are below grade on all sides shall be elevated to or above base flood elevation plus 1 foot (305 mm), or the design flood elevation, whichever is higher.
- Be used solely for parking of vehicles, building access or storage.
- Be provided with flood openings that meet the following criteria and are installed in accordance with Section R3184.108.40.206:
- The total net area of non-engineered openings shall be not less than 1 square inch (645 mm2) for each square foot (0.093 m2) of enclosed area where the enclosed area is measured on the exterior of the enclosure walls, or the openings shall be designed as engineered openings and the construction documents shall include a statement by a registered design professional that the design of the openings will provide for equalization of hydrostatic flood forces on exterior walls by allowing for the automatic entry and exit of floodwaters as specified in Section 220.127.116.11 of ASCE 24.
- Openings shall be not less than 3 inches (76 mm) in any direction in the plane of the wall.
- The presence of louvers, blades, screens and faceplates or other covers and devices shall allow the automatic flow of floodwater into and out of the enclosed areas and shall be accounted for in the determination of the net open area.
- There shall be not less than two openings on different sides of each enclosed area; if a building has more than one enclosed area below the design flood elevation, each area shall have openings.
- The bottom of each opening shall be not more than 1 foot (305 mm) above the higher of the final interior grade or floor and the finished exterior grade immediately under each opening.
- Openings shall be permitted to be installed in doors and windows; doors and windows without installed openings do not meet the requirements of this section.
- The unsupported height of 6-inch (152 mm) plain masonry walls shall be not more than 3 feet (914 mm).
- The unsupported height of 8-inch (203 mm) plain masonry walls shall be not more than 4 feet (1219 mm).
- The unsupported height of 8-inch (203 mm) reinforced masonry walls shall be not more than 8 feet (2438 mm).
- New buildings and buildings that are determined to be substantially improved pursuant to Section R18.104.22.168 shall be located landward of the reach of mean high tide.
- For any alteration of sand dunes and mangrove stands, the building official shall require submission of an engineering analysis that demonstrates that the proposed alteration will not increase the potential for flood damage.
- Buildings and structures erected within coastal high-hazard areas and Coastal A Zones, shall be elevated so that the bottom of the lowest horizontal structural members supporting the lowest floor, with the exception of piling, pile caps, columns, grade beams and bracing, is elevated to or above the base flood elevation plus 1 foot (305 mm) or the design flood elevation, whichever is higher.
- Basement floors that are below grade on all sides are prohibited.
- The use of fill for structural support is prohibited.
- Minor grading, and the placement of minor quantities of fill, shall be permitted for landscaping and for drainage purposes under and around buildings and for support of parking slabs, pool decks, patios and walkways.
- Walls and partitions enclosing areas below the design flood elevation shall meet the requirements of Sections R322.3.4 and R322.3.5.
Exception: In Coastal A Zones, stem wall foundations supporting a floor system above and backfilled with soil or gravel to the underside of the floor system shall be permitted provided the foundations are designed to account for wave action, debris impact, erosion and local scour. Where soils are susceptible to erosion and local scour, stem wall foundations shall have deep footings to account for the loss of soil.
- Electrical, mechanical and plumbing system components are not to be mounted on or penetrate through walls that are designed to break away under flood loads; and
- Are constructed with insect screening or open lattice; or
- Are designed to break away or collapse without causing collapse, displacement or other structural damage to the elevated portion of the building or supporting foundation system. Such walls, framing and connections shall have a resistance of not less than 10 (479 Pa) and not more than 20 pounds per square foot (958 Pa) as determined using allowable stress design; or
- Where wind loading values of this code exceed 20 pounds per square foot (958 Pa), as determined using allowable stress design, the construction documents shall include documentation prepared and sealed by a registered design professional that:
- The walls and partitions below the design flood elevation have been designed to collapse from a water load less than that which would occur during the base flood.
- The elevated portion of the building and supporting foundation system have been designed to withstand the effects of wind and flood loads acting simultaneously on structural and nonstructural building components. Water-loading values used shall be those associated with the design flood. Wind-loading values shall be those required by this code.
