The pit equipment, beams, floor, and their supports shall be designed and constructed to meet the applicable building code requirements and to withstand the following loads in the manner in which they occur:
(b) where a plunger gripper, or car, or counterweight safety is furnished, the part of the load transmitted by the application of such gripper(s) or safety(s)
(c) loads imposed by the hydraulic jack
(1) to the cylinder during normal operation
(d) hoist rope up-pull, where applicable, for indirect roped-hydraulic elevators
When the car rests on its fully compressed buffers or bumpers, there shall be a vertical clearance of not less than 600 mm (24 in.) between the pit floor and the lowest structural or mechanical part, equipment, or device installed beneath the car platform, including a plunger-follower guide, if provided, except as specified in 126.96.36.199.
The 600 mm (24 in.) clearance does not apply to the following:
(a) any equipment on the car within 300 mm (12 in.) horizontally from any side of the car platform
(b) any equipment located on or traveling with the car located within 300 mm (12 in.) horizontally from either side of the car frame centerline parallel to the guide rails
(c) any equipment mounted in or on the pit floor located within 300 mm (12 in.) horizontally from either side of the car frame centerline parallel to the guide rails
In no case shall the available refuge space be less than either of the following:
(a) a horizontal area 600 mm × 1 200 mm (24 in. × 47 in.), with a height of 600 mm (24 in.)
(b) a horizontal area 450 mm × 900 mm (18 in. × 35 in.), with a height of 1 070 mm (42 in.)
Trenches and depressions or foundation encroachments permitted by 2.2.2 shall not be considered in determining these clearances.
Where the vertical clearance outside the refuge space is less than 600 mm (24 in.), that area shall be clearly marked on the pit floor. Markings shall not be required in the area under the apron and guiding means. The marking shall consist of alternating 100 mm (4 in.) diagonal red and white stripes. In addition, a sign with the words "DANGER LOW CLEARANCE" in a minimum 50 mm (2 in.) high letters shall be prominently posted on the hoistway enclosure and shall be visible from within the pit and at the entrance to the pit. The sign shall conform to ANSI Z535.2 and ANSI Z535.4, or CAN/CSA-Z321, whichever is applicable (see Part 9). The sign shall be made of a durable material and shall be securely fastened. The letters and figures shall remain permanently and readily legible.
The bottom car runby shall be
(a) not less than 75 mm (3 in.) for operating speed(s) in the down direction up to 0.50 m/s (100 ft/min)
(b) increased from 75 mm (3 in.) to 150 mm (6 in.) in proportion to the increase in operating speed(s) in the down direction from 0.50 m/s (100 ft/min) to 1 m/s (200 ft/min)
(c) a minimum of 150 mm (6 in.) for operating speed(s) in the down direction exceeding 1 m/s (200 ft/min)
The top runby of the car shall be
(a) not less than 75 mm (3 in.) for rated speeds up to 0.50 m/s (100 ft/min)
(b) increased from 75 mm (3 in.) to 150 mm (6 in.) in proportion to the increase in rated speed from 0.50 m/s (100 ft/min) to 1 m/s (200 ft/min)
(c) a minimum of 150 mm (6 in.) for rated speeds exceeding 1 m/s (200 ft/min)
Neither the top nor the bottom runby of the car shall be more than 600 mm (24 in.).
The top clearance shall be not less than the sum of the following:
(a) the bottom car runby
(b) the stroke of the car buffers used
(c) 150 mm (6 in.)
The bottom runby shall be not less than the sum of the following:
(a) the distance the car can travel above its top terminal landing until the plunger strikes its mechanical stop
(b) 150 mm (6 in.)
When the car has reached its maximum upward movement, a vertical clearance of 100 mm (4 in.) shall be provided from a hydraulic jack attached to the car and the jacks' attachment means to the horizontal plane described by the lowest part of the overhead structure or other obstruction adjacent to the car enclosure top within the vertical projection of the hydraulic jack and its attachment means. Additionally a horizontal clearance in the direction of the centerline of the car top of at least 300 mm (12 in.) shall be provided from the top of the hydraulic jack to any object creating a shearing hazard.
NOTE (3.4.8): See Nonmandatory Appendix G, Fig. G-5.
The car shall be provided with buffers of one of the following types:
(b) spring buffers of a design that will not be fully compressed when struck by a car with rated load at the operating speed in the down direction (see 3.22.1)
In 188.8.131.52.2(b), replace the wording with the following: "for a roped-hydraulic elevator support not less than twice the unbalanced weight of the system with no load and up to rated load in the car and all suspension ropes in place; and for a direct-acting hydraulic elevator support not less than twice the weight of the car with rated load."
In 184.108.40.206, replace the wording with the following: "Where hydraulic machine, or an elevator motion controller or motor controller is located in the hoistway or pit, means necessary for tests that require movement of the car shall be provided and arranged so that they can be operated from outside the hoistway and shall conform to 220.127.116.11.1 through 18.104.22.168.2. These means are also permitted to be used by elevator personnel for passenger rescue."
