ADOPTS WITHOUT AMENDMENTS:

NFPA 101, 2018

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
The definitions contained in this chapter shall apply to the terms used in this Code. Where terms are not defined in this chapter or within another chapter, they shall be defined using their ordinarily accepted meanings within the context in which they are used. Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 11th edition, shall be the source for the ordinarily accepted meaning.
An organization, office, or individual responsible for enforcing the requirements of a code or standard, or for approving equipment, materials, an installation, or a procedure.
A standard that is an extensive compilation of provisions covering broad subject matter or that is suitable for adoption into law independently of other codes and standards.
Equipment or materials to which has been attached a label, symbol, or other identifying mark of an organization that is acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction and concerned with product evaluation, that maintains periodic inspection of production of labeled equipment or materials, and by whose labeling the manufacturer indicates compliance with appropriate standards or performance in a specified manner.
Equipment, materials, or services included in a list published by an organization that is acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction and concerned with evaluation of products or services, that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of services, and whose listing states that either the equipment, material, or service meets appropriate designated standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.
Indicates a mandatory requirement.
Indicates a recommendation or that which is advised but not required.
A continuous unobstructed path that complies with this Code and ICC/ANSI A117.1, Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities. (SAF-MEA).
The activating mechanism of a panic hardware or fire exit hardware device located on the egress side of a door. (SAF-MEA)
An increase in building area, aggregate floor area, building height, or number of stories of a structure. (SAF-FUN)
An aboveground device through which passengers move between a point in an airport terminal building and an aircraft. Included in this category are walkways that are essentially fixed and permanently placed, or walkways that are essentially mobile in nature and that fold, telescope, or pivot from a fixed point at the airport terminal building. [415, 2016] (SAF-AXM)
The initial portion of an exit access that leads to an aisle. (SAF-AXM)
A detector comprising an assembly that incorporates a sensor, control components, and an alarm notification appliance in one unit operated from a power source either located in the unit or obtained at the point of installation. [72, 2016] (SAF-BSF)
A single or multiple-station alarm responsive to smoke. [72, 2016] (SAF-BSF)
A calculation procedure that differs from the procedure originally employed by the design team but that provides predictions for the same variables of interest. (SAF-FUN)
An analysis performed to determine the degree to which a predicted output will vary given a specified change in an input parameter, usually in relation to models. (SAF-FUN)
An analysis performed to determine the degree to which a predicted value will vary. (SAF-FUN)
Area of a building or structure, including interior and adjacent exterior spaces, where animals are fed, rested, worked, exercised, treated, exhibited, or used for production. [150, 2016] (SAF-FUN)
Sleeping areas and any contiguous day room, group activity space, or other common space for customary access of residents. (SAF-DET)

3.3.22.2 Floor Area.

ILLUSTRATION
The floor area within the inside perimeter of the outside walls of the building under consideration with no deductions for hallways, stairs, closets, thickness of interior walls, columns, elevator and building services shafts, or other features, but excluding floor openings associated with atriums and communicating spaces. (SAF-MEA)
The floor area within the inside perimeter of the outside walls, or the outside walls and fire walls of a building, or outside and/or inside walls that bound an occupancy or incidental use area requiring the occupant load to be calculated using net floor area under consideration with deductions for hallways, stairs, closets, thickness of interior walls, columns, or other features. (SAF-MEA)
Fifty percent of major tenant areas, and 100 percent of all other floor areas designated for tenant occupancy and exclusive use, including storage areas. The area of tenant occupancy is measured from the center-lines of joint partitions to the outside of the tenant walls. (SAF-MER)
An area of a structure or building that poses a degree of hazard greater than that normal to the general occupancy of the building or structure. (SAF-FIR)
Any normally occupiable space in a residential occupancy, other than sleeping rooms or rooms that are intended for combination sleeping/living, bathrooms, toilet compartments, kitchens, closets, halls, storage or utility spaces, and similar areas. (SAF-RES)
A building service equipment support area in which people are not expected to be present on a regular basis. (SAF-MEA)
An area of a facility occupied by people on a regular basis. (SAF-FUN)
That portion of a building affected by any renovation, modification, or reconstruction work as initially intended by the owner, and indicated as such in the permit, but excluding other portions of the building where incidental work entailed by the intended work must be performed, and excluding portions of the building where work not initially intended by the owner is specifically required. (SAF-FUN)
An area that is either (1) a story in a building where the building is protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system and has not less than two accessible rooms or spaces separated from each other by smoke-resisting partitions; or (2) a space located in a path of travel leading to a public way that is protected from the effects of fire, either by means of separation from other spaces in the same building or by virtue of location, thereby permitting a delay in egress travel from any level. (SAF-MEA)
An area of refuge that complies with the accessible route requirements of ICC/ANSI A117.1, Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities. (SAF-MEA).
