About this chapter: Chapter 12 provides minimum provisions for the interior of buildings—the occupied environment. Ventilation, lighting, and space heating are directly regulated in this chapter and in conjunction with the International Mechanical Code® and the International Energy Conservation Code®. Minimum room size and maximum room-to-room sound transmission are set for certain occupancies.
Where the air infiltration rate in a dwelling unit is less than 5 air changes per hour where tested with a blower door at a pressure 0.2 inch w.c. (50 Pa) in accordance with Section R402.4.1.2 of the International Energy Conservation Code—Residential Provisions, the dwelling unit shall be ventilated by mechanical means in accordance with Section 403 of the International Mechanical Code. Ambulatory care facilities and Group I-2 occupancies shall be ventilated by mechanical means in accordance with Section 407 of the International Mechanical Code.
Enclosed attics and enclosed rafter spaces formed where ceilings are applied directly to the underside of roof framing members shall have cross ventilation for each separate space by ventilation openings protected against the entrance of rain and snow. Blocking and bridging shall be arranged so as not to interfere with the movement of air. An airspace of not less than 1 inch (25 mm) shall be provided between the insulation and the roof sheathing. The net free ventilating area shall be not less than 1/150 of the area of the space ventilated. Ventilators shall be installed in accordance with manufacturer's installation instructions.
- In Climate Zones 6, 7 and 8, a Class I or II vapor retarder is installed on the warm-in-winter side of the ceiling.
- At least 40 percent and not more than 50 percent of the required venting area is provided by ventilators located in the upper portion of the attic or rafter space. Upper ventilators shall be located not more than 3 feet (914 mm) below the ridge or highest point of the space, measured vertically, with the balance of the ventilation provided by eave or cornice vents. Where the location of wall or roof framing members conflicts with the installation of upper ventilators, installation more than 3 feet (914 mm) below the ridge or highest point of the space shall be permitted.
Unvented attics and unvented enclosed roof framing assemblies created by ceilings applied directly to the underside of the roof framing members/rafters and the structural roof sheathing at the top of the roof framing members shall be permitted where all of the following conditions are met:
- The unvented attic space is completely within the building thermal envelope.
- No interior Class I vapor retarders are installed on the ceiling side (attic floor) of the unvented attic assembly or on the ceiling side of the unvented enclosed roof framing assembly.
- Where wood shingles or shakes are used, not less than a 1/4-inch (6.4 mm) vented airspace separates the shingles or shakes and the roofing underlayment above the structural sheathing.
- In Climate Zones 5, 6, 7 and 8, any air-impermeable insulation shall be a Class II vapor retarder or shall have a Class II vapor retarder coating or covering in direct contact with the underside of the insulation.
- 5.1.1. Where only air-impermeable insulation is provided, it shall be applied in direct contact with the underside of the structural roof sheathing.
- 5.1.2. Where air-permeable insulation is provided inside the building thermal envelope, it shall be installed in accordance with Item 5.1.1. In addition to the air-permeable insulation installed directly below the structural sheathing, rigid board or sheet insulation shall be installed directly above the structural roof sheathing in accordance with the R-values in Table 1202.3 for condensation control.
- 5.1.3. Where both air-impermeable and air-permeable insulation are provided, the air-impermeable insulation shall be applied in direct contact with the underside of the structural roof sheathing in accordance with Item 5.1.1 and shall be in accordance with the R-values in Table 1202.3 for condensation control. The air-permeable insulation shall be installed directly under the air-impermeable insulation.
- 5.1.4. Alternatively, sufficient rigid board or sheet insulation shall be installed directly above the structural roof sheathing to maintain the monthly average temperature of the underside of the structural roof sheathing above 45°F (7°C). For calculation purposes, an interior air temperature of 68°F (20°C) is assumed and the exterior air temperature is assumed to be the monthly average outside air temperature of the three coldest months.
- 5.2. Where preformed insulation board is used as the air-impermeable insulation layer, it shall be sealed at the perimeter of each individual sheet interior surface to form a continuous layer.
INSULATION FOR CONDENSATION CONTROL
|CLIMATE ZONE||MINIMUM R-VALUE OF AIR-IMPERMEABLE INSULATIONa|
|2B and 3B tile roof only||0 (none required)|
|1, 2A, 2B, 3A, 3B, 3C||R-5|
Ventilation openings through foundation walls shall be provided. The openings shall be placed so as to provide cross ventilation of the under-floor space. The net area of ventilation openings shall be in accordance with Section 1184.108.40.206 or 1220.127.116.11. Ventilation openings shall be covered for their height and width with any of the following materials, provided that the least dimension of the covering shall be not greater than 1/4 inch (6.4 mm):
- Perforated sheet metal plates not less than 0.070 inch (1.8 mm) thick.