In 22.214.171.124.1, replace the first paragraph with the following: "Where direct observation of the elevator or ropes in the case of a roped-hydraulic elevator is not possible from the location of the means necessary for tests that require movement of the car, display devices or the equivalent shall be provided. They shall be visible from the location of the means and shall convey the following information about the elevator simultaneously:".
Direct-acting hydraulic elevators shall be provided with car frames and platforms conforming to Section 2.15, subject to the modification hereinafter specified. (See 126.96.36.199 for connection between plunger and platform or car frame.)
The platform frame shall be guided on each guide rail by single-guiding members attached to the frame.
Car safeties shall not be provided.
The stresses and deflections in car frame and platform members and their connections, based on the static load imposed upon them, shall be not more than those permitted by Section 2.15, provided that the maximum stresses in the car frame uprights that are normally subject to compression shall conform to 188.8.131.52.1.
The calculations of the stresses and deflections in side-post car frame and platform members shall be based on the formulas and data in 8.2.9.
For cars with corner-post or sub-post car frames, the formulas and specified methods of calculations do not generally apply and shall be modified to suit the specific conditions and requirements in each case.
The calculations of the stresses and deflections in side-post car frame and platform members shall be based on the formulas and data in 8.2.2.
For cars with corner-post or sub-post car frames, or where the rope hitches are not on the crosshead, the formulas and specified methods of calculations do not generally apply and shall be modified to suit the specific conditions and requirements in each case.
The requirements of 2.16.3 shall apply, except
(b) on data plates (see 184.108.40.206.2), the weight of the plunger is not to be included in the weight of the complete car, even though it is attached. The plunger weight is to be indicated independently. The operating speed in the down direction shall also be indicated.
(d) requirement 220.127.116.11.2(e) applies only where car safeties are provided.
The slack-rope device required by 18.104.22.168 shall be permitted to be an additional means of activating the car safety on roped-hydraulic elevators using hydraulic jacks equipped with plungers. The slack-rope device required by 22.214.171.124.5 shall be an additional means of activating the car safety on roped-hydraulic elevators using hydraulic jacks equipped with pistons.
The safety shall be of a type that can be released only by moving the car in the up direction. To return a car to normal operation after a safety set, the car shall be moved hydraulically in the up direction. For repairs of obvious or suspected malfunction, the car shall be permitted to be raised by other means capable of holding the entire car weight. Prior to releasing the other means, the car shall be run hydraulically in the up direction.
If an auxiliary pump is used to move the car in the up direction to release the safeties, it shall
(a) have a relief valve that limits the pressure to not more than 2.3 times the working pressure
(b) be connected between the check valve or control valve and the shutoff valve
A plunger gripper shall be permitted to be provided for direct-acting hydraulic elevators using hydraulic jacks equipped with plungers. A plunger gripper shall be capable of stopping and holding the car with its rated load from the actual measured tripping speed per Table 126.96.36.199 and shall conform to 188.8.131.52 through 184.108.40.206. In Table 220.127.116.11 the words "rated speed" shall be replaced by "operating speed in the down direction."
A plunger gripper shall be permitted, provided that
(a) the external pressure applied to the plunger by the device is symmetrically distributed at locations around the circumference of the plunger. The resulting stress in the plunger shall not exceed 67% of the yield strength at any point of the plunger.
(b) the external pressure applied to the plunger by the device does not exceed 67% of the value that will cause local buckling. Where the external pressure is applied over substantially the full circumference of the plunger, the maximum value shall be permitted to be determined by 18.104.22.168.
(c) during the application, the plunger and the plunger gripper are capable of withstanding any vertical forces imposed upon them, and transfer such forces to the supporting structure. During the application of the device, any loading on the plunger shall not damage the cylinder.
(d) power is removed from the hydraulic machine before or at the time of application.
Where an electrical actuation means is provided, it shall comply with the following:
(a) The plunger gripper shall be fully operational during a primary electrical system power failure.
(b) The elevator shall not be permitted to restart after a normal stop in the event of the failure within the electrical means used to actuate the gripper of any of the following:
(1) a single mechanically operated switch
(2) a single magnetically operated switch, contactor, or relay
(3) a single solenoid
(4) a single solid-state device
(5) a software system failure
(6) the occurrence of a single ground
The plunger gripper shall be released by establishing at least no-load static pressure on the hydraulic system, or by other means capable of holding the entire car weight.
In the normally retracted position, the following shall apply.
The deceleration of the elevator upon actuation of the plunger gripper shall comply with the following criteria:
(a) The average deceleration rate at rated load shall be not less than 0.1 gravity nor more than 1.0 gravity. (See Nonmandatory Appendix P for minimum and maximum stopping distances.)
(b) Any peak deceleration rate in excess of 2.0 gravity shall have a duration of not greater than 0.04 s.