- Walls intended to break away under flood loads as specified in Item 3 or 4 have flood openings that meet the criteria in Section R322.2.2, Item 2.
- Mezzanines or portions thereof are not required to be open to the room in which they are located, provided that the aggregate floor area of the enclosed space is not greater than 10 percent of the mezzanine area.
- In buildings that are not more than two stories above grade plane and equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section R313, a mezzanine shall not be required to be open to the room in which the mezzanine is located.
PRIVATE SWIMMING POOL
PRIVATE SWIMMING POOL, INDOOR
PRIVATE SWIMMING POOL, OUTDOOR
- The top of the barrier shall be at least 48 inches (1219 mm) above grade measured on the side of the barrier, which faces away from the swimming pool. The maximum vertical clearance between grade and the bottom of the barrier shall be 4 inches (102 mm) measured on the side of the barrier, which faces away from the swimming pool.
- Openings in the barrier shall not allow the passage of a 4-inch-diameter (102 mm) sphere.
- Solid barriers which do not have openings, such as a masonry or stone wall, shall not contain indentations or protrusions, except for normal construction tolerances and tooled masonry joints.
- Where the barrier is composed of horizontal
and vertical members, and the distance
between the tops of the horizontal members is
less than 24 inches (610 mm), the horizontal
members shall be located on the swimming
pool side of the fence. Spacing between
vertical members shall not exceed 1 3/4
inches (44 mm) in width. Where there are
decorative cutouts within vertical members,
spacing within the cutouts shall not exceed 1
3/4 inches (44 mm) in width.
Exception: When intermediate horizontal members are located 34 inches (864 mm) or more above grade, the spacing between vertical members shall not exceed 4 inches (102 mm) in width.
- Where the barrier is composed of horizontal and vertical members, and the distance between the tops of the horizontal members is 24 inches (610 mm) or more, spacing between vertical members shall not exceed 4 inches (102 mm). Where there are decorative cutouts within vertical members, spacing within the cutouts shall not exceed 1 3/4 inches (44 mm) in width.
- Maximum mesh size for chain link fences shall be a 2 1/4-inch (57 mm)square, unless the fence has slats fastened at the top or the bottom which reduce the openings to not more than 1 3/4 inches (44 mm).
- Where the barrier is composed of diagonal members, such as a lattice fence, the maximum opening formed by the diagonal members shall not be more than 1 3/4 inches (44 mm).
- Access gates shall comply with the requirements of
items 1 through 7, and shall be e quipped to
accommodate a locking device. Pedestrian access gates
shall open outward away from the swimming pool,
and shall be self-closing and have a self-latching
device. Gates, other than pedestrian access gates,shall
have a self-latching device. Where the release
mechanism of the self-latching device is located less
than 48 inches (1219 mm) above grade from the
bottom of the gate, the release mechanism and
openings shall comply with the following:
- The release mechanism shall be located on the swimming pool side of the gate at least 3 inches (76 mm) below the top of the gate; and
- The gate and barrier shall have no opening larger than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) within 18 inches (457 mm) of the release mechanism.
- Where a wall of a dwelling serves as part of the
barrier, one of the following conditions shall be
- The swimming pool shall be equipped with a powered safety cover in compliance with ASTM F 1346;
- Doors with direct access to the swimming pool through that wall shall be equipped with an alarm that produces an audible warning when the door and its screen, if present, are opened. The alarm shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 2017. The deactivation switch(es) shall be located at least 54 inches (1372 mm) above the threshold of the door; or
- Other means of protection, such as self-closing doors with self-latching devices, which are approved by the authority having jurisdiction, shall be acceptable as long as the degree of protection afforded is not less than the protection afforded by Item 9.1 or 9.2 described herein.
- Residential accessory structures;
- Single story;
- Metal roof on purlins with bracing and metal wall panels on girts, with bracing as shown in Figure R327.1 or in lieu of bracing provide solid exterior structural sheathing;
- No attic storage;
- Maximum building width of 48 feet including the overhang;
- Maximum wall height of 16 feet;
- Maximum mean roof height of 20 feet; and
- Maximum post spacing of 8 feet.
|Building width (length of truss) including overhang (feet)|
20 lb. Roof Snow Load
30 lb. Roof Snow Load
- Pier footing thickness shall be a minimum one-half of the diameter of the footing.
