ADOPTS WITHOUT AMENDMENTS:

ASME A17.1, 2016

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.

This Section applies to an elevator with a car raised and lowered by a pinion(s) on a rack(s).

NOTE: See also Part 8 for additional requirements that apply to rack-and-pinion elevators.

Hoistways and hoistway enclosures shall conform to 2.1.1, 2.1.2, 2.1.4, 2.1.5, and 2.1.6. When a floor is provided over a hoistway, it shall conform to 2.1.3.

Pits shall conform to Section 2.2.

When provided, counterweights shall conform to Section 2.3.

Vertical clearances and runbys for cars and counterweights shall conform to Section 2.4.

Horizontal car and counterweight clearances shall conform to Section 2.5.

Where a hoistway does not extend to the lowest floor of the building or structure and there is space below the hoistway that is accessible, the requirements of 4.1.6.1 and 4.1.6.2 shall apply.

Where the space below the hoistway is underneath the counterweight and/or its guides, the following shall apply:

(a) The counterweight shall be provided with a counterweight safety conforming to 4.1.17.

(b) When spring buffers are used, they shall conform to 4.1.22, except that they shall not be fully compressed when struck by the counterweight at the following speeds:

(1) governor tripping speed (see Table 4.1.18.1) where the counterweight safety is governor operated

(2) 125% of the rated speed where the counterweight safety is not governor operated

Where the space below the hoistway is underneath the car and/or its guides, spring buffers, when used, shall be so designed and installed that they will not be compressed solid or to a fixed stop when struck by the car with its rated load at the governor tripping speed (see Table 4.1.18.1).
Rack-and-pinion elevator control rooms, where provided, shall conform to 2.7.6.1.
The location of machinery spaces and control spaces shall conform to 2.7.6.2.

NOTE: For rack-and-pinion elevators, inside the hoistway is limited to on or in the car.

The location of equipment used directly in connection with the rack-and-pinion elevator shall conform to 2.7.6.3.1 through 2.7.6.3.4.
Where a rack-and-pinion elevator driving-machine brake or an emergency brake, elevator brake, or elevator motion controller or motor controller is located in the hoistway, means necessary for tests that require movement of the car or release of the driving-machine brake or emergency brake shall be provided and arranged so that they can be operated from outside the hoistway.
Equipment exposed to the weather shall conform to 2.7.6.6.
Control rooms shall conform to the following:

(a) Where the building code requires fire-resistive construction, control rooms shall be separated from the remainder of the building.

(b) Where the building code does not require fire-resistive construction of the control room, control rooms shall be enclosed with noncombustible material to a height not less than 2 000 mm (79 in.). The enclosure, if of openwork material, shall reject a ball 50 mm (2 in.) in diameter.

(c) They shall provide a clear maintenance path of not less than 450 mm (18 in.) to all components that require maintenance.

(d) They shall have clear headroom of not less than 2 130 mm (84 in.).

(e) They shall be provided with natural or mechanical means to keep the ambient air temperature and humidity in the range specified by the elevator equipment manufacturer.

(f) They shall be provided with permanent lighting providing minimum illumination of 200 lx (19 fc) at the floor level. The lighting control switch shall be located within easy reach of the access door.

(g) They shall be provided with an access door having a minimum width of 750 mm (29.5 in.) and a minimum height 2 030 mm (80 in.). The door shall be self-closing and self-locking, provided with a spring-type lock arranged to permit the door to be opened from the inside without a key, and kept closed and locked.

(h) A permanent means of communication shall be provided between the elevator car and a remote control room.

(i) Keys to unlock the access door shall be of Group 2 Security (see Section 8.1).

Machinery spaces and control spaces on the car top shall conform to the following:

(a) A rack-and-pinion machine and its controls shall be protected by a noncombustible enclosure(s) to prevent accidental contact. Openwork noncombustible enclosure material shall be permitted to be used for rack-and-pinion machines located on top of the car, provided the openwork material will reject a ball 50 mm (2 in.) in diameter.

(b) Access to the machinery space and/or control space located on the car top shall be permitted by means of the top emergency exit and shall be subject to the following:

(1) The top emergency exit shall conform to the requirements of 2.14.1.5.

(2) All edges of the top emergency exit shall be smooth and free of burrs.

(3) Means shall be provided to ascend and descend safely between the floor of the elevator and the car top.

(4) The top emergency exit shall be keyed to Group 1 Security (see Section 8.1).

(c) Machinery spaces and control spaces on the car top shall be provided with permanent lighting providing minimum illumination of 200 lx (19 fc) at the standing surface on the car top. The lighting control switch shall be located at the point of entry.

Machinery spaces and control spaces in the car shall conform to the following:

(a) They shall be protected by noncombustible solid enclosure(s) to prevent accidental contact.

(b) They shall be provided with an access panel subject to the following:

(1) The access panel shall be provided with an electric contact and lock.

(2) The access panel shall not be self-closing and shall be self-locking.

(3) The access panel shall be kept closed and locked.

(4) The electric contact shall be designed to prevent operation of the rack-and-pinion machine when the access panel is open.

(5) The access panel shall be keyed to Group 1 Security (see Section 8.1).

(c) Machinery spaces and control spaces in the car shall be provided with permanent lighting having a minimum illumination of 200 lx (19 fc) at the floor level. The lighting control switch shall be located at the point of entry.

