Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
This chapter shall apply to palletized, solid-piled, bin box, shelf, or back-to-back shelf storage for a broad range of combustibles.
The requirements of Chapter 12 shall apply unless modified by this chapter.
Protection criteria for Group A plastics shall be permitted to be used for Class I, II, III, and IV commodities with the same storage and height configuration.
Protection for Class I through Class IV commodities in the following configurations shall be provided in accordance with this section:
  1. Nonencapsulated commodities that are solid-piled, palletized, or bin box storage up to 30 ft (9.1 m) in height
  2. Nonencapsulated commodities on shelf storage up to 15 ft (4.6 m) in height
  3. *Encapsulated commodities that are solid-piled, palletized, bin box, or shelf storage up to 15 ft (4.6 m) in height
  4. Back-to-back shelf storage up to 15 ft (4.6 m) in height
  5. Encapsulated storage of solid-piled and palletized Class I through IV commodities permitted in accordance with 14.2.5 for storage heights over 15 ft (4.6 m) up to and including 20 ft (6.1 m)
The area and density for the hydraulically remote area and the water supply shall be determined as specified in 14.2.3 for storage up to and including 12 ft (3.7 m) and 14.2.4 for storage over 12 ft (3.7 m).
The protection criteria for storage up to and including 12 ft (3.7 m) shall be the same as for miscellaneous storage selected from Chapter 13.
The protection criteria in Chapter 13 shall be acceptable for storage of Class I to Class IV commodities up to and including 12 ft (3.7 m) in height (see Table 13.2.1).
Where using ordinary temperature-rated sprinklers, a single point shall be selected from the appropriate commodity curve on Figure 14.2.4.1.

FIGURE 14.2.4.1 Sprinkler System Design Curves for 20 ft (6.1 m) High Storage — Ordinary Temperature-Rated Sprinklers.

Where using high temperature-rated sprinklers, a single point shall be selected from the appropriate commodity curve on Figure 14.2.4.2.

FIGURE 14.2.4.2 Sprinkler System Design Curves for 20 ft (6.1 m) High Storage — High Temperature-Rated Sprinklers.

The densities selected in accordance with 14.2.4.1 or 14.2.4.2 shall be modified in accordance with Figure 14.2.4.3 without revising the design area.

FIGURE 14.2.4.3 Ceiling Sprinkler Density vs. Storage Height.

In the case of metal bin boxes with face areas not exceeding 16 ft2 (1.5 m2) and metal closed shelves with face areas not exceeding 16 ft2 (1.5 m2), the area of application shall be permitted to be reduced by 33 percent, provided the minimum requirements of 14.2.4.5 and 14.2.4.6 are met.
For storage greater than 12 ft (3.7 m), the design density shall not be less than 0.15 gpm/ft2 (6.1 mm/min), and the design area shall not be less than 2000 ft2 (186 m2) for wet systems or 2600 ft2 (242 m2) for dry systems for any commodity, class, or group.
For storage greater than 12 ft (3.7 m), the sprinkler design density for any given area of operation for a Class III or Class IV commodity, calculated in accordance with 14.2.4, shall not be less than the density for the corresponding area of operation for ordinary hazard Group 2.
For back-to-back shelf storage, the design density shall be taken from Figure 14.2.4.1 for storage greater than 12 ft (3.7 m) and up to 15 ft (4.6 m) with no reduction for design density referenced in Figure 14.2.4.3.
Encapsulated storage over 15 ft (4.6 m) in height up to and including 20 ft (6.1 m) in height shall be limited to solid-piled and palletized storage.
Encapsulated storage over 15 ft (4.6 m) in height up to and including 20 ft (6.1 m) in height shall be protected by sprinklers with a K-factor of 11.2 (160) or larger.
Encapsulated storage over 15 ft (4.6 m) in height up to and including 20 ft (6.1 m) in height of Class I commodity shall be protected with a density/area of at least 0.46 gpm/ft2 over 2000 ft2 (18.7 mm/min over 186 m2).
Encapsulated storage over 15 ft (4.6 m) in height up to and including 20 ft (6.1 m) in height of Class II commodity shall be protected with a density/area of at least 0.53 gpm/ft2 over 2000 ft2 (21.6 mm/min over 186 m2).
Encapsulated storage over 15 ft (4.6 m) in height up to and including 20 ft (6.1 m) in height of Class III and Class IV commodity shall be protected with a density/area of at least 0.6 gpm/ft2 over 2000 ft2 (24.4 mm/min over 186 m2).
Protection of palletized and solid-piled storage of Class I through Class IV commodities shall be in accordance with Table 14.3.1.