- Based upon 2000 PSF soil bearing capacity and truss loads of 20 or 30 PSF live or snow load top chord, 10 PSF dead load top chord, 5 PSF dead load on the bottom chord and no live load on the bottom chord.
- Fractional widths shall be rounded to the next higher pier footing diameter.
- Two 2x6 12 inch column uplift protection blocks attached to each side of the base of the column. The column uplift protection blocks must be placed horizontally, attached per Table R327.7 and comply with Section R318.
- 12 inch high, concrete collar poured on top of footing around the post with 2 #5x9 inch rebar placed through the post at 3 inches and 9 inches from bottom of post in opposite directions. The rebar ends shall be installed in accordance with ACI 332 for the specified distance in inches from contact with the soil. See Figure R327.3
- Bearing beams are not required if the trusses or ceiling joists and rafters bear directly on the columns.
- Opening on the gable end walls of post and frame buildings supporting a door or roof total load not exceeding 5 square feet per lineal feet of wall area, headers must be sized per Table R327.4.5.
|Opening Width (feet)||10||12||16|
|Header Size (inches)||2 - 2x8||2 - 2x10||2 — 2x12|
Bearing beams supporting roof trusses or rafters and ceiling joists shall be connected to columns by one of the following methods:
- Bolts that are 1/2 inch diameter through-bolted to the side of the column;
- Bolts that are 1/2 inch diameter, directly attached to a 3-ply column notch, enclosing the truss or rafter at the top of column; or
- Other fasteners with minimum shear or withdraw values stated in Table R327.4.7.
|Building width (length of truss) including overhang (feet)|
|Shear or withdraw (pounds) 20# snow load||3360||3920||4480||5040||5600||6160||6720|
|Number of Bolts 20# roof snow load||2||2||2||3||3||3||3|
|Shear or withdraw (pounds) 30# roof snow
|Number of Bolts 30# roof snow load||2||3||3||3||3||3||3|
- Based upon truss loads of 20 or 30 PSF live or snow load top chord, 10 PSF dead load top chord, 5 PSF live load on the bottom chord and no live load on the bottom chord.
- Based upon post spacing at intervals not exceeding 8 feet.
- When beams are attached at each side of the column and fasteners do not extend through both beams such as though-bolts, the required values are one-half the amount shown above for each beam.
|Wall Height||Vertical Dimension|
|8'-0" and 9'-0"||1'-6"|
|10'-0" and 11'-0"||2'-0"|
|12'-0" and 13'-0"||3'-0"|
|14'-0" through 16'-0"||4'-0"|
Structural fastener details for post and frame buildings shall comply with Table R327.7.
|Fastener Schedule for Structural Members|
|Description of Building Element||Number and Type of Fastener||Attachment Type|
|Uplift blocking to column||5 — 16d Hot Dipped Galvanized||Each block|
|Skirt board to column||2 — 16d Hot Dipped Galvanized||Face nail|
|Wall girt to column||2 — 16d Hot Dipped Galvanized||Face nail|
|Diagonal bracing to column||2 — 16d Hot Dipped Galvanized||Toe nail|
|Diagonal bracing to skirt board||2 — 16d Hot Dipped Galvanized||Face nail|
|Diagonal bracing to wall girts||2 — 10d Hot Dipped Galvanized||Face nail|
|Knee brace to column||2 — 10d||Face nail|
|Knee brace to top chord of truss or rafter||3 — 16d Hot Dipped Galvanized||Face nail|
|Knee brace to bottom chord of truss or ceiling joist||3 — 10d||Face nail|
|Roof purlin to truss or rafter with span of 2' or 4'||2 — 16d||Face nail|
|Roof purlin to truss or rafter with span of 8'||Mechanical fastener with uplift protection greater than 225 lbs||Per manufacturer|
Riser height = 15 inches (381 mm) minus 3/4 tread depth