Machinery spaces beneath the car shall conform to the following:

(a) The rack-and-pinion machine shall be protected by noncombustible enclosure(s) to prevent accidental contact. Openwork noncombustible enclosure material shall be permitted to be used for rack-and-pinion machines located beneath the car, provided the openwork material will reject a ball 50 mm (2 in.) in diameter.

(b) Access to the machinery space shall be permitted by means of the pit access and shall comply with 2.2.4.

(c) A retractable stop shall be permanently installed and shall be subject to the following:

(1) The retractable stop shall maintain the car no less than 2 100 mm (83 in.) from the pit floor position when in its extended position.

(2) Means shall be provided to secure the retractable stop in its fully extended position.

(3) Hoistway access operation or pit inspection operation shall be provided to position the car at the retractable stop.

(4) A retractable stop electric device (see 4.1.26.2.37) shall be provided and shall comply with 2.7.5.5(a).

(d) The machinery space beneath the car shall be provided with permanent lighting having a minimum illumination of 200 lx (19 fc) at the level of the standing surface when the car is in the blocked position. The lighting control switch shall be located at the point of entry.

NOTE: For rack-and-pinion elevators, beneath the car is limited to on the car.

Control spaces exterior to the hoistway shall conform to the following:

(a) They shall be protected by noncombustible solid enclosure(s) to prevent accidental contact.

(b) Access shall be provided to the control space and shall be subject to the following:

(1) Access panels to control equipment shall be provided with an electric contact and lock.

(2) The access panel door(s) shall not be self-closing and shall be self-locking.

(3) The access panel shall be kept closed and locked.

(4) An electric contact shall be provided to remove power from the rack-and-pinion machine when the access panel is open. A means shall be provided to permit operation of the rack-and-pinion machine while performing testing and troubleshooting.

(5) Keys to access control equipment shall be of Group 1 Security (see Section 8.1).

(c) Control spaces shall be provided with permanent lighting having a minimum illumination of 200 lx (19 fc) at the floor level. The lighting control switch shall be located within easy reach of the access door.

Electrical equipment, wiring, pipes, and ducts in the hoistway or machinery spaces, control spaces, and control rooms shall conform to Section 2.8, except that the main feeder of a rack-and-pinion machine located on the car shall be permitted to be installed in the hoistway.

Supports and foundations shall be designed to support all loads imposed by the elevator (including impact loading in the event of a safety application, the car striking the car buffers in accordance with 4.1.22, or the counterweight striking the counterweight buffers in accordance with 4.1.22) in accordance with the applicable building code. Allowable stresses for machinery and sheave beams or floors and their supports shall be in accordance with 2.9.4.

In machinery spaces, control spaces, and control rooms, the following shall be guarded to protect against accidental contact:

(a) sheaves

(b) exposed gears, sprockets, or drums of selectors, floor controllers, or signal machines, and their driving ropes, chains, or tapes

(c) keys, keyways, and screws in projecting shafts

When required in Section 4.1, the railing shall conform to 2.10.2.

Protection of hoistway openings shall conform to Section 2.11 except that emergency doors in 2.11.1.2 are not required when the elevator is restricted to access by authorized personnel and is equipped with a manually operated device that permits lowering the car at an automatically controlled speed to the nearest landing.

Car frames and platforms shall conform to Section 2.15, except for 2.15.12 and 2.15.13.

Capacity and loading shall conform to Section 2.16.

The car shall be provided with one of the following safeties:

(a) a rack-and-pinion safety. The safety shall be attached to the car frame. All rack-and-pinion car safeties shall be mounted on a single car frame and shall operate on one or more vertical rack(s). A rack-and-pinion safety shall be permitted to be located above, below, or in the car, provided that the members to which it is fixed are part of the car frame and are designed to withstand the forces imposed. Rack-and-pinion safeties are safeties in which a freely rotating safety pinion, a governor, and a safety device shall be permitted to form an integral unit. The freely rotating pinion travels on a stationary rack mounted vertically on a supporting structure. The rotating pinion drives the governor. When the speed of the car reaches the tripping value, the rotating governor actuates the safety device that, in turn, brings the car to a stop.

(b) a safety complying with Section 2.17.

The stopping distances for rack-and-pinion safeties and the travel of the car measured from the governor tripping time to the full stop time shall not exceed the values based on rated speed given in Table 4.1.18.1.

When calculating stopping distances, the kinetic energy from the driving unit shall be taken into account.

Parts of rack-and-pinion safeties complying with 4.1.17(a), except springs, shall have a factor of safety of not less than 3.5, and the materials used shall have an elongation of not less than 15% in a length of 50 mm (2 in.) when tested in accordance with ASTM E8. Forged, cast, or welded parts shall be stress relieved.
A metal plate shall be securely attached to each safety so as to be readily visible, and shall be marked in a legible and permanent manner with letters and figures not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) in height indicating the following:

(a) the maximum tripping speed in meters per second (feet per minute) for which the safety is permitted

(b) the maximum weight in kilograms (pounds) for which the safety is designed and installed to stop and sustain

(c) the manufacturer's date of expiration (see 8.6.6.1), if applicable

(d) the manufacturer's name or trademark

Rack-and-pinion speed governors shall conform to the following:

(a) Tripping speeds shall conform to those given in Table 4.1.18.1.

(b) They shall be provided with a governor overspeed switch that shall open at 100% of the governor tripping speed in the down direction and shall be actuated by the action of the integral rack-and-pinion speed governor.