Compliance with 22.214.171.124 and 126.96.36.199 is required. Springs shall be permitted in the operation of the plunger gripper. The maximum fiber stress in the spring shall not exceed 85% of the elastic limit in the material at any time. The factor of safety of wire ropes, if provided in the construction of the plunger gripper, shall not be less than 5. Tiller-rope construction shall not be used.
Leaf and roller chains, if provided in the construction of the plunger gripper, shall conform to ASME B29.100 or ASME B29.8.
Rope or tape used to drive an electrical encoder is not required to comply with the requirements for governor rope.
Compliance with 2.17.13 is required.
A permanent marking plate shall be securely attached to each plunger gripper. The plate shall be of such material and construction that it is permanent and readily legible. The letters and symbols shall be stamped, etched, cast, or otherwise applied with depressed or raised letters and symbols not less than 3 mm (0.125 in.) in height, indicating
(a) that it is a plunger gripper.
(b) the maximum operating speed in the down direction in m/s (ft/min) for which the plunger gripper shall be permitted to be used.
(c) the maximum load in newtons (lbf) for which the gripper is designed and installed to stop and sustain.
(d) the manufacturer's name or trademark and identification number of the device.
(e) space for date of acceptance test. Date to be permanently marked following test.
(f) the diameter and minimum wall thickness of the plunger for which the device is applicable.
The driving member of the hydraulic jack shall be attached to the car frame or car platform with fastenings of sufficient strength to support that member with a factor of safety of not less than 4 and shall be capable of withstanding, without damage, any forces resulting from a plunger stop as described in 188.8.131.52.
The roping ratio that relates the driving member of the hydraulic jack speed to the car speed shall not exceed 1:2.
Means shall be provided to prevent the ropes, if slack, from leaving the sheave grooves.
The traveling sheave shall be attached with fastenings having a minimum factor of safety of 4, based upon the ultimate strength of the material used. The load to be used in determining the factor of safety shall be the resultant of the maximum tensions in the ropes leading from the sheave with the elevator at rest and with rated load in the car.
Tensile, compressive, bending, and torsional loading shall have a factor of safety of not less than 5, based on ultimate strength.
Plungers made of steel shall be designed and constructed in compliance with the applicable formula in 184.108.40.206 for calculation of elastic stability, bending, and external pressure. For other materials, the appropriate modulus of elasticity must be utilized.
In addition, when the hydraulic jack is subjected to eccentric loading, the following shall also apply:
(a) The plunger connection to the car shall also be so designed and constructed as to transmit the full eccentric moment into the plunger with a factor of safety not less than 4.
Plungers composed of more than one section shall have joints designed and constructed to
(a) carry in tension the weight of all plunger sections below the joint with a factor of safety of not less than 4
(b) transmit in compression the gross load on the plunger with a factor of safety of not less than 5, based on ultimate strength
A plunger-follower guide shall be permitted to be used, provided it is arranged so that the elevator is always in a position where the unsupported length of the plunger conforms to the "maximum free length" as defined in 220.127.116.11. If this length is exceeded, upward movement of the car shall immediately stop, and it shall be permitted to allow the car to return nonstop to the lowest landing; power-operated doors shall open, and electric power shall be removed from the motor and the control valve. After not less than 15 s nor more than 60 s, the doors shall close in compliance with 2.11.3. A manual reset of the means shall be required before the elevator is returned to service. The in-car door open button shall remain operative.
For tensile, compressive, bending, and torsional loading, the cylinder and connecting couplings shall have a factor of safety of not less than 5, based on ultimate strength.
Cylinders shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the formula in 18.104.22.168.
Cylinders buried in the ground shall be provided with a safety bulkhead having an orifice of a size that would permit the car to descend at a speed not greater than 0.075 m/s (15 ft/min), nor less than 0.025 m/s (5 ft/min). A space of not less than 25 mm (1 in.) shall be left between the welds of the safety bulkhead and the cylinder head. Safety bulkheads shall conform to 22.214.171.124.
Closed heads of cylinders shall be only of dished seamless construction, concave to pressure, except if the bottom of the cylinder is supported, and if the cylinder is not buried.
They shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the applicable formulas in 126.96.36.199, provided that steel heads shall in no case have a thickness less than that required for the adjoining shell.
Means shall be provided to collect for removal any oil leakage from the cylinder head seals or packing gland. The amount collected before removal shall not exceed 19 L (5 gal).
Cylinders buried in the ground shall be protected from corrosion due to galvanic or electrolytic action, salt water, or other underground conditions.
The methods specified in 188.8.131.52.3 shall be considered as acceptable, provided that they
(a) are designed and installed with means for monitoring and maintaining them in accordance with accepted industry practices applicable to the methods
(b) are effective for specific conditions where the cylinder is installed
(c) provide means for checking ongoing compliance with 184.108.40.206.1
Cylinders buried in the ground shall be provided with protection from corrosion by one or more of the following methods:
(a) The cylinder shall be constructed of a material that is immune to the stated conditions.
