This Code covers the design, construction, operation, inspection, testing, maintenance, alteration, and repair of the following equipment and its associated parts, rooms, spaces, and hoistways, where located in or adjacent to a building or structure (see Section 1.2):
(c) hoisting and lowering mechanisms equipped with a car that serves two or more landings and is restricted to the carrying of material by its limited size or limited access to the car. This equipment includes, but is not limited to, dumbwaiters and material lifts; it does not include vertical reciprocating conveyors (see Section 1.3).
Equipment not covered by this Code includes, but is not limited to, the following:
(a) personnel hoists within the scope of ANSI A10.4 and CSA-Z185
(b) material hoists within the scope of ANSI A10.5 and CSA-Z256
(c) platform lifts and stairway chairlifts within the scope of ASME A18.1, CSA B355, and CSA B613
(d) manlifts within the scope of ASME A90.1 and CSA B311, and in jurisdictions enforcing NBCC Special Purpose Personnel Elevators (ASME A17.1, Section 5.7)
(e) mobile scaffolds and towers; platforms within the scope of ANSI/SAIA A92 and CSA-B354
(f) powered platform and equipment for exterior and interior building maintenance within the scope of ASME A120.1 and CSA-Z271
(g) conveyors and related equipment within the scope of ASME B20.1
(h) cranes, derricks, hoists, hooks, jacks, and slings within the scope of ASME B30, CSA Z150, CSA B167, CSA Z202, and CSA Z248
(i) industrial trucks within the scope of ASME B56 and CSA B335
(k) tiering or piling machines used to move material to and from storage located and operating entirely within one story
(l) equipment for feeding or positioning material at machine tools, printing presses, etc.
(m) skip or furnace hoists
(n) wharf ramps
(o) amusement devices
(p) stage and orchestra lifts
(q) lift bridges
(r) railroad car lifts and dumpers
(s) mechanized parking garage equipment
(t) line jacks, false cars, shafters, moving platforms, and similar equipment used for installing an elevator
(u) platform-type elevators installed on board a marine vessel
- A maritime, industrial-use device with no car enclosure. Controls are located outside of the hoistway. Typically utilizes elevator-type rail systems and elevator-type interlock systems.
- Not a platform lift within the scope of A18.1.
(v) dock levelers (freight platform lifts) having a rise of 500 mm (20 in.) or less
(w) in Canadian jurisdictions, devices having a rise of 2 000 mm (79 in.) or less and used only for the transfer of materials or equipment
The requirements of this edition to the Code are effective as of the date noted on the Summary of Changes page of this document with the exception of 22.214.171.124.3 and 126.96.36.199 that shall be effective immediately. The authority having jurisdiction will establish the effective date for their local regulations.
The purpose of this Code is to provide for the safety of life and limb, and to promote the public welfare. Compliance with this Code shall be achieved by
(a) conformance with the requirements in ASME A17.1/CSA B44; or
(b) conformance with some of the requirements in ASME A17.1/CSA B44 and for systems, subsystems, components, or functions that do not conform with certain requirements in ASME A17.1/CSA B44, conform with the applicable requirements in ASME A17.7/CSA B44.7; or
(c) conformance with the requirements in ASME A17.7/CSA B44.7
The provisions of this Code are not intended to prevent the use of systems, methods, or devices of equivalent or superior quality, strength, fire resistance, effectiveness, durability, and safety to those prescribed by this Code, provided that there is technical documentation to demonstrate the equivalency of the system, method, or device.
In jurisdictions not enforcing the NBCC, the use of the NBCC is not intended.
Section 1.3 defines various terms used in this Code. In addition, some nomenclature and terminology used in the elevator industry and other ASME publications are defined.
accredited certifying organization: a certifying organization that holds valid Documentation of Accreditation issued by an independent internationally or nationally recognized accrediting organization that accredits personnel certification bodies.
NOTE: A Certificate of Accreditation is an example of such documentation.
accrediting body: an independent internationally or nationally recognized organization that accredits organizations concerned with personnel certification.
applied frame entrance: a wraparound or partial addition to an existing entrance frame used to improve the appearance or to provide the required clearances.
authority having jurisdiction: the organization, office, or individual responsible for enforcement of this Code. Where compliance with this Code has been mandated by legislation or regulation, the "authority having jurisdiction" is the regulatory authority (see regulatory authority).
authorized personnel: persons who have been instructed in the operation of the equipment and designated by the owner to use the equipment.
automatic transfer device: a power-operated mechanism that automatically moves a load consisting of a cart, tote box, pallet, wheeled vehicle, box, or other similar object from and/or to the car.
backup roller(s): a roller that limits the separation of a pinion from a rack.
base, building: the level at which the horizontal seismic ground motions are considered to be imparted to the structure.
brake, driving machine, elevator, dumbwaiter, or material lift: an electromechanically or electrohydraulically released spring, or gravity applied device, that is part of the electric driving machine of the elevator, dumbwaiter, or material lift used to apply a controlled force at a braking surface to hold or retard the elevator, dumbwaiter, or material lift. See Nonmandatory Appendix F.
electrohydraulically released: a means of release in which an electric current applied to a solenoid valve or the motor of a hydraulic pump directs pressurized hydraulic fluid to an actuator (such as a hydraulic jack) that overcomes a resisting force (such as a spring) as long as the electric current flows.