(c) The actuation of the governor overspeed switch shall cause power to be removed from the rack-and-pinion drive motor(s) and brake(s).

(d) The overspeed switch shall be positively opened, shall be of the manually reset type, and shall comply with 4.1.26.2.10.

(e) Minimum factors of safety of integral rack-and-pinion speed governor(s) shall conform to 4.1.17.2.

(f) Sealing and painting of rack-and-pinion speed governors shall conform to 2.18.3.

Table 4.1.18.1 Maximum and Minimum Stopping Distances for Rack-and-Pinion Safeties With Rated Load

SI Units Imperial Units
Rated Speed,
m/s
Maximum Governor Trip Speed,
m/s
Stopping Distance,
mm
Rated Speed,
ft/min
Maximum Governor Trip Speed,
ft/min
Stopping Distance,
in.
Min. Max. Min. Max.
0—0.63     0.90      80.0   1 650.0 0—125   175     3     65
  0.75     1.05     110.0   1 700.0   150   210     4     67
  0.87 1.3725     160.0   1 790.0   175   250     6     70
  1.00   1.40   200.0 1      870.0   200   280     8     73
  1.12   1.55   250.0 1      945.0   225   308   10     76
  1.25   1.70   300.0 2      030.0   250   337   12     80
  1.50   2.00   410.0 2      240.0   300   395   16     88
  1.75   2.30   540.0 2      470.0   350   452   21     97
  2.00   2.55   680.0 2      730.0   400   510   26    108
  2.25   2.90   850.0 3      030.0   450   568   33    119
  2.50   3.15   1 025.0   3 100.0   500   625   40    122
  3.00   3.70   1 440.0   4 100.0   600   740   56    161
  3.50   4.30   1 920.0   4 975.0   700   855   75    196
  4.00   4.85   2 475.0   5 975.0   800   970   97   235
  4.50   5.50   3 100.0   7 100.0   900 1,085 122   280
  5.00   6.00   3 775.0   8 300.0 1,000 1,200 149   327
  5.50   6.60   4 575.0   9 800.0 1,100 1,320 180   385
  6.00   7.20   5 450.0 11 400.0 1,200 1,440 214   448
  6.50   7.80   6 400.0 13 100.0 1,300 1,560 252   515
  7.00   8.40   7 420.0 14 900.0 1,400 1,680 292   588
  7.50   9.00   8 070.0 16 900.0 1,500 1,800 333   667
  8.00   9.60   9 640.0 19 050.0 1,600 1,920 381   750
  8.50 10.20 10 940.0 21 300.0 1,700 2,040 430   839
  9.00 10.80 12 260.0 23 700.0 1,800 2,160 483   934
  9.50 11.40 13 670.0 26 750.0 1,900 2,280 538 1,054
10.00 12.00 15 145.0 28 925.0 2,000 2,400 596 1,140

Ascending car overspeed and unintended car movement protection, when required by Section 2.19, shall conform to

(a) 2.19.1, 2.19.2, and 2.19.3 as applicable to rack-and-pinion elevators, or

(b) on a multiple-drive system where each drive system brake is capable of holding the car at a stationary position and where such brake conforms to 2.19.3.2(h) through (j)

When provided, suspension ropes and their connections shall conform to Section 2.20.

When provided, counterweights shall conform to Section 2.21. In addition, where a hoisting sheave or sheaves are mounted in the frame, the requirements for sheaves in 2.24.2 and 2.24.3 shall apply.

Buffers and bumpers shall conform to Section 2.22, except that where car spring buffers are used, the following apply:

(a) The buffers shall be so designed and installed that they will not be fully compressed when struck by the car with its rated load at the governor tripping speed. Kinetic energy from the drive unit shall be taken into account in the design calculations. The effect of the counterweight, where used, shall also be taken into account in the design calculations.

(b) The requirements of 2.22.3.2 do not apply to car buffers.

Car and counterweight guide rails, guide-rail supports, and their fastenings shall conform to Section 2.23.

Rack-and-pinion-type drives shall conform to 4.1.24.1 through 4.1.24.8.

The rack-and-pinion drive machine shall

(a) consist of one or more power-driven rotating pinions arranged to travel on a stationary rack mounted on the supporting structure.

(b) have at least one pinion, one rack, and two backup rollers, where at least one pinion, one rack, and one backup roller shall act on the same section of rack as the drive pinion. Driving machines utilizing a two-sided rack, where two drive pinions are located so that they are opposite each other and act as backup rollers, shall be deemed to have met this requirement.

(c) have all moving parts of the driving machine properly protected from accidental contact (see 4.1.7.3 and 4.1.7.4).

(d) have the rack and pinion so designed as to limit the separation of the pinion from the rack in all directions to 25% of the tooth depth or 6 mm (0.25 in.), whichever is greater.

(e) have the pinion guarded to prevent foreign material from falling onto and lodging between the teeth of the pinion and rack. The clearance between the moving parts and the guard shall not exceed 5 mm (0.1875 in.).

(f) be provided with a sign that shall

(1) include information on checking tooth wear of the pinion and rack

(2) show the maximum allowable wear limits for the rack and the pinion

(3) be of metal securely fastened and conspicuously displayed on top of the car with permanent lettering not less than 3 mm (0.125 in.) high

(a) Pinions and racks shall be of steel or of material having mechanical properties equivalent to or better than those of steel, with a minimum factor of safety of 8 based on ultimate stress for the pinion and the rack. They shall be designed to conform to AGMA 218.01, including surface hardening and an assumption of a minimum of 200 000 life cycles.