(b) The cylinder shall be completely covered or encased in a material that completely surrounds the exterior surface and is immune to the stated conditions. If the space between the protective casing and the cylinder is empty, the casing must be designed to withstand a static head of water from ground level to the bottom of the cylinder, based on the manufacturer's rating of the material used.
(c) The cylinder shall be protected by a monitored cathodic protection system.
(d) The cylinder shall be protected by a means that will provide an immunity level not less than that provided by the above methods for the stated conditions.
Cylinders shall be provided with a means to release air or other gas.
Metal stops and/or other means shall be provided at one end of the plunger and at the packing head end of the cylinder to prevent the plunger from traveling beyond the limits of the cylinder.
The metal stops and/or other means shall be so designed and constructed as to stop the plunger traveling in the up direction at maximum speed under full load pressure, should the normal terminal stopping device (see 3.25.1) fail to operate, or at a reduced speed when a terminal speed-reducing device is provided as required by 3.25.2. No running test onto the stop ring is required [see 220.127.116.11.2(s)].
The hydraulic jack shall be permanently and legibly marked. The marking shall be visible after installation. The letters and symbols shall be stamped, etched, cast, or otherwise applied with depressed or raised letters and symbols not less than 3 mm (0.125 in.) in height with the following information:
(a) the name or trademark by which the organization that manufactured the hydraulic jack can be identified
(b) the manufacturer's designation of the type or model
(c) year of manufacture
Pressure piping, valves, fittings, and mufflers shall be designed and made of materials having properties such that a factor of safety not less than that calculated per 18.104.22.168 is achieved.
Piping and fittings of a grade not subjected to listed/certified testing (ASTM or equivalent) shall not be used for hydraulic pressure piping and fittings.
NOTE (22.214.171.124): Examples of two acceptable pipe standards are ASTM A106 and ASTM A53, Type E or S.
For elongations greater than or equal to 10%, the component design shall be substantiated either in accordance with 126.96.36.199 or by an unrestrained proof-test of 5 times the component rated pressure without resulting in fracture. For elongations of less than 10%, the test value shall be 1.5 times the value indicated by 188.8.131.52 multiplied by the component rated pressure.
Valves, fittings, and mufflers shall be pressure rated, and shall bear the manufacturer's name or trademark by which the organization that manufactured the product can be identified, and identification symbols to indicate the materials and service designations for which the manufacturer's rating applies.
Pipe lighter than Schedule 40 shall not be threaded.
Piping shall be so supported as to eliminate undue stresses at joints and fittings, particularly at any section of the line subject to vibration.
Pipe, tubing, or fittings shall be permitted to be used for instrument or control purposes and shall conform to ASME B31.1, para. 122.3.
A pressure gauge fitting shall be provided on jack side of the check valve or immediately adjacent to the hydraulic control valve. When a pressure gauge is permanently installed, a shutoff means shall be provided to protect the gauge. Where the hydraulic machine is located in the hoistway, the pressure gauge fittings shall only be accessible to elevator personnel from outside the hoistway (see Section 8.1).
A marking shall be applied, to accessible piping that is located outside the elevator machine room or hoistway, stating "Elevator Hydraulic Line" in letters that are at least 19 mm (0.75 in.) high in a contrasting color. The marking shall be visible after installation and applied at intervals not greater than 3 000 mm (120 in.).
Where the hydraulic machine is located in the hoistway and any piping, tubing, or fitting permitted by 184.108.40.206 is located outside the hoistway, means shall be provided to
(a) protect the specified piping, tubing, or fittings from damage, which would cause unsafe elevator operation; or
(b) prevent uncontrolled movement of the elevator in the event of failure of the specified piping, tubing, or fittings
Where the pressure piping is outside the machine room, machinery space, or hoistway, the pressure piping shall be protected from external damage. Where the pressure piping is buried underground or extends beyond the building containing the hydraulic machine or machine room, the elevator shall be fitted with at least one of the following:
(a) a car safety conforming to 3.17.2
All piping connections shall be of the welded, grooved, threaded, or bolted flange type. Threads of valves, piping, and fittings shall conform to the requirements of ASME B1.20.1 or ASME B1.20.3. Hydraulic tube fittings shall conform to SAE J514.
Grooved pipe fitting assemblies shall be permitted to be used for hydraulic connections. They shall be installed in conformance with the manufacturer's specifications. They shall be installed in locations that will permit disassembly and inspection of all of their component parts.
Grooved pipe fittings shall be so designed and constructed that failure of a sealing element will not permit separation of the parts connected. The devices or means used for preventing the separation of the parts connected shall be removable only with the use of tools. Devices or means removable with hand-operated quick-release levers or toggles are prohibited.
