Switches shall be used within their ratings and shall control only the following loads:
- Resistive and inductive loads not exceeding the ampere rating of the switch at the voltage involved.
- Tungsten-filament lamp loads not exceeding the ampere rating of the switch at 120 volts.
- Motor loads not exceeding 80 percent of the ampere rating of the switch at its rated voltage. [404.14(A)]
Metal enclosures for switches or circuit breakers shall be connected to an equipment grounding conductor. Metal enclosures for switches or circuit breakers used as service equipment shall comply with the provisions of Section E3609.4. Where nonmetallic enclosures are used with metal raceways or metal-armored cables, provisions shall be made for connecting the equipment grounding conductor.
Nonmetallic boxes for switches shall be installed with a wiring method that provides or includes an equipment grounding conductor. (404.12)
Switches and circuit breakers used as switches shall be located to allow operation from a readily accessible location. Such devices shall be installed so that the center of the grip of the operating handle of the switch or circuit breaker, when in its highest position, will not be more than 6 feet 7 inches (2007 mm) above the floor or working platform. [404.8(A)]
Exception: This section shall not apply to switches and circuit breakers that are accessible by portable means and are installed adjacent to the motors, appliances and other equipment that they supply. [404.8(A) Exception]
Three- and four-way switches shall be wired so that all switching occurs only in the ungrounded circuit conductor. Color coding of switch connection conductors shall comply with Section E3407.3. Where in metal raceways or metal-jacketed cables, wiring between switches and outlets shall be in accordance with Section E3406.7. [404.2(A)]
Exception: Switch loops do not require a grounded conductor. [404.2(A) Exception]
Flush-type snap switches mounted in boxes that are recessed from the finished wall surfaces as covered in Section E3906.5 shall be installed so that the extension plaster ears are seated against the surface of the wall. Flush-type snap switches mounted in boxes that are flush with the finished wall surface or project therefrom shall be installed so that the mounting yoke or strap of the switch is seated against the box.
Screws used for the purpose of attaching a snap switch to a box shall be of the type provided with a listed snap switch, or shall be machine screws having 32 threads per inch or part of listed assemblies or systems, in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. [404.10(B)]
Snap switches, including dimmer and similar control switches, shall be connected to an equipment grounding conductor and shall provide a means to connect metal faceplates to the equipment grounding conductor, whether or not a metal faceplate is installed. Metal faceplates shall be grounded. Snap switches shall be considered to be part of an effective ground-fault current path if either of the following conditions is met:
- The switch is mounted with metal screws to a metal box or metal cover that is connected to an equipment grounding conductor or to a nonmetallic box with integral means for connecting to an equipment grounding conductor.
- An equipment grounding conductor or equipment bonding jumper is connected to an equipment grounding termination of the snap switch. [404.9(B)]
- Where a means to connect to an equipment grounding conductor does not exist within the snap-switch enclosure or where the wiring method does not include or provide an equipment grounding conductor, a snap switch without a grounding connection to an equipment grounding conductor shall be permitted for replacement purposes only. A snap switch wired under the provisions of this exception and located within 8 feet (2438 mm) vertically or 5 feet (1524 mm) horizontally of ground or exposed grounded metal objects, shall be provided with a faceplate of nonconducting noncombustible material with nonmetallic attachment screws, except where the switch-mounting strap or yoke is nonmetallic or the circuit is protected by a ground-fault circuit-interrupter. [404.9(B) Exception No.1]
- 2.1. The device is provided with a nonmetallic faceplate that cannot be installed on any other type of device.
- 2.2. The device does not have mounting means to accept other configurations of faceplates.
- 2.3. The device is equipped with a nonmetallic yoke.
- 2.4. All parts of the device that are accessible after installation of the faceplate are manufactured of nonmetallic materials. [404.9(B) Exception No. 2]
- Connection to an equipment grounding conductor shall not be required for snap switches that have an integral nonmetallic enclosure complying with Section E3905.1.3. [404.9(B) Exception No. 3]
The grounded circuit conductor for the controlled lighting circuit shall be installed at the location where switches control lighting loads that are supplied by a grounded general-purpose branch circuit serving bathrooms, hallways, stairways, or rooms suitable for human habitation or occupancy as defined in the code. Where multiple switch locations control the same lighting load such that the entire floor area of the room or space is visible from the single or combined switch locations, the grounded conductor shall be required only at one location. A grounded conductor shall not be required to be installed at lighting switch locations under any of the following conditions:
- Where conductors enter the box enclosing the switch through a raceway, provided that the raceway is large enough for all contained conductors, including a grounded conductor.
- Where the box enclosing the switch is accessible for the installation of an additional or replacement cable without removing finish materials.
- Where snap switches with integral enclosures comply with Section E3905.1.3.
- Where lighting in the area is controlled by automatic means.
- Where a switch controls a receptacle load. [404.2(C)]
Effective January 1, 2020, the grounded conductor shall be extended to any switch location as necessary and shall be connected to switching devices that require line-to-neutral voltage to operate the electronics of the switch in the standby mode.
The requirement for connection to switching devices shall not apply to replacement or retrofit switches installed in locations prior to the adoption of Section E4001.15 and where the grounded conductor cannot be extended without removing finish materials. The number of electronic lighting control switches on a branch circuit shall not exceed five, and the number connected to any feeder on the load side of a system or main bonding jumper shall not exceed 25.
