ADOPTS WITHOUT AMENDMENTS:

ASME A17.1, 2016

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
SCOPE

Part 5 applies to special application elevators as specified in the following requirements:

(a) Section 5.1 applies to inclined elevators.

(b) Section 5.2 applies to limited-use/limited-application elevators.

(c) Section 5.3 applies to private residence elevators.

(d) Section 5.4 applies to private residence inclined elevators.

(e) Section 5.5 applies to power sidewalk elevators.

(f) Section 5.6 applies to rooftop elevators.

(g) Section 5.7 applies to special purpose personnel elevators in jurisdictions not enforcing NBCC.

(h) Section 5.8 applies to shipboard elevators.

(i) Section 5.9 applies to mine elevators in jurisdictions not enforcing NBCC.

(j) Section 5.10 applies to elevators used for construction.

(k) Section 5.11 applies to elevators used in wind turbine towers.

(l) Section 5.12 applies to outside emergency elevators.

Section 5.1 applies to inclined elevators (see Section 1.3) at other than private residences.

NOTE: See also Part 8 for additional requirements that apply to inclined elevators.

Hoistways, hoistway enclosures, and related construction shall conform to 5.1.2, Sections 2.1 through 2.13, and Section 2.29, except as modified by 5.1.1 through 5.1.6 and 5.1.8 through 5.1.10.
Machinery and equipment shall conform to Sections 2.14 through 2.28, 8.8, and 8.9, except as modified by 5.1.7, and 5.1.11 through 5.1.22.
Where fire-resistive construction of the hoistway is not required by the building code, the hoistway shall be enclosed as specified in 5.1.2.2.1 through 5.1.2.2.4.
Enclosures shall be of solid construction or openwork at least 2 140 mm (84 in.) high. If of openwork, it shall reject a ball 19 mm (0.750 in.) in diameter and be located a minimum of 150 mm (6 in.) from the nearest moving component, or shall reject a ball 50 mm (2 in.) in diameter and be located a minimum of 914 mm (36 in.) from the nearest moving component. Areas of the enclosure located adjacent to landing entrances, and entrances of openwork construction, shall reject a ball 13 mm (0.5 in.) in diameter. All enclosures shall be supported and braced so as to deflect not more than 50 mm (2 in.) when subjected to a force of 444 N (100 lbf) applied horizontally over any 101.6 mm2 (4 in.2) area of the enclosure, nor shall the running clearance be reduced to less than 25 mm (1 in.).
Those portions of the hoistway where the lowest member of the guides or any moving component is at least 2 440 mm (96 in.) above the surface below shall not be required to have any enclosure. Adjacent hoistway enclosures shall be joined under the guides. The underside of any area of the hoistway that crosses any passageway, such as a pathway or roadway, shall be enclosed. The enclosure shall be of solid or openwork construction, shall be full width, and shall extend beyond the area of the passageway on each side a distance at least equal to one-half of the vertical distance between the lowest member of the guides and each edge of the passageway, respectively. If of openwork construction, it shall reject a ball 19 mm (0.75 in.) in diameter.
Structures used to support the hoistway, and located outside of the enclosure, shall be designed to protect against climbing.
Acrylics, laminated glass, or wired glass used for enclosures and doors shall be of the following minimum thicknesses:

(a) acrylics, 6 mm (0.250 in.)

(b) laminated glass, 9.5 mm (0.375 in.)

(c) wired glass, 6 mm (0.250 in.)

If not otherwise provided by the pit design, each inclined elevator shall be provided with a work space below the guides extending to each side a minimum of 450 mm (18 in.) beyond the running line of the car or counterweight with a length in the direction of travel of not less than 1 830 mm (72 in.) throughout the length measured from the top of the guides. Such work spaces shall be provided with stop switches and lighting conforming to 2.2.5 and 2.2.6 and shall be equipped with a convenience outlet. On exterior installations, these devices shall be weatherproof.
In addition to the requirements of Section 2.2, the means provided for the removal of water on exterior installations shall be ample for weather-caused water collection.

Requirement 2.3.2.1 does not apply.

Inclined elevators shall conform to 2.4.1 or be provided with one of the following refuge spaces:

(a) a minimum of 610 mm × 610 mm × 2 134 mm (24 in. × 24 in. × 84 in.) high

(b) a minimum of 610 mm × 1 220 mm × 1 220 mm (24 in. × 48 in. × 48 in.)

The refuge space shall be clear of the car and counterweight resting on their fully compressed buffers. This space shall be located to either side of, or toward the downhill end of, the pit in the direction of travel.

The top car clearance for inclined elevators of less than 20 deg inclination from the horizontal shall include the gravity stopping distance based on 115% of rated speed plus the top car clearance required by 2.4.7.

Section 2.6 applies, except that where it states "below the hoistway," it shall mean "beyond the bottom terminal in the direction of travel."

(a) Where 2.6.1 states "underneath," it shall refer to the location stated in 5.1.6.

(b) Where 2.6.2 states "underneath," it shall refer to the location stated in 5.1.6.

Traveling cables shall be suitably protected against abrasion and fouling. This protection shall be permitted to be provided in conjunction with that protection required by 5.1.16.1.
Components subject to corrosion on installations exposed to the weather shall be weatherproofed with either exterior coatings, anodizing, plating, galvanizing, or noncorrosive metals or other accepted forms of protection.
Where the hoistway enclosure is not required to be fire-resistive construction (see 5.1.2.2), hoistway door vision panels are not required to conform to 2.11.7. The hoistway entrances of such elevators shall be permitted to be provided with vision panels of larger size, including complete door panels, made of any materials conforming to 5.1.2.2.4 and ANSI Z97.1 or 16 CFR Part 1201 or CAN/CGSB-12.1, CAN/CGSB-12.11, and CAN/CGSB-12.12, whichever is applicable.
When a car-leveling device is provided, the landing sills shall be guarded in conformance with 2.11.10.1. The guards shall also extend 75 mm (3 in.) beyond the horizontal leveling zone.
Elevators installed conforming to 5.1.2.2 are not required to conform to 2.12.7, provided that

(a) the means of access provides equivalent safety to that provided by 2.12.7

(b) if the means of access includes entrance through the hoistway guarding, it is locked under Group 1 Security (see Section 8.1) and is equipped with a contact meeting the requirements of 2.26.2.26

Where a workspace is required by 5.1.3.1, access to the workplace shall comply with 2.12.7 or 5.1.10.1, except where a separate workspace access door is provided.
The speed under 2.12.7.3.3(b) shall be not greater than 0.64 m/s (125 ft/min).
The movement of the car under 2.12.7.3.3(c) shall be limited to the point where the platform guard is even with the uphill edge of the open hoistway door.
The movement of the car under 2.12.7.3.3(d) shall be limited to the point where the uppermost chassis member is even with the downhill edge of the open hoistway door.
Requirement 2.14.1.5 applies only where installations are at an angle greater than 49 deg and where an unhill end emergency exit is not provided.
If the installation arrangement is such that the car door cannot be used for an emergency exit when the car is located between landings, the car shall be provided with an emergency exit located in the uphill end of the car. The emergency exit door shall

(a) be of the hinged type.

(b) open only into the car.

(c) extend from the floor or base moulding to a clear height of not less than 1 524 mm (60 in.) and shall provide a clear width of not less than 356 mm (14 in.) when the door is open.

(d) be provided with a locking means with a nonremovable handle that can be opened only from the exterior of the car. The device shall be permitted to be openable from the interior of the car by use of a special key, which shall be of Group 1 Security (see Section 8.1).

(e) be provided with an electric contact, which shall not permit the car to start or run, except under inspection conditions as provided for in 5.1.10.1 and 5.1.10.3. The contact shall conform to the following:

(1) It shall not be accessible from the inside of the car.

(2) It shall be positively opened by a lever or other device attached to and operated by the door.

(3) The contacts shall be maintained in the open position by the action of gravity or by a restrained compression spring, or both, or by positive mechanical means.

(f) be of the same material and construction as required for the car enclosure.

An emergency exit unloading platform is not required. If provided, an emergency exit unloading platform shall be attached to the car and shall be retractable and operable only from the exterior of the car. It shall be located only on the uphill end of the car and shall be provided with an electric contact conforming to 5.1.11.1.2(e) and shall only be made in the retracted position of the platform.
Requirement 2.14.1.6 does not apply. However, if equipment is placed or installed on inclined elevators that will require servicing from the top of the car or a car top emergency exit is provided, the car top shall conform to 2.14.1.6 and 2.14.1.7.
Glass and safety plastic used in car or for doors shall be laminated glass or safety plastic conforming to the requirements of ANSI Z97.1 or 16 CFR Part 1201.1 or 1202.2; or, be laminated glass or safety glass or safety plastic conforming to the requirements of CAN/CGSB-12.1, CAN/CGSB-12.11, and CAN/CGSB-12.12, whichever is applicable.
Inclined elevators shall conform to 2.14.5.7, except that the unlocking zone (see 2.12.1) shall not exceed 152 mm (6 in.) beyond the landing measured in the direction of travel.
Requirement 2.14.6.3 shall not apply. Collapsible-type gates are not permitted.
Car frames and platform frames shall conform to 2.15.6.1, except that cast iron shall not be used for guiding supports or guide shoes.
The entrance side of the platform shall be provided with smooth metal guard plates of not less than 1.5 mm (0.059 in.) thick steel, or material of equivalent strength and stiffness, reinforced and braced to the car platform and conforming to 5.1.12.2.1 through 5.1.12.2.5.
It shall extend not less than the full width of the widest hoistway door opening plus the leveling zone in each direction.
It shall have a straight vertical face in the direction of travel throughout the length described in 5.1.12.2.1 plus 75 mm (3 in.).
The ends of the guard in each direction of travel shall be bent back at an angle of not less than 60 deg nor more than 75 deg from the face provided for in 5.1.12.2.2.
The straight vertical facing wall shall extend a minimum of 25 mm (1 in.) below the landing sills at any position above or below the landing to the extent of the leveling zones.
The guard plate shall be able to withstand a constant force of not less than 667 N (150 lbf) applied at right angles to and at any position on its face without deflecting more than 6 mm (0.25 in.) and without permanent deformation.
Platform stringers made of wood are not permitted.
The inside net platform area (see Table 2.16.1) shall be permitted to be increased by an amount not greater than 50% of the area of the bench or seat, when a permanently located and nonfolding bench or seat is installed.
Data plates shall be located on the uphill member of the car chassis (frame).
Car and counterweight safeties shall meet the requirements of Section 2.17, except as modified by 5.1.14.2, 5.1.14.3, 5.1.15, and 5.1.18.4.
The safety device, or the combined safety devices where furnished, shall be capable of stopping and sustaining the entire car with its rated load from governor tripping speed (see also 2.16.8) with an average horizontal retardation, measured over the total retardation time, not exceeding 2.46 m/s2 (8.05 ft/s2).

Type B safeties shall stop the car with its rated load from governor tripping speed within range of the minimum and maximum stopping distances as determined by the formulas in 8.2.11. Table 5.1.14.2 shows the minimum and maximum stopping distances for various governor tripping speeds, when tested in conformance with Sections 8.10 and 8.11.