(b) Rack sections shall be fastened to the supporting structure with a factor of safety of 5 based on ultimate stress, and with dowels at each joint.

Fasteners transmitting load shall conform to 4.1.24.3.1 and 4.1.24.3.2.
Set screws or threaded portions located in the shear plane of bolts and screws shall not be used to transmit load. Means shall be provided to ensure that there is no relative motion between rigidly joined components transmitting load. The factors of safety to be used in the design of fasteners transmitting load in driving machines and sheaves shall be not less than those specified in 4.1.24.2.
Where flexible couplings are used to transmit load, means shall be provided to prevent disengagement of the coupling components in the event of the failure of or excessive motion in the flexible connection.
A fillet shall be provided at any point of change in the diameter of driving-machine shafts and sheave shafts to prevent excessive stress concentrations in the shafts (see 4.1.24.3.1). Shafts that support gears, couplings, and other members, and that transmit torque shall be provided with tight-fitting keys.
Gears made of cast iron shall not be used in rack-and-pinion driving machines.
Friction gearing or a clutch mechanism shall not be used to connect a driving-machine pinion(s) to the main driving mechanism.
Each gear case of geared machines shall have access to permit inspection of the contact surfaces of the gears. Such access need not provide a direct view of all gears but shall be located and sized adequately to allow access by fiber optic or similar visual inspection instrumentation.
Terminal stopping devices shall conform to 2.25.1 through 2.25.3, except 2.25.2.2, 2.25.3.3, and 2.25.3.5. Terminal stopping devices shall be permitted to be located on the car and operated by cams attached to the hoistway structure.
Types of operating devices shall conform to 2.26.1.1.
Car-switch operation elevators shall conform to 2.26.1.2.
Rack-and-pinion elevators equipped to carry one-piece loads greater than the rated load shall conform to 2.16.7 and 2.26.1.3.
Inspection operation with open door circuits shall conform to 2.26.1.5, including 2.26.1.5.1 through 2.26.1.5.8.
Operation in leveling or truck zone shall conform to 2.26.1.6, including 2.26.1.6.1 through 2.26.1.6.7.
When an electrical protective device is activated (operated, opened), it shall cause the electric power to be removed from the rack-and-pinion driving-machine motor and brake. Electrical protective devices, when provided, shall conform as indicated in 4.1.26.2.1 through 4.1.26.2.39.

NOTE: The requirements of 4.1.26.2 are organized to parallel those in 2.26.2, as indicated by the last digit(s) of the paragraph designations (e.g., 2.26.2.1 and 4.1.26.2.1 both address slack-rope switch requirements).

A slack-rope switch shall conform to 2.26.2.1.
A motor-generator running switch shall conform to 2.26.2.2.
Motor field sensing means shall conform to 2.26.2.4.
Broken rope, tape, or chain switches shall conform to 2.26.2.6.
A stop switch in pit shall conform to 2.26.2.7.
A stop switch on top of car shall conform to 2.26.2.8.
A car safety mechanism switch conforming to 2.26.2.9 shall be required where a car safety is provided conforming to 4.1.17(b).
A speed-governor overspeed switch, when required by 4.1.18, shall conform to 4.1.18.1.
Buffer switches for oil buffers used with Type C car safeties shall conform to 4.1.17.
Car door and gate electric contacts shall conform to 2.26.2.15.
A car top emergency exit electrical device shall conform to 2.26.2.18.
Motor-generator overspeed protection shall conform to 2.26.2.19.
Electrical contacts for hinged car platform sills shall conform to 2.26.2.20.
Stop switches in remote control rooms shall conform to 2.26.2.23.
A stop switch in an overhead machinery space in the hoistway shall conform to 2.26.2.24.
A blind hoistway emergency door locking device shall conform to 2.26.2.25.
A pit access door electric contact shall conform to 2.26.2.26.
Stop switches in remote counterweight hoistways shall conform to 2.26.2.27.
An ascending car overspeed protection device shall conform to 2.26.2.29.
An unintended car movement device shall conform to 2.26.2.30.
A car access panel locking device shall conform to 2.26.2.31.
A hoistway access opening locking device shall conform to 2.26.2.32.
A firefighters' stop switch shall conform to 2.26.2.33.
An unexpected car movement device shall conform to 2.26.2.34.
An electric contact on equipment access panels in the car shall conform to 2.26.2.35.
An electric contact used on a working platform shall conform to 2.26.2.36.
An electric contact used on a retractable stop shall conform to 2.26.2.37.
An electric contact used on a retractable ladder shall conform to 2.26.2.38.
A sway control guide slack suspension detection means shall conform to 2.26.2.39.
Contactors and relays for use in critical operating circuits shall conform to 2.26.3.
Electrical equipment and wiring shall conform to 2.26.4.1 through 2.26.4.5 and the following:

(a) A disconnecting means shall be provided conforming to NFPA 70 or CSA C22.1, whichever is applicable (see Part 9). The disconnecting means shall be located in a control room or a machinery space or control space located outside the hoistway.

(b) When the controller is located on the car, an auxiliary disconnecting means conforming to NFPA 70 or CSA C22.1, whichever is applicable (see Part 9), shall be located adjacent to and within sight of the controller.

