ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Fire Code 2012 (IFC 2012)

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.

Section 1101 General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1101.1 Scope

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1101.2 Intent

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1101.3 Permits

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1101.4 Owner Notification

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1101.4.1 Construction Documents

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1101.4.2 Completion of Work

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1101.4.3 Extension of Time

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

Section 1102 Definition

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1102.1 Definition

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

Section 1103 Fire Safety Requirements for Existing Buildings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1103.1 Required Construction

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1103.2 Emergency Responder Radio Coverage in Existing Buildings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1103.3 Elevator Operation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1103.4 Vertical Openings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1103.4.1 Group I Occupancies

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1103.4.2 Three to Five Stories

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1103.4.3 More Than Five Stories

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1103.4.4 Atriums and Covered Malls

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1103.4.5 Escalators in Group B and M Occupancies

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1103.4.6 Escalators Connecting Four or Fewer Stories

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1103.4.7 Escalators Connecting More Than Four Stories

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1103.5 Sprinkler Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1103.5.1 Pyroxylin Plastics

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1103.5.2 Group I-2

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1103.6 Standpipes

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1103.6.1 Existing Multiple-Story Buildings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1103.6.2 Existing Helistops and Heliports

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1103.7 Fire Alarm Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1103.7.1 Group E

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1103.7.2 Group I-1

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1103.7.3 Group I-2

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1103.7.4 Group I-3

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1103.7.5 Group R-1

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1103.7.5.1 Group R-1 Hotel and Motel Manual Fire Alarm System

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1103.7.5.1.1 Group R-1 Hotel and Motel Automatic Smoke Detection System

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1103.7.5.2 Group R-1 Boarding and Rooming Houses Manual Fire Alarm System

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1103.7.5.2.1 Group R-1 Boarding and Rooming Houses Automatic Smoke Detection System

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1103.7.6 Group R-2

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1103.7.7 Group R-4

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1103.8 Single- And Multiple-Station Smoke Alarms

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1103.8.1 Where Required

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1103.8.2 Interconnection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1103.8.3 Power Source

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1103.9 Carbon Monoxide Alarms