Table 5.1.14.2 Minimum and Maximum Stopping Distances at Given Angles From Horizontal

SI Units
Rated Speed,
m/s
Governor Trip,
m/s
Minimum and Maximum Stopping Distance, mm, at Angle From Horizontal, deg
30 45 60 70
Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max.
0—0.63 0.90   139   453   114   417    81   369    55   333
   0.75 1.05   201   541   164   489   116   420    79   367
   0.87 1.25   285   661   232   586   164   489   113   415
   1.00 1.40   357   765   292   671   206   549   141   456
   1.12 1.55   432   872   353   758   249   611   171   498
  1.25 1.70   517   993   422   858   299   681   204   546
   1.50 2.00   711 1 270   580 1 084   410   840   281   655
   1.75 2.30   930 1 584   760 1 340   537 1 022   368   780
   2.00 2.55 1 185 1 948   967 1 637   684 1 232   468   923
   2.25 2.90 1 469 2 355 1 200 1 970   848 1 467   580 1 084
  2.50 3.15 1 779 2 798 1 453 2 331 1 027 1 723   700 1 259
   3.00 3.70 2 494 3 820 2 036 3 166 1 440 2 313   985 1 663
   3.50 4.30 3 329 5 015 2 718 4 141 1 922 3 003 1 315 2 134
   4.00 4.85 4 285 6 382 3 499 5 257 2 474 3 792 1 692 2 674
Imperial Units
Rated Speed,
ft/min
Governor Trip,
ft/min
Minimum and Maximum Stopping Distance, mm, at Angle From Horizontal, deg
30 40 60 70
Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max.
0—125 175    5.5    18.0    4.5   16.5    3.5   14.5   2.5 13.0
   150 210    8.0    21.5    6.5   19.5    5.0   17.0    3.5 14.5
   175 250   11.5   26.0    9.5   23.0    6.5   19.5    4.5 16.5
   200 280   14.5   30.0   11.5   26.5   8.5   22.0   6.0   18.0
   225 308   17.5   34.5   14.0   30.0   10.0   24.0   7.0   20.0
   250 337   20.5   39.0   17.0   34.0   12.0   27.0   8.5   21.5
   300 395   28.0   50.0   23.0   43.0   16.5   33.0   11.5   26.0
   350 452   37.0   62.5   30.0   53.0   21.5   40.5   14.5   31.0
   400 510   47.0   77.0   38.5   64.5   27.0   48.5   18.5   36.5
   450 568   58.0   93.0   47.5   77.5   33.5   58.0   23.0   43.0
   500 625   70.5 110.5   57.5   92.0 40.5   68.0 28.0   50.0
   600 740   98.5 150.5   80.5 125.0 57.0   91.0 39.0   65.5
   700 855 131.5 197.5 107.5 163.0 76.0 118.5 52.0   84.5
   800 970 169.0 251.5 138.0 207.0 97.5 149.5 67.0 105.5

(a) Type A safeties shall not be used on inclined elevators having a rated speed in excess of 0.64 m/s (125 ft/min) or with a governor tripping speed in excess of 0.75 m/s (150 ft/min).

(b) Type A safeties that develop horizontal retardations exceeding 2.46 m/s2 (8.05 ft/s2) shall not be used on inclined elevators.

Type C safeties shall conform to 2.17.8.2, except as modified by the following:

(a) Type C safeties that develop horizontal retardations exceeding 2.46 m/s2 (8.05 ft/s2) shall not be used on inclined elevators.

(b) The oil buffers shall conform to all requirements specified in 2.22 for oil buffers, except that the stroke shall be based on governor tripping speed and on an average horizontal retardation not exceeding 2.46 m/s2 (8.05 ft/s2).

Rope-driven governors are not required.
The means used to drive the speed governor shall be positive and fail-safe.
Where a counterweight operates on guide rails, which are located below the car guide rails and the governor, if required, is located on the counterweight, the overspeed switch shall be permitted to be omitted.
Suspension, governor, and compensation ropes shall be protected against abrasion.
The maximum rated speed of inclined elevators for the use of spring-type buffers shall be 0.64 m/s (125 ft/min).
The stroke of a spring buffer shall be not less than as specified in Table 5.1.17.2.

Table 5.1.17.2 Spring Buffer Stroke

Rated Car Speed,
m/s (ft/min)
Stroke,
mm (in.)
Less than 0.38 (75)   63 (2.5)
0.38—0.63 (75—125) 125 (5.0)
The speed shall be considered as having vertical and horizontal components defined as in Fig. 5.1.17.3.

Fig. 5.1.17.3 Vertical and Horizontal Components of Velocity

Oil buffers shall conform to 2.22.4, except as modified by 5.1.17.4.1 through 5.1.17.4.5.
The average horizontal retardation at buffer engagement, with rated load in the car, measured over the stopping distance, shall not exceed 2.46 m/s2 (8.05 ft/s2).
In 2.22.4.1.1, 2.22.4.1.2, and 2.22.4.2, the phrase "an average retardation of not more than 9.81 m/s2 (32.2 ft/s2)" is replaced with the phrase "an average horizontal retardation not in excess of 2.46 m/s2 (8.05 ft/s2)."
In 2.22.4.2, the phrase "peak retardation greater than 24.54 m/s2 (80.5 ft/s2)" is replaced with the phrase "peak horizontal retardation greater than 6.13 m/s2 (20.1 ft/s2)."
Table 2.22.4.1 is replaced with Table 5.1.17.4.4, which indicates the minimum buffer strokes for the most usual rated speeds and selected angles of inclination.

Table 5.1.17.4.4 Minimum Oil Buffer Strokes at Given Angle From Horizontal

SI Units Imperial Units
Rated speed,
m/s
Minimum Stroke, mm,
at Angle From Horizontal, deg
Rated speed,
ft/min
Minimum Stroke, in.,
at Angle From Horizontal, deg
15 30 45 60 70 15 30 45 60 70
1.00 269   241   197   139    95   200 10.58    9.49    7.74    5.48    3.75
1.12 340   305   249   176   120   225 13.39 12.00    9.80    6.93    4.74
1.25 420   376   307   217   149   250 16.53 14.82 12.10   8.56    5.85
1.50 605   542   443   313   214   300 23.80 21.34 17.43 12.32    8.43
1.75 823   738   602   426   291   350 32.40 29.05 23.72 16.77 11.47
2.00 1 075   964   787   556   380   400 42.32 37.94 30.98 21.90 14.98
2.25 1 360 1 220   996   704   482   450 53.56 48.02 39.21 27.72 18.96
2.50 1 679 1 506 1 229   869   595 500 66.12 59.28 48.40 34.23 23.41
3.00 2 418 2 168 1 770 1 252   856 600   95.21   85.37 69.70 49.29 33.71
3.50 3 292 2 951 2 410 1 704 1 166 700 129.60 116.19 94.87 67.08 45.89
4.00 4 299 3 855 3 147 2 226 1 522 800 169.27 151.76 123.91 87.62 59.93
The minimum buffer strokes for speeds differing from the values in Table 5.1.17.4.4 shall be based on the formula in 8.2.10.
The guide-rail sections, in conjunction with the guiding members, shall be so designed as to retain the car and counterweights on the rails in case of upthrust or side thrust force, such as caused by foreign objects in or on the guide rail, or from the effects of wind, frost, or snow.
On inclined elevators where a single system of guide rails or brackets is employed, the sum of the car and counterweight forces shall be used to determine the maximum acceptable rated load. The guide rails, guide-rail brackets, and their supports shall be capable of resisting the bending loads of a fully loaded car and its counterweight with a total deflection not in excess of 3 mm (0.125 in.).
Guide rails shall conform to 2.23.6, except that guide rails for inclined elevators with Type A and Type C safeties shall not be required to have finished guiding surfaces.
A single guide rail shall be permitted to be provided for application of the safety and for lateral guiding. It shall be located between the main guide rails.

Driving machines shall conform to Section 2.24, except as modified by 5.1.19.1.

Winding-drum machines without counterweights shall be permitted to be used for inclined elevators when the net rated load (sine of the angle of inclination times the gross load) does not exceed 454 kg (1,000 lb) and the distance of travel does not exceed 38 m (125 ft), and the rated speed does not exceed 0.50 m/s (100 ft/min).
Requirements 2.26.1.1 through 2.26.1.4 apply, except as referenced and modified in 5.1.20. Where car top is stated there, it shall also mean the uphill end emergency exit exterior inspection device location. Where an inspection operating device is located at the uphill exit, it is permitted to omit one on the car top.

(a) Requirement 2.26.1.3. The speed shall be limited to not exceed 0.64 m/s (125 ft/min).

(b) Requirement 2.26.1.4.1(d)(1). The speed shall be limited to not exceed 0.64 m/s (125 ft/min).

The top-of-car stop switch is not required except where access is provided to the top of car.
Machine room inspection shall not be provided.
Slack-rope devices shall be provided on traction driving machines of elevators having an inclination of less than 35 deg from horizontal. The devices shall be located on both the car and counterweight sides of the driving machine and conform to 2.26.2.1.
Horizontal retardations induced on the car due to the emergency stopping of an inclined elevator, caused by the removal of electrical power, shall meet the requirements of 5.1.20.6.1 and 5.1.20.6.2.
The average horizontal retardation, measured over the total retardation time, shall not exceed 0.98 m/s2 (3.22 ft/s2).
No peak horizontal retardation value exceeding 0.98 m/s2 (3.22 ft/s2) shall have a time duration exceeding 0.125 s.
Each elevator shall be equipped with an alarm button or switch in the car operating station and an alarm device mounted in a location that shall be readily available to a person who is normally situated in the vicinity when the elevator is in use; or a means of voice communication to a receiving station always attended when the installation is in use. If the alarm device or means of voice communication is normally activated by utility power supply, it shall be backed up by a manual or battery operated device.
Inclined elevators that load and unload passengers through car doors located at the uphill and downhill ends of the car shall conform to the following additional requirements of 5.1.22.
The rated speed shall not exceed 0.50 m/s (100 ft/min).
The buffers shall be oil type only, installed at both terminals, conforming to 5.1.17.4.

Requirement 2.22.4.8 does not apply to end-loading inclined elevators. The buffer shall be compressed to within the overtravel distance when the car is level with the terminal landing. Each buffer shall be provided with a switch that shall prevent operation of the elevator by means of the normal operating device in the direction of travel towards that buffer unless it has returned to at least 90% of its stroke.

The final terminal stopping devices shall conform to 2.25.3.1 and 2.25.3.2, except for 2.25.3.2(a) and shall be located to operate within the reduced runby of end-loading inclined elevators.
End-loading inclined elevators shall be permitted to be equipped with retractable sill conforming to the following:

(a) They shall be designed so as to function without creating any pinching or shearing hazards.

(b) They shall be equipped with return switches conforming to 2.25.2.1.1 and 2.25.2.1.3, which shall prevent the operation of the car in the direction of travel toward that terminal unless the retractable sill returns to its normal position.

Car door locking devices on end-loading inclined elevators shall conform to 2.14.4.2.

The forces and loads covered by 2.28.1(b), (c), and (f) shall be calculated based on the angle of inclination from the horizontal.

The construction of hoistway enclosures shall conform to Section 2.1, except as modified by 5.2.1.1.1 and 5.2.1.1.2.
Requirement 2.1.1.4 does not apply. Elevators shall be installed in a single hoistway.
Requirement 2.1.3 applies only when a floor is provided at the top of hoistway.

(a) Requirement 2.1.3.1.1. If a floor is provided, it shall be permitted to be of wood.

(b) Requirement 2.1.3.2 does not apply. The floor shall be designed in accordance with other floors in the building. Where the machine is to be supported by the machine room floor, the floor shall be designed in accordance with 2.9.4 and 2.9.5.

(c) Requirement 2.1.3.3. The floor shall be permitted to be of wood.

Pits shall conform to Section 2.2, except that 2.2.2.5 does not apply.
The location and guarding of counterweights shall conform to Section 2.3, except as follows: Where counterweight guards conforming to 2.3.2 are not provided, lightweight chains, approximately 600 mm (24 in.) in length shall be attached to the bottom of the counterweight. These chains shall be spaced at 150 mm (6 in.) intervals to provide a warning to a person in the path of the descending counterweight.
Bottom and top car clearances and runbys for cars and counterweights shall conform to Section 2.4, except as specified in 5.2.1.4.1 through 5.2.1.4.4.
When the car rests on its solid bumper or fully compressed buffer, no part of the car or any equipment attached thereto shall strike the pit or any part of the equipment located therein.
Where a machinery space or control space is not located in the pit, a nonremovable means shall be provided to mechanically hold the car above the pit floor to provide an area in the pit for maintenance and inspection, conforming to the following:

(a) It shall hold the car at a height of not less than 900 mm (35 in.) nor more than 2 000 mm (79 in.) above the pit floor and not less than 300 mm (12 in.) above the bottom landing sill, as measured from the underside of the car platform.

(b) The means shall be so designed and constructed as to stop and hold the car at governor tripping speed with rated load in the car.

(c) It shall not cause the stresses and deflections in car frame and platform members and their connections to exceed the limits specified in 2.15.10 and 2.15.11.

(d) If the means does not automatically activate when the lowest hoistway door is opened with the car not at the landing

(1) it shall be capable of being operated without complete bodily entry into the pit.

(2) a sign conforming to ANSI Z535.2, ANSI Z535.4, or CAN/CSA-Z321, whichever is applicable (see Part 9), shall be conspicuously displayed inside the hoistway, which shall include a warning that there is an insufficient bottom car clearance and instructions for operating the device. The letters shall be not less than 25 mm (1 in.) in height. The sign shall be made of a durable material and shall be securely fastened.