Any combination of a door, frame, hardware, and other accessories that is placed in an opening in a wall that is intended primarily for access or for human entrance or exit. [252, 2017] (SAF-MEA)
Any combination of a fire door, a frame, hardware, and other accessories that together provide a specific degree of fire protection to the opening. [80, 2016] (SAF-FIR)
A combination of a fire door, a frame, hardware, and other accessories installed in a horizontal plane, which together provide a specific degree of fire protection to a through-opening in a fire resistance-rated floor or roof. [288, 2017] (SAF-FIR)
A window or glass block assembly having a fire protection rating. [80, 2016] (SAF-FIR)
The atmosphere that exists between rooms, spaces, or areas within a building that are not separated by an approved smoke barrier. (SAF-END)
The atmosphere that exists between rooms, spaces, or areas that are separated by an approved smoke barrier. (SAF-END)
A large-volume space created by a floor opening or series of floor openings connecting two or more stories that is covered at the top of the series of openings and is used for purposes other than an enclosed stairway; an elevator hoistway; an escalator opening; or as a utility shaft used for plumbing, electrical, air-conditioning, or communications facilities. (SAF-FIR)
The space located between the ceiling of a story and the roof directly above that habitable story. (SAF-FUN)
Capable of performing a function without the necessity of human intervention. (SAF-FUN)
A continuous membrane or a membrane with discontinuities created by protected openings with a specified fire protection rating, where such membrane is designed and constructed with a specified fire resistance rating to limit the spread of fire. (SAF-FIR)
A continuous membrane, or a membrane with discontinuities created by protected openings, where such membrane is designed and constructed to restrict the movement of smoke. (SAF-FIR)
A material that limits the average temperature rise of an unexposed surface to not more than 250°F (139°C) for a specified fire exposure complying with the standard time-temperature curve of ASTM E119, Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials, or ANSI/UL 263, Standard for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials. (SAF-BCF)
Any story of a building wholly or partly below grade plane that is not considered the first story above grade plane. (See also 3.3.128.1, First Story Above Grade Plane.) (SAF-FUN)
A facility in which low-risk births are expected following normal, uncomplicated pregnancies, and in which professional midwifery care is provided to women during pregnancy, birth, and postpartum. (SAF-MER)
A grandstand in which the seats are not provided with backrests. (SAF-AXM)
Any structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy. (SAF-FUN)
A structure used primarily for air passenger enplaning or deplaning, including ticket sales, flight information, baggage handling, and other necessary functions in connection with air transport operations. This term includes any extensions and satellite buildings used for passenger handling or aircraft flight service functions. Aircraft loading walkways and "mobile lounges" are excluded. [415, 2016] (SAF-AXM)
A building housing any occupancy having low or ordinary hazard contents and having direct access to a mall structure, but having all required means of egress independent of the mall concourse. (SAF-MER)
A building or portion thereof containing three or more dwelling units with independent cooking and bathroom facilities. (SAF-RES)
A building in which the sales area includes the storage of combustible materials on pallets, in solid piles, or in racks in excess of 12 ft (3660 mm) in storage height. (SAF-MER)
A building erected or officially authorized prior to the effective date of the adoption of this edition of the Code by the agency or jurisdiction. (SAF-FUN)
A building or portion of a building designed for multiple teaching stations. (SAF-END)
A building where the floor of an occupiable story is greater than 75 ft (23 m) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access. (SAF-FUN)
A building or facility deemed to have historical, architectural, or cultural significance by a local, regional, or national jurisdiction. (SAF-FUN)
A building that is temporary, permanent, or mobile and contains a device or system that conveys passengers or provides a walkway along, around, or over a course in any direction as a form of amusement arranged so that the egress path is not readily apparent due to visual or audio distractions or an intentionally confounded egress path, or is not readily available due to the mode of conveyance through the building or structure. (SAF-AXM)
The building code enforced by the jurisdiction or agency enforcing this Code. (SAF-FUN)
The nature and extent of rehabilitation work undertaken in an existing building. (SAF-FUN)
A heterogeneous system comprised of not less than two phases, one of which is a continuous, polymeric, organic material, and the second of which is deliberately introduced for the purpose of distributing gas in voids throughout the material. (SAF-INT)
The change in the occupancy classification of a structure or portion of a structure. (SAF-FUN)
A change in the purpose or level of activity within a structure that involves a change in application of the requirements of the Code. (SAF-FUN)
A chemical process of oxidation that occurs at a rate fast enough to produce heat and usually light in the form of either a glow or flame. (SAF-FUN)
The portion of exit access that must be traversed before two separate and distinct paths of travel to two exits are available. (SAF-MEA)
A space within a building that is enclosed by fire barriers on all sides, including the top and bottom. (SAF-FIR)
A space within a building enclosed by smoke barriers on all sides, including the top and bottom. (SAF-FIR)
Any movable objects in a building that normally are secured or otherwise put in place for functional reasons, excluding (1) parts of the internal structure of the building, and (2) any items meeting the definition of interior finish. (SAF-INT)

3.3.51 Court

ILLUSTRATION
An open, uncovered, unoccupied space, unobstructed to the sky, bounded on three or more sides by exterior building walls. (SAF-MEA)
A court bounded on all sides by the exterior walls of a building or by the exterior walls and lot lines on which walls are permitted. (SAF-MEA)
A public seating area located in a mall concourse that serves adjacent food preparation tenant spaces. (SAF-MER)