electromechanically released: a means of release in which an electric current applied to an actuator (such as a solenoid) causes an electromagnetic force that overcomes a resisting force (such as a spring) as long as the electric current flows.
brake, driving machine, escalator, or moving walk: an electromechanical device that is part of the electric driving machine of the escalator or moving walk, used to apply a controlled force to a braking surface to stop and hold the escalator/moving walk system.
brake, emergency: a mechanical device independent of the braking system used to retard or stop an elevator should the car overspeed or move in an unintended manner. Such devices include, but are not limited to, those that apply braking force on one or more of the following:
(a) car rails
(b) counterweight rails
(c) suspension or compensation ropes
(d) drive sheaves
(e) brake drums
For further information, see Nonmandatory Appendix F.
brake, main drive shaft, escalator and moving walk: a device located on the main drive shaft of the escalator or moving walk used to apply a controlled force to the braking surface to stop and hold the escalator or moving walk system.
buffer: a device designed to stop a descending car or counterweight beyond its normal limit of travel by storing or by absorbing and dissipating the kinetic energy of the car or counterweight.
elastomeric buffer: an energy-accumulation-type buffer with nonlinear characteristics (such as a polyurethane buffer) using resilient materials to cushion the impact force of the descending car or counterweight.
spring buffer stroke: the distance the contact end of the spring can move under a compressive load until all coils are essentially in contact or until a fixed stop is reached.
building code: an ordinance that sets forth requirements for building design and construction, or where such an ordinance has not been enacted, one of the following model codes:
(a) International Building Code (IBC)
(b) Building Construction and Safety Code (NFPA 5000)
(c) National Building Code of Canada (NBCC)
NOTE: Local regulations or laws take precedence. In the absence of local regulation a model building code is applicable.
capacity: see rated load.
car-direction indicator: a visual signaling device that displays the current direction of travel.
car door interlock: a device having two related and interdependent functions, which are
car door or gate electric contact: an electrical device, the function of which is to prevent operation of the driving machine by the normal operating device unless the car door or gate is in the closed position.
car frame: the supporting frame to which the car platform, upper and lower sets of guide shoes, car safety, and the hoisting ropes or hoisting-rope sheaves, or the plunger or cylinder of a direct-acting elevator, are attached.
car lantern: an audible and visual signaling device located in a car to indicate the car is answering the call and the car's intended direction of travel.
car platform: the structure that forms the floor of the car and that directly supports the load.
car platform, laminated: a self-supporting platform constructed of plywood, with a bonded steel sheet facing on both top and bottom surfaces.
car top access panel: a car top access panel is similar in design to a car top emergency exit panel. Used on mine elevators to permit frequent inspection of mine elevator hoistways for damage caused by environmental conditions. Such panels are openable without the use of tools or keys.
NOTE: Subject to the modifications specified in 188.8.131.52(c).
ceramic permanent magnet: a magnet of the type that has a force that does not deteriorate with time.
certifying organization: an approved or accredited, independent organization concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed/certified equipment or material and whose listing/certification states whether that equipment meets appropriate standards or has been tested and found suitable for use in a specified manner.
NOTE: For the purpose of this definition, accredited means that an organization has been evaluated and approved by an Authorized Agency to operate a Certification/Listing program, and is designated as such in a publication of the Authorized Agency.
clearance, bottom car: the clear vertical distance from the pit floor to the lowest structural or mechanical part, equipment, or device installed beneath the car platform, except guide shoes or rollers, safety jaw assemblies, and platform or guards, when the car rests on its fully compressed buffers.
clearance, top car, inclined elevators: the shortest distance in the direction of travel between the upwardmost portion of the chassis (car frame) and the nearest obstruction when the car is level with the top terminal landing.
clearance, top counterweight: the shortest vertical distance between any part of the counterweight structure and the nearest part of the overhead structure or any other obstruction when the car floor is level with the bottom terminal landing.
comb, escalator and moving walk: the toothed portion of a combplate designed to mesh with a grooved step, pallet, or treadway surface.
combplate, escalator and moving walk: that portion of the landing adjacent to the step, pallet, or treadway consisting of one or more plates to which the combs are fastened.
compensating-rope sheave switch: a device that automatically causes the electric power to be removed from the elevator, dumbwaiter, or material lift driving-machine motor and brake when the compensating sheave approaches its upper or lower limit of travel.
component rated pressure: the pressure to which a hydraulic component can be subjected.
control, AC motor, DC injection: a motion control for an AC motor that produces retardation torque by injecting a DC current into either a stator winding of the motor or a separate eddy-current brake.
control, variable voltage, variable frequency (VVVF): a motion control that changes the magnitude and frequency of the voltage applied to the motor.
control, variable voltage AC (VVAC): a motion control for an AC motor that varies the amount and direction of output torque by controlling the magnitude and phase sequence of the voltage to the motor.
control, generator field: a motion control that is accomplished by the use of an individual generator for each driving-machine motor wherein the voltage applied to the motor armature is adjusted by varying the strength and direction of the generator field current.
control, multivoltage: a motion control that is accomplished by impressing successively on the armature of the driving-machine motor a number of substantially fixed voltages such as may be obtained from multi-commutator generators common to a group of elevators.
control, single bridge thyristor converter: a motion control for a DC motor that supplies the armature with variable voltage of fixed polarity. The field is reversed to control direction and to cause regeneration.
control, mechanical-hydraulic: a motion control in which acceleration, speed, retardation, and stopping are governed by varying the fluid flow to/from the hydraulic jack by direct mechanical operation of the valves by shipper rope or operating lever device.