Where a machinery space or control space is located in the pit, 2.7.5.2 applies.
Top car clearance shall conform to Section 2.4 or 5.2.1.4.4.
In existing buildings where the top car clearance conforming to 5.2.1.4.3 cannot be provided, the following shall apply:

(a) When the car has reached its maximum upper movement, no part of the car or any equipment attached thereto, other than as permitted by 5.2.1.4.4(b), shall strike the overhead structure or any part of the equipment located in the hoistway.

(b) Nonremovable means, independent of the brake, shall be provided to mechanically and electrically prevent upward movement of the car to provide an area above the car for maintenance and inspection, conforming to the following:

(1) The means shall prevent upward movement of the car to provide a refuge space complying with 5.2.1.4.5.

(2) The means shall be so designed and constructed as to stop upward movement of the car at governor-tripping speed with and without rated load in the car.

(3) The means shall not cause the stresses and deflections in car frame and platform members and their connections to exceed the limits specified in 2.15.10 and 2.15.11.

(4) A sign conforming to ANSI Z535.2, ANSI Z535.4, or CAN/CSA-Z321, whichever is applicable (see Part 9), shall be conspicuously displayed inside the hoistway, which shall include a warning that there is an insufficient top car clearance and instructions for operating the means. The letters shall be not less than 25 mm (1 in.) in height. The sign shall be made of a durable material and shall be securely fastened.

(5) The means shall be capable of being operated without complete bodily entry into the hoistway.

(6) The force to actuate the means shall not require more than 90 N (20 lbf).

(7) The top-of-car operating device shall not allow car movement until the means is actuated.

(a) An unobstructed horizontal area of not less than 0.5 m2 (5.4 ft2) shall be provided on top of the car enclosure for refuge space. It shall measure not less than 600 mm (24 in.) on any side. This area shall be permitted to include the space utilized for the top emergency exit [see 2.14.1.5.1(f)]. The minimum vertical distance in the refuge area between the top of the car enclosure and the overhead structure or other obstruction shall be not less than 1 100 mm (43 in.) when the car has reached its maximum upward movement.

(b) In any area outside the refuge space where the vertical clearance between the top of the car enclosure and the overhead structure or other obstruction is less than specified in 5.2.1.4.5(a), the top of the car enclosure shall be clearly marked. The marking shall consist of alternating 100 mm (4 in.) diagonal red and white stripes. In addition, a sign with the words "DANGER LOW CLEARANCE" shall be prominently posted on the crosshead and be visible from the entrance. The sign shall conform to ANSI Z535.2 or CAN/CSA-Z321, whichever is applicable (see Part 9). The sign shall be of such material and construction that the letters and figures stamped, etched, cast, or otherwise applied to the face shall remain permanently and readily legible.

Horizontal car and counterweight clearances shall conform to Section 2.5.
The protection of spaces below hoistways shall conform to Section 2.6.
Machinery spaces, machine rooms, control spaces, and control rooms shall conform to Section 2.7, except as modified by 5.2.1.7.1. Equipment shall be permitted to be located in rooms containing other equipment essential to the operation of the building.

NOTE: See 5.2.1.1.2 for floors of machine room and machinery spaces over or at the top of hoistway.

Requirement 2.7.4.1 does not apply. The minimum headroom shall be 2 000 mm (79 in.).
Electrical equipment, wiring, pipes, and ducts in hoistways, machinery spaces, machine rooms, control spaces, and control rooms shall comply with Section 2.8.
Machinery and sheave beams, supports, and foundations shall conform to Section 2.9.
The guarding of exposed auxiliary equipment shall conform to Section 2.10.
The protection of hoistway landing openings shall conform to Section 2.11, except as modified by the following:

(a) Requirement 2.11.2. Entrances shall be of the horizontal slide or single-section swing type.

(b) Requirement 2.11.10.3 does not apply.

(c) Requirement 2.11.12 does not apply.

(d) Requirement 2.11.13.5 does not apply.

(e) Requirement 2.11.15.3 does not apply.

Hoistway door locking devices, hoistway door and car door electric contacts, and hoistway access switches shall conform to Section 2.12, except as modified by the following:

(a) Requirement 2.12.1.5 does not apply. Combination mechanical locks and electric contacts are not permitted.

(b) Requirement 2.12.2.3(a). Truck zoning devices are not permitted.

(c) Requirement 2.12.3 does not apply.

(d) Requirement 2.12.7.3.3(b). The car cannot be operated at a speed greater than 0.15 m/s (30 ft/min).

Power operation of hoistway doors and car doors shall conform to Section 2.13 except that vertically sliding doors shall not be permitted.
Car enclosures, car doors, and car illumination shall conform to Section 2.14, except as modified by the following:

(a) Requirement 2.14.1.4. Cars shall not have more than one compartment.

(b) Requirement 2.14.1.5 applies only where manual operation (see 5.2.1.28) is not provided. If a top emergency exit is provided, it shall conform to 2.14.1.5.

(c) Requirement 2.14.1.9.1(c) does not apply. Equipment mounted to the car for freight handling shall not be permitted.

(d) Requirement 2.14.3 does not apply.

(e) Requirement 2.14.4.1 does not apply. An unperforated door shall be provided at each entrance to the car.

(f) Requirement 2.14.4.4 does not apply.

(g) Requirement 2.14.4.7 does not apply.

(h) Requirement 2.14.4.9 does not apply.

(i) Requirement 2.14.4.11(b) does not apply.

(j) Requirement 2.14.5.1 does not apply. There shall not be more than two entrances to the car.

(k) Requirement 2.14.5.3 does not apply.

(l) Requirement 2.14.5.7. The dimension for the unlocking zone (see 2.12.1) shall be not more than the straight vertical face of the platform guard minus 75 mm (3 in.).

(m) Requirement 2.14.6.4 does not apply. Folding doors are not permitted.

Car frames and platforms shall conform to Section 2.15, except as modified by 5.2.1.15.1 and 5.2.1.15.2.
Requirement 2.15.4 applies, except the term "guiding surfaces" shall be substituted for the term "guide rails."
Requirement 2.15.9.2 does not apply. The platform guard shall have a straight vertical face, extending below the floor surface of the platform of not less than the depth of the unlocking zone (see 2.12.1) plus 75 mm (3 in.) but in no case less than the maximum distance from the landing that it takes to stop and hold the car upon detection and actuation of the device as prescribed in 2.19.2.
The minimum rated load shall conform to 2.16.1, except as follows:

(a) The maximum rated load shall not exceed 635 kg (1,400 lb).

(b) The inside net platform area shall not exceed 1.67 m2 (18 ft2).

(c) Requirements 2.16.1.2 and 2.16.1.3 do not apply.

(a) Capacity plates shall indicate the rated load of the elevator in kilograms (kg), pounds (lb), or both.

(b) Data plates shall conform to 2.16.3.2.2.

(c) The material and marking of plates shall conform to 2.16.3.3.

The rated speed shall not be more than 0.15 m/s (30 ft/min).
The maximum rise shall not be more than 7.6 m (25 ft).
Car and counterweight safeties shall conform to Section 2.17, except as modified by 5.2.1.17.1.
The force providing the stopping action shall conform to 2.17.9.4 or the following: Where guide-rail sections other than those specified in 2.23.3(a) are used, the application of safety stopping forces shall not cause deformation of the guide-rail section upon whose dimensional stability the stopping capability is dependent.
Speed governors shall conform to Section 2.18, except as modified by the following:

(a) Requirement 2.18.2.1(b) does not apply. The tripping speed shall not exceed 0.38 m/s (75 ft/min). On the breakage of the suspension means, the safety shall operate without delay and independently of the governor's speed action.

(b) Requirement 2.18.4 does not apply.

(c) Requirement 2.18.5. Governor ropes shall be not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) in diameter.

The marking plate requirements in 2.19.3.3 shall include the maximum distance from the landing that it takes to stop and hold the car upon detection and actuation of the device as prescribed in 2.19.2.
Suspension ropes and their connections shall conform to Section 2.20, except for 2.20.1 and 2.20.3. Suspension ropes and their connections shall also conform to 5.2.1.20.1 and 5.2.1.20.2.
Cars shall be suspended by ropes attached to the car frame or passing around sheaves attached to the car frame specified in 2.15.1. Ropes that have previously been installed and used on another installation shall not be reused. Only rope having the following classifications shall be used for the suspension of limited-use/limited-application elevator cars and for the suspension of counterweights:

(a) Iron (low-carbon steel) or steel wire rope, having the commercial classification "Elevator Wire Rope," or wire rope specifically constructed for elevator use. The wire material for these wire ropes shall be manufactured by the open-hearth or electric furnace process or their equivalent.

(b) Aircraft cable rope of 7 × 19 construction, classified as MIL-DTL-83420M Spec, shall be permitted in those applications where aircraft cable rope is not subjected to crushing pressures, with the following exceptions permitted:

(1) nonjacketed, carbon steel, tin- or zinc-coated (Type 1A) 7 × 19 construction (Section 3.4.3.3 of MIL-DTL-83420M Spec)

(2) identifying color tracer filaments are not required (Section 3.6.2 of MIL-DTL-83420M Spec)

The factor of safety shall be specified in accordance with the following:

(a) "Elevator Wire Rope" [see 5.2.1.20.1(a)] shall comply with 2.20.3.

(b) "Aircraft Cable Rope" [see 5.2.1.20.1(b)] shall have a factor of safety of not less than 7.5.

Counterweights shall conform to 2.21, except as modified by 5.2.1.21.1.

Requirement 2.21.1.4 applies, except that the counterweight shall be permitted to utilize the same guide rails as the car.

Car and counterweight guide rails, guide-rail supports, and fastenings shall conform to Section 2.23, except as modified by 5.2.1.23.1 and 5.2.1.23.2.
The same set of guide rails shall be permitted to be used for both the car and counterweight.
Requirements 2.23.3(a) and 2.23.3(b)(1) do not apply. Guide rails, supports, joints, fishplates, and fastenings that do not conform to Section 2.23 are permitted, provided that the strengths and stresses are consistent with Section 2.23 for the loads imposed.

Where guide-rail sections other than those specified in 2.23.3(a) are used

(a) requirement 2.23.10.2 does not apply.

(b) the rail joints shall be designed in accordance with 2.23.5.1 and shall adequately maintain the accuracy of the rail alignment.

(c) the deflections shall comply with Section 2.23. The allowable deflection of the guide rail shall be limited to prevent the safety device from disengaging the rail during the application of the load.

Driving machines and sheaves shall conform to Section 2.24, except for 2.24.1, 2.24.2.1, and 2.24.2.2. Driving machines and sheaves shall also conform to 5.2.1.24.1 through 5.2.1.24.3.
All driving machines shall be of the traction type, except that winding-drum machines that do not have multiple cable layers on the drum shall be permitted for elevators, subject to the following: They shall not be provided with counterweights.
Sheave material and grooving shall be subject to the following:

(a) Sheaves and drums used with "Elevator Wire Rope" [see 5.2.1.20.1(a)] shall be of metal and provided with finished grooves for ropes or shall be permitted to be lined with nonmetallic groove material.

(b) Sheaves and drums used with "Aircraft Cable Rope" [see 5.2.1.20.1(b)] shall be of metal and provided with finished "U" grooves that do not subject the aircraft cable rope to crushing pressure.

Sheaves and drums used with suspension and compensating ropes shall have a pitch diameter of not less than the following:

(a) For all "Elevator Wire Rope," the diameter shall not be less than 30 times the diameter of the rope, where used with suspension ropes.

(b) For all "Elevator Wire Rope," the diameter shall not be less than 30 times the diameter of the rope, where used with compensating ropes.

(c) For "7 × 19 Aircraft Cable Rope," the diameter shall not be less than 21 times the diameter of the rope, where used with either suspension ropes or compensating ropes.

Terminal stopping devices shall conform to Section 2.25, except as follows:

(a) Requirement 2.25.4 does not apply.

(b) If the driving machine is of the winding-drum type, a lower final terminal stopping device shall be used in addition to the slack-rope switch, and two independent upper final terminal stopping devices shall be provided. A separate device shall be used to operate the lower final terminal and one upper final terminal stopping device. All final terminal stopping and slack-rope devices shall operate independently of one another. The power feed lines to the driving machine and brake shall be opened by one or both of the upper final terminal stopping devices and either the slack-rope switch or the lower terminal stopping device, or both.