Flexible hose and fitting assemblies shall
(a) not be installed within the hoistway, nor project into or through any wall. Installation shall be accomplished without introducing any twist in the hose, and shall conform with the minimum bending radius of SAE 100, R2 type, high pressure, steel wire reinforced, rubber-covered hydraulic hose specified in SAE J517.
(b) have a bursting strength sufficient to withstand not less than 10 times working pressure (see Section 1.3). They shall be tested in the factory or in the field prior to installation at a pressure of not less than 5 times working pressure and shall be marked with date and pressure of test.
(c) conform to the requirements of SAE 100, R2 type hose specified in SAE J517 and be compatible with the fluid used.
(d) be of nonreusable-type fittings.
(e) be permanently labeled/marked, indicating
(1) the name or trademark by which the manufacturer of the hose and fittings can be identified
(2) the type of hose and fitting
(3) the minimum factory test pressure
(4) the minimum bending radius of hose
(5) the date of installation
(6) the inspection procedure
(7) the name of elevator contractor
Flexible couplings are permitted for hydraulic connections. Such couplings shall be so designed and constructed that failure of the sealing element will not permit separation of the connected parts. The devices or means used to prevent the separation of the connected parts shall be removable only with the use of tools. Any devices or means that are removable with hand-operated quick-released levers are prohibited.
A manually operated shutoff valve shall be provided between the hydraulic machines and the hydraulic jack and shall be located outside the hoistway and adjacent to the hydraulic machine.
Each pump or group of pumps shall be equipped with one or more relief valve(s) conforming to the following requirements:
(a) Type and Location. The relief valve shall be located between the pump and the check valve and shall be of such a type and so installed in the bypass connection that the valve cannot be shut off from the hydraulic system.
(b) Size. The size of the relief valve and bypass shall be sufficient to pass the maximum rated capacity of the pump without raising the pressure more than 50% above the working pressure. Two or more relief valves shall be permitted to be used to obtain the required capacity.
(c) Sealing. Relief valves shall be sealed after being set to the correct pressure.
A manually operated valve, located on or adjacent to the control valves, shall be provided and identified, which permits lowering the car at a speed not exceeding 0.10 m/s (20 ft/min). This valve shall be so marked to indicate the lowering position. Where the hydraulic machine is located in the hoistway, the manual lowering valve shall only be accessible to elevator personnel from outside the hoistway (see Section 8.1).
Hydraulic control valves shall be plainly marked in a permanent manner with the following information:
(a) certifying organization's name or identifying symbol
(b) the name, trademark, or file number by which the organization that manufactured the product can be identified
(c) statement of compliance with ASME A17.1/CSA B44
(d) type designation
The electrical coil data shall be marked on each individual coil
Overspeed valves shall be installed and mounted as follows:
(a) Single-Jack Arrangements. Where a single valve is used, it shall be located in the pressure piping within 300 mm (12 in.) of the hydraulic jack. Multiple parallel valves are permitted in lieu of a single valve. These shall be located so as to minimize the distance from the valves to the hydraulic jack.
(b) Multiple-Jack Arrangements. Multiple-jack arrangements shall conform with one of the following:
(1) A single overspeed valve shall be located in the pressure piping within 300 mm (12 in.) of each hydraulic jack. Multiple parallel valves are permitted in lieu of single valves at each hydraulic jack. These shall be located so as to minimize the distance from the valves to each hydraulic jack.
(2) A single overspeed valve shall be located in the pressure piping on the hydraulic machine side of, and immediately before, the tee junction, wye junction, or branch junction that connects the branch pressure pipes to the jacks. Multiple parallel valves are permitted in lieu of a single valve at the junction. For dual hydraulic jack systems, the total length of branch pressure pipe between the tee or wye junction and the jacks shall not exceed the distance between the jacks, measured horizontally, plus 1 m (39 in.). For multiple-jack systems, the length of branch pressure piping shall be minimized.
The factor of safety of the overspeed valve pressure piping and fittings shall be not less than 1.5 times the value obtained using 220.127.116.11, provided that the minimum factor of safety is not less than 4.5, and the minimum percentage elongation is not less than 5 for the overspeed valve and fittings and not less than 20 for the pressure piping.
The overspeed valve shall be constructed, installed, and adjusted to ensure that the elevator obtains the following performance:
(a) The overspeed valve tripping speed shall be not less than 110% nor greater than 140% of the elevator operating speed in the down direction, but in no case shall exceed 0.3 m/s (60 ft/min) above the rated elevator speed.
(b) The average deceleration rate shall be not less than 1.96 m/s2 (6.44 ft/s2) nor more than 9.81 m/s2 (32.2 ft/s2).
(c) Any peak deceleration rate in excess of 24.53 m/s2 (80.5 ft/s2) shall have a duration of not greater than 0.04 s.