The level of incident radiant heat energy in units of W/cm2 on a floor-covering system at the most distant flameout point. (SAF-INT)
The process of developing the input data set for the assessment method of choice. (SAF-FUN)
Mechanical self-closing device that incorporates an adjustable delay prior to the initiation of closing. (SAF-MEA)
A cooking method that involves fully immersing food in hot oil. (SAF-HEA)
A group of stakeholders including, but not limited to, representatives of the architect, client, and any pertinent engineers and other designers. (SAF-FUN)
Device designed and constructed to facilitate travel over interior floor surfaces, interior and exterior stairs, and exterior accessible pathways. (SAF-MEA)
Two or more single-station alarm devices that can be interconnected so that actuation of one causes all integral or separate audible alarms to operate; or one single-station alarm device having connections to other detectors or to a manual fire alarm box. [72, 2016] (SAF-BSF)
A door between an elevator lobby and another building space other than the elevator shaft. (SAF-MEA)
The door component of a fire door assembly. (SAF-FIR)
A building or a space in a building in which group sleeping accommodations are provided for more than 16 persons who are not members of the same family in one room, or a series of closely associated rooms, under joint occupancy and single management, with or without meals, but without individual cooking facilities. (SAF-RES)
A continuous membrane used to subdivide a concealed space to resist the passage of smoke and heat. (SAF-FIR)
One or more rooms arranged for complete, independent housekeeping purposes with space for eating, living, and sleeping; facilities for cooking; and provisions for sanitation. (SAF-RES)
A building that contains not more than two dwelling units with independent cooking and bathroom facilities. (SAF-RES)
A building that consists solely of one dwelling unit with independent cooking and bathroom facilities. (SAF-RES)
A building that consists solely of two dwelling units with independent cooking and bathroom facilities. (SAF-RES)
Refers to a light-emitting capacitor in which alternating current excites phosphor atoms placed between electrically conductive surfaces and produces light. (SAF-MEA)
A landing from which occupants directly enter an elevator car(s) and into which occupants directly enter upon leaving an elevator car(s). (SAF-MEA)
Building, fire, and emergency control elements or systems that are initiated by the fire alarm or signaling system and either increase the level of life safety for occupants or control the spread of the harmful effects of fire or other dangerous products. [72, 2016] (SAF-BSF)
Any plumbing, heating, electrical, ventilating, air-conditioning, refrigerating, and fire protection equipment; and elevators, dumbwaiters, escalators, boilers, pressure vessels, or other mechanical facilities or installations that are related to building services. (SAF-FUN)
An alternative means of providing an equal or greater degree of safety than that afforded by strict conformance to prescribed codes and standards. (SAF-FUN)
The withdrawal of occupants from a building. [72, 2016] (SAF-BSF)
The ability of occupants, residents, and staff as a group either to evacuate a building or to relocate from the point of occupancy to a point of safety.
The inability of a group to reliably move to a point of safety in a timely manner. (SAF-BCF)
The ability of a group to move reliably to a point of safety in a timely manner that is equivalent to the capacity of a household in the general population. (SAF-BCF)
The ability of a group to move reliably to a point of safety in a timely manner, but not as rapidly as members of a household in the general population. (SAF-BCF)
A space or portable structure used for the display of products or services. (SAF-AXM)
An individual or entity engaged in the display of the products or services offered. (SAF-AXM)
That which is already in existence on the date this edition of the Code goes into effect. (SAF-FUN)
That which is already in existence on the date this edition of the Code goes into effect and is acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction. (SAF-FUN)
That portion of a means of egress that is separated from all other spaces of the building or structure by construction, location, or equipment as required to provide a protected way of travel to the exit discharge. (SAF-MEA)
A way of passage from one building to an area of refuge in another building on approximately the same level, or a way of passage through or around a fire barrier to an area of refuge on approximately the same level in the same building that affords safety from fire and smoke originating from the area of incidence and areas communicating therewith. (SAF-MEA)
That portion of a means of egress that leads to an exit. (SAF-MEA)
That portion of a means of egress between the termination of an exit and a public way. (SAF-MEA)
The story that is either (1) the lowest story from which not less than 50 percent of the required number of exits and not less than 50 percent of the required egress capacity from such a story discharge directly outside at the finished ground level; or (2) where no story meets the conditions of item (1), the story that is provided with one or more exits that discharge directly to the outside to the finished ground level via the smallest elevation change. (SAF-MEA)
An event in which the display of products or services is organized to bring together the provider and user of the products or services. (SAF-AXM)
A fire that starts at a location that is remote from the area being protected and grows to expose that which is being protected. (SAF-FUN)
A convention center, hotel, or other building at which exposition events are held. (SAF-AXM)
A building or portion of a building used on a 24-hour basis for the housing of four or more persons who are incapable of self-preservation because of age; physical limitations due to accident or illness; or limitations such as mental retardation/developmental disability, mental illness, or chemical dependency. (SAF-HEA)
The exposed surfaces of walls, ceilings, and floors within buildings. (SAF-INT)
The interior finish of floors, ramps, stair treads and risers, and other walking surfaces. (SAF-INT)
The interior finish of columns, fixed or movable walls, and fixed or movable partitions. (SAF-INT)
The level of the finished ground (earth or other surface on ground). (See also 3.3.128, Grade Plane.) (SAF-FUN)
The fire code enforced by the jurisdiction or agency enforcing this Code. (SAF-FUN).