Phase protection of motors shall conform to 2.26.6.
Installation of capacitors or other devices to make electrical protective devices ineffective are prohibited in accordance with 2.26.7.
Release and application of driving-machine brakes shall conform to 2.26.8.
Control and operating circuits shall conform to 2.26.9.
Absorption of regenerated power shall conform to 2.26.10.
Vertical distances between the car platform sill and the hoistway door sill shall conform to 2.26.11.
Symbols shall conform to 2.26.12.

Emergency operation and signaling devices shall conform to Section 2.27.

Layout drawings shall, in addition to the data required by 2.28.1, indicate the following:

(a) the dimensions of the rack and its location with respect to the guide rail

(b) the magnitude of the loads from the rack imposed on the building structure

Identification shall conform to Section 2.29.

Welding shall conform to Section 8.8.

This Section applies to an elevator having an uncounterweighted car that is supported by a screw column and is raised and lowered by screw thread means.

NOTE: See also Part 8 for additional requirements that apply to screw-column elevators.

Hoistways, hoistway enclosures, and related construction shall conform to Sections 2.1, 2.2, and 2.10 through 2.13.

The bottom car clearance shall conform to 2.4.1, provided that, in the determination of the required clearance, any undercar machinery and bracing that is located within 150 mm (6 in.) horizontally from the edge of the car platform or 75 mm (3 in.) horizontally from the centerline of the guide rails is not considered.
The minimum bottom and top car runby shall be not less than

(a) 75 mm (3 in.) for rated speeds not exceeding 0.5 m/s (100 ft/min)

(b) 150 mm (6 in.) for rated speeds exceeding 0.5 m/s (100 ft/min)

The maximum bottom and top car runby shall be not more than 600 mm (24 in.).

The maximum upward movement of the car shall be the top maximum design car runby in 4.2.2.2.
When the car has reached its maximum upward movement, the clearance above the car top shall comply with 2.4.7.

The horizontal car clearances shall conform to Section 2.5, except 2.5.1.2.

Where the space below the hoistway is used for a passageway, is occupied by persons, or if unoccupied, is not secured against unauthorized access, the requirements specified in 4.2.4.1 through 4.2.4.3 shall be conformed to.

The screw column, and any associated framing, shall be supported by a structure of sufficient strength to support the entire load imposed upon it, including the impact if the drive nut should fail.
The guide rails shall be supported by a structure of sufficient strength to withstand, without permanent deformation, the impact of a safety application with a fully loaded car.
The buffers shall be supported by a structure of sufficient strength to withstand, without permanent deformation, the impact resulting from buffer engagement by the car with its rated load at the maximum speed in the down direction.

The machine rooms, machinery spaces, and location of elevator components shall conform to 4.2.5.1 through 4.2.5.6.

Motors and other integral mechanical or electrical equipment shall be permitted to be located in machinery space within the hoistway, on the car, in the pit, or in a separate machine room or machinery space.
The controller shall be permitted to be located on the car or on the exterior of the hoistway wall or other location apart from the hoistway, machine room, or machinery space. A controller so located shall be readily accessible for maintenance and inspection at all times. Controllers located apart from the hoistway, machine room, or machinery space shall be housed in a locked metal cabinet. The key shall be Group 1 Security (see Section 8.1).
A separate machine room or machinery space, apart from the hoistway, shall conform to Section 2.7.
A screw machine and its controls, if located on the car, shall be protected by a noncombustible enclosure to prevent accidental contact. Openwork enclosures of noncombustible material shall be permitted to be used for screw machines located on top of the car, provided the openwork material rejects a ball 13 mm (0.5 in.) in diameter.
Access shall be provided to the screw machine for maintenance. Access panels to screw machines located on the car shall be provided with an electric contact and lock. The electric contact shall be designed to prevent operation of the screw machine when the access panel is open. The access panel shall be kept closed and locked. The key shall be Group 1 Security (see Section 8.1).
Where the screw machine is located in the pit, means shall be permanently provided in the pit for supporting the car and its frame or platform during repairs or adjustments. Clear headroom under the platform shall be not less than 2 130 mm (84 in.) when the car is landed on the supports.

Electrical wiring, pipes, and ducts in hoistways, machine rooms, and machinery spaces shall conform to Section 2.8, except the main feeder of a screw-column elevator shall be permitted to be installed in the hoistway if the screw machine is located in the hoistway, provided there is no intermediate access to the conductors between the disconnecting means and the termination at the motor or controller.

The supports and foundations shall be designed to support all loads imposed by the elevator in accordance with the building code, including impact loading in the event of a car safety application, stop by a safety nut, or controlled descent by a speed-limiting device. The unit stresses in elevator-supporting members and their supports, based on two times the normal loading, shall not exceed those permitted for static loading in accordance with the requirements of the following standards:

(a) AISC Book No. S326 or CAN/CSA-S16.1, whichever is applicable (see Part 9) for structural steel

(b) ANSI/ACI 318 or CAN3-A23.3, whichever is applicable (see Part 9) for reinforced concrete

Where stresses due to loads, other than elevator loads supported on the beams, floor, or structure, exceed those due to the elevator loads, 100% of the permitted stresses shall be permitted to be used.

NOTE: In determining unit stresses, the maximum normal loading is doubled to take care of impact, accelerating stresses, etc.

The car frame and platform shall conform to Section 2.15, except 2.15.12 and 2.15.13.

The capacity and loading shall conform to Section 2.16.

A car safety device and speed governor shall be provided, which shall conform to the design and performance requirements of Sections 2.17 and 2.18, except as specified in 4.2.11.1 and 4.2.11.2.