Piping buried in the ground shall be provided with protection from corrosion by one or more of the following methods:
(a) monitored cathodic protection
(b) a coating to protect the piping from corrosion that will withstand the installation process
(c) a protective casing, immune to galvanic or electrolytic action, salt water, and other known underground conditions, completely surrounding the exterior surfaces of the piping
Hydraulic control valves shall conform to the electrical requirements in Clause 4 of CSA C22.2 No. 139.
The working pressure that is developed in the system shall be measured at the acceptance inspection and test. This pressure shall be labeled/marked on a marking plate. The marking plate shall be mounted permanently on the hydraulic machine. The marking plate shall be of such material and construction that it is permanent and readily legible. The letters and symbols shall be stamped, etched, cast, or otherwise applied with a height not less than 3 mm (0.125 in.).
Tanks shall be of sufficient capacity to provide for an adequate liquid reserve in order to prevent the entrance of air or other gas into the system.
The permissible minimum liquid level shall be clearly indicated.
Tanks shall be covered and suitably vented to the atmosphere. Where tanks are located in the hoistway, they shall be vented to prevent accumulation of fumes in the hoistway and their covers shall be of sufficient strength to resist falling objects.
Tanks shall be so designed and constructed that when completely filled, the factor of safety shall be not less than 4, based on the ultimate strength of the material.
Tanks shall be provided with means for checking the liquid level. Such means shall be accessible without the removal of any cover or other part.
Upper and lower normal terminal stopping devices shall be provided and arranged to detect the position of the car and cause the car to slow down and stop automatically, at or near the top and bottom terminal landings, with any load up to and including rated load in the car from any speed attained in normal operation. The normal terminal stopping device shall function independently of the operation of the normal stopping means and the terminal speed-reducing device, where provided, such that the failure of the normal stopping means and/or the failure of the terminal speed-reducing device, where provided, shall not prevent the normal terminal stopping device from functioning as specified except
(a) a common actuating means (e.g., a cam, etc.) that is not physically part of the position sensing devices shall be permitted for the actuation of the position sensing device of the normal terminal stopping device and the position sensing device of
(1) the normal stopping means, and/or
(2) the terminal speed-reducing device
(b) a common mounting means shall be permitted for the position sensing device of the normal terminal stopping device and the position sensing device of
(1) the normal stopping means, and/or
(2) the terminal speed-reducing device
The device shall be so designed and installed that it will continue to function until the car reaches its extreme limits of travel.
The device shall be permitted to be rendered inoperative during recycling operation (see 3.26.7).
Stopping devices shall be located on the car, in the hoistway, in the machine room or control room, or in overhead spaces, and shall be operated by movement of the car.
Stopping devices located on the car or in the hoistway and operated by cams on the car or in the hoistway shall conform to 2.25.1.
Stopping devices located in a machine room, control room, or in an overhead space shall conform to 18.104.22.168, except that the device required by 22.214.171.124.2 shall cause the electric power to be removed from the main control valve or from its control switch operating magnets and, in the case of electrohydraulic elevators, where stopping the car is effected by stopping the pump motor, from the pump motor and associated valves.
They shall operate by mechanical, hydraulic, or electrical means independently of the normal terminal stopping device and function to reduce the speed of the car if the normal terminal stopping device fails to cause the car to slow down at the top terminal as intended such that the failure of the normal terminal stopping device shall not prevent the terminal speed-reducing device from functioning as specified except
(a) a common actuating means (e.g., a cam, etc.) that is not physically part of the position sensing devices shall be permitted for the actuation of both the position sensing device of the terminal speed-reducing device and the position sensing device of the normal terminal stopping device
(b) a common mounting means shall be permitted for the position sensing devices of the terminal speed-reducing device and the normal terminal stopping device
They shall provide retardation not in excess of 9.81 m/s2 (32.2 ft/s2).
They shall be so designed and installed that a single short circuit caused by a combination of grounds or by other conditions shall not render the device ineffective.
Where the terminal speed-reducing devices are implemented by mechanical or hydraulic means, a means shall be provided to prevent overheating of the drive system (pump and motor). The mechanical or hydraulic means shall not cause permanent deformation to any part upon which the means act.
They shall be so designed and installed that a single short circuit caused by a combination of grounds or by other conditions shall not render the device ineffective.
Where magnetically operated, optical, or solid-state devices are used for position sensing, a single short circuit caused by a combination of grounds or by other conditions, or the failure of any single magnetically operated, optical, or solid-state device, shall not
(a) render the terminal speed-reducing device inoperative
(b) permit the car to restart after a normal stop
Mechanically operated switches, where located on the car or in the hoistway, shall conform to the following:
(a) be operated by the movement of the car
(b) have metal operating cams
(c) have contacts that are positively opened mechanically
(d) be of the enclosed type
(e) be securely mounted in such a manner that horizontal movement of the car shall not affect operation of the device
Electrohydraulic elevators with two means to control upward movement (e.g., pump motor and valve) shall conform to the following:
(a) One or both means to control upward movement of the elevator shall be controlled by the terminal speed-reducing device, either directly or through an intermediate device.