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Means of egress in existing buildings shall comply with the minimum egress requirements when specified in Table 1103.1 as further enumerated in Sections 1104.2 through 1104.24 and the building code that applied at the time of construction. Where the provisions of this chapter conflict with the building code that applied at the time of construction, the most restrictive provision shall apply. Existing buildings that were not required to comply with a building code at the time of construction shall comply with the minimum egress requirements when specified in Table 1103.1 as further enumerated in Sections 1104.2 through 1104.24,
Elevators, escalators and moving walks shall not be used as a component of a required means of egress.
Exceptions:
  1. Elevators used as an accessible means of egress where allowed by Section 1007.4.
  2. Previously approved escalators and moving walks in existing buildings.
Exit signs shall be internally or externally illuminated. The face of an exit sign illuminated from an external source shall have an intensity of not less than 5 footcandles (54 lux). Internally illuminated signs shall provide equivalent luminance and be listed for the purpose.
Exception: Approved self-luminous signs that provide evenly illuminated letters shall have a minimum luminance of 0.06 foot-lamberts (0.21 cd/m2).
Where emergency illumination is required in Section 1104.5, exit signs shall be visible under emergency illumination conditions.
Exception: Approved signs that provide continuous illumination independent of external power sources are not required to be connected to an emergency electrical system.
The power supply for means of egress illumination shall normally be provided by the premises' electrical supply. In the event of power supply failure, illumination shall be automatically provided from an emergency system for the following occupancies where such occupancies require two or more means of egress:
  1. Group A having 50 or more occupants.
    Exception: Assembly occupancies used exclusively as a place of worship and having an occupant load of less than 300.
  2. Group B buildings three or more stories in height, buildings with 100 or more occupants above or below a level of exit discharge serving the occupants or buildings with 1,000 or more total occupants.
  3. Group E in interior stairs, corridors, windowless areas with student occupancy, shops and laboratories.
  4. Group F having more than 100 occupants.
    Exception: Buildings used only during daylight hours which are provided with windows for natural light in accordance with the International Building Code.
  5. Group I.
  6. Group M.
    Exception: Buildings less than 3,000 square feet (279 m2) in gross sales area on one story only, excluding mezzanines.
  7. Group R-1.
    Exception: Where each sleeping unit has direct access to the outside of the building at grade.
  8. Group R-2.
    Exception: Where each dwelling unit or sleeping unit has direct access to the outside of the building at grade.
  9. Group R-4.
    Exception: Where each sleeping unit has direct access to the outside of the building at ground level.
In other than Group I-2, the emergency power system shall provide power for not less than 60 minutes and consist of storage batteries, unit equipment or an on-site generator. In Group I-2, the emergency power system shall provide power for not less than 90 minutes and consist of storage batteries, unit equipment or an on-site generator. The installation of the emergency power system shall be in accordance with Section 604.
Guards complying with this section shall be provided at the open sides of means of egress that are more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor or grade below.
Guards shall form a protective barrier not less than 42 inches (1067 mm) high.
Exceptions:
  1. Existing guards on the open side of stairs shall be not less than 30 inches (760 mm) high.
  2. Existing guards within dwelling units shall be not less than 36 inches (910 mm) high.
  3. Existing guards in assembly seating areas.
Open guards shall have balusters or ornamental patterns such that a 6-inch-diameter (152 mm) sphere cannot pass through any opening up to a height of 34 inches (864 mm).
Exceptions:
  1. At elevated walking surfaces for access to, and use of, electrical, mechanical or plumbing systems or equipment, guards shall have balusters or be of solid materials such that a sphere with a diameter of 21 inches (533 mm) cannot pass through any opening.
  2. In occupancies in Group I-3, F, H or S, the clear distance between intermediate rails measured at right angles to the rails shall not exceed 21 inches (533 mm).
  3. Approved existing open guards.
The minimum width of each door opening shall be sufficient for the occupant load thereof and shall provide a clear width of not less than 28 inches (711 mm). Where this section requires a minimum clear width of 28 inches (711 mm) and a door opening includes two door leaves without a mullion, one leaf shall provide a clear opening width of 28 inches (711 mm). The maximum width of a swinging door leaf shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) nominal. Means of egress doors in an occupancy in Group I-2 used for the movement of beds shall provide a clear width not less than 41.5 inches (1054 mm). The height of doors shall not be less than 80 inches (2032 mm).
Exceptions:
  1. The minimum and maximum width shall not apply to door openings that are not part of the required means of egress in occupancies in Groups R-2 and R-3.