A structured approach to predicting one or more effects of a fire. (SAF-FUN)
A set of conditions that defines the development of fire, the spread of combustion products throughout a building or portion of a building, the reactions of people to fire, and the effects of combustion products. (SAF-FUN)
A fire scenario selected for evaluation of a proposed design. (SAF-FUN)
The assignment of a person or persons to an area for the express purpose of notifying the fire department, the building occupants, or both of an emergency; preventing a fire from occurring; extinguishing small fires; or protecting the public from fire or life safety dangers. [1, 2018] (SAF-BSF)
A wood product impregnated with chemical by a pressure process or other means during manufacture, treated to exhibit reduced surface-burning characteristics and resist propagation of fire. [703, 2018] (SAF-FIR)
The propagation of flame over a surface. (SAF-INT)
A stage in the development of a contained fire in which all exposed surfaces reach ignition temperature more or less simultaneously and fire spreads rapidly throughout the space. (SAF-INT)
A component of total evacuation time that is the time during which there is crowd flow past a point in the means of egress system. (SAF-AXM)
A raised floor area above a stage from which the movement of scenery and operation of other stage effects are controlled. (SAF-AXM)
A nonspecific overall outcome to be achieved that is measured on a qualitative basis. (SAF-FUN)

3.3.128* Grade Plane

ILLUSTRATION
A reference plane upon which vertical measurements of a building are based representing the average of the finished ground level adjoining the building at all exterior walls. (SAF-FUN)
Any story having its finished floor surface entirely above grade plane, except that a basement is to be considered as a first story above grade plane where the finished surface of the floor above the basement is (1) more than 6 ft (1830 mm) above grade plane or (2) more than 12 ft (3660 mm) above the finished ground level at any point. (SAF-FUN)
A structure that provides tiered or stepped seating. (SAF-AXM)
The structural framing over a stage supporting equipment for hanging or flying scenery and other stage effects. (SAF-AXM)
A vertical protective barrier erected along exposed edges of stairways, balconies, and similar areas. (SAF-MEA)
An accommodation combining living, sleeping, sanitary, and storage facilities within a compartment. (SAF-RES)
A bar, pipe, or similar member designed to furnish persons with a handhold. (SAF-MEA)
A type of panic hardware that additionally provides fire protection where used as part of a fire door assembly. (SAF-MEA)
A door-latching assembly incorporating an actuating member or bar that releases the latch bolt upon the application of a force in the direction of egress travel. (SAF-MEA)
The rate at which heat energy is generated by burning. [921, 2017] (SAF-INT)
A building or portion of a building in which more than 3 but not more than 12 clients receive care, maintenance, and supervision, by other than their relative(s) or legal guardians(s), for less than 24 hours per day. (SAF-END)
A building or portion of a building used on a 24-hour basis for the housing and nursing care of four or more persons who, because of mental or physical incapacity, might be unable to provide for their own needs and safety without the assistance of another person. (SAF-HEA)
A building or portion thereof used on a 24-hour basis for the medical, psychiatric, obstetrical, or surgical care of four or more inpatients. (SAF-HEA)
A building or groups of buildings under the same management in which there are sleeping accommodations for more than 16 persons and primarily used by transients for lodging with or without meals. (SAF-RES)
Refers to an illumination source that is contained outside of the device or sign legend area that is to be illuminated. (SAF-MEA)
Refers to an illumination source that is contained inside the device or legend that is illuminated. (SAF-MEA)
A condition under which humans do not function adequately and become unable to escape untenable conditions. (SAF-FUN)
A comparative measure, expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from visual measurements of the spread of flame versus time for a material tested in accordance with ASTM E84, Standard Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials, or ANSI/UL 723, Standard for Test for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials. (SAF-INT)
A comparative measure, expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from measurements of smoke obscuration versus time for a material tested in accordance with ASTM E84, Standard Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials, or ANSI/UL 723, Standard for Test for Surface Burning Characteristics of Burning Materials. (SAF-INT)
A cellular plastic, used for thermal insulating or acoustical applications, having a density of 20 lb/ft3 (320 kg/m3) or less, containing open or closed cells, and formed by a foaming agent. (SAF-INT)
Thermal insulation consisting of one or more low-emittance surfaces bounding one or more enclosed air spaces. (SAF-INT)
A linear opening in or between adjacent assemblies that is designed to allow independent movement of the building. (SAF-FIR)
A written review dealing with the adequacy of life safety features relative to fire, storm, collapse, crowd behavior, and other related safety considerations. (SAF-AXM)
The total quantity of combustible contents of a building, space, or fire area. (SAF-FUN)
The total number of persons that might occupy a building or portion thereof at any one time. (SAF-MEA)
Any column, girder, beam, joist, truss, rafter, wall, floor, or roof sheathing that supports any vertical load in addition to its own weight, or any lateral load. (SAF-FIR)
An incidental use area in other than a detention and correctional occupancy where occupants are restrained and such occupants are mostly incapable of self-preservation because of security measures not under the occupants' control. (SAF-DET)
A building or portion thereof that does not qualify as a one- or two-family dwelling, that provides sleeping accommodations for a total of 16 or fewer people on a transient or permanent basis, without personal care services, with or without meals, but without separate cooking facilities for individual occupants. (SAF-RES)
A tenant space, in a mall structure, with one or more main entrances from the exterior that also serve as exits and are independent of the mall concourse. (SAF-MER)
A common pedestrian area within a mall structure that serves as access for two or more tenants and does not exceed three levels that are open to each other. (SAF-MER)
A mall concourse that either (1) has 50 percent or more of the total area of the solid mall concourse perimeter walls and solid roof area open to the atmosphere with openings distributed uniformly over the length of the mall concourse, or (2) has an approved open mall concourse engineering analysis.