Operating devices and control equipment shall conform to Section 2.26, except as modified by the following:

(a) Requirement 2.26.1.3 does not apply.

(b) Requirement 2.26.2.5 does not apply.

(c) Requirement 2.26.2.10 does not apply.

(d) Requirement 2.26.2.12 does not apply.

(e) Requirement 2.26.2.16 does not apply.

Emergency operation and signaling devices shall conform to Section 2.27, except that Phase II Emergency In-Car Operation shall not be provided.
Elevators shall be permitted to be arranged for manual operation in case of power failure. The manual operating device shall conform to the following:

(a) It shall not be accessible from inside the car.

(b) It shall not release the brake.

(c) Upon removal of the device, the car shall not move.

(d) It shall be actuated by mechanical means only.

(e) Instructions shall be posted at or near the manual operating device.

The information provided on layout data shall conform to Section 2.28.
Welding shall conform to Section 8.8.
Identification shall conform to Section 2.29.
Bottom and top clearances and runbys for cars and counterweights shall conform to Section 3.4, except as follows:

(a) Bottom car clearances shall conform to 3.4.1 or 5.2.1.4.2.

(b) Requirement 3.4.2.1 does not apply. The bottom car runby shall not be less than 50 mm (2 in.).

(c) The top car clearances shall conform to 5.2.1.4.4 or 5.2.2.1.1.

The top car clearance shall not be less than the sum of the following two items (see Nonmandatory Appendix G):

(a) the top car runby

(b) the height of the refuge space on top of the car (see 3.4.7) or the clearance required for equipment projecting above the car top or crosshead (see 3.4.5), whichever is greater

Machinery spaces, machine rooms, control spaces, and control rooms shall comply with Section 3.7, except as modified by 5.2.1.7.
Car frames and platforms shall conform to Section 3.15, except as modified by 5.2.1.15.2.
The capacity and loading shall conform to Section 3.16, except as modified by 5.2.1.16.1 and 5.2.1.16.2. Requirement 5.2.1.16.3 does not apply.
Car and counterweight safeties and plunger gripper shall conform to Section 3.17, except as modified by 5.2.2.5.1.

NOTE: See also 5.2.1.18.

The safeties on roped-hydraulic elevators shall be operated by a speed governor, or, where an overspeed valve conforming to 3.19.4.7 is provided, the safeties shall be permitted to be operated by inertia.

Upon the parting of the suspension ropes, the safeties shall apply without appreciable delay and their application shall be independent of the location of the break in the ropes and shall be permitted to be accomplished by the use of restrained compression springs or by the action of gravity, or by both, or by positive mechanical means.

Hydraulic jacks and sheaves shall conform to Section 3.18. The reference in 3.18.1.2.1 to Section 2.20 shall be modified by 5.2.1.20. The reference in 3.18.1.2.3 to 2.24.2 shall be modified by 5.2.1.24.2 and 5.2.1.24.3.
Valves, pressure piping, and fittings shall conform to Section 3.19. Requirement 5.2.1.28 does not apply.
Counterweights shall conform to Section 3.21.
Buffers and bumpers shall conform to Section 3.22, except as modified by 5.2.1.22.1.
Guide rails, guide-rail supports, and their fastenings shall conform to Section 2.23, except as modified by Section 3.23 and 5.2.1.23.2.
Hydraulic machines and tanks shall conform to Section 3.24. Requirement 5.2.1.24 does not apply, except as modified by 5.2.2.6.
Requirement 5.2.1.25 does not apply. Terminal stopping devices shall conform to 3.25.1 and 3.25.3.
Requirement 5.2.1.26 does not apply. Operating devices and control equipment shall conform to Section 3.26.
Requirement 5.2.1.27 does not apply. Emergency operations and signaling devices shall conform to Section 3.27, except that Phase II Emergency In-Car Operation shall not be provided.
Requirement 5.2.1.29 does not apply. The information provided on layout data shall conform to Section 3.28.

Requirements in Section 5.3 apply to elevators installed in or at a private residence. Section 5.3 also applies to similar elevators installed in buildings as a means of access to private residences within such buildings provided the elevators are so installed that they are not accessible to the general public or to other occupants in the building. Elevators conforming to the requirements of Part 2, Part 3, or Sections 4.1, 4.2, or 5.2 are not prohibited from being installed in or at a private residence.

NOTE: See also Part 8 for additional requirements that apply to private residence elevators.

The hoistway shall be solidly enclosed throughout its height without grillwork or openings other than for landing or access doors, except that any exterior windows within the hoistway shall be protected by metal grillwork. Grillwork shall reject a ball 76 mm (3 in.) in diameter and shall be securely fastened from the inside of the hoistway. Enclosures shall be of sufficient strength to support in true alignment the hoistway doors and gates and their locking equipment. The fire resistance rating shall be in accordance with the requirements of the building code. Non-fire-resistive enclosures shall be permitted to be glass complying with 2.1.1.2.2(e).
The enclosure shall be permitted to be omitted on the lowest landing served, provided the elevator

(a) does not open directly into a garage.

(b) has continuous-pressure operation.

(c) car platform is equipped with a device that, if the platform is obstructed in its downward travel by a force of 18 N (4 lbf) or more applied anywhere at its lower surface, will open an electric contact in the control circuit and thus stop the downward travel of the car within 75 mm (3 in.). The stroke of the device shall be not less than the stopping distance of the platform. This device shall be of a type that will not reset unless it has been returned to its normal position. The elevator shall be permitted to operate in the up direction.

The enclosure shall be permitted to be omitted on the upper landing on continuous-pressure operation elevators serving only adjacent landings (one-floor rise) conforming to one of the following:

(a) The floor opening at the upper landing is protected by a partial enclosure and gate at least 910 mm (36 in.) high with openings that will reject a ball 25 mm (1 in.) in diameter, and the gate is provided with a combination mechanical lock and electric contact.

(b) The floor opening is provided with a vertically lifting hatch cover which is automatically raised and lowered vertically by the ascending and descending car, provided this cover meets the following requirements:

(1) It is fitted with guides to ensure its proper seating.

(2) It is designed and installed to sustain a total load of 3.6 kPa (75 lbf/ft2) or 135 kg (300 lb) at any one point.

(3) It is equipped with an electric contact that will prevent the upward travel of the car when a force of 90 N (20 lbf) is placed at any point on the top of the hatch cover.

A pit provided in other than a fully enclosed hoistway shall be guarded by a solid enclosure at least 2 130 mm (84 in.) high. The entrance shall be provided with a door conforming to 5.3.1.7. When the enclosure does not extend from floor to ceiling, only solid car doors or gates rejecting a 13 mm (0.5 in.) diameter ball shall be used.
Where a pit is provided, it shall be kept clean and free from dirt and rubbish and the accumulation of water. It shall not be used for storage purposes.
Stop switches conforming to 2.2.6 shall be installed in the pit of each elevator.
The top car clearance shall be not less than 152 mm (6 in.) plus 25 mm (1 in.) for each 0.017 m/s (3.3 ft/min) of the rated speed in excess of 0.15 m/s (30 ft/min). Where the machine or its controls are located on the top of the car, a refuge space on top of the car enclosure shall be provided in conformance with 2.4.12.
There shall be a clearance of not less than 20 mm (0.75 in.) between the car and the hoistway enclosure, and between the car and its counterweight.
The clearance between the car platform sill and the landing sill shall be not less than 13 mm (0.5 in.) nor more than 32 mm (1.25 in.).
Pipes conveying steam, gas, or liquids, which if discharged into the hoistway would endanger life, shall not be installed in the hoistway.
Ropes and chains passing through a floor or stairway outside the hoistway enclosure shall be enclosed with a solid or openwork enclosure. If of openwork, the enclosure shall reject a ball 13 mm (0.5 in.) in diameter. Means for inspection shall be provided. The floor openings shall not be larger than is necessary to clear the suspension means.
Suspension or support means that operate within a guide or track whose segments total a minimum of 270 deg shall be considered suitably guarded, provided that the centerline of the opening in the guide or track is 180 deg from the closest point of the stair. See Nonmandatory Appendix H, Fig. H-1.
Where a hoistway enclosure is provided, landing openings shall be protected by swinging or horizontally sliding doors. Landing openings in solid hoistway enclosures shall be protected the full height by solid swinging or horizontally sliding doors. Their fire-protection rating shall be not less than required by the building code (see Section 1.3). The doors shall be designed to withstand a force of 670 N (150 lbf) applied horizontally over an area 100 mm × 100 mm (4 in. × 4 in.) in the center of the doors without permanent displacement or deformation.
The distance between the hoistway face of the hoistway doors and the hoistway edge of the landing sill shall not exceed 19 mm (0.75 in.) for swinging doors and 57 mm (2.25 in.) for sliding doors.
The hoistway face of the hoistway door or gate shall not project into the hoistway beyond the line of the landing sill. No hardware, except that required for door-locking and door-operating or signaling devices, shall project into the hoistway beyond the line of the landing sill.
Hoistway doors or gates shall be provided with locking devices.

The locking device shall be of a type that will either

(a) prevent car movement unless the door is locked in the closed position; or

(b) permit the car to start if the door or gate is in the closed position but not locked, provided that the device stops the car if the door or gate fails to lock before the car has moved 150 mm (6 in.) away from the landing. The device shall also prevent the opening of the hoistway door or gate unless the car is within 150 mm (6 in.) of the landing.

The locking device shall conform to 2.12.4.

Hoistway doors or gates shall be so arranged that it will not be necessary to reach behind any panel, jamb, or sash to operate them.
Means shall be provided to prevent a sliding hoistway door from disengaging from its track.
Power opening shall be permitted for hoistway doors and gates and shall conform to 2.13.2.2.1 and 2.13.2.2.2. Power closing shall be permitted for hoistway doors and gates and shall conform to 2.13.3.2 through 2.13.4, and 2.13.6.
Where the elevator is equipped with a two-way leveling device or anticreep device, and the hoistway landing sill projects into the hoistway, a landing-sill guard shall be provided conforming to the following:

(a) It shall have a straight vertical face extending below the sill not less than the depth of the zone where the hoistway door is unlocked below the landing sill plus 50 mm (2 in.).

(b) It shall extend not less than the width of the clear car opening exposed to the landing sill.

(c) It shall be securely braced and fastened in place to withstand a force of 670 N (150 lbf) applied horizontally over an area 100 mm × 100 mm (4 in. × 4 in.) in the center of the guard without permanent displacement or deformation.

(a) Car Enclosure Required. Except at entrances, cars shall be enclosed on all sides and on the top. The enclosure shall be constructed of solid or of openwork material that will reject a ball 13 mm (0.5 in.) in diameter.

(b) Securing Enclosures. Car enclosures shall be secured in conformance with 2.14.1.2 and 2.14.1.3.

(c) Glass, Plastic, or Acrylics in Elevator Cars. Glass, plastic, or acrylics, where used in elevator cars, shall conform to the following:

(1) If of glass, it shall meet the requirements of 2.14.1.8.

(2) If of plastic or acrylic, it shall meet the requirements of ANSI Z97.1, 16 CFR Part 1201, or CAN/CGSB-12.1, CAN/CGSB-12.11, and CAN/CGSB-12.12, whichever is applicable.

(d) Access Panels for Elevator Equipment Outside of the Car. Equipment access panels in the car for access to equipment outside the car shall comply with 2.7.5.1.4.

(e) Number of Compartments. The car shall not have more than one compartment.

A car door or gate that, when closed, will guard the opening to a height of at least 1 675 mm (66 in.) shall be provided at each entrance to the car. Car doors shall be permitted to be of solid or openwork construction that will reject a ball 75 mm (3 in.) in diameter.

Collapsible car gates shall be of a design that, when fully closed (extended position), will reject a ball 75 mm (3 in.) in diameter.

(a) Power Operation of Car Doors and Gates. Power opening shall be permitted for car doors and gates, and shall conform to 2.13.2.1 and 2.13.6. Power closing shall be permitted for car doors and gates, and shall conform to 2.13.3 through 2.13.6.