  2. Door openings to storage closets less than 10 square feet (0.93 m2) in area shall not be limited by the minimum width.
  3. Width of door leafs in revolving doors that comply with Section 1008.1.4.1 shall not be limited.
  4. Door openings within a dwelling unit shall not be less than 78 inches (1981 mm) in height.
  5. Exterior door openings in dwelling units, other than the required exit door, shall not be less than 76 inches (1930 mm) in height.
  6. Exit access doors serving a room not larger than 70 square feet (6.5 m2) shall be not less than 24 inches (610 mm) in door width.
The opening force for interior side-swinging doors without closers shall not exceed a 5-pound (22 N) force. For other side-swinging, sliding and folding doors, the door latch shall release when subjected to a force of not more than 15 pounds (66 N). The door shall be set in motion when subjected to a force not exceeding 30 pounds (133 N). The door shall swing to a full-open position when subjected to a force of not more than 50 pounds (222 N). Forces shall be applied to the latch side.
Revolving doors shall comply with the following:
  1. A revolving door shall not be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the foot or top of stairs or escalators. A dispersal area shall be provided between the stairs or escalators and the revolving doors.
  2. The revolutions per minute for a revolving door shall not exceed those shown in Table 1104.9.
  3. Each revolving door shall have a conforming side-hinged swinging door in the same wall as the revolving door and within 10 feet (3048 mm).
Exceptions:
  1. A revolving door is permitted to be used without an adjacent swinging door for street-floor elevator lobbies provided a stairway, escalator or door from other parts of the building does not discharge through the lobby and the lobby does not have any occupancy or use other than as a means of travel between elevators and a street.
  2. Existing revolving doors where the number of revolving doors does not exceed the number of swinging doors within 20 feet (6096 mm).
TABLE 1104.9
REVOLVING DOOR SPEEDS
INSIDE DIAMETER
(feet-inches)
POWER-DRIVEN-TYPE SPEED CONTROL (rpm) MANUAL-TYPE
SPEED CONTROL
(rpm)
6-6 11 12
7-0 10 11
7-6 9 11
8-0 9 10
8-6 8 9
9-0 8 9
9-6 7 8
10-0 7 8
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
A revolving door used as a component of a means of egress shall comply with Section 1104.9 and all of the following conditions:
  1. Revolving doors shall not be given credit for more than 50 percent of the required egress capacity.
  2. Each revolving door shall be credited with not more than a 50-person capacity.
  3. Revolving doors shall be capable of being collapsed when a force of not more than 130 pounds (578 N) is applied within 3 inches (76 mm) of the outer edge of a wing.
Existing stairs in buildings shall be permitted to remain if the rise does not exceed 81/4 inches (210 mm) and the run is not less than 9 inches (229 mm). Existing stairs can be rebuilt.
Exception: Other stairs approved by the fire code official.
The replacement of an existing stairway in a structure shall not be required to comply with the new stairway requirements of Section 1009 where the existing space and construction will not allow a reduction in pitch or slope.
Existing winders shall be allowed to remain in use if they have a minimum tread depth of 6 inches (152 mm) and a minimum tread depth of 9 inches (229 mm) at a point 12 inches (305 mm) from the narrowest edge.
Existing circular stairs shall be allowed to continue in use provided the minimum depth of tread is 10 inches (254 mm) and the smallest radius shall not be less than twice the width of the stairway.
Stairways shall have handrails on at least one side. Handrails shall be located so that all portions of the stairway width required for egress capacity are within 44 inches (1118 mm) of a handrail.
Exception: Aisle stairs provided with a center handrail are not required to have additional handrails.
Handrail height, measured above stair tread nosings, shall be uniform, not less than 30 inches (762 mm) and not more than 42 inches (1067 mm).
Ramp runs utilized as part of a means of egress shall have a running slope not steeper than one unit vertical in 10 units horizontal (10-percent slope). The slope of other ramps shall not be steeper than one unit vertical in eight units horizontal (12.5-percent slope).
Existing ramps are permitted to have a minimum width of 30 inches (762 mm) but not less than the width required for the number of occupants served as determined by Section 1005.1.
Fire escape stairs shall comply with Sections 1104.16.1 through 1104.16.7.
Fire escape stairs shall be permitted in existing buildings but shall not constitute more than 50 percent of the required exit capacity.
Openings within 10 feet (3048 mm) of fire escape stairs shall be protected by opening protectives having a minimum 3/4-hour fire protection rating.
Exception: In buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system, opening protection is not required.
Fire escape stairs shall meet the minimum width, capacity, riser height and tread depth as specified in Section 1104.10.
Access to a fire escape stair from a corridor shall not be through an intervening room. Access to a fire escape stair shall be from a door or window meeting the criteria of Section 1005.1. Access to a fire escape stair shall be directly to a balcony, landing or platform. These shall be no higher than the floor or window sill level and no lower than 8 inches (203 mm) below the floor level or 18 inches (457 mm) below the window sill.