operation, automatic: operation control wherein the starting of the elevator, dumbwaiter, or material lift car is effected in response to the momentary actuation of operating devices at the landing, and/or of operating devices in the car identified with the landings, and/or in response to an automatic starting mechanism, and wherein the car is stopped automatically at the landings.
operation, group automatic: automatic operation of two or more nonattendant elevators equipped with power-operated car and hoistway doors. The operation of the cars is coordinated by a supervisory control system including automatic dispatching means whereby selected cars at designated dispatching points automatically close their doors and proceed on their trips in a regulated manner. It may include but is not limited to: operating device(s) in the car and/or at each landing that provide a means to select destinations identified with landings; keypads or touch screens at each landing and/or in the car; buttons in each car for each floor served and "UP" and "DOWN" buttons at each landing (single buttons at terminal landings). The stops set up by the momentary actuation of these devices are made automatically in succession as a car reaches the corresponding landing, irrespective of its direction of travel or the sequence in which the devices are actuated. The stops set up by the momentary actuation of the device(s) at the landing may be accomplished by any elevator in the group, and are made automatically.
operation, nonselective collective automatic: automatic operation by means of one button in the car for each landing served and one button at each landing, wherein all stops registered by the momentary actuation of landing or car buttons are made irrespective of the number of buttons actuated or of the sequence in which the buttons are actuated. With this type of operation, the car stops at all landings for which buttons have been actuated, making the stops in the order in which the landings are reached after the buttons have been actuated, but irrespective of its direction of travel.
operation, selective collective automatic: automatic operation by means of one button in the car for each landing served and by "UP" and "DOWN" buttons at the landings, wherein all stops registered by the momentary actuation of the car buttons are made as defined under nonselective collective automatic operation, but wherein the stops registered by the momentary actuation of the landing buttons are made in the order in which the landings are reached in each direction of travel after the buttons have been actuated. With this type of operation, all "UP" landing calls are answered when the car is traveling in the up direction and all "DOWN" landing calls are answered when the car is traveling in the down direction, except in the case of the uppermost or lowermost calls, that are answered as soon as they are reached, irrespective of the direction of travel of the car.
operation, single automatic: automatic operation by means of one button in the car for each landing served and one button at each landing, so arranged that if any car or landing button has been actuated the actuation of any other car or landing operating button will have no effect on the operation of the car until the response to the first button has been completed.
operation, car switch: operation control wherein the movement and direction of travel of the car are directly and solely under the control of the attendant by means of a manually operated car switch or of continuous-pressure buttons in the car.
operation, car switch automatic floor-stop: operation in which the stop is initiated by the attendant from within the car with a definite reference to the landing at which it is desired to stop, after which the slowing down and stopping of the elevator is effected automatically.
operation, continuous-pressure: operation control by means of buttons or switches in the car and at the landings, any one of which may be used to control the movement of the car as long as the button or switch is manually maintained in the actuating position.
operation, preregister: operation control in which signals to stop are registered in advance by buttons in the car and at the landings. At the proper point in the car travel, the attendant in the car is notified by a signal, visual, audible, or otherwise, to initiate the stop, after which the landing stop is automatic.
operation, signal: operation control by means of single buttons or switches (or both) in the car, and "UP" or "DOWN" direction buttons (or both) at the landings, by which predetermined landing stops may be set up or registered for an elevator or for a group of elevators. The stops set up by the momentary actuation of the car buttons are made automatically in succession as the car reaches those landings, irrespective of its direction of travel or the sequence in which the buttons are actuated. The stops set up by the momentary actuation of the "UP" and "DOWN" buttons at the landing are made automatically by the first available car in the group approaching the landings in the corresponding direction, irrespective of the sequence in which the buttons are actuated. With this type of operation, the car can be started only by means of a starting switch or button in the car.
control room, elevator, dumbwaiter, material lift: an enclosed control space outside the hoistway, intended for full bodily entry, that contains the motor controller. The room could also contain electrical and/or mechanical equipment used directly in connection with the elevator, dumbwaiter, or material lift but not the electric driving machine or the hydraulic machine. (See Nonmandatory Appendix Q.)
control space, elevator, dumbwaiter, material lift: a space inside or outside the hoistway, intended to be accessed with or without full bodily entry, that contains the motor controller. This space could also contain electrical and/or mechanical equipment used directly in connection with the elevator, dumbwaiter, or material lift but not the electric driving machine or the hydraulic machine. (See Nonmandatory Appendix Q.)
control system: the overall system governing the starting, stopping, direction of motion, acceleration, speed, and retardation of the moving member. See Nonmandatory Appendix A.
controller: a device or group of devices that serves to control in a predetermined manner the apparatus to which it is connected.
controller, motion: an operative unit comprising a device or group of devices for actuating the moving member.
conveyor, vertical reciprocating (VRC): see ASME B20.1 for definition and safety requirements.
counterweight displacement detection device: a device actuated by the displacement of the counterweight, at any point in the hoistway, to provide a signal that the counterweight has moved from its normal lane of travel or has left its guide rails.
creep: slight incremental, natural movement of the suspension means over their arc of contact with the driving sheave due to tractive force. The tractive force is a result of unequal tensile loads in the suspension means at points of entry and exit from the driving sheave, the tensile elasticity of the suspension member, and the frictional work occurring in the direction of the greater tension. Creep is independent of the motion status or direction of rotation of the driving sheave.