A material that, in the form in which it is used and under the conditions anticipated, will ignite and burn; a material that does not meet the definition of noncombustible or limited-combustible. (SAF-FUN)
A chemical or substance classified as a toxic, highly toxic, or corrosive material in accordance with definitions set forth in this code. [5000, 2018] (SAF-IND)
A chemical or substance classified as a combustible liquid, explosive, flammable cryogen, flammable gas, flammable liquid, flammable solid, organic peroxide, oxidizer, oxidizing cryogen, pyrophoric, unstable (reactive), or water-reactive material. [400, 2016] (SAF-IND)
A chemical or substance that is classified as a physical hazard material or a health hazard material, whether the chemical or substance is in usable or waste condition. [400, 2016] (SAF-IND)
A factory-manufactured panel consisting of metal skins bonded to both faces of a core made of any plastic other than foamed plastic insulation as defined in 3.3.158.1. (SAF-MER)
A material that produces a lethal dose or a lethal concentration within any of the following categories: (1) a chemical or substance that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of more than 50 mg/kg but not more than 500 mg/kg of body weight when administered orally to albino rats weighing between 200 g and 300 g each; (2) a chemical or substance that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of more than 200 mg/kg but not more than 1000 mg/kg of body weight when administered by continuous contact for 24 hours, or less if death occurs within 24 hours, with the bare skin of albino rabbits weighing between 2 kg and 3 kg each, or albino rats weighing 200 g to 300 g each; (3) a chemical or substance that has a median lethal concentration (LC50) in air of more than 200 parts per million but not more than 2000 parts per million by volume of gas or vapor, or more than 2 mg/L but not more than 20 mg/L, of mist, fume, or dust when administered by continuous inhalation for 1 hour, or less if death occurs within 1 hour, to albino rats weighing between 200 g and 300 g each. [5000, 2018] (SAF-IND)
A material that produces a lethal dose or lethal concentration that falls within any of the following categories: (1) a chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of 50 mg/kg or less of body weight when administered orally to albino rats weighing between 200 g and 300 g each; (2) a chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of 200 mg/kg or less of body weight when administered by continuous contact for 24 hours, or less if death occurs within 24 hours, with the bare skin of albino rabbits weighing between 2 kg and 3 kg each or albino rats weighing 200 g to 300 g each; (3) a chemical that has a median lethal concentration (LC50) in air of 200 parts per million by volume or less of gas or vapor, or 2 mg/L or less of mist, fume, or dust, when administered by continuous inhalation for 1 hour, or less if death occurs within 1 hour, to albino rats weighing between 200 g and 300 g each. [400, 2016] (SAF-IND)
Membrane material that has been subjected to a minimum of 3000 hours in a weatherometer in accordance with ASTM G155, Standard Practice for Operating Xenon Arc Light Apparatus for Exposure of Non-Metallic Materials, or approved equivalent. (SAF-IND)
A continuous and unobstructed way of travel from any point in a building or structure to a public way consisting of three separate and distinct parts: (1) the exit access, (2) the exit, and (3) the exit discharge. (SAF-MEA)
A way out of a building or structure that does not conform to the strict definition of means of egress but does provide an alternate way out. (SAF-MEA)
A thin layer of construction material. (SAF-FIR)
An intermediate level between the floor and the ceiling of any room or space. (SAF-FIR)
The reconfiguration of any space; the addition or elimination of any door or window; the addition or elimination of load-bearing elements; the reconfiguration or extension of any system; or the installation of any additional equipment. (SAF-FUN)
A requirement that needs to be met to achieve a goal. (SAF-FUN)
The purpose for which a building or other structure, or part thereof, is used or intended to be used. [ASCE/SEI 7:1.2] (SAF-FUN)
An occupancy used to provide services or treatment simultaneously to four or more patients that provides, on an outpatient basis, one or more of the following: (1) treatment for patients that renders the patients incapable of taking action for self-preservation under emergency conditions without the assistance of others; (2) anesthesia that renders the patients incapable of taking action for self-preservation under emergency conditions without the assistance of others; (3) treatment for patients who, due to the nature of their injury or illness, are incapable of taking action for self-preservation under emergency conditions without the assistance of others. (SAF-HEA)
An occupancy (1) used for a gathering of 50 or more persons for deliberation, worship, entertainment, eating, drinking, amusement, awaiting transportation, or similar uses; or (2) used as a special amusement building, regardless of occupant load. (SAF-AXM)
An assembly room designed to accommodate temporarily any of several possible assembly uses. (SAF-AXM)
An occupancy used for the transaction of business other than mercantile. (SAF-MER)