Table 14.3.1 CMSA Sprinkler Design Criteria for Palletized and Solid-Piled Storage of Class I Through Class IV Commodities (Encapsulated and Nonencapsulated)

Configuration Commodity Class Maximum Storage Height Maximum Ceiling/Roof Height K-Factor/Orientation Type of System Number of Design Sprinklers Minimum Operating Pressure
ft m ft m psi bar
Palletized Class I or II 25 7.6 30 9.1 11.2 (160) Upright Wet 15 25 1.7
Dry 25 25 1.7
16.8 (240) Upright Wet 15 10 0.7
Dry 25 15 1.0
19.6 (280) Pendent Wet 15 16 1.1
35 11 11.2 (160) Upright Wet 15 25 1.7
Dry 25 25 1.7
16.8 (240) Upright Wet 15 15 1.0
Dry 25 15 1.0
30 9.1 35 11 19.6 (280) Pendent Wet 15 25 1.7
35 11 40 12 19.6 (280) Pendent Wet 15 30 2.1
Class III 25 7.6 30 9.1 11.2 (160) Upright Wet 15 25 1.7
Dry 25 25 1.7
16.8 (240) Upright Wet 15 15 1.0
Dry 25 15 1.0
19.6 (280) Pendent Wet 15 16 1.1
35 11 11.2 (160) Upright Wet 15 25 1.7
Dry 25 25 1.7
16.8 (240) Upright Wet 15 15 1.0
Dry 25 15 1.0
30 9.1 35 11 19.6 (280) Pendent Wet 15 25 1.7
35 11 40 12 19.6 (280) Pendent Wet 15 30 2.1
Class IV 20 6.1 30 9.1 11.2 (160) Upright Wet 20 25 1.7
15 50 3.4
16.8 (240) Upright Wet 20 15 1.0
15 22 1.5
19.6 (280) Pendent Wet 15 16 1.1
25 7.6 30 9.1 16.8 (240) Upright Wet 15 22 1.5
19.6 (280) Pendent Wet 15 16 1.1
30 9.1 35 11 19.6 (280) Pendent Wet 15 25 1.7
35 11 40 12 19.6 (280) Pendent Wet 15 30 2.1
Solid piled Class I or II 20 6.1 30 9.1 11.2 (160) Upright Wet 15 25 1.7
Dry 25 25 1.7
16.8 (240) Upright Wet 15 10 0.7
Dry 25 15 1.0
19.6 (280) Pendent Wet 15 16 1.1
25 7.6 30 9.1 16.8 (240) Upright Wet 15 10 0.7
19.6 (280) Pendent Wet 15 16 1.1
30 9.1 35 11 19.6 (280) Pendent Wet 15 25 1.7
35 11 40 12 19.6 (280) Pendent Wet 15 30 2.1
Class III 20 6.1 30 9.1 11.2 (160) Upright Wet 15 25 1.7
Dry 25 25 1.7
16.8 (240) Upright Wet 15 15 1.0
Dry 25 15 1.0
19.6 (280) Pendent Wet 15 16 1.1
25 7.6 30 9.1 16.8 (240) Upright Wet 15 22 1.5
19.6 (280) Pendent Wet 15 16 1.1
30 9.1 35 11 19.6 (280) Pendent Wet 15 25 1.7
35 11 40 12 19.6 (280) Pendent Wet 15 30 2.1
Class IV 20 6.1 30 9.1 11.2 (160) Upright Wet 15 50 3.4
16.8 (240) Upright Wet 15 22 1.5
19.6 (280) Pendent Wet 15 16 1.1
25 7.6 30 9.1 16.8 (240) Upright Wet 15 22 1.5
19.6 (280) Pendent Wet 15 16 1.1
30 9.1 35 11 19.6 (280) Pendent Wet 15 25 1.7
35 11 40 12 19.6 (280) Pendent Wet 15 30 2.1
Protection shall be provided as specified in Table 14.3.1 or appropriate NFPA standards in terms of minimum operating pressure and the number of sprinklers to be included in the design area.
Where CMSA sprinklers are installed under open wood joist construction, their minimum operating pressure shall be 50 psi (3.4 bar) for a K-11.2 (160) sprinkler or 22 psi (1.5 bar) for a K-16.8 (240) sprinkler.
For CMSA sprinklers, where each joist channel of open wood joist construction is fully firestopped to its full depth at intervals not exceeding 20 ft (6.1 m), the lower pressures specified in Table 14.3.1 shall be permitted to be used.
Hose stream allowance and water supply duration requirements shall be in accordance with Table 14.3.1.
For the purpose of using Table 14.3.1, preaction systems shall be classified as dry pipe systems.
Building steel shall not require special protection where Table 14.3.1 are applied as appropriate for the storage configuration.
Protection of palletized and solid-piled storage of Class I through Class IV commodities shall be in accordance with Table 14.4.1.