(b) Car Door or Gate Locking Devices. Where the hoistway enclosure is not continuous for the full travel of the car, the car door or gate shall be provided with a mechanical lock that will lock the car door or gate if the car is more than 150 mm (6 in.) vertically away from a landing.

(c) Car Door or Gate Electric Contacts. Every car door or gate shall be provided with an electric contact conforming to 2.14.4.2.3 and 2.14.4.2.5.

The design of the car door or gate electric contacts shall be such that for a sliding door or gate, the car cannot move unless the door or gate is within 50 mm (2 in.) of the closed position. If the door or gate swings outward to open, the car door or gate must be closed and locked before the car can move.

(d) Strength and Deflection of Doors, Gates, and Their Guides, Guide Shoes, Track, and Hangers

(1) Horizontally sliding car doors and gates shall be designed and installed to withstand a force of 335 N (75 lbf) applied horizontally on an area 100 mm × 100 mm (4 in. × 4 in.) at right angles to and at any location on the car door without permanent deformation. The deflection shall not exceed 19 mm (0.75 in.) and shall not displace the door from its guides or tracks. The force shall be applied while the door is in the fully closed position.

(2) Folding car doors shall be designed and installed to withstand a force of 335 N (75 lbf) applied horizontally using a 100 mm (4 in.) diameter sphere at any location within the folds on the car door without permanent deformation. The deflection shall not exceed 19 mm (0.75 in.) and shall not displace the door from its guides or tracks. The force shall be applied while the door is in the fully closed position.

The distance between the hoistway face of the landing door and the hoistway face of the car door or gate shall conform to one of the following:

(a) Power-Operated Horizontally Sliding Hoistway and Car Doors. Where power-operated horizontally sliding hoistway and car doors are used, the measurement between the leading edge of the doors or sight guard, if provided, shall not exceed 100 mm (4 in.). If it is possible for a user to detach or disconnect either door from the operator (such as in the event of operator failure) and such detachment or disconnection allows the user to operate the door manually, requirement 5.3.1.8.3(e) shall apply.

(b) Swinging Hoistway Doors and Folding Car Doors. Where swinging hoistway doors and folding car doors are used and both doors are in the fully closed position, the space between the hoistway door and the folding door shall reject a 100 mm (4 in.) diameter ball at all points.

(c) Swinging Hoistway Doors and Car Gates. Where swinging hoistway doors and car gates are used, the space between the hoistway door and the car gate shall reject a 100 mm (4 in.) diameter ball at all points.

(d) Swinging Hoistway Doors and Power-Operated Horizontally Sliding Car Doors. Where car door(s) are power-operated and arranged so that the car door(s) cannot be closed until after the hoistway door is closed, and car door(s) automatically open when the car is at a landing and the hoistway door is opened, the measurement between the hoistway face of the hoistway door and the hoistway face of the car door at its leading edge shall not exceed 100 mm (4 in.). If it is possible for a user to detach or disconnect either door from the operator (such as in the event of operator failure) and such detachment or disconnection allows the user to operate the door manually, requirement 5.3.1.8.3(e) shall apply.

(e) Swinging or Horizontally Sliding Hoistway Doors and Manually Operated Horizontally Sliding Car Doors. Where swinging or horizontally sliding hoistway doors and manually operated horizontally sliding car doors are used and both doors are in the fully closed position, the space between the swinging or horizontally sliding hoistway doors and the manually operated horizontally sliding car doors shall reject a 100 mm (4 in.) diameter ball at all points.

The car shall be provided with an electric light. The light shall be controlled by a switch located in the car and near the car entrance, or by automatic means in conformance with 2.14.7.2.2. The minimum illumination at the car threshold, with the door closed, shall be not less than 50 lx (5 fc).

(a) Where Required. Every elevator shall have a car frame to which the suspension or support means and the safeties are attached.

(b) Material Permitted. Car frames shall be made of metal.

(c) Factor of Safety. The factor of safety shall be not less than 5 based on the rated load.

(d) Use of Cast Iron. Cast iron shall not be used in any member other than for guides or guide shoe brackets.

(e) Location of Guiding Means. Primary guiding means shall be attached to the car frame.

(a) Construction. Platforms shall be of non-perforated metal or wood. If constructed of wood, they shall be laminated.

Platforms shall be supported by a platform frame or formed metal support pan attached to the car frame. Platforms and platform frame assemblies shall have a safety factor of 5.

(b) Platform Guards (Aprons). Where the elevator is equipped with a two-way leveling device, the entrance side(s) of the platform shall be provided with a guard conforming to 2.15.9, except that 2.15.9.2 does not apply. The platform guard shall have a straight vertical face, extending below the floor surface of the platform not less than the depth of the zone where the hoistway door is unlocked above the landing sill plus 50 mm (2 in.). The platform guard shall not strike the pit floor or any obstruction when the elevator is at its lowest point of travel.

The maximum inside net platform area shall not exceed 1.4 m2 (15 ft2). The minimum rated load shall be not less than the following:

(a) For net platform areas up to and including 1.1 m2 (12 ft2), the rated load shall be not less than 195 kg/m2 (40 lb/ft2) or 159 kg (350 lb), whichever is greater.

(b) For net platform areas greater than 1.1 m2 (12 ft2), the rated load shall be based upon 305 kg/m2 (62.5 lb/ft2).

The rated speed shall not exceed 0.20 m/s (40 ft/min).
The rise shall not exceed 15 m (50 ft).
Each elevator shall be provided with a car safety as specified in 2.17.5. Where the space below the hoistway is not permanently secured against access, the counterweight shall be provided with a safety.
The safety shall be of the inertia, rack and pinion, or other type operated by the breakage of the suspension means or by the action of a speed governor. If of the speed-governor type, the governor shall operate the safety at a maximum tripping speed of 0.38 m/s (75 ft/min). On the breakage of the suspension means, the safety shall operate without delay and independently of the speed-governor action.
The application of safeties shall conform to 2.17.9.1, 2.17.9.2, and 2.17.9.3. The forces providing the stopping action shall conform to 2.17.9.4 or the following:

(a) Where guide-rail sections other than those specified in 2.23.3(a) are used, the application of safety stopping forces shall not cause deformation of the guide-rail section upon whose dimensional stability the stopping capability of the safeties is dependent.

(b) Where the car safety is of the rack-and-pinion type, it shall conform to 4.1.17.

The minimum factors of safety and stresses of safety parts and rope connections shall conform to 2.17.12.
Where a speed governor is used, it shall be located where it is readily accessible from outside the hoistway and it cannot be struck by any moving object in normal operation or under conditions of overtravel, and where there is sufficient space for full movement of the governor parts.
Where a speed governor is used, the motor circuit and the brake circuit shall be opened before or at the time that the safety applies.
Where a speed governor is provided, a metal plate shall be securely attached to each speed governor and shall be marked in a legible and permanent manner with letters and figures not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) in height indicating the following:

(a) the speed in m/s (ft/min) at which the governor is set and sealed to cause the governor to trip

(b) the size, material, and construction of the governor rope

(c) if the governor is of the governor rope retarding type, the governor pull-through tension (force) in N (lbf)

(d) manufacturer's name or trademark

(e) statement "DO NOT LUBRICATE GOVERNOR ROPE"

The governor ropes, where used, shall be of iron, steel, monel metal, or phosphor bronze not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) in diameter. Tiller-rope construction shall not be used.

(a) Suspension means shall be not less than two wire ropes or two steel roller-type chains conforming to ASME B29.1.

(b) Aircraft cable rope of 7 × 19 construction, classified as Mil Spec 83420, shall be permitted in those applications where aircraft cable rope is not subjected to crushing pressures. The following exceptions to Mil Spec 83420 are permitted:

(1) nonjacketed carbon steel, tin-, or zinc-coated (Type 1-A) 7 × 19 construction (Section 3.2.4 of Mil Spec 83420)

(2) identifying color tracer filaments are not required (Section 3.5.2 of Mil Spec 83420)

On elevators having a rated load of 230 kg (500 lb) or less and operating at a rated speed of 0.15 m/s (30 ft/min) or less, suspension ropes shall be not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) in diameter. Where the rated load exceeds 230 kg (500 lb) or the rated speed exceeds 0.15 m/s (30 ft/min), the ropes shall be not less than 9 mm (0.375 in.) in diameter.
The factor of safety of the suspension means shall be not less than 7 for cars with less than or equal to 1.1 m2 (12 ft2) of net platform area, and not less than 7.5 for cars with more than 1.1 m2 (12 ft2) of net platform area, based on the manufacturer's rated breaking strength.

When the car and counterweight are suspended by steel ropes and the driving means is an endless steel roller-type chain, the factor of safety of such chain with the rated load in the car shall be not less than 8 based on the ultimate tensile strength.

The arc of contact of a wire rope on a traction sheave shall be sufficient to produce traction under all load conditions up to rated load. The arc of contact of a chain with a driving sprocket shall not be less than 140 deg.
The spare rope turns on winding drums shall conform to 2.20.7.
The securing of wire suspension ropes to winding drums shall conform to 2.20.6.
The fastening of a wire rope suspension means to a car or to a counterweight shall conform to 2.20.9, or by properly attached fittings as recommended by wire rope manufacturers.
Counterweights, where used, shall conform to the following:

(a) Counterweights shall run in guide rails.

(b) Where a car counterweight is used, it shall not be of sufficient weight to cause slackening of any rope during acceleration or retardation of the car.

(c) The counterweight sections, whether carried in a frame or not, shall be fastened together and shall also be secured to prevent shifting by an amount that will reduce the running clearance to less than 19 mm (0.75 in.) between the counterweight and hoistway.

(a) Counterweight on Cars Operating Through Hatch Covers. If a car operates through a hatch cover, the counterweight runway shall be enclosed throughout its height.

(b) Counterweight Coming Down to Floors or Passing Floors or Stairs. Where the counterweight runway comes down to a floor or passes floors or stairs, it shall be guarded to a height of at least 2 130 mm (84 in.) above the floor or the stair treads by a solid or openwork enclosure. Openwork enclosures shall reject a ball 13 mm (0.5 in.) in diameter.

(c) Access to Enclosed Counterweights and Ropes. Access shall be provided for inspection, maintenance, and repair of an enclosed counterweight and its ropes. Doors on the counterweight enclosure shall be self-closing and self-locking and openable from the outside only with a suitable key. If the enclosure is of such size that the door can be closed when the enclosure is occupied by a person, the door shall be easily openable from the inside without the use of a key or other instrument. A stop switch conforming to 2.26.2.5 shall be located adjacent to and inside the opening and operable without entering the enclosure.

The car and counterweight shall be provided with spring, oil, or elastomeric buffers, except as specified in 5.3.1.14.3.

(a) Spring buffers shall be so designed and installed that they will not be fully compressed when struck by the car with its rated load or by the counterweight traveling at 125% of the rated speed, or at governor tripping speed where a governor-operated safety is used.

(b) Oil buffers shall comply with 2.22.4.

(c) Elastomeric buffers capable of absorbing the energy of a fully loaded car shall be permitted to be used. The average deceleration shall be less than 9.81 m/s2 (32.2 ft/s2) with any load between 61 kg (135 lb) and rated load.

The elastomeric buffers shall be marked with the manufacturer's recommended replacement criteria.

Car and counterweight buffer supports shall be of sufficient strength to withstand without failure the impact resulting from buffer engagement at 125% of the rated speed, or at governor tripping speed where a governor-operated safety is used.
Buffers shall be permitted to be omitted when the striking speed is 0.25 m/s (50 ft/min) or less if the space below the car and counterweight consists of a nonoccupiable area, and the floor below the car and counterweight has sufficient strength to withstand, without failure, the impact of the car with rated load and counterweight descending at 125% of rated speed or governor tripping speed if a governor is provided.
Car and counterweight guide rails and their fastenings shall conform to 2.23.2, 2.23.5, 2.23.6, 2.23.8, and 2.23.9. Where guide-rail sections other than those specified in 2.23.3(a) are used, the allowable deflection of the guide rail shall be limited to prevent the safety device from disengaging the rail during the application of the load.

(a) Securing of Machinery Beams and Types of Supports. All machinery and sheaves shall be so supported and secured as to prevent any part from becoming loose or displaced.

Beams supporting machinery shall be of steel, sound timber, or reinforced concrete.