- Expanded sheet metal plates not less than 0.047 inch (1.2 mm) thick.
- Cast-iron grilles or gratings.
- Extruded load-bearing vents.
- Hardware cloth of 0.035-inch (0.89 mm) wire or heavier.
- Corrosion-resistant wire mesh, with the least dimension not greater than 1/8 inch (3.2 mm).
- Operable louvres, where ventilation is provided in accordance with Section 118.104.22.168.
Where rooms and spaces without openings to the outdoors are ventilated through an adjoining room, the opening to the adjoining room shall be unobstructed and shall have an area of not less than 8 percent of the floor area of the interior room or space, but not less than 25 square feet (2.3 m2). The openable area of the openings to the outdoors shall be based on the total floor area being ventilated.
Exception: Exterior openings required for ventilation shall be allowed to open into a sunroom with thermal isolation or a patio cover provided that the openable area between the sunroom addition or patio cover and the interior room shall have an area of not less than 8 percent of the floor area of the interior room or space, but not less than 20 square feet (1.86 m2). The openable area of the openings to the outdoors shall be based on the total floor area being ventilated.
Interior spaces intended for human occupancy shall be provided with active or passive space heating systems capable of maintaining an indoor temperature of not less than 68°F (20°C) at a point 3 feet (914 mm) above the floor on the design heating day.
Exceptions: Space heating systems are not required for:
- Interior spaces where the primary purpose of the space is not associated with human comfort.
- Group F, H, S or U occupancies.
For the purpose of natural lighting, any room is permitted to be considered as a portion of an adjoining room where one-half of the area of the common wall is open and unobstructed and provides an opening of not less than one-tenth of the floor area of the interior room or 25 square feet (2.32 m2), whichever is greater.
Exception: Openings required for natural light shall be permitted to open into a sunroom with thermal isolation or a patio cover where the common wall provides a glazed area of not less than one-tenth of the floor area of the interior room or 20 square feet (1.86 m2), whichever is greater.
Occupiable spaces, habitable spaces and corridors shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches (2286 mm) above the finished floor. Bathrooms, toilet rooms, kitchens, storage rooms and laundry rooms shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet (2134 mm) above the finished floor.
- In one- and two-family dwellings, beams or girders spaced not less than 4 feet (1219 mm) on center shall be permitted to project not more than 6 inches (152 mm) below the required ceiling height.
- If any room in a building has a sloped ceiling, the prescribed ceiling height for the room is required in one-half the area thereof. Any portion of the room measuring less than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the finished floor to the ceiling shall not be included in any computation of the minimum area thereof.
- The height of mezzanines and spaces below mezzanines shall be in accordance with Section 505.2.
- Corridors contained within a dwelling unit or sleeping unit in a Group R occupancy shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet (2134 mm) above the finished floor.
An efficiency living unit shall conform to the requirements of the code except as modified herein:
- The unit shall have a living room of not less than 220 square feet (20.4 m2) of floor area. An additional 100 square feet (9.3 m2) of floor area shall be provided for each occupant of such unit in excess of two.
- The unit shall be provided with a separate closet.
- The unit shall be provided with a kitchen sink, cooking appliance and refrigeration facilities, each having a clear working space of not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in front. Light and ventilation conforming to this code shall be provided.
- The unit shall be provided with a separate bathroom containing a water closet, lavatory and bathtub or shower.
Walls and partitions within 2 feet (610 mm) of service sinks, urinals and water closets shall have a smooth, hard, nonabsorbent surface, to a height of not less than 4 feet (1219 mm) above the floor, and except for structural elements, the materials used in such walls shall be of a type that is not adversely affected by moisture.
Exception: This section does not apply to the following buildings and spaces:
Accessories such as grab bars, towel bars, paper dispensers and soap dishes, provided on or within walls, shall be installed and sealed to protect structural elements from moisture.
Each water closet utilized by the public or employees shall occupy a separate compartment with walls or partitions and a door enclosing the fixtures to ensure privacy.
- Water closet compartments shall not be required in a single-occupant toilet room with a lockable door.
- Toilet rooms located in child day care facilities and containing two or more water closets shall be permitted to have one water closet without an enclosing compartment.
- This provision is not applicable to toilet areas located within Group I-3 occupancy housing areas.
Each urinal utilized by the public or employees shall occupy a separate area with walls or partitions to provide privacy. The walls or partitions shall begin at a height not more than 12 inches (305 mm) from and extend not less than 60 inches (1524 mm) above the finished floor surface. The walls or partitions shall extend from the wall surface at each side of the urinal not less than 18 inches (457 mm) or to a point not less than 6 inches (152 mm) beyond the outermost front lip of the urinal measured from the finished backwall surface, whichever is greater.