NOTE: Creep exists in all traction systems and is not loss of traction, and can occur while the drive sheave is stationary or rotating.
dispatching device, elevator automatic: a device, the principal function of which is to either
(a) operate a signal in the car to indicate when the car should leave a designated landing, or
(b) actuate its starting mechanism when the car is at a designated landing
door: the movable portion(s) of an entrance that closes the openings. It consists of one or more solid face panels that are permitted to be equipped with a vision panel.
door locked out of service: a hoistway entrance in which the door is mechanically locked by means other than the interlock to prevent the door being opened from the car side without keys or special equipment.
door or gate electric contact: an electrical device, the function of which is to prevent operation of the driving machine by the normal operating device unless the door or gate is in the closed position.
door or gate power operator: a device or assembly of devices that opens a hoistway door(s) and/or a car door or car gate by power other than hand, gravity, springs, or the movement of the car; and that closes them by power other than hand, gravity, or the movement of the car.
dumbwaiter: a hoisting and lowering mechanism equipped with a car of limited size that moves in guide rails and serves two or more landings that is used exclusively for carrying materials, and is classified by the following types.
electrical/electronic/programmable electronic (E/E/PE): based on electrical (E), and/or electronic (E), and/or programmable electronic (PE) technology.
NOTE: The term is intended to cover any and all devices or systems operating on electrical principles.
EXAMPLE: Electrical/electronic/programmable electronic devices include
(a) electromechanical devices (electrical)
(b) solid-state nonprogrammable electronic devices (electronic)
(c) electronic devices based on computer technology (programmable electronic)
electrical/electronic/programmable electronic system (E/E/PES): a system for control, protection, or monitoring based on one or more electrical/electronic/programmable electronic (E/E/PE) devices, including all elements of the system such as power supplies, sensors and other input devices, data highways and other communication paths, and actuators and other output devices.
elevator: a hoisting and lowering mechanism, equipped with a car, that moves within guides and serves two or more landings and is classified by the following types
NOTE: See 1.1.2, Equipment Not Covered by This Code.
- Marine vessels are defined by the authority having jurisdiction for the design and safety of marine vessels. Such authorities include, but are not limited to, the U.S. Coast Guard, Transport Canada, and the American Bureau of Shipping or other members of the International Association of Classification Societies.
- Marine elevators are designed to operate under marine design conditions that reflect the motions, forces, and environmental conditions imposed on the vessel and the elevator, under a variety of vessel operating scenarios. See Section 5.8.
elevator, mine: an elevator installed in the mine hoistway, used to provide access to the mine for personnel, materials, equipment, and supplies. To meet the requirements of a mine elevator, the components must be designed and installed in conformance to Part 2 of this Code, except as modified in Section 5.9. Mine elevators are similar to electric passenger elevators but are modified to operate in the mine environment.
elevator, outside emergency: an elevator operating on the outside of a building having up to five compartments that is operated only by emergency personnel and used solely for emergency evacuation of building occupants and transportation of a limited number of emergency responders involved in the evacuation.
elevator, private residence: a power passenger elevator that is limited in size, capacity, rise, and speed, and is installed in a private residence or in a multiple dwelling as a means of access to a private residence.
elevator, rack-and-pinion: a power elevator with or without a counterweight that is supported, raised, and lowered by a motor or motors that drive a pinion or pinions on a stationary rack mounted in the hoistway.
elevator, rooftop: a power passenger or freight elevator operating between a landing at roof level and landings below. It opens onto the exterior roof level of a building through a horizontal opening.
elevator, sidewalk: an elevator of the freight type operating between a landing in a sidewalk or other exterior area and floors below the sidewalk or grade level. It opens onto the exterior area through a horizontal opening.
elevator, special purpose personnel: an elevator that is limited in size, capacity, and speed, and permanently installed in structures such as grain elevators, radio antenna, bridge towers, underground facilities, dams, power plants, and similar structures to provide vertical transportation of authorized personnel and their tools and equipment only.
emergency personnel: persons who have been trained in the operation of emergency or standby power and Firefighters' Emergency Operation or emergency evacuation.
emergency stop switch: a device located as required and readily accessible for operation, that, when manually operated, causes the electric power to be removed from the driving-machine motor and brake of an electric elevator; or from the electrically operated valves and pump motor of a hydraulic elevator; or of a dumbwaiter; or of a material lift.
endurance limit of a component: the maximum stress that can be alternated or reversed within specified limits without producing fracture of the component material.
entrance assembly, elevator, dumbwaiter, or material lift: the protective assembly that closes the hoistway openings normally used for loading and unloading, including the door panel(s), gate(s), transom panel, fixed side panel, gibs/guides, sill/sill structure, header, frame, and entrance hardware assembly, if provided.
entrance hardware assembly: the track(s), hangers, drive arms, pendant bolts, chains, belts, cables, sheaves, pulleys, hinges, vertically sliding guide shoes, and related hardware that are necessary to suspend and maintain the position of the doors within the entrance assembly.
escalator: power-driven, inclined, continuous stairway used for raising or lowering passengers.
escalator deck: the transverse members of the balustrade, having an interior or exterior section, or both. A high deck is located immediately below the handrail stand. A low deck is located immediately above the skirt panel.
escalator molding: the connecting means between the various portions of the balustrade.
escalator newel: the balustrade termination at the landing.