(b) Overhead Beams and Their Supports. Overhead beams and their supports shall be designed for not less than the sum of the following:

(1) the load resting on the beams and their supports, which shall include the complete weight of the machine, sheaves, controller, and any other equipment supported thereon

(2) the sum of the tension on all suspension ropes or chains times 2

(c) Factor of Safety for Overhead Beams and Supports. The factor of safety for overhead beams and supports based on ultimate strength of material shall be not less than 5 for steel, and 6 for timber and reinforced concrete.

(a) Types of Driving Means. The driving means shall be one of the following types:

(1) traction

(2) winding drum (see 5.3.1.16.3)

(3) direct plunger hydraulic (see 5.3.2)

(4) roped-hydraulic (see 5.3.2)

(5) screw machine (see 5.3.1.16.4)

(6) chain drive

(7) chain-hydraulic (see 5.3.2)

(8) rack-and-pinion, in jurisdictions enforcing NBCC

(b) Material for Sheaves and Drums and Minimum Diameter

(1) Winding drums, traction sheaves, and overhead and deflecting sheaves shall be of cast iron or steel and the pitch diameter shall be not less than one of the following:

(-a) 30 times the diameter of the wire suspension means

(-b) 21 times the diameter of the wire suspension means for 8 × 19 steel rope or for 7 × 19 aircraft cable allowed by 5.3.1.12.1

(2) The rope grooves shall be machined and designed to conform to 2.24.2.1 and 2.24.2.3.

(3) The factor of safety, based on the static load (the rated load plus the weight of the car, ropes, counterweights, etc.) to be used in the design of the driving machine and sheaves shall be not less than 8 for wrought iron and steel, and 10 for cast iron and cast steel and other metals.

(c) Fastening of Driving Machines and Sheaves to Underside of Overhead Beams

(1) Overhead driving machines or sheaves shall not be fastened to the underside of the supporting beams, except for idlers or deflecting sheaves including their guards and frames.

(2) Cast iron in tension shall not be used for supporting idler and deflecting sheaves where they are hung beneath the beams.

(d) Fastenings Transmitting Load. Fasteners transmitting load shall conform to 2.24.4.

(e) Friction Gearing, Clutch Mechanisms, or Couplings. Friction gearings or clutch mechanisms shall not be used for connecting the drum or drive sheave to the main drive gear. Couplings shall not be used for connecting the output shaft to the main drive gear.

(f) Use of Cast Iron in Gears. Worm gearing having cast iron teeth shall not be used.

(g) Driving-Machine Roller Chains and Sprockets. Driving-machine chains and sprockets shall be of steel and shall conform in all particulars of design and dimensions to ASME B29.1.

(h) Driving-Machine Brakes. Driving machines, except hydraulic driving machines, shall be equipped with electrically released, mechanically applied brakes conforming to 2.24.8. The operation of the brake shall conform to 2.26.8.

(i) Manual Operation. Private residence elevators shall be arranged for manual operation in case of power failure. The manual operating device shall conform to the following:

(1) It shall not be accessible from inside the car.

(2) It shall not release the brake.

(3) Upon removal of the device, the car shall not move.

(4) It shall be actuated by mechanical means only.

(5) Elevators with hydraulic driving machines shall be provided with a manual lowering valve conforming to 3.19.4.4.

(6) Instructions shall be posted at or near the manual operating device.

(j) Car-Top-Mounted Machine or Controller. Where the machine or its controls are located on top of the car

(1) they shall be protected by a solid, noncombustible enclosure.

(2) the car top enclosure shall be designed and installed in conformance with 2.14.1.6.

(3) a top-of-car operating device shall be provided in conformance with 2.26.1.4.2.

(4) access shall be provided to the machine or its controls for maintenance. Access panels shall conform to 5.3.1.8.1(d).

Winding-drum machines shall not be provided with counterweights.
Screw machines, where used, shall conform to 4.2.15 and 4.2.20, except that the rated speed shall not exceed 0.20 m/s (40 ft/min).
Traction machines shall be provided with a suspension means retainer or restraint on the drive sheave conforming to one of the following:

(a) Suspension Means Retainers. Suspension means retainers shall be continuous over not less than two-thirds of the arc of contact between the suspension means and its sheave or drum and shall be so located that not more than one-sixth of the arc of contact is exposed at each end of the retainer. For double-wrap traction applications the arc of contact for sheaves or drums shall be that length of arc that is uninterrupted by the entry/exit of the suspension means leading to/from the car or counterweight.

(b) Suspension Means Restraints. One suspension means restraint, where the arc of contact is 30 deg or less, shall be located at the midpoint of the arc of contact; or, where the arc of contact exceeds 30 deg, suspension means restraints shall be provided at intervals not exceeding 30 deg of arc along the arc of contact and at each end of the arc of contact.

(a) Upper and lower normal terminal stopping devices operated by the car shall be provided, and shall be set to stop the car at or near the upper and lower terminal landings.

(b) Upper and lower final terminal stopping devices operated by the car to remove power from the motor and the brake shall be provided. They shall be set to stop the car after it travels past the normal terminal stopping device and before an obstruction is struck.

A slack-rope switch conforming to 2.26.2.1 shall be permitted to be used as the lower final terminal stopping device.

(c) If the driving machine is of the winding-drum or sprocket-and-chain-suspension type

(1) a final terminal stopping device operated by the driving machine shall also be provided.

(2) driving-machine-operated final terminal stopping devices are not required when a lower final terminal stopping device is used in addition to the slack-rope switch, and two independent upper final terminal stopping devices are provided. A separate device shall be used to operate the lower final terminal and one upper final terminal stopping devices. All final terminal stopping and slack-rope devices shall operate independently of one another. The power feed lines to the driving machine and brake shall be opened by one or both of the upper final terminal stopping devices and either the slack-rope switch or the lower terminal stopping device, or both.

(3) indirect connections between the final terminal stopping device and the driving machine shall be designed to prevent slippage.

(d) Terminal stopping switches shall conform to 2.25.1.

The final terminal stopping device shall act to prevent movement of the car in both directions of travel. The normal and final terminal stopping devices shall not control the same switches on the controller unless two or more separate and independent switches are provided, two of which shall be closed to complete the motor and brake circuit in each direction of travel.
The operation of the car shall be by continuous-pressure means or by automatic means.
The design and installation of the operating circuits shall conform to 5.3.1.18.2.1 and 5.3.1.18.2.2.

(a) The completion or maintenance of an electric circuit shall not be used neither to interrupt the power to the elevator driving machine or brake at the terminal landings, nor to stop the car when any electrical protective device operates.

(b) If springs are used to actuate switches, contactors, or relays to stop an elevator at the terminal landings, they shall be of the restrained compression type.

(c) The occurrence of a single ground or the failure of any single magnetically operated switch, contactor, or relay, or the failure of any single solid-state device, or a software system failure, shall not

(1) render any electrical protective devices ineffective

(2) permit the car to start if any hoistway door or car door or gate is not in the closed position

(d) If an instantaneous reversible motor is not used, a protective device or circuit shall be provided to prevent the motor from continuing in the same direction if the reversing control is actuated.

The elevator controls shall be designed in such a manner that when the car stops at a floor and the landing door or gate and its related electric contact are opened and closed and the car door or gate switch electric contact(s) fails to open, the car shall not be permitted to respond to a call. The car shall be permitted to answer a call only after the car door or gate switch electric contacts have cycled at least once.
Any car exterior to a residence shall be operated by means of a key switch. Key-operated switches shall be of continuous-pressure spring-return type, and shall be operated by a cylinder-type lock having not less than a five-pin or five-disk combination with the key removable only when the switch is in the off position. The key shall be Group 4 Security (see Section 8.1).

(a) All electrical equipment and wiring shall conform to NFPA 70 or CSA C22.1, whichever is applicable.

(b) Electrical equipment shall be listed/certified and labeled/marked. CSA B44.1/ASME A17.5 defines the scope and applicable requirements for this listing/certification.

(c) The installation of capacitors or other devices, the operation or failure of which will cause an unsafe operation of the elevator, is prohibited.

Where the controller is located on the car, the disconnecting means shall be located adjacent to the controller. Auxiliary disconnect means shall be provided at the main landing when the main power supply disconnect means is mounted adjacent to the controller on the car.
If polyphase alternating-current power supply is used, provide protection in conformance with 2.26.6 and 3.26.5.
An emergency stop switch, conforming to 2.26.2.5(a), (b), and (c), shall be provided in every car and shall have contacts that are positively opened mechanically; their openings shall not be solely dependent on springs.
Winding-drum machines with rope suspension shall be provided with a slack-rope device of the manually reset type that will remove power from the motor and brake if the car is obstructed in its descent and the hoisting ropes slacken.

Elevators with roller-chain suspension shall be provided with a slack-chain device that will remove power from the motor and brake if the car is obstructed in its descent and the suspension means slacken. This device need not be of the manually reset type if the chain sprockets are guarded to prevent the chain from becoming disengaged from the sprockets.

A two-way communications means permanently installed in the car shall be provided to summon personnel who can take the appropriate action 24 h each day. The two-way communications means shall not be transmitted to an automated answering device.

If the normal power source for the communications means fails, the communications means shall automatically transfer to a source of standby or emergency power capable of providing service for at least 4 h.

An emergency signaling device operable from inside the car and audible outside the hoistway shall be provided. The operating means shall be labeled with "ALARM" or the appropriate symbol as defined in Table 2.26.12.1, Symbol Identification.

If the normal power source for the emergency signaling device fails, the emergency signaling device shall automatically transfer to a source of standby or emergency power capable of providing service for at least 1 h.

A capacity plate indicating the rated load of the elevator in pounds shall be furnished by the manufacturer and fastened in a conspicuous place inside the car. The letters and figures on such plates shall be not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) in height.
A data plate indicating the weight of the elevator, the rated speed, the suspension means, the manufacturer's name, and the date of installation shall be furnished by the manufacturer. This plate shall be installed in a conspicuous place in the machinery area. The letters and figures on such plates shall be not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) in height.

Machinery and equipment for hydraulic elevators shall conform to 5.3.2.

Hoistways, hoistway enclosures, and related construction; cars; counterweights; safeties and governors; guide rails and fastenings; car and counterweight buffer; operating devices and suspension means shall meet the requirements of 5.3.1.1 through 5.3.1.16, and 5.3.1.18 through 5.3.1.20, except as modified in 5.3.2.
Direct-plunger, roped-hydraulic, and chain-hydraulic private residence elevator driving machines, sheaves, valves, supply piping, fittings, and tanks shall conform to Sections 3.18, 3.19, and 3.24, except as modified by 5.3.1.16.2 and 5.3.2.
A pressure switch shall be provided to remove power from the pump motor and the control valve unless there is positive pressure at the control valve.
Direct-plunger, roped-hydraulic, and chain-hydraulic private residence elevator terminal stopping devices shall conform to Section 3.25, except as modified in 3.25.2.
Each elevator shall be provided with an anticreep leveling device conforming to 5.3.2.4.1 through 5.3.2.4.7.
The anticreep leveling device shall maintain the car within 25 mm (1 in.) of the landing irrespective of the position of the hoistway door.
For electrohydraulic elevators, the anticreep leveling device shall be required to operate the car only in the up direction.
For maintained pressure hydraulic elevators, the anticreep leveling device shall be required to operate the car in both directions.
The operation of the anticreep leveling device shall be permitted to depend on the availability of the electric power supply, provided that the power supply line disconnecting means is kept in the closed position at all times, except during maintenance, repairs, and inspection.
The anticreep leveling device shall be permitted to be rendered inoperative during recycling operation.
The following devices shall prevent operation of the elevator by the normal operating device and also the movement of the car in response to the anticreep leveling device:

(a) low-pressure switch when required by 5.3.2.2.2

(b) slack-rope switch when required by 3.18.1.2.5

(c) platform switch when required by 5.3.1.1.1

(d) hatch-cover switch when required by 5.3.1.1.3(c)

(e) speed-governor switch when required by 5.3.1.11.6

The following devices shall prevent the operation of the elevator by the normal operating device, but the anticreep leveling device shall remain operable:

(a) hoistway door locking device when required by 5.3.1.7.4

(b) car door or gate electric contacts when required by 5.3.1.8.2(c)

(c) emergency stop switch when required by 5.3.1.18.7

Section 5.4 applies to inclined elevators installed in or at a private residence. Section 5.4 also applies to similar elevators installed in buildings as a means of access to private residences within such buildings, provided the inclined elevators are so installed that they are not accessible to the general public or to other occupants in the building. Inclined elevators conforming to the requirements of Section 5.1 are not prohibited from being installed in or at a private residence.