(1) Where an intermediate device is implemented with a solid-state device or software system to satisfy 126.96.36.199.4(a), the failure of any single solid-state device or a software system failure in the intermediate device shall not render the terminal speed-reducing device ineffective.
(2) Redundant devices used to satisfy 188.8.131.52.4(a)(1) shall be checked prior to each start of the elevator from a landing, when on automatic operation. When a failure as specified occurs the car shall not be permitted to restart.
Operating devices and control equipment shall conform to Section 2.26, except as modified by the following:
(a) Requirement 184.108.40.206 does not apply.
(e) Requirement 2.26.6 does not apply.
(f) Requirement 2.26.8 does not apply.
(h) Requirement 2.26.10 does not apply.
Top-of-car operating devices shall be provided and shall conform to 220.127.116.11. In-car and those inspection operations conforming to 18.104.22.168.4 shall be permitted.
The anticreep device shall operate the car at a speed not exceeding 0.125 m/s (25 ft/min).
The anticreep device shall maintain the car within 25 mm (1 in.) of the landing, irrespective of the position of the hoistway door.
For electrohydraulic elevators, the anticreep device shall be required to operate the car only in the up direction.
Operation dependent on the availability of the electric power supply is permitted, provided that
(a) the mainline power disconnecting means is kept in the closed position at all times except during maintenance, repairs, and inspection
(b) a sign is placed on the switch stating, "KEEP SWITCH CLOSED EXCEPT DURING MAINTENANCE, REPAIRS, AND INSPECTIONS"
(c) the sign shall be made of durable material and securely fastened and have letters with a height of not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.)
Only the following, when activated, shall prevent operation of the anticreep device:
(a) the electrical protective devices listed in 22.214.171.124
(b) recycling operation (see 3.26.7)
(c) inspection transfer switch
(e) low oil protection means (see 3.26.9)
Operation of an elevator in a leveling or truck zone at any landing by a car-leveling or truck-zoning device, when the hoistway doors, or the car doors or gates, or any combination thereof, are not in the closed position, is permissible, subject to the requirements of 126.96.36.199.1 through 188.8.131.52.5. A leveling or truck-zoning device shall operate the car at a speed not exceeding 0.125 m/s (25 ft/min).
When in the open position, the electrical protective devices shall prevent operation by all operating means, except as specified in 184.108.40.206.
When in the open position, the following devices shall initiate removal of power from the hydraulic machine in such a manner as to produce an average deceleration rate not greater than 9.8 m/s2 (32.2 ft/s2) and shall prevent operation by all operating means except the anticreep device:
(b) broken rope, tape, or chain switches provided in connection with normal stopping devices, when such devices are located in the machine room, control room, or overhead space
(e) hinged car platform sill electric contacts
Springs, where used to actuate switches, contactors, or relays to stop an elevator at the terminals or to actuate electrically operated valves, shall be of the compression type.
The completion or maintenance of an electric circuit shall not be used to interrupt the power to the control valve, or to the pump driving motor of electrohydraulic elevators, or both under the following conditions:
(a) to stop the car at the terminals
(b) to stop the car when any of the electrical protective devices operate
For electrohydraulic elevators where there are two means of controlling upward movement of the elevator (e.g., a pump motor and a valve), at least one means shall be directly controlled by an electromechanical contactor or relay unless the terminal speed-reducing device (see 3.25.2) directly removes power from one of the control means.
For electrohydraulic elevators where the only means of controlling upward movement of the elevator is the pump motor, the pump motor control shall conform to the following:
(a) Two devices shall be provided to remove power independently from the pump motor. At least one device shall be an electromechanical contactor.
(b) The contactor shall be arranged to open each time the car stops.
(c) The electrical protective devices shall control both devices [see 220.127.116.11(a)] in accordance with 3.26.4.
In the pump motor controller for electrohydraulic elevators, when the occurrence of a single ground or the failure of any single magnetically operated switch, contactor, or relay; or any single solid-state device; or a software-system failure causes the liquid in the hydraulic driving machine to rise in temperature above its maximum operating temperature, the following shall occur:
(a) Power shall be removed from the hydraulic driving-machine motor.
(b) The hydraulic driving-machine motor shall not be permitted to restart.
Recycling operation shall permit the car to be lowered more than 25 mm (1 in.) below the bottom landing, but not require lowering in order to restore the relative vertical position of the multiple plunger sections, provided that
(a) the car is at rest at bottom landing
(c) no car calls are registered
(d) the speed during recycling does not exceed normal down leveling speed but in no case shall be more than 0.10 m/s (20 ft/min)
(e) normal operation cannot be resumed until car is returned to bottom landing and normal terminal stopping devices are restored to normal operation
When cylinders are installed with the top of the cylinder above the top of the storage tank, a pressure switch shall be provided in the line between the cylinder and the valve, which shall be activated by the loss of positive pressure at the top of the cylinder. The switch shall prevent automatic door opening and the operation of the lowering valve or valves. The door(s) shall be permitted to open by operation of the in-car open button(s), when the car is within the unlocking zone (see 2.12.1).