TABLE E4002.1.2 [Table 210.21(B)(3)]
RECEPTACLE RATINGS FOR VARIOUS SIZE MULTI-OUTLET CIRCUITS
|CIRCUIT RATING (amperes)||RECEPTACLE RATING (amperes)|
|20||15 or 20|
|40||40 or 50|
After installation, receptacle faces shall be flush with or project from face plates of insulating material and shall project a minimum of 0.015 inch (0.381 mm) from metal face plates. Faceplates shall be installed so as to completely cover the opening and seat against the mounting surface.
Receptacle faceplates mounted inside of a box having a recess-mounted receptacle shall effectively close the opening and seat against the mounting surface. [406.5(D), 406.6]
Exception: Listed kits or assemblies encompassing receptacles and nonmetallic faceplates that cover the receptacle face, where the plate cannot be installed on any other receptacle, shall be permitted. [406.5(D) Exception]
Where installed in a wet location, 15- and 20-ampere, 125- and 250-volt receptacles shall have an enclosure that is weatherproof whether or not the attachment plug cap is inserted. An outlet box hood installed for this purpose shall be listed and identified as "extra-duty."
Exception: 15- and 20-ampere, 125- through 250-volt receptacles installed in a wet location and subject to routine high-pressure spray washing need not have an enclosure that is weatherproof when the attachment plug is inserted.
Fifteen- and 20-ampere, 125- and 250-volt nonlocking receptacles installed in wet locations shall be listed and so identified as the weather-resistant type. [406.9(B)(1)]
In areas specified in Section E3901.1, 15- and 20-ampere, 125- and 250-volt nonlocking-type receptacles shall be listed tamper-resistant receptacles. [406.12(A)]
Exception: Receptacles in the following locations shall not be required to be tamper resistant:
- Receptacles located more than 5.5 feet (1676 mm) above the floor.
- Receptacles that are part of a luminaire or appliance.
- A single receptacle for a single appliance or a duplex receptacle for two appliances where such receptacles are located in spaces dedicated for the appliances served and, under conditions of normal use, the appliances are not easily moved from one place to another. The appliances shall be cord-and-plug-connected to such receptacles in accordance with Section E3909.4. [406.12(A) Exception]
Recessed incandescent luminaires shall have thermal protection and shall be listed as thermally protected. [410.115(C)]
- Thermal protection shall not be required in recessed luminaires listed for the purpose and installed in poured concrete. [410.115(C) Exception No. 1]
- Thermal protection shall not be required in recessed luminaires having design, construction, and thermal performance characteristics equivalent to that of thermally protected luminaires, and such luminaires are identified as inherently protected. [410.115(C) Exception No. 2]
For the purposes of this section, storage space shall be defined as a volume bounded by the sides and back closet walls and planes extending from the closet floor vertically to a height of 6 feet (1829 mm) or the highest clothes-hanging rod and parallel to the walls at a horizontal distance of 24 inches (610 mm) from the sides and back of the closet walls respectively, and continuing vertically to the closet ceiling parallel to the walls at a horizontal distance of 12 inches (305 mm) or the width of the shelf, whichever is greater. For a closet that permits access to both sides of a hanging rod, the storage space shall include the volume below the highest rod extending 12 inches (305 mm) on either side of the rod on a plane horizontal to the floor extending the entire length of the rod (see Figure E4003.12). (410.2)
The types of luminaires installed in clothes closets shall be limited to surface-mounted or recessed incandescent or LED luminaires with completely enclosed light sources, surface-mounted or recessed fluorescent luminaires, and surface-mounted fluorescent or LED luminaires identified as suitable for installation within the closet storage area. Incandescent luminaires with open or partially enclosed lamps and pendant luminaires or lamp-holders shall be prohibited. The minimum clearance between luminaires installed in clothes closets and the nearest point of a closet storage area shall be as follows: [410.16(A) and (B)]
- Surface-mounted incandescent or LED luminaires with a completely enclosed light source shall be installed on the wall above the door or on the ceiling, provided that there is a minimum clearance of 12 inches (305 mm) between the fixture and the nearest point of a storage space.
- Surface-mounted fluorescent luminaires shall be installed on the wall above the door or on the ceiling, provided that there is a minimum clearance of 6 inches (152 mm).
- Recessed incandescent luminaires or LED luminaires with a completely enclosed light source shall be installed in the wall or the ceiling provided that there is a minimum clearance of 6 inches (152 mm).
- Recessed fluorescent luminaires shall be installed in the wall or on the ceiling provided that there is a minimum clearance of 6 inches (152 mm) between the fixture and the nearest point of a storage space.
- Surface-mounted fluorescent or LED luminaires shall be permitted to be installed within the closet storage space where identified for this use. [410.16(C)]
Luminaires shall not be used as raceways for circuit conductors except where such luminaires are listed and marked for use as a raceway or are identified for through-wiring.
Luminaires designed for end-to-end connection to form a continuous assembly, and luminaires connected together by recognized wiring methods, shall not be required to be listed as a raceway where they contain the conductors of one 2-wire branch circuit or one multiwire branch circuit and such conductors supply the connected luminaires. One additional 2-wire branch circuit that separately supplies one or more of the connected luminaires shall also be permitted. [410.64(A), (B), and (C)]
Lighting track shall not be installed in the following locations:
- Where likely to be subjected to physical damage.
- In wet or damp locations.
- Where subject to corrosive vapors.
- In storage battery rooms.
- In hazardous (classified) locations.
- Where concealed.
- Where extended through walls or partitions.
- Less than 5 feet (1524 mm) above the finished floor except where protected from physical damage or the track operates at less than 30 volts rms open-circuit voltage.
- Where prohibited by Section E4003.11. [410.151(C)]