NOTE: See also Part 8 for additional requirements that apply to private residence inclined elevators.

If the car sides extend less than 1 825 mm (72 in.) above the floor of the car, there shall be no obstruction along the runway, within the arc formed by a 600 mm (24 in.) radius whose center is the outer corner of the top rail of the car enclosure.

When solid guards are installed on the obstruction in both directions of travel, which project at least 350 mm (14 in.) in line with the direction of travel, the running clearance shall be permitted to be reduced to 175 mm (7 in.). The exposed edge of the guard shall be rounded to eliminate shear hazards.

Where a landing platform is provided or if a portion of an existing structure is used as a landing platform, it shall be protected by an enclosure not less than 915 mm (36 in.) high.
The opening in the enclosure shall be guarded by a gate to a height equal to that of the enclosure. The gates shall be permitted to be of the horizontally sliding or of the swinging type and shall be equipped with a combination mechanical lock and electric contact conforming to 2.12.4, 5.3.1.7.4, 5.3.1.7.5, 5.3.1.7.6, and 5.3.1.7.7 where doors and gates exceed 915 mm (36 in.) in height.
The landing enclosure and gates shall either be of solid construction or of openwork rejecting a 25 mm (1 in.) ball. A force of 670 N (150 lbf) applied at any area 100 mm × 100 mm (4 in. × 4 in.) on the walls of the enclosure shall not reduce the running clearance below 19 mm (0.75 in.) nor cause a deflection exceeding 25 mm (1 in.).
The horizontal clearance between the car and landing sills shall conform to 5.3.1.4.2.
All machinery and sheaves supports and machinery beams shall conform to 5.3.1.16.1.
The factor of safety for beams and their supports shall conform to 5.3.1.16.1(c).
Except at the entrance, cars shall be enclosed on all sides to a height of not less than 1 070 mm (42 in.).
Car enclosures shall be secured in conformance with 2.14.1.2 and 2.14.1.3.
The car enclosure walls shall be of such strength and so designed and supported that when subjected to a force of 334 N (75 lbf) applied horizontally at any point on the walls of the enclosure, the deflection will not reduce the running clearance below 19 mm (0.75 in.) nor to exceed 25 mm (1 in.).
Requirement 5.3.1.9.1(b) applies, and the guard shall extend horizontally within the zone where the doors or gates are unlocked.
A car door or gate that, when closed, will guard the opening to a height of at least 1 070 mm (42 in.) or to the height of the car enclosure, whichever is greater, and shall be provided at each entrance to the car. Through openings in car gates shall reject a ball 75 mm (3 in.) in diameter. The car door or gate shall be designed, constructed, and installed in accordance with 5.3.1.8.2. Power operation shall be permitted for car doors and gates, and shall conform to 5.3.1.8.2(a).
Car doors or gates shall be provided with an electric contact conforming to 2.14.4.2.3 and 2.14.4.2.5.
Car doors or gates shall be manually operated.
If the car gate is of the swinging type, opening outward from the car, the electric contact required by 5.4.4.2.2 shall not close until the gate is securely latched.
Glass or plastics, where used in elevator cars, shall conform to the following:

(a) Glass shall meet the requirements of 2.14.1.8.

(b) Plastics shall meet the requirements of ANSI Z97.1, 16 CFR Part 1201, or CAN/CGSB-12.1, CAN/CGSB-12.11, and CAN/CGSB-12.12, whichever is applicable.

Glass or plastics shall be secured as required by 5.4.4.1.2.
Materials shall be of a weatherproof type.
Inclined elevator cars shall have frames and platforms of metal or combination metal and wood, or other materials of equal strength. Car frames and platforms shall have a factor of safety of not less than 5, based on the rated load, they suitably prepared and/or protected for exposure to the weather.
Inclined elevator chassis shall be constructed of metal, except for guiding members. Chassis shall have a factor of safety of not less than 5, based on the rated load. The chassis-guiding members shall be retained and/or enclosed in guides or tracks in such a manner that the chassis cannot be derailed.
Cast iron shall not be used in the construction of any member of the car frame or chassis.
The car shall not have more than one compartment.
The rated load and net platform area shall conform to 5.3.1.10.1.
Shelves or benches permanently fixed to the car structure, which reduce the standing area of the platform, are permitted and shall not exceed 0.55 m2 (1.8 ft2). Fifty percent of the net area of shelves or benches shall be added to the standing platform area to calculate the net platform area. Baskets, shelves, or other objects not necessary for operation of the elevator shall not protrude beyond the exterior of the car enclosure.
The rated speed measured along the incline shall not exceed 0.38 m/s (75 ft/min).
Each inclined elevator shall be provided with a car safety capable of stopping and sustaining the car with rated load.
The car safety shall be of Type A, B, or C, as specified in 2.17.5, and shall be operated by a speed governor, complying with the following requirements:

(a) The governor shall be set to trip at not less than 115% nor more than 140% of the rated speed.

(b) Type A safeties shall operate as required by 2.17.8.1.

(c) Type C safeties shall operate as required by 2.17.8.2.

If the construction at the lower end of the rail is not at or below grade at the termination of the rail, counterweight safeties conforming to 5.4.7 shall be provided, except governor operation of the safeties is not required.
The speed governor shall be located where it cannot be struck by the car or counterweight in case of overtravel and where there is sufficient space for full movement of the governor parts and where it is accessible for examination.
Power shall be removed from the driving-machine motor and brake before or at the time the safety applies.
Governor ropes, where used, shall conform to 5.3.1.11.7.
The application of car safeties shall comply with 5.3.1.11.3.
The minimum factors of safety and stresses of safety parts and rope connections shall conform to 5.3.1.11.4.
Materials used in safeties shall meet the requirements of 2.17.13.

Suspension means shall conform to 5.3.1.12, except as modified by 5.4.8.1.

Where the chassis is suspended from the driving machine by a wire rope or roller chain, a single suspension means shall be permitted to be used.
The suspension means shall have a factor of safety of not less than 8, based on the tension in the rope(s) or chain(s) when raising the car and its rated load. In no case shall the rated breaking strength of the rope(s) or chain(s) be less than 17 800 N (4,000 lbf).
No car or counterweight wire rope shall be lengthened or repaired by splicing. Broken or worn suspension chains shall not be repaired. If one wire rope or a chain of a set is worn or damaged and requires replacement, the entire set of ropes or chains shall be replaced. In the event that a worn chain is replaced, the drive sprocket shall also be replaced.

Counterweight guiding and construction shall conform to 5.3.1.13.

For rated speeds not exceeding 0.25 m/s (50 ft/min), if spring- or equivalent-type buffers are not used, solid bumpers shall be installed.
Solid bumpers shall be made of wood or other suitable resilient material of sufficient strength to withstand, without failure, the impact of the car with rated load or the counterweight, descending at 125% of the rated speed.

The material used shall be of a type that will resist deterioration or be so treated as to resist deterioration.

For rated speeds exceeding 0.25 m/s (50 ft/min), buffers of the spring type shall be installed.
Spring buffers shall be constructed so as to have a minimum stroke of 19 mm (0.75 in.) and a maximum stroke of 38 mm (1.5 in.) and shall not be fully compressed when struck by the car with its rated load or counterweight traveling at 125% of the rated speed.

Car and counterweight guide, track, and track supports and fastenings shall conform to 5.3.1.15. All supporting structures shall meet the requirements of the applicable building code.

Driving machines and sheaves shall conform to 5.3.1.16.2 through 5.3.1.16.5.
The driving machine shall be permitted to be mounted on the car chassis or placed at a remote location. If remotely located, all intervening sheaves or sprockets shall be placed to ensure that ropes or chains travel in proper alignment. All sheaves or sprockets shall be guarded.
Manual operation shall conform to 5.3.1.16.2(i).

Terminal stopping devices shall conform to 5.3.1.17.

The inclined elevator shall be operated by weatherproof constant pressure or momentary pressure key switches at each landing and on the car. Key-operated switches shall be of the spring-return type and shall be operated by a cylinder-type lock having not less than five-pin or five-disk combination with the key removable only when the switch is in the off position. The key shall be Group 4 Security (see Section 8.1).
Emergency stop switches shall be provided in the cars and shall conform to 5.3.1.18.7.
The design and installation of the control and operating circuits shall conform to 5.3.1.18.2.
Hand rope operation shall not be used.
If the driving machine is mounted on the car chassis, electrical connections between the car and power source shall be provided with a means to remove power if the connecting traveling cable part. All electrical connections to the moving chassis and the stationary connections shall be insulated flexible conductors, in accordance with NFPA 70 or CSA C22.1, whichever is applicable (see Part 9).
Traveling cables shall be Type EO, ETT, or ETP and shall conform to the requirements of NFPA 70 or CSA C22.1, whichever is applicable (see Part 9). Where traveling cable voltage exceeds 30 V, a means shall be provided to remove the power automatically upon parting of the traveling cable.

Capacity, data, and code data plates shall be provided as required in 5.3.1.20.1, 5.3.1.20.2, and Section 8.9. All plates shall be weather resistant.

Section 5.5 applies to power sidewalk elevators. Requirement 5.5.1 applies to electric elevators. Requirement 5.5.2 applies to direct-plunger hydraulic elevators.

NOTE: See also Part 8 for additional requirements that apply to power sidewalk elevators.

The construction of hoistway enclosures shall conform to Section 2.1, except as modified by the following:

(a) Requirement 2.1.1.1. Hoistways are not required to be enclosed above the top landing.

(b) Requirement 2.1.1.3 does not apply.

(c) Requirement 2.1.2.1 does not apply.

(d) Requirement 2.1.3 does not apply.

Pits shall conform to Section 2.2. Means shall be provided to automatically remove water from the pit.
The location and guarding of counterweights shall conform to Section 2.3.
Where a car top is provided, bottom and top clearances and runbys for cars and counterweights shall conform to Section 2.4.

Where no car top is provided, they shall conform to 2.4.1 through 2.4.4 and 2.4.9. When the car has reached its maximum upward movement, no equipment shall strike the overhead structure or other obstructions.

On elevators with vertical lifting covers, there shall be a clearance of not less than 600 mm (24 in.) between the top of the cover and any obstruction vertically above it when the car has reached its maximum upward movement.

The clearance required by 2.4.1 does not apply below underslung elevators with the car resting on its fully compressed buffers, when a refuge space not less than either of the following is provided:

(a) a horizontal area 600 mm × 1 200 mm (24 in. × 48 in.), with a height of 600 mm (24 in.)

(b) a horizontal area 450 mm × 900 mm (18 in. × 36 in.), with a height of 1 070 mm (42 in.)

Horizontal car and counterweight clearances shall conform to Section 2.5, except as modified by 5.5.1.5.

For sidewalk elevators with adjacent openings, the maximum clearance required by 2.5.1.5 shall be permitted to be increased on the side where the overhead sheaves are located, provided that in such cases this clearance shall not be greater than that required for the installation of the sheaves or sheave beams plus running clearance of not more than 25 mm (1 in.).

Where the hoistway does not extend to the lowest floor of the building, it shall conform to Section 2.6.
Machine rooms and machinery spaces shall conform to Section 2.7.
Electrical equipment, wiring, pipes, and ducts in hoistways and machine rooms shall conform to Section 2.8 and 5.5.1.8.1 through 5.5.1.8.3.
Slack-rope switches (where required), lower normal and final terminal stopping devices, and pit stop switches shall be located not less than 600 mm (24 in.) above the pit floor.
All electrical equipment in the hoistway shall be weatherproof.
Electrical metal tubing (EMT) shall not be used.
Machinery and sheave beams, supports, and foundations shall conform to Section 2.9.
The guarding of exposed auxiliary equipment shall conform to Section 2.10.
Vertical hoistway landing openings shall conform to Section 2.11, except that 2.11.2.1 does not apply.

(a) The clear opening in a sidewalk that is accessible to the general public when the sidewalk door or cover is open shall be such that the sidewalk permits a minimum 1 200 mm (48 in.) wide unobstructed pedestrian path, which is not normally accessible to vehicular traffic.

(b) Hoistways shall not be located either wholly or partially in front of any entrance to a building.