escalator newel base: the panel located immediately under the newel.
escalator panel, exterior: the panel enclosing the exterior side of the balustrade.
escalator skirt: the fixed, vertical panels located immediately adjacent to the steps.
factor of safety: the ratio of the ultimate strength to the working stress of a member under maximum static loading, unless otherwise specified in a particular requirement.
fail safe: a characteristic of a system or its elements whereby any failure or malfunction affecting safety will cause the system to revert to a state that is known to be safe.
fire barrier: a fire-resistance-rated vertical or horizontal assembly of material designed to restrict the spread of fire in which the openings are protected.
fire-protection rating: a designation indicating the duration of the fire test exposure to which a fire door assembly (entrance) was exposed and for which it met all the acceptance criteria as determined in accordance with a recognized fire test standard. Ratings are stated in hours or minutes.
fire-resistance rating: a designation indicating the duration of the fire test exposure to which components of building construction (walls, floors, roofs, beams, and columns) are exposed and for which it met all the acceptance criteria as determined in accordance with a recognized fire test standard. Ratings are stated in hours or minutes.
fire-resistive construction: a method of construction that prevents or retards the passage of hot gases or flames, specified by the building code.
horizontally sliding collapsible gate: a series of horizontally sliding vertical members, joined by a scissors-like linkage that allows the assembly to collapse.
horizontally sliding noncollapsible gate: a noncollapsible assembly consisting of one or more sections that slide horizontally.
vertically sliding gate: a counterweighted or counterbalanced assembly, consisting of one or more sections that move vertically to open or close.
governor rope retarding means: a mechanical means of developing a sufficient force in the governor rope to activate the car or counterweight safeties or to trip the governor rope releasing carrier, where used. Such mechanical means include, but are not limited to, rope-gripping jaws, clutch mechanisms, and traction arrangements.
guiding means, ladder: the guide system where the tower ladder is used to guide the car within the travel path.
hall lantern: an audible and visual signaling device located at a hoistway entrance to indicate which car is answering the call and the car's intended direction of travel.
handrail stand: the uppermost portion of the balustrade that supports and guides the handrail.
hoistway (shaft), elevator, dumbwaiter, or material lift: an opening through a building or structure for the travel of elevators, dumbwaiters, or material lifts, extending from the pit floor to the roof or floor above.
hoistway, blind: the portion of a hoistway where hoistway entrances are not provided.
hoistway, mine: the area within a mine shaft, and its aboveground structure required for the elevator equipment, associated supports, and operations, including a minimum of 450 mm (18 in.) around same.
hoistway access switch: a switch, located at a landing, the function of which is to permit operation of the car with the hoistway door at this landing and the car door or gate open, in order to permit access to the top of the car or to the pit.
hoistway door or gate locking device: a device that secures a hoistway door or gate in the closed position and prevents it from being opened from the landing side except under certain specified conditions.
hoistway door combination mechanical lock and electric contact: a combination mechanical and electrical device with two related, but entirely independent functions, that are
NOTE: As there is no positive mechanical connection between the electric contact and the door locking mechanism, this device ensures only that the door will be closed, but not necessarily locked, when the car leaves the landing. Should the lock mechanism fail to operate as intended when released by a stationary or retiring car-cam device, the door can be opened from the landing side even though the car is not at the landing. If operated by a stationary car-cam device, it does not prevent opening the door from the landing side as the car passes the floor.
hoistway door interlock: a device having two related and interdependent functions, that are
hoistway gate separate mechanical lock: a mechanical device the function of which is to lock a hoistway gate in the closed position after the car leaves a landing and prevent the gate from being opened from the landing side unless the car is within the landing zone.
hoistway enclosure: the fixed structure, consisting of vertical walls or partitions, that isolates the hoistway from all other areas or from an adjacent hoistway and in which entrances are installed.
hoistway gate: usually a counterweighted (counterbalanced) assembly, consisting of one or more sections that are guided in the vertical direction to open or close. The gate may be of wood or metal construction. Wood gates may consist of either horizontal or vertical slats. Metal gates are usually constructed of perforated or expanded metal.
hydraulic machine: a unit consisting of pump, motor, valves, and associated internal piping, that converts electrical energy and supplies it as a liquid under pressure.
in-car stop switch: a device located in the car and accessible for operation by elevator personnel only, that, when manually operated, causes the electric power to be removed from the driving-machine motor and brake of an electric elevator or from the electrically operated valves and pump motor of a hydraulic elevator.
installation: a complete elevator, dumbwaiter, escalator, material lift, or moving walk, including its hoistway, hoistway enclosures and related construction, and all machinery and equipment necessary for its operation.
installation, new: any installation not classified as an existing installation by definition, or an existing elevator, dumbwaiter, escalator, material lift, inclined lift, or moving walk moved to a new location subsequent to the effective date of this Code.
(b) motion control
NOTE: "Stopping" includes movement of an elevator car towards rest once stopping is initiated, and any movement of an elevator car due to suspension system elasticity that occurs after the brake is set, since this movement was the result of the intended operation.
labeled/marked: equipment or material to which has been attached a label, symbol, or other identifying mark of an approved or accredited independent certifying organization, concerned with product evaluation, that maintains periodic inspection of production of labeled/marked equipment or material, and by whose labeling/marking the manufacturer indicates compliance with appropriate standards or performance in a specified manner.