An occupancy in which four or more clients receive care, maintenance, and supervision, by other than their relatives or legal guardians, for less than 24 hours per day. (SAF-END)
An occupancy used to house one or more persons under varied degrees of restraint or security where such occupants are mostly incapable of self-preservation because of security measures not under the occupants' control. (SAF-DET)
An occupancy used for educational purposes through the twelfth grade by six or more persons for 4 or more hours per day or more than 12 hours per week. (SAF-END)
An occupancy used to provide medical or other treatment or care simultaneously to four or more patients on an inpatient basis, where such patients are mostly incapable of self-preservation due to age, physical or mental disability, or because of security measures not under the occupants' control. (SAF-HEA)
An occupancy in which products are manufactured or in which processing, assembling, mixing, packaging, finishing, decorating, or repair operations are conducted. (SAF-IND)
An industrial occupancy in which ordinary and low hazard industrial operations are conducted in buildings of conventional design suitable for various types of industrial processes. (SAF-IND)
An industrial occupancy in which industrial operations that include high hazard materials, processes, or contents are conducted. (SAF-IND)
An industrial occupancy in which ordinary and low hazard industrial operations are conducted in buildings designed for, and suitable only for, particular types of operations, characterized by a relatively low density of employee population, with much of the area occupied by machinery or equipment. (SAF-IND)
An occupancy used for the display and sale of merchandise. (SAF-MER)
A multiple occupancy where the occupancies are intermingled. (SAF-FUN)
A building or structure in which two or more classes of occupancy exist. (SAF-FUN)
An occupancy used for lodging and boarding of four or more residents, not related by blood or marriage to the owners or operators, for the purpose of providing personal care services. (SAF-BCF)
An occupancy that provides sleeping accommodations for purposes other than health care or detention and correctional. (SAF-RES)
A multiple occupancy where the occupancies are separated by fire resistance-rated assemblies. (SAF-FUN)
An occupancy used primarily for the storage or sheltering of goods, merchandise, products, or vehicles. (SAF-IND)
The abilities or behaviors of people before and during a fire. (SAF-FUN)
An operation conducted outside of all structures, with the operations area devoid of all walls and roofs except for small, individual, weather canopies. (SAF-MER)
Threshold values on measurement scales that are based on quantified performance objectives. (SAF-FUN)
The care of residents who do not require chronic or convalescent medical or nursing care. (SAF-BCF)
Having the ability to store incident electromagnetic radiation typically from ambient light sources, and release it in the form of visible light. [301, 2018] (SAF-MEA)
A rail on or above a stage through which belaying pins are inserted and to which lines are fastened. (SAF-AXM)
The raised area within a building used for the presentation of music, plays, or other entertainment. (SAF-AXM)
A platform erected within an area for not more than 30 days. (SAF-AXM)
A compartment or chamber to which one or more air ducts are connected and that forms part of the air-distribution system. (SAF-FIR)
A location that (a) is exterior to and away from a building; or (b) is within a building of any construction type protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system and that is either (1) within an exit enclosure meeting the requirements of this Code, or (2) within another portion of the building that is separated by smoke barriers in accordance with Section 8.5 having a minimum 1/2-hour fire resistance rating, and that portion of the building has access to a means of escape or exit that conforms to the requirements of this Code and does not necessitate return to the area of fire involvement; or (c) is within a building of Type I, Type II(222), Type II(111), Type III(211), Type IV, or Type V(111) construction (see 8.2.1.2) and is either (1) within an exit enclosure meeting the requirements of this Code, or (2) within another portion of the building that is separated by smoke barriers in accordance with Section 8.5 having a minimum 1/2-hour fire resistance rating, and that portion of the building has access to a means of escape or exit that conforms to the requirements of this Code and does not necessitate return to the area of fire involvement. (SAF-BCF)
That which was acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction prior to the date this edition of the Code went into effect. (SAF-FUN)
Swinging, sliding, or folding door that opens automatically upon an action by a pedestrian, closes automatically, and operates with decreased forces and decreased speeds.
Swinging door that opens by reduced pushing or pulling force on the door operating hardware, closes automatically after the pushing or pulling force is released, and functions with decreased forces.
Swinging, sliding, or folding door that opens automatically when approached by a pedestrian or opens automatically upon an action by a pedestrian, closes automatically, and includes provisions to prevent entrapment.