A means shall be provided to render the elevator on normal operation inoperative if for any reason the liquid level in the tank falls below the permissible minimum. Suitable means include, but are not limited to, the following:
(a) direct sensing of liquid level
(b) a pump-run timer
Actuation of the means shall automatically bring the car down to the lowest landing, when the doors are closed.
When at the lowest landing, the doors shall comply with the following:
(a) For elevators with power-operated doors that automatically close, the door(s) shall open and shall initiate automatic closing within 15 s.
Auxiliary lowering shall be permitted to be initiated, provided that all operating and control devices, including door open and close buttons, function as with normal power supply, except that the following devices shall be permitted to be bypassed or made inoperative:
(a) landing and car floor registration devices (or call buttons)
(c) devices initiating emergency recall operation to the recall level, unless otherwise specified in Section 3.27
(d) "FIRE OPERATION" switch, unless otherwise specified in Section 3.27
When the auxiliary lowering operation has been initiated, the car shall descend directly to the lowest landing, except that the operating system shall be permitted to allow one or more intermediate stops, and then, after a predetermined interval, the car shall proceed to the lowest landing, provided the auxiliary power supply is of sufficient capacity to open and close doors at each intermediate stop.
If the car and landing doors are power operated, and if the auxiliary power supply is of adequate capacity, the doors shall open when the car stops at the lowest landing and shall close after a predetermined interval.
Emergency operation and signaling devices shall conform to Section 2.27, except as modified by the following: The requirements of 3.26.9 and 18.104.22.168 shall be modified when Phase I Emergency Recall Operation and Phase II Emergency In-Car Operation are in effect, as specified in 3.27.1 through 3.27.4. The requirements of 22.214.171.124.1(b) and 126.96.36.199.2(b) shall be modified to include a machinery space containing a hydraulic machine.
If Phase I Emergency Recall Operation is activated while the elevator is responding to any of the following devices, the car shall return to the recall level:
(a) low oil protection (see 3.26.9)
(c) auxiliary power lowering (see 3.26.10)
(d) oil tank temperature shutdown (see 188.8.131.52)
(a) If any of the devices specified in 3.27.1(a), (b), (c), or (d) is activated, while Phase I Emergency Recall Operation is in effect but before the car reaches the recall level, the car shall do one of the following:
(2) If the car is below the recall level, it shall descend to an available floor.
If any of the devices specified in 3.27.1(a), (c), or (d) is activated while the car is stationary at the recall level and Phase I Emergency Recall Operation is in effect, the following shall apply:
(a) Automatic power-operated doors shall close within 15 s.
(b) The door open button(s) shall remain operational.
(c) The visual signal [see Fig. 184.108.40.206.6(h)] shall illuminate intermittently.
If any of the devices specified in 3.27.1(a), (b), (c), or (d) activate while the elevator is on Phase II Emergency In-Car Operation, an upward-traveling car shall stop and a downward-traveling car shall stop at or before the next available floor. All calls shall be canceled. The visual signal [see Fig. 220.127.116.11.6(h)] shall illuminate intermittently. The elevator shall accept calls only to landings below its location and respond in compliance with the requirements for Phase II Emergency In-Car Operation.
Elevator layout drawings shall, in addition to other data, indicate the following:
(a) required clearances and basic dimensions
(b) the bracket spacing (see Section 3.23)
(c) the estimated maximum vertical forces on the guide rails on application of the safety, where provided (see Section 3.23)
(d) in the case of freight elevators for Class B or Class C loading (see 18.104.22.168), the horizontal forces on the guide-rail faces during loading and unloading, and the estimated maximum horizontal forces in a post-wise direction on the guide-rail faces on the application of the safety device, where provided (see Section 3.23)
(e) the size and weight per meter (foot) of any rail reinforcement, where provided (see Section 3.23)
(f) the impact loads imposed on machinery and sheave beams, supports, and floors or foundations (see Section 2.9)
(g) the impact load on buffer supports due to buffer engagement at the maximum permissible load and operating speed in the down direction (see 8.2.3)
(h) the net vertical load from the elevator system, which includes the total car weight and rated load; plunger, cylinder, and oil; and any structural supports
(i) the outside diameter and wall thickness of the cylinder, plunger, and piping, and the working pressure
(l) the minimum "grade" of pipe (ASTM or recognized standard) required to fulfill the installation requirements for pressure piping, or in lieu of a specific "grade" of pipe, the minimum tensile strength of pipe to be used for the installation (see Section 3.19)
(m) the horizontal forces on the building structure stipulated by 22.214.171.124
(n) the length of the plunger and cylinder