For elevators driven by an alternating-current squirrel cage induction motor and having a down speed of not more than 0.37 m/s (75 ft/min), the car safety and governor are not required if another safety device is provided to either

(a) limit the down speed of the car with rated load to not over 0.87 m/s (175 ft/min) in the event of failure of the driving means; or

(b) limit the fall of the elevator in the event of failure of the driving nut to a distance not exceeding 13 mm (0.5 in.), by utilizing a safety nut or other equivalent means

The capability of the alternate safety devices described in 4.2.11.1(a) and (b) to function as required shall be verified by engineering tests as described in 8.3.10.
A safety nut is required on all screw machines that utilize a driving nut made of a material other than metal and shall be permitted to be provided on all screw machines. The safety nut shall be made of metal and designed to withstand the impact without damage if the driving nut should fail.
A metal data tag shall be securely attached to each screw machine equipped with a safety nut bearing the following data:

(a) date of installation of driving and safety nuts

(b) spacing between driving and safety nuts

The material and markings of the safety nut spacing data tag shall conform to 2.16.3.3, except that the height of the letters and figures shall be not less than 1.6 mm (0.0625 in.).

Car buffers conforming to Section 2.22 shall be provided, except that solid bumpers shall be permitted to be used for elevators provided with a safety nut [see 4.2.11.1(b)] and having a maximum speed in the down direction of 0.25 m/s (50 ft/min).

Guide rails, guide-rail supports, and their fastenings shall conform to Section 2.23, except 2.23.4.2, 2.23.4.3, 2.23.9.1, and 2.23.10.

The fastening of guide rails to brackets or to the elevator-supporting frame shall be by clips, welds, or bolts. The rail structure and the structural members to which it is attached shall withstand the forces specified in 2.23.5.2, and the application of the car safety shall be within the deflection limits specified.

The screw machine shall function to raise or lower the elevator car acting in conjunction with a screw column that directly supports the elevator car.

The screw column and machine shall conform to 2.24.4, 2.24.5, 2.24.6, 2.24.8, Section 2.29, and 4.2.15.1 through 4.2.15.11.

Screws shall be made of steel. Nuts shall be made of bronze or other materials having an elongation of at least 14% in a length of 50 mm (2 in.).
Means shall be provided to maintain the screw in its vertical position under all conditions of operation. Screws suspended from their upper end shall be restrained at their lower end.
A vertical casing, closed at the end, shall be provided to enclose and protect the screw column in cases where the screw column extends outside the hoistway and machine room.
The screw column and nut and their attachments to the car frame, car platform, or other structure shall provide sufficient strength to support the loads imposed on these connections with a factor of safety of 5.
Factors of safety for the driving machine, excluding the screw column and nut, their attachments to the car frame, car platform, or other structure, shall conform to 2.24.3, except that the load used in determining the factor of safety shall be based on the total weight supported with rated load in the car.
Screw machines of the indirect drive type shall conform to 2.24.9. The elevator shall be so designed that the elevator car, while carrying 125% of rated load and traveling at rated speed, shall decelerate and stop in the event the driving-belt system or driving-chain system should break.
Means shall be provided to prevent the disengagement of the nut from the screw column. This means shall be so designed and constructed as to prevent disengagement in the event of overtravel at full speed and without damage to any part of the elevator installation. Any additional loads imposed by this action shall also be considered in the computations made in accordance with 4.2.15.8.
Where the screw column is a compression member, column formulas of 8.2.8.1.1 shall be used in the design with the words "screw column" substituted for the word "plunger" and
A = net cross-sectional area of screw at root of thread, mm2 (in.2)
L = maximum free length of screw, mm (in.)
R = radius of gyration of screw at root of thread, mm (in.)
W = the total weight with rated load plus one-half the weight of the screw column, kg (lb)
W/A = maximum allowable fiber stress
Where the screw column is a tension member, the unit stress (considering the root dimension and any associated stress concentration and/or the reduced section at any joints in the screw) shall not exceed one-fifth of the ultimate strength of the material with a maximum fiber stress not to exceed 124 MPa (18,000 psi).
Positive mechanical means shall be provided to prevent rotation or separation of sections of a multiple section screw column.
Means shall be provided to permit authorized personnel from a position outside the elevator car to raise or lower the car manually in the event of a power failure, unless emergency or standby power is provided, except that for private residence elevators and special purpose personnel elevators, means to allow a passenger within a stalled car to manually move the car to a landing is acceptable and no other means of moving the stalled car is required.
Final terminal stopping devices, conforming to 2.25.3.1 and 2.25.3.3, shall be provided for elevators having a rated speed exceeding 0.5 m/s (100 ft/min). Final terminal stopping devices shall be located in the hoistway and operated by cams attached to the car.

Elevators having a rated speed of 0.5 m/s (100 ft/min) or less shall be designed so that the elevator car will be brought to a stop without damage to the elevator system in the event of overtravel of the elevator at either terminal due to a malfunction.

Emergency terminal speed-limiting devices shall be installed where reduced stroke buffers are used (see 2.22.4.1.2). These devices shall conform to 2.25.4.
Operating devices and control equipment shall conform to the following:

(a) Requirement 2.26.1.1, Types of Operating Devices.

(b) Requirement 2.26.1.4, Inspection Operation, except that a top-of-car operating devices are not required on private residence elevators and special purpose personnel elevators. Top-of-car operating devices are not required on any screw-column elevator if there is no mechanical or electrical equipment that requires maintenance from the top of the car.