A person registered or licensed to practice engineering in a jurisdiction, subject to all laws and limitations imposed by the jurisdiction. (SAF-FUN)
A design developed by a design team and submitted to the authority having jurisdiction for approval. (SAF-FUN)
A street, alley, or other similar parcel of land essentially open to the outside air deeded, dedicated, or otherwise permanently appropriated to the public for public use and having a clear width and height of not less than 10 ft (3050 mm). (SAF-MEA)
A walking surface that has a slope steeper than 1 in 20. (SAF-MEA)
A ramp within a seating area of an assembly occupancy that directly serves rows of seating to the side of the ramp. (SAF-AXM)
The designation indicating the duration of the fire test exposure to which an opening protective assembly was exposed. [221, 2018] (SAF-FIR)
The time, in minutes or hours, that materials or assemblies have withstood a fire exposure as determined by the tests, or methods based on tests, prescribed by this Code. (SAF-FIR)
The reconfiguration of a space that affects an exit or a corridor shared by more than one occupant space; or the reconfiguration of a space such that the rehabilitation work area is not permitted to be occupied because existing means of egress and fire protection systems, or their equivalent, are not in place or continuously maintained. (SAF-FUN)
A person licensed to practice architecture in a jurisdiction, subject to all laws and limitations imposed by the jurisdiction. (SAF-FUN)
An individual who is registered or licensed to practice his/her respective design profession as defined by the statutory requirements of the professional registration laws of the state or jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed. (SAF-FUN)
The movement of occupants to a safer area within the same building. (SAF-FUN)
The replacement-in kind, strengthening, or upgrading of building elements, materials, equipment, or fixtures that does not result in a reconfiguration of the building spaces within.
The patching, restoration, or painting of materials, elements, equipment, or fixtures for the purpose of maintaining such materials, elements, equipment, or fixtures in good or sound condition. (SAF-FUN)
A person who receives personal care and resides in a residential board and care facility. (SAF-BCF)
A location remote or separated from the effects of a fire so that such effects no longer pose a threat. (SAF-FUN)
A factor applied to a predicted value to ensure that a sufficient safety margin is maintained. (SAF-FUN)
The difference between a predicted value and the actual value where a fault condition is expected. (SAF-FUN)
A compartment provided with two or more doors where the intended purpose is to prevent continuous and unobstructed passage by allowing the release of only one door at a time. (SAF-DET)
A form of audience/spectator accommodation in which no seating, other than a floor or finished ground level, is provided for the audience/spectators gathered to observe a performance. (SAF-AXM)
Seating that is secured to the building structure. (SAF-AXM)
A structure that is used for tiered seating of persons and whose overall shape and size can be reduced, without being dismantled, for purposes of moving or storing. (SAF-AXM)
Seating served by means of egress that is not subject to smoke accumulation within or under the structure. (SAF-AXM)
Equipped with an approved device that ensures closing after opening. (SAF-MEA)
Illuminated by a self-contained power source and operated independently of external power sources. (SAF-MEA)
The ability of a patient to act on an innate desire to protect oneself from harm without staff intervention.
The ability of a client to evacuate a day-care occupancy without direct intervention by a staff member. (SAF-END)
The ability to move to stairs but without the ability to use the stairs. (SAF-MEA)
The perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future. (SAF-FUN)
A device that detects visible or invisible particles of combustion. [72, 2016] (SAF-BSF)
A continuous membrane that is designed to form a barrier to limit the transfer of smoke. (SAF-FIR)
An enclosure designed to limit the movement of products of combustion produced by a fire. (SAF-MEA)
Services provided by a qualified person, retained by the owner and approved by the authority having jurisdiction, who observes the installation and witnesses the pretesting and operation of the system or systems. (SAF-BSF)
A building characteristic and other conditions that are under the control of the design team. (SAF-FUN)
Information required by the verification method. (SAF-FUN)
Persons who provide personal care services, supervision, or assistance. (SAF-BCF)
A space within a building used for entertainment and utilizing drops or scenery or other stage effects. (SAF-AXM)
A stage with a height greater than 50 ft (15 m) measured from the lowest point on the stage floor to the highest point of the roof or floor deck above. (SAF-AXM)
A stage with a height of 50 ft (15 m) or less measured from the lowest point on the stage floor to the highest point of the roof or floor deck above. (SAF-AXM)
A stair within a seating area of an assembly occupancy that directly serves rows of seats to the side of the stair, including transition stairs that connect to an aisle or a landing. (SAF-AXM)
A stair with not less than one side open to the outer air. (SAF-MEA)
An individual, or representative of same, having an interest in the successful completion of a project. (SAF-FUN)
The story count starting with the level of exit discharge and ending with the highest occupiable story containing the occupancy considered. (SAF-FUN)
The portion of a building located between the upper surface of a floor and the upper surface of the floor or roof next above. (SAF-FUN)
A story occupied by people on a regular basis. (SAF-FUN)
A public thoroughfare that has been dedicated for vehicular use by the public and can be used for access by fire department vehicles. (SAF-MEA)
A story or floor level accessible from the street or from outside the building at the finished ground level, with the floor level at the main entrance located not more than three risers above or below the finished ground level, and arranged and utilized to qualify as the main floor. (SAF-MER)
That which is built or constructed. (SAF-FUN)
A structure whose shape is maintained by air pressure in cells or tubes forming all or part of the enclosure of the usable area and in which the occupants are not within the pressurized area used to support the structure. (SAF-IND)
A structure where shape is maintained by air pressure and in which occupants are within the elevated pressure area. (SAF-IND)
A structure or portion of a structure lacking emergency openings. (SAF-IND)
A single structure enclosing a number of tenants and occupancies wherein two or more tenants or tenant buildings have a main entrance into one or more mall concourses. For the purpose of this Code, anchor buildings shall not be considered as a part of the mall structure. (SAF-MER)
A building or portion of a building incorporating an air-inflated, air-supported, tensioned-membrane structure; a membrane roof; or a membrane-covered rigid frame to protect habitable or usable space. (SAF-IND)
A structure that consists of tubes, slides, crawling areas, and jumping areas that is located within a building and is used for climbing and entertainment, generally by children. (SAF-AXM)
A structure that supports equipment and operations not enclosed within building walls. (SAF-IND)
A building, structure, or portion thereof used for the parking, storage, or both, of motor vehicles. [88A, 2015] (SAF-IND)
A parking structure that uses lifts or other mechanical devices to transport vehicles to the floors of a parking structure, where the vehicles are then parked by a person. [88A, 2015] (SAF-IND)
A parking structure that uses computer controlled machines to store and retrieve vehicles, without drivers, in multi-level storage racks with no floors. [88A, 2015] (SAF-IND)
A parking structure that meets the requirements of 42.8.1.3 (SAF-IND).