Table 14.4.1 ESFR Protection of Palletized and Solid-Piled Storage of Class I Through Class IV Commodities

Commodity Maximum Storage Height Maximum Ceiling/Roof Height Nominal K-Factor Orientation Minimum Operating Pressure
ft m ft m psi bar
Class I, II, III, or IV, encapsulated and nonencapsulated (no open-top containers) 20 6.1 25 7.6 14.0
(200)
Upright/pendent 50 3.4
16.8
(240)
Upright/pendent 35 2.4
22.4
(320)
Pendent 25 1.7
25.2
(360)
Pendent 15 1.0
25 7.6 30 9.1 14.0
(200)
Upright/pendent 50 3.4
16.8
(240)
Upright/pendent 35 2.4
22.4
(320)
Pendent 25 1.7
25.2
(360)
Pendent 15 1.0
32 10 14.0
(200)
Upright/pendent 60 4.1
16.8
(240)
Upright/pendent 42 2.9
30 9.1 35 11 14.0
(200)
Upright/pendent 75 5.2
16.8
(240)
Upright/pendent 52 3.6
22.4
(320)
Pendent 35 2.4
25.2
(360)
Pendent 20 1.4
35 11 40 12 16.8
(240)
Pendent 52 3.6
22.4
(320)
Pendent 40 2.7
25.2
(360)
Pendent 25 1.7
35 11 45 14 22.4
(320)
Pendent 40 2.7
25.2
(360)
Pendent 40 2.7
40 12 45 14 22.4
(320)
Pendent 40 2.7
25.2
(360)
Pendent 40 2.7
ESFR sprinkler systems shall be designed such that the minimum operating pressure is not less than that indicated in Table 14.4.1 for commodity, storage height, and building height involved.
The design area shall consist of the most hydraulically demanding area of 12 sprinklers, consisting of four sprinklers on each of three branch lines.
Bin Box and Shelf Storage.
Bin box and shelf storage that is over 12 ft (3.7 m) but not in excess of the height limits of 14.2.1 and that is provided with walkways at vertical intervals of not over 12 ft (3.7 m) shall be protected with automatic sprinklers under the walkway(s).
Protection shall be as follows:
  1. Ceiling design density shall be based on the total height of storage within the building.
  2. Automatic sprinklers under walkways shall be designed to maintain a minimum discharge pressure of 15 psi (1.0 bar) for the most hydraulically demanding six sprinklers on each level. Walkway sprinkler demand shall not be required to be added to the ceiling sprinkler demand. Sprinklers under walkways shall not be spaced more than 8 ft (2.4 m) apart horizontally.
A reduction in ceiling density to one-half that required for Class I through Class IV commodities, idle pallets, or plastics shall be permitted without revising the design area, but the density shall be no less than 0.15 gpm/ft2 (6.1 mm/min).
UpCodes Premium
Leverage the most sophisticated code compliance platform.
TRY FREE FOR TWO WEEKS VISIT PRICING