(c) Requirements 2.26.2.5, 2.26.2.7 through 2.26.2.10, 2.26.2.12 through 2.26.2.15, 2.26.2.18 through 2.26.2.21, 2.26.2.25, and 2.26.2.28, Electrical Protective Devices.

(d) Requirement 2.26.3, Contactors and Relays in Critical Operating Circuits.

(e) Requirement 2.26.4, Electrical Equipment and Wiring.

(f) Requirement 2.26.5, System to Monitor and Prevent Automatic Operation of the Elevators With Faulty Door Contact Circuits.

(g) Where the screw machine and its controller are located on the car, in the hoistway, or outside the hoistway, the disconnecting means shall be located adjacent to the controller.

(h) Requirement 2.26.6, Phase Protection of Motors.

(i) Requirement 2.26.7, Installation of Capacitors or Other Devices to Make Electrical Protective Devices Ineffective.

(j) Requirement 2.26.8, Release and Application of Driving-Machine Brakes.

(k) Requirement 2.26.9, Control and Operating Circuits.

(l) Requirement 2.26.11, Car Platform to Hoistway Door Sills Vertical Distance.

(m) Requirement 2.26.12, Symbols.

Emergency operation and signaling devices shall conform to Section 2.27.

Elevator layout drawings shall, in addition to the other data required by Section 2.28, indicate the following:

(a) the material and dimensions of the screw column, including thread dimensions

(b) the location and amount of the maximum loadings on the building structure

All welding shall conform to Section 8.8.

This Section applies to hand-operated elevators.

NOTE: See also Part 8 for additional requirements that apply to hand elevators.

Hoistways, hoistway enclosures, and related construction shall conform to Part 2, except for the following, which do not apply:

2.1.3 Floor Over Hoistways
2.1.6 Projections, Recesses, and Setbacks in Hoistway Enclosures
2.2 Pits
2.3 Location and Guarding of Counterweights
2.4 Vertical Clearances and Runbys for Cars and Counterweights
2.5 Horizontal Car and Counterweight Clearances
2.7.1.1 Fire-Resistive Construction
2.7.1.2 Non-Fire-Resistive Construction
2.7.2 Maintenance Path and Clearance
2.7.4 Headroom in Machinery Spaces, Machine Rooms, Control Spaces, and Control Rooms
2.7.9.2 Temperature and Humidity
2.8 Equipment in Hoistways, Machinery Spaces, Machine Rooms, Control Spaces, and Control Rooms
2.10 Guarding of Equipment and Standard Railing
2.11.2.1 Passenger Elevators
2.11.2.2 Freight Elevators
2.11.3 Closing of Hoistway Doors
2.11.7 Glass in Hoistway Doors
2.11.9 Hoistway Door Locking Devices and Power Operation
2.12 Hoistway Door Locking Devices and Electric Contacts, and Hoistway Access Switches
2.13 Power Operation of Hoistway Doors and Car Doors

Pits are not required.

The top car clearance shall be not less than the sum of the following:

(a) the bottom counterweight runby, if any

(b) the stroke of the counterweight buffer where a spring-type buffer is used (buffer not required for sidewalk elevators)

(c) 300 mm (12 in.)

The top counterweight clearance shall be not less than the sum of the following:

(a) the bottom car runby, if any

(b) the stroke of the car buffer where a spring-type buffer is used (buffer not required for sidewalk elevators)

(c) 150 mm (6 in.)

Elevator machines and their control equipment shall be permitted to be located inside the hoistway enclosure at the top or bottom without intervening enclosures or platforms.

Machines of sidewalk elevators having a rise of not more than one floor, and having an opening into the building at the bottom terminal landing only, are not required to be enclosed.

Overhead beams and their supports shall conform to Section 2.9.
Adequate and permanent means of access shall be provided to machines and sheaves for maintenance and inspection (see 2.7.3).
Entrances will be of the following types:

(a) self-closing or manually operated horizontally sliding or swinging, single section

(b) self-closing or manually operated horizontally swinging, two section (Dutch type) with one section above the other and the lower section extending not less than 1 070 mm (42 in.) above the floor, and arranged to be opened only when the car is in the landing zone and after the upper section has been opened, and to be closed by the closing of the upper section

(c) manually operated vertically sliding counterweighted single- or multisection

(d) manually operated vertically sliding biparting counterbalanced

(e) for sidewalk elevator doors in sidewalks or other areas exterior to the building, see 5.5.1.11.2

All doors shall be kept closed, except the door at the floor where the car is being operated or is being loaded or unloaded.

Manually operated doors shall be equipped with approved devices to close them automatically when released by the action of heat. Self-closing doors equipped with hold-open devices shall be equipped with fusible links that will release the door in case of excessive heat.

Landing doors shall be provided with mechanical locks so arranged that the car cannot leave the landing unless the door is closed. The lock or latch shall be arranged to ensure that the door is in a position to be locked when or before the car leaves the landing.

These requirements do not apply to bottom landing doors of sidewalk elevators.

Every hoistway door shall have conspicuously displayed on the landing side in letters not less than 50 mm (2 in.) high the words: "DANGER—ELEVATOR—KEEP CLOSED."