A parking structure that utilizes sloped floors for vertical vehicle circulation. [88A, 2015] (SAF-IND)
A building or structure that is intended to remain in place for a period of more than 180 days in any consecutive 12-month period. (SAF-FUN)
A building or structure not meeting the definition of permanent structure. (See also 3.3.282.9, Permanent Structure.) (SAF-FUN)
A membrane structure incorporating a membrane and a structural support system such as arches, columns and cables, or beams wherein the stresses developed in the tensioned membrane interact with those in the structural support so that the entire assembly acts together to resist the applied loads. (SAF-IND)
A structure or portions of a structure in which the floor level is located more than 30 ft (9.1 m) below the lowest level with an exit discharge. (SAF-IND)
A structure fully surrounded by water. (SAF-IND)
An accommodation with two or more contiguous rooms comprising a compartment, with or without doors between such rooms, that provides living, sleeping, sanitary, and storage facilities. (SAF-RES)
A suite within a health care occupancy that is not intended for sleeping or treating patients. (SAF-HEA)
A suite for treating patients with or without patient beds not intended for overnight sleeping. (SAF-HEA)
A suite containing one or more patient beds intended for overnight sleeping. (SAF-HEA)
A series of rooms or spaces or a subdivided room separated from the remainder of the building by walls and doors. (SAF-HEA)
A system, including a vertical series of elevator lobbies and associated elevator lobby doors, an elevator shaft(s), and a machine room(s), that provides protection from fire effects for elevator passengers, people waiting to use elevators, and elevator equipment so that elevators can be used safely for egress. (SAF-MEA)
A system, fabricated on-site, and intended for acoustical, tackable, or aesthetic purposes, that is comprised of three elements: (1) a frame (constructed of plastic, wood, metal, or other material) used to hold fabric in place, (2) a core material (infill, with the correct properties for the application), and (3) an outside layer, comprised of a textile, fabric, or vinyl, that is stretched taut and held in place by tension or mechanical fasteners via the frame. (SAF-INT)
A change to a building that has little likelihood of being accomplished because the existing structural conditions require the removal or alteration of a load-bearing member that is an essential part of the structural frame, or because other existing physical or site constraints prohibit modification or addition of elements, spaces, or features that are in full and strict compliance with applicable requirements. (SAF-FUN)
A temporary structure, the covering of which is made of pliable material that achieves its support by mechanical means such as beams, columns, poles, or arches, or by rope or cables, or both. (SAF-IND)
A tent erected in the yard of a private residence for entertainment, recreation, dining, a reception, or similar function. (SAF-AXM)
An enclosed independent structure or portion of a building with elevated levels for support of equipment or occupied for observation, control, operation, signaling, or similar limited use. (SAF-IND)
An enclosed structure or building at airports with elevated levels for support of equipment and occupied for observation, control, operation, and signaling of aircraft in flight and on the ground. (SAF-IND)
A procedure or process used to demonstrate or confirm that the proposed design meets the specified criteria. (SAF-FUN)
An opening through a floor or roof. (SAF-FIR)
An entrance to a means of egress from an assembly seating area that pierces the seating rows. (SAF-AXM)
A wall, other than a fire wall, that has a fire resistance rating. (SAF-FIR)
The wall that separates the stage from the auditorium or house. (SAF-AXM)
A textile-, paper-, or polymeric-based product designed to be attached to a wall or ceiling surface for decorative or acoustical purposes. (SAF-INT)

3.3.303 Yard

ILLUSTRATION
An open, unoccupied space other than a court, unobstructed from the finished ground level to the sky on the lot on which a building is situated. (SAF-MEA)
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