(c) The side of the door opening nearest to any building wall or other obstruction shall be less than or equal to 100 mm (4 in.), or greater than 914 mm (36 in.), from the wall or obstruction.

(d) Horizontal openings in sidewalks or other areas exterior to the building shall be protected by hinged metal doors or vertically lifting covers having a nonslip upper surface. Such doors or covers shall not be used where the hoistway is located inside the building. Doors or covers shall be of sufficient strength to safely support a static load of not less than 1 460 kg/m2 (300 lb/ft2), uniformly distributed.

(e) When in the closed position, doors shall be flush with the adjacent sidewalk or other surface.

(f) Such doors and covers shall conform to 5.5.1.11.3 or 5.5.1.11.4.

(g) All openings between sidewalk door panels and frames shall be provided with gutters to collect rainwater. Their gutters shall be piped rigidly to a discharge point exterior to the hoistway and pit or to the sump pit when provided and designed in accordance with 5.5.1.2.

(h) When subject to vehicular traffic, the doors or covers shall be designed to safely support the loads likely to be imposed on them.

(a) The line of the hinges shall be at right angles to the building wall.

(b) There shall be a minimum clearance of 450 mm (18 in.) between the face of the doors and any obstruction when the doors are in the open position.

(c) The doors shall be opened by the ascending car and shall be self-closing as the car descends, and shall be kept in the closed position when the car is not at the top landing, except as provided for in 5.5.1.11.3(d).

(d) The doors shall be permitted to be held or fastened in the open position when the car is not at the top landing, provided self-closing hinged metal screen panels, which will reject a ball 50 mm (2 in.) in diameter and which will support a static load of not less than 1 135 N (300 lbf) applied on any area 600 mm (24 in.) on a side and not less than 68 kg (150 lb) applied at any point, are installed directly below the watertight sidewalk doors. Screen panels shall be opened and closed automatically by the ascending and descending car and shall always be closed when the car is not at the top landing.

(e) Stops shall be provided to prevent the doors from opening more than 90 deg from their closed position.

(a) The covers shall be raised and lowered vertically by the ascending and descending car and shall not be held or fastened in the open position when the car is not at the top landing.

(b) Recesses or guides, which will securely hold the cover in place on the stanchions, shall be provided on the underside of the cover.

Requirement 2.12.1.1 does not apply.
Interlocks or electric contacts are not required on horizontal hinged-type swinging covers and vertical lifting covers used at the top landing in sidewalks or other areas exterior to the building. Locks, if used, shall be of the spring type and shall be automatically unlocked by the bow irons or stanchions of the car, unless the locks are of the type that permit operation of the elevators to open the cover only if the locking device is in the unlocked position.
Hoistway access switches are not required for access to the top of the car.
Power operation, power opening, and power closing of the hoistway doors and car doors or gates shall conform to Section 2.13.
Car enclosures shall conform to 2.14.1 and 2.14.3, except as modified by the following:

(a) Car tops are not required. Where provided, the distance between the top of the car and the bow iron or stanchions shall be not less than 1 067 mm (42 in.).

(b) Requirements 2.14.1.5 and 2.14.1.6 apply only when a car top is provided.

(c) The height of the car enclosure required by 2.14.3.1 shall be permitted to be reduced when the height of the bow iron or stanchion is reduced as permitted by 5.5.1.15.2(a).

Car doors and gates shall conform to 2.14.4 and 2.14.6.
Illumination of cars and lighting fixtures shall conform to 2.14.7, except as modified by the following:

(a) Lighting devices are not required in the car if there are lighting devices exterior to the car, which will provide the minimum illumination specified in 2.14.7.1.2(b) for the full travel of the car.

(b) Requirement 2.14.7.1.3 does not apply.

(c) Requirement 2.14.7.1.4 applies only where a car top is provided.

Sidewalk elevators arranged to travel above the level of the sidewalk or other area exterior to the building shall conform to the following:

(a) Car frames of the underslung rope-suspended-type elevators shall be of sufficient depth to provide the minimum vertical clearance between the car rope hitches or car sheaves and any obstruction in the hoistway vertically above them, as specified in 2.4.8, when the car floor is level with its upper landing level.

(b) The depth of the car frame and the length and spacing of guiding members shall conform to 2.15.4 and, in addition, shall be such as to prevent tipping of the platform when it is at the highest upper landing level.

(c) The car platform shall be provided with metal aprons or guards on all exposed sides conforming to the following:

(1) They shall be made of metal of not less than 1.5 mm (0.059 in.) in thickness.

(2) They shall have a straight vertical face flush with the outer edge of the platform having a depth of not less than the distance between the normal upper terminal landing level and the highest upper landing level plus 75 mm (3 in.).

(3) The lower portion of the guard shall be rounded or beveled at an angle of approximately 75 deg with the horizontal.

Where hinged doors or vertically lifting covers are provided at the sidewalk or other exterior area, bow irons or stanchions shall be provided on the car to operate the doors or covers.

Bow irons and stanchions shall conform to the following:

(a) They shall be not less than 2 130 mm (84 in.) high, except that this height shall be permitted to be reduced by an amount necessary to permit the doors or covers to close when the car is at the landing next to the top terminal landing.

(b) They shall be so designed, installed, and braced as to withstand the impact when striking the doors or covers.

(c) Bow irons shall be located approximately symmetrical with respect to the center of the car platform.

(d) Stanchions shall be framed together at their upper ends and provided with spring buffers at the top.

Capacity and loading shall conform to Section 2.16, except as modified by the following:

(a) Requirement 2.16.1 does not apply.

(b) Requirement 2.16.4 does not apply. Sidewalk elevators shall not be permitted to carry passengers.

Safeties shall conform to Section 2.17, except as modified by the following:

Where the rated speed does not exceed 0.25 m/s (50 ft/min), car safeties that operate as a result of breaking or slackening of the hoisting ropes shall be permitted to be used in lieu of governor-actuated safeties required by 2.17.7.1. The safety shall operate without delay.

Governors, where provided, shall conform to Section 2.18.
Counterweights shall conform to Section 2.21.
Guide rails shall conform to Section 2.23.
Driving machines and sheaves shall conform to Section 2.24, except that the ratio of the drum diameter to the rope diameter (see 2.24.2) shall be permitted to be reduced to 24.
Terminal stopping devices shall conform to Section 2.25 (see also 5.5.1.8).
Operating devices and control equipment shall conform to Section 2.26, except as modified by 5.5.1.25.1 through 5.5.1.25.4. Where the top opening is located in an area exterior to the building, all electrical equipment on the car shall be weatherproof.
Operating devices shall be of the automatic or continuous-pressure type. Operation through openings in the sidewalk or other area exterior to the building shall conform to 5.5.1.25.2.
The operation of elevators through openings in the sidewalk, or through openings in other exterior areas, and which are protected by hinged doors or vertically lifting covers, shall conform to the following:

(a) The elevator shall be operated through the opening, in both the up and down directions, only from the sidewalk or other exterior area or from on the car as permitted by 5.5.1.25.2(g) and at a speed not exceeding 0.13 m/s (25 ft/min). The operation shall be by means of

(1) key-operated continuous-pressure-type up-and-down switches; or

(2) continuous-pressure-type up-and-down operating buttons on the free end of a detachable, flexible cord not more than 1 525 mm (60 in.) in length.

(b) Key-operated switches shall be of the continuous-pressure spring-return type and shall be operated by a cylinder-type lock having not less than a five-pin or five-disk combination with the key removable only when the switch is in the "OFF" position.

(c) Key-operated switches and plug receptacles for flexible cords shall be weatherproof and shall be installed above the sidewalk or other area on the side of the building wall, located 450 mm (18 in.) or less horizontally from one side of the opening.

(d) Operating buttons, if provided in the elevator car and at any landing below the top landing, shall operate the car only when the bow iron or stanchions are not in contact with the doors or covers in the sidewalk or other exterior area.

(e) When the bow iron or stanchions are in contact with the doors or covers at the sidewalk or other exterior area, it shall be possible to operate the car only by means of either the key switches or the continuous-pressure-type up-and-down buttons on the free end of the flexible cord specified in 5.5.1.25.2(a).

(f) Flexible cords and operating keys shall not be left where they are accessible to unauthorized persons for operation of the elevator.

(g) On sidewalk door openings protected by hinged doors and hinged metal screen panels, once the hinged sidewalk doors are in the full opened position the elevator shall be permitted to be operated from on the car with the sidewalk doors in the full opened position subject to the following:

(1) The elevator shall be provided with self closing hinged metal screen panels in accordance with 5.5.1.11.3 which cover the entire sidewalk opening.

(2) Where the side of the sidewalk door opening is more than 100 mm (4 in.) from any building wall or other obstruction it shall be provided with a secured barrier that can be removed for loading and unloading the elevator at the sidewalk level and that shall be put in place to protect the sidewalk opening when the elevator is being operated from on the car below the sidewalk level. The secured barrier shall comply with 2.10.2.

(3) All of the required sidewalk level barriers are in place and their proper placement has electrically enabled the car operating circuit.

The requirement for a top-of-car operating device (see 2.26.1.4) applies only where a car top is provided. It shall operate the car at a speed not greater than 0.13 m/s (25 ft/min). It shall not operate when the bow iron or stanchions are in contact with the doors or covers in the sidewalk or other exterior area.

The requirement for a stop switch on top of the car (see 2.26.2.8) applies only where a car top is provided.

Where the car is not fully enclosed, the rated speed shall not exceed 0.25 m/s (50 ft/min), except as required by 5.5.1.25.2(a) and 5.5.1.25.3.

Where the car is fully enclosed, there is no limit on the rated speed, except as required by 5.5.1.25.2(a) and 5.5.1.25.3.

If car operating buttons are provided, car emergency signaling devices shall be provided conforming to 2.27.1.1.1 and 2.27.1.2. If the rise is more than 7.6 m (25 ft), the signaling devices shall also conform to 2.27.1.1.2.
The information provided on layout data shall conform to Section 2.28.
Welding shall conform to Section 8.8.
Hoistways, hoistway enclosures, and related construction shall conform to 5.5.1.1 through 5.5.1.13, and 5.5.2.1 through 5.5.2.18, except 5.5.1.4 and 5.5.1.6.
Where a car top is provided, bottom and top clearances and runbys for cars and counterweights shall conform to Section 3.4.

Where no car top is provided, they shall conform to 3.4.1, 3.4.2.1, and 3.4.6.2. When the car has reached its maximum upward movement, no equipment shall strike the overhead structure or other obstruction.

Where the hoistway does not extend to the lowest floor of the building, it shall conform to Section 3.6.
Machine rooms and machinery spaces shall conform to Section 3.7.
The requirements for emergency doors in single blind hoistways apply only where a car safety is provided.
Car frames and platforms shall conform to 3.15, 5.5.1.15.1, and 5.5.1.15.2.
Capacity and loading shall conform to Section 2.16, except as modified by 3.16 and 5.5.1.16.
Car safeties, where provided, shall conform to 5.5.1.17 and shall be of the type that can be released only by moving the car in the up direction.

Counterweight safeties, where provided, shall conform to 3.17.2.

Where provided, counterweights shall conform to Section 3.21.
Guide rails and their supports and fastenings shall conform to Section 3.23.
Tanks shall conform to Section 3.24.
Terminal stopping devices shall conform to Section 3.25 (see also 5.5.1.8).
Operating devices and control equipment shall conform to Section 3.26, 5.5.1.25.1, 5.5.1.25.2, and 5.5.1.25.4 and all electrical equipment on the car shall be weatherproof.
The requirement for a top-of-car operating device (see 3.26.2) applies only where a car top is provided. It shall operate the car at a speed not greater than 0.13 m/s (25 ft/min). It shall not operate when the bow iron or stanchions are in contact with the doors or covers in the sidewalk or other exterior area.
The requirement for a stop switch on top of the car (see 2.26.2.8 and 3.26.4.1) applies only where a car top is provided.
The information provided on layout data shall conform to Section 3.28.

Section 5.6 applies to rooftop elevators. Requirement 5.6.1 applies to electric elevators. Requirement 5.6.2 applies to direct-plunger hydraulic elevators.

NOTE: See also Part 8 for additional requirements that apply to rooftop elevators.

The construction of hoistway enclosures shall conform to Section 2.1, except as modified by the following:

(a) Requirement 2.1.1.1. Hoistways are not required to be enclosed above the rooftop landing.

(b) Requirement