Hoistway landing openings equipped with horizontally sliding or swinging doors shall also be provided with vertically sliding semiautomatic gates, not less than 1 070 mm (42 in.) high and of a design that will reject a ball 50 mm (2 in.) in diameter. Gates shall be so constructed and guided as to withstand a lateral force of 445 N (100 lbf) concentrated at the center of the gate without being deflected beyond the line of the landing sill, and a force of 1 112 N (250 lbf) without forcing the gate from its guides or without causing it to break or be permanently deformed.

Hoistway doors and hoistway gates, where required, shall be provided with locking devices as specified in 4.3.8.1 and 4.3.8.2.

Hoistway doors shall be provided with spring-type latches to hold them in the closed position. Such latches shall be capable of being released from both the hoistway and landing side, irrespective of the position of the car.
Hoistway gates required with horizontally sliding or swinging type hoistway doors (see 4.3.7) shall be provided with hoistway gate separate mechanical locks.

(a) Type Required. Hoistway gate separate mechanical locks shall be of a type actuated only when the car is within the landing zone by a cam attached to the car.

(b) General Design Requirements. The lock shall hold the gate in the closed position by means of gravity or by a restrained compression spring, or by both.

(c) Closed Position. Hoistway gates provided with hoistway gate separate mechanical locks shall be considered to be in the closed position when the gate is within 10 mm (0.375 in.) of contact with the landing sill.

Cars shall be enclosed on the sides not used for entrance. The deflection of the enclosure shall be not more than 6 mm (0.25 in.) when subjected to a force of 334 N (75 lbf) applied perpendicularly to the car enclosure at any point. The enclosure shall be secured to the car platform or frame in such a manner that it cannot work loose or become displaced in ordinary service.

These requirements do not apply to sidewalk elevators.

Glass shall not be used in elevator cars, except as permitted in 2.14.1.8.

Car frames and platforms shall be of metal or sound seasoned wood designed with a factor of safety of not less than 4 for metal and 6 for wood, based on the rated load uniformly distributed. Connection between frame members of the car frame and the platform shall be riveted, bolted, or welded.

Sidewalk elevator platforms shall be provided with steel bow irons or stanchions to open sidewalk doors or covers (see 5.5.1.15.2).

Elevator cars upon which an operator is permitted to ride shall have not more than one compartment.

Elevator cars upon which persons are permitted to ride shall not be arranged to counterbalance each other.

The rated load of hand elevators shall be not less than 240 kg/m2 (50 lb/ft2) of inside net car area.
A metal plate shall be fastened in a conspicuous place in the elevator car and shall bear the following information in not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) letters or numerals, stamped, etched, or raised on the surface of the plate:

(a) rated load in kg (lb)

(b) the maximum number of passengers to be carried based on 68 kg (150 lb) per person (if passenger elevator)

(c) suspension data required by 4.3.16.5

Elevators having a rise of more than 4.6 m (15 ft) shall be provided with a car safety, attached to the underside of the car frame, capable of stopping and sustaining the car with rated load.

The car safety device is not required to be operated by a speed governor, and is permitted to be of the instantaneous type operated as a result of the breaking or slackening of the suspension members.

Where the rise exceeds 12.5 m (40 ft), driving machines having hand-operated brakes shall also be equipped with an automatic speed retarder.

Suspension means shall consist of not less than two wire ropes or chains.
The factor of safety used in determining the size and number of the suspension members shall be not less than 5, based on the weight of the car and its rated load.
The length of suspension members shall be such as to provide the minimum top car and counterweight clearances specified in 4.3.3.
Drum ends of suspension members shall be secured to the inside of the drum by clamps or babbitted sockets, and there shall be not less than one complete turn of the suspension members around the winding drum when the car or counterweight is resting on its buffers.
The capacity plate required by 4.3.14.2 shall show the size, rated ultimate strength, and material of the suspension members. The date of installation of the suspension members shall be shown on a metal tag attached to the suspension fastening.
Sections of counterweights, whether carried in frames or not, shall be secured by at least two tie-rods passing through holes in the sections. The tie-rods shall have locknuts at each end, secured by cotter pins.
Car and counterweights shall be provided with guide rails of steel or straight-grained seasoned wood free from knots, shakes, dry rot, or other imperfections.

Guide rails for sidewalk elevators shall be of steel. The guiding surfaces of the guide rails for elevators equipped with car safeties shall be finished smooth.

Guide rails shall be securely fastened with through bolts or clips of such strength, design, and spacing that

(a) the guide rails and their fastenings shall not deflect more than 6 mm (0.25 in.) under normal operation

(b) the guide rails and their fastenings shall withstand the application of the safety, where provided, when stopping the car with rated load or when stopping the counterweight

Car and counterweight guide rails shall rest on suitable supports and extend at the top of the hoistway sufficiently to prevent the guide shoes from running off the guide rails in case the car or counterweight travels beyond the terminal landings.
The factors of safety, based on static loads, to be used in the design of driving machines and sheaves shall be not less than 8 for wrought iron or wrought steel and 10 for cast iron or other materials.
Driving machines shall be equipped with a hand brake or an automatic brake operating in either direction of motion of the elevator, and capable of stopping and holding the car with its rated load. When the brake has been applied, it shall remain in the "ON" position until released by the operator.

Power attachments are prohibited. Elevators shall not be equipped with any means or attachment for applying electric or other power unless the elevator is permanently and completely converted into a power elevator conforming to all requirements of this Code for electric or hydraulic elevators.

The information provided on layout data shall conform to Section 2.28.

See Sections 8.10 and 8.11 for the testing requirements for hand elevators.

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