NOTE: For the purpose of this definition, accredited means that an organization has been evaluated and approved by an Authorized Agency to operate a Certification/Listing program, and is designated as such in a publication of the Authorized Agency.
landing, elevator or material lift: that portion of a floor, balcony, or platform used to receive and discharge passengers or freight.
landing, lower, escalator: that landing of least elevation of the two landings.
landing, lower, moving walk: that landing of least elevation of the two landings. On moving walks where the two landings are of equal elevation, the lower landing is that landing designated by the manufacturer.
landing, upper, escalator: that landing of greatest elevation of the two landings.
landing, upper, moving walk: that landing of greatest elevation of the two landings. On moving walks where the two landings are of equal elevation, the upper landing is that landing designated by the manufacturer.
landing zone: a zone extending from a point 450 mm (18 in.) below a landing to a point 450 mm (18 in.) above the landing.
leveling: controlled car movement toward the landing, within the leveling zone, by means of a leveling device, that vertically aligns the car platform sill relative to the hoistway landing sill to attain a predetermined accuracy.
leveling device, elevator, dumbwaiter, or material lift car: the portion of a motion control system comprised of a device or group of devices that, either automatically or under control of the operator, initiates leveling, and automatically stops the car at the landing.
leveling device, one-way automatic: a device that corrects the car level only in case of under-run of the car, but will not maintain the level during loading and unloading.
leveling device, two-way automatic maintaining: a device that corrects the car level on both under-run and over-run, and maintains the level during loading and unloading.
leveling device, two-way automatic nonmaintaining: a device that corrects the car level on both under-run and over-run, but will not maintain the level during loading and unloading.
NOTE: The means for identifying listed/certified equipment may vary for each organization concerned with product evaluation, some of which do not recognize equipment as listed/certified unless it is also labeled/marked. The authority having jurisdiction utilizes the system employed by the listing/certifying organization to identify a listed/certified product.
load, dynamic: the load applied as a result of acceleration or deceleration.
load, impact: a suddenly applied load.
load, static: the load applied as a result of the weight.
driving machine, chain, dumbwaiter or material lift: a driving machine in which the motion of a car is obtained through a connection between a driven sprocket and the suspension chains.
driving machine, electric: a driving machine in which the energy is applied by an electric motor. It includes the motor, driving-machine brake, and the driving sheave or drum, together with its connecting gearing, belt, or chain, if any. See Nonmandatory Appendix F.
driving machine, direct: an electric driving machine, the motor of which is directly connected mechanically to the driving sheave, drum, or shaft without the use of belts or chains, either with or without intermediate gears.
driving machine, rack-and-pinion: an electric driving machine in which the motion of the car is obtained by a power-driven rotation pinion(s) mounted on the car, traveling on a stationary rack mounted in the hoistway.
chain-hydraulic drive machine: a hydraulic driving machine in which the drive member of the hydraulic jack is connected to the car by chains or indirectly coupled to the car by means of chains and sprockets.
roped-hydraulic driving machine: a hydraulic driving machine in which the driving member of the hydraulic jack is connected to the car by wire ropes or indirectly coupled to the car by means of wire ropes and sheaves. It includes multiplying sheaves, if any, and their guides.
machine room and control room, remote, elevator, dumbwaiter, material lift: a machine room or control room that is not attached to the outside perimeter or surface of the walls, ceiling, or floor of the hoistway. (See Nonmandatory Appendix Q.)
machine room, elevator, dumbwaiter, material lift: an enclosed machinery space outside the hoistway, intended for full bodily entry, that contains the electric driving machine or the hydraulic machine. The room could also contain electrical and/or mechanical equipment used directly in connection with the elevator, dumbwaiter, or material lift. (See Nonmandatory Appendix Q.)
machinery space, elevator, dumbwaiter, material lift: a space inside or outside the hoistway, intended to be accessed with or without full bodily entry, that contains elevator, dumbwaiter, or material lift mechanical equipment, and could also contain electrical equipment used directly in connection with the elevator, dumbwaiter, or material lift. This space could also contain the electric driving machine or the hydraulic machine. (See Nonmandatory Appendix Q.)
machinery space and control space, remote, elevator, dumbwaiter, material lift: a machinery space or control space that is not within the hoistway, machine room, or control room, and that is not attached to the outside perimeter or surface of the walls, ceiling, or floor of the hoistway. (See Nonmandatory Appendix Q.)
main floor: the floor providing normal egress from a building.
maintenance: a process of routine examination, lubrication, cleaning, and adjustment of parts, components, and/or subsystems for the purpose of ensuring performance in accordance with the applicable Code requirements. (See also repair and replacement.)
maintenance control program (MCP): a documented set of maintenance tasks, maintenance procedures, examinations, and tests to ensure that equipment is maintained in compliance with the requirements of 8.6.
maintenance procedure: an instruction or sequence of instructions for performing a specific task(s).
(a) a type or feature of an elevator part or component that, when actuated, requires intervention of a person in order to reinstate it to its non-actuated state.
(b) a type of action required to be taken by a person to reinstate an elevator part or component from an actuated state to its non-actuated state.
manual reset, escalator and moving walk: a means, not accessible to the general public or authorized personnel, requiring on-site intervention by elevator personnel prior to restarting the escalator or moving walk.
material lift: an elevator designed or modified for the purpose of transporting materials that are manually or automatically loaded or unloaded and are not a vertical reciprocating conveyor (see Section 1.3). Material lifts without an automatic transfer device are Type A or Type B. On Type A material lifts no persons are permitted to ride. On Type B material lifts authorized personnel are permitted to ride.
may: indicates permission, not a mandatory requirement.
means, suspension: tensile components that support, raise, and lower a car, counterweight, or both.
member, compensation: a single component of a traction elevator the weight of which provides tensile forces on the car and counterweight that reduce unbalanced forces due to the weight of the suspension means.
mode of operation: a way in which a safety-related system is intended to be used, with respect to the rate of demands made upon it, that may by either
(a) low demand mode: where the frequency of demands for operation made on an electrical safety function is not greater than one per year and not greater than twice the proof-test frequency
(b) high demand or continuous mode: where the frequency of demands for operation made on a safety-related system is greater than one per year or greater than twice the proof-test frequency
NOTE: High demand or continuous mode covers those safety-related systems that implement continuous control to maintain functional safety.
(c) proof-test: a periodic test performed to detect failures in a safety-related system so that, if necessary, the system can be restored to an "as new" condition or as close as practical to this condition
NOTE: See IEC 61508-4, Clause 3.8.5 for additional information on this definition.
moving walk: a type of passenger-carrying device on which passengers stand or walk, and in which the passenger-carrying surface remains parallel to its direction of motion and is uninterrupted.
moving walk newel: the balustrade termination at the landing.
moving walk newel base: the panel located immediately under the newel.
pallet, moving walk: one of a series of rigid platforms that together form an articulated treadway or the support for a continuous treadway.
pallet band: the complete assembly formed by all of the pallets and their interconnecting means.
parking device, elevator: an electrical or mechanical device, the function of which is to permit the opening of the hoistway door from the landing side when the car is within the landing zone of that landing. The device may also be used to close the door.
penetrate a floor: to pass through or pierce a floor in such a way that the opening has a continuous perimeter and is provided only to allow the equipment to pass through the floor.
Phase I Emergency Recall Operation: the operation of an elevator where it is automatically or manually recalled to the recall level and removed from normal service because of activation of Firefighters' Emergency Operation.
piston: a short cylindrical member that is provided with a sealing means that travels with the member within a hydraulic cylinder. Pistons may be coupled to the elevator, dumbwaiter, or material lift by a coupling means that passes through a sealing means provided in the cylinder head.
plunger (ram): a long cylindrical compression member that is directly or indirectly coupled to the car frame. This member is not provided with a sealing means. Where used in assembly with a cylinder, the sealing means is provided on the cylinder head. In the case of telescopic plungers and cylinders, a sealing means may be used in the moving plunger, that is also a cylinder.
position indicator: a device that indicates the position of the elevator, dumbwaiter, or material lift car in the hoistway. It is called a hall position indicator when placed at a landing or a car position indicator when placed in the car.
private residence: a separate dwelling or a separate apartment in a multiple dwelling that is occupied only by the members of a single family unit.
rated load, elevator, dumbwaiter, material lift, or escalator: the load that the equipment is designed and installed to lift at the rated speed.
escalator: the rate of travel of the steps, measured along the centerline of the steps in the direction of travel, with rated load on the steps. In the case of a reversible escalator, the rated speed shall be the rate of travel of the steps in the up direction, measured along the centerline of the steps on the incline, with rated load on the steps.
moving walk: the rate of travel of the treadway, horizontally or at an incline, with rated load on the treadway. In the case of reversible inclined moving walks, the rated speed is the rate of travel of the treadway in the up direction, measured along the centerline of the treadway surface in the direction of travel, with rated load on the treadway.
readily accessible: capable of being reached quickly for operation, renewal, or inspection, without requiring those to whom ready access is a requisite to climb over or remove obstacles or resort to portable ladders, chairs, etc.
regulatory authority: the person or organization responsible for the administration and enforcement of the applicable legislation or regulation governing the design, construction, installation, operation, inspection, testing, maintenance, or alteration of equipment covered by this Code. (See also authority having jurisdiction.)
remote machine and control rooms: rooms that do not share a common wall, floor, or ceiling with the hoistway.
replacement: the substitution of a device or component and/or subsystems, in its entirety, with a unit that is basically the same as the original for the purpose of ensuring performance in accordance with applicable Code requirements. (See also repair and maintenance.)
rope, aircraft cable: a wire rope built for a special purpose having special flexibility properties, zinc-coating, high breaking strength, and antirust qualities. Designed originally for use with aircraft controls.
rope, car counterweight: wire rope used to connect the car and counterweight that does not pass over the driving means.
rope, governor: wire rope with at least one end fastened to the safety activating means or governor rope releasing carrier, passing over and driving the governor sheave, and providing continuous information on the speed and direction of the car or counterweight.
rope, safety drum (also known as "Tail rope" and "Minne Line"): a corrosion-resistant wire rope used to connect the governor rope to the safety. Primarily used with wedge clamp safeties.
rope-fastening device, auxiliary: a device attached to the car or counterweight or to the overhead dead-end rope-hitch support that will function automatically to support the car or counterweight in case the regular wire rope fastening fails at the point of connection to the car or counterweight or at the overhead dead-end hitch.
rope sprocket drive: a driving means consisting of wire rope with fixed links at constant intervals throughout its length. The links engage in slots on a grooved drive cog to provide a positive drive force.
runby, bottom, elevator counterweight: the distance between the counterweight buffer striker plate and the striking surface of the counterweight buffer when the car floor is level with the top terminal landing.
safety, car or counterweight: a mechanical device attached to the car, car frame, or to an auxiliary frame; or to the counterweight or counterweight frame; to stop and hold the car or counterweight under one or more of the following conditions: predetermined overspeed, free fall, or if the suspension ropes slacken.
safety bulkhead: a closure at the bottom of the cylinder located above the cylinder head and provided with an orifice for controlling the loss of fluid in the event of cylinder head failure.
safety integrity level (SIL): the discrete level (one out of a possible four) for specifying the safety integrity requirements of the safety functions to be allocated to the E/E/PE safety-related system, where safety integrity level 4 has the highest level of safety integrity and safety integrity level 1 has the lowest (see IEC 61508).
screw column: a vertical structural member provided with screw threads that support the car of a screw column elevator, dumbwaiter, or material lift. The screw column may be either in tension or compression.
seal, adjustment: a device or means to prevent adjustment of a component that must be broken to change the adjustment. Sealing includes a method to document the date and name of the person and/or firm applying the seal or other means to acquire this information.
seismic detection device: a device activated by ground movement to provide a signal that a potentially damaging earthquake is imminent.
shaft: see hoistway.
shall: indicates a mandatory requirement.
should: indicates a recommendation, not a mandatory requirement.
signal device, elevator car flash: one providing a signal light in the car, that is illuminated when the car approaches the landings at which a landing signal registering device has been actuated.
signal system, elevator separate: one consisting of buttons or other devices located at the landings, that, when actuated by a waiting passenger, illuminates a flash signal or operates an annunciator in the car indicating floors at which stops are to be made.
signal transfer device, elevator automatic: a device by means of which a signal to be registered in a car is automatically transferred to the next car following, in case the first car passes a floor for which a signal has been registered without making a stop.
signal transfer switch, elevator: a manually operated switch, located in the car, by means of which the operator can transfer a signal to the next car approaching in the same direction, when the operator desires to pass a floor at which a signal has been registered in the car.
SIL rated: electrical/electronic/programmable electronic system (E/E/PES) that is listed/certified to a safety integrity level that is in accordance with the applicable requirements of IEC 61508-2 and IEC 61508-3.
skirt panel, dynamic: the moving vertical panels, with a positive mechanical connection to the running gear, adjacent to, and moving with the steps.
slack-rope switch: a device that automatically causes the electric power to be removed from the elevator driving-machine motor and brake when the suspension ropes of a winding-drum machine become slack.
slope, moving walk: the angle that the centerline of the treadway makes with the horizontal.
software system failure: a behavior of the software, including its support (host) hardware, that is not in accordance with the intended function.
solid-state device: an element that can control current flow without moving parts.
sound engineering practice: the use of engineering or technical methods to design or evaluate a device or system by taking into account relevant factors that may influence its efficacy and operation. This practice also involves the use of applicable standards, specifications, codes, and regulatory and industry guidelines, as well as accepted engineering and design methods and installation and maintenance practices.
speed governor: a continuously operating speed monitoring and detection device that, at predetermined speeds, provides signals to the controller and imparts a retarding force to activate the car or counterweight safety.
speed governor, escalator and moving walk: a continuously operating speed monitoring and detection device that, at predetermined speeds, provides signals to the controller to stop the escalator or moving walk.
step band: the complete assembly formed by all of the steps and their interconnecting means.
suspension member, noncircular elastomeric-coated steel (hoisting): a noncircular suspension member, such as an elastomeric-coated steel belt constructed of encapsulated steel cords, used to raise and lower an elevator, dumbwaiter, or material lift car or its counterweight or both.
sway control guide: a device attached to the car or the counterweight used to limit the sway of suspension means, compensating means, traveling cables, etc., to prevent tangling or snagging on other hoistway components.
terminal stopping device, emergency: a device that automatically causes the power to be removed from the driving-machine motor and brake if the car fails to slow down as intended when approaching the terminal landing.
terminal stopping device, final: a device that automatically causes the power to be removed from a driving-machine motor and brake, or from a hydraulic machine, after the car has passed a terminal landing.
terminal stopping device, machine final (stop-motion switch): final terminal stopping device operated directly by the driving machine.
traveling cable: a cable made up of electric conductors, that provides electrical connection between an elevator, dumbwaiter, material lift car, or counterweight, and a fixed outlet in the hoistway or machine room.
unlocking zone: a zone extending from the landing floor level to a specified point above and below the landing.
valley break: a broken wire in a wire rope in which the outside wire of a strand breaks in the immediate vicinity of the point where it contacts a wire or wires of an adjacent strand, generally at a point not visible when the wire rope is examined externally. One end of the broken wire is long enough to reach from one valley to the next one and the other end of the broken wire generally cannot be seen.
valve, overspeed: a device installed in the pressure piping of a hydraulic elevator, between the hydraulic machine and the hydraulic jack, that restricts and ceases oil flow from the hydraulic jack through the pressure piping when such flow exceeds a preset value.
volatile memory: memory lost when operating power is removed.
weatherproof: so constructed or protected that exposure to the weather will not interfere with successful operation.
width, moving walk: the exposed width of the treadway.
window: an assembly consisting of a surrounding frame and one or more sashes, ventilators, or fixed lights, or a combination of these, designed to be installed in a wall opening for the purpose of admitting light or air, or both.
yield strength: the tensile stress that is sufficient to produce a permanent deformation of 0.2%.