Components of fire escape stairs shall be constructed of noncombustible materials. Fire escape stairs and balconies shall support the dead load plus a live load of not less than 100 pounds per square foot (4.78 kN/m2). Fire escape stairs and balconies shall be provided with a top and intermediate handrail on each side.
Fire escape stairs and balconies shall be examined for structural adequacy and safety in accordance with Section 1104.16.5 by a registered design professional or others acceptable to the fire code official every five years, or as required by the fire code official. An inspection report shall be submitted to the fire code official after such examination.
The lowest balcony shall not be more than 18 feet (5486 mm) from the ground. Fire escape stairs shall extend to the ground or be provided with counterbalanced stairs reaching the ground.
Exception: For fire escape stairs serving 10 or fewer occupants, an approved fire escape ladder is allowed to serve as the termination.
Fire escapes shall be kept clear and unobstructed at all times and shall be maintained in good working order.
Corridors serving an occupant load greater than 30 and the openings therein shall provide an effective barrier to resist the movement of smoke. Transoms, louvers, doors and other openings shall be kept closed or self-closing.
Exceptions:
  1. Corridors in occupancies other than in Group H, which are equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system.
  2. Patient room doors in corridors in occupancies in Group I-2 where smoke barriers are provided in accordance with the International Building Code.
  3. Corridors in occupancies in Group E where each room utilized for instruction or assembly has at least one-half of the required means of egress doors opening directly to the exterior of the building at ground level.
  4. Corridors that are in accordance with the International Building Code.
Openings in corridor walls shall comply with the requirements of the International Building Code.
Exceptions:
  1. Where 20-minute fire door assemblies are required, solid wood doors at least 1.75 inches (44 mm) thick or insulated steel doors are allowed.
  2. Openings protected with fixed wire glass set in steel frames.
  3. Openings covered with 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum wallboard or 0.75-inch (19.1 mm) plywood on the room side.
  4. Opening protection is not required when the building is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system.
Where more than one exit or exit access doorway is required, the exit access shall be arranged such that dead ends do not exceed the limits specified in Table 1104.17.2.
Exception: A dead-end passageway or corridor shall not be limited in length where the length of the dead-end passageway or corridor is less than 2.5 times the least width of the dead-end passageway or corridor.
TABLE 1104.17.2
COMMON PATH, DEAD-END AND TRAVEL DISTANCE LIMITS (by occupancy)
OCCUPANCY COMMON PATH LIMIT DEAD-END LIMIT TRAVEL DISTANCE LIMIT
Unsprinklered
(feet)
Sprinklered
(feet)
Unsprinklered
(feet)
Sprinklered
(feet)
Unsprinklered
(feet)
Sprinklered
(feet)
Group A 20/75a 20/75a 20b 20b 200 250
Group Bf 75 100 50 50 200 300
Group E 75 75 20 50 200 250
Group F-1, S-1d, f 75 100 50 50 200 250
Group F-2, S-2d, f 75 100 50 50 300 400
Group H-1 25 25 0 0 75 75
Group H-2 50 100 0 0 75 100
Group H-3 50 100 20 20 100 150
Group H-4 75 75 20 20 150 175
Group H-5 75 75 20 50 150 200
Group I-1 75 75 20 50 200 250
Group I-2 (Health care) NRe NRe NR NR 150 200c
Group I-3
(Detention and correctional—Use
Conditions II, III, IV, V)
100 100 NR NR 150c 200c
Group I-4 (Day care centers) NR NR 20 20 200 250
Group M (Covered or open mall) 75 100 50 50 200 400
Group M (Mercantile) 75 100 50 50 200 250
Group R-1 (Hotels) 75 75 50 50 200 250
Group R-2 (Apartments) 75 125 50 50 200 250
Group R-3 (One- and two-family) NR NR NR NR NR NR
Group R-4 (Residential
care/assisted living)
NR NR NR NR NR NR
Group Uf 75 100 20 50 300 400
NR = No requirements.
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
  1. 20 feet for common path serving 50 or more persons; 75 feet for common path serving less than 50 persons.
  2. See Section 1028.9.5 for dead-end aisles in Group A occupancies.
  3. This dimension is for the total travel distance, assuming incremental portions have fully utilized their allowable maximums. For travel distance within the room, and from the room exit access door to the exit, see the appropriate occupancy chapter.
  4. See the International Building Code for special requirements on spacing of doors in aircraft hangars.
  5. Any patient sleeping room, or any suite that includes patient sleeping rooms, of more than 1,000 square feet shall have at least two exit access doors placed a distance apart equal to not less than one-third of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the patient sleeping room or suite to be served, measured in a straight line between exit access doors.
  6. Where a tenant space in Group B, S and U occupancies has an occupant load of not more than 30, the length of a common path of egress travel shall not be more than 100 feet.
Exits shall be located so that the maximum length of exit access travel, measured from the most remote point to an approved exit along the natural and unobstructed path of egress travel, does not exceed the distances given in Table 1104.17.2.
An interior exit stairway or ramp which continues below its level of exit discharge shall be arranged and marked to make the direction of egress to a public way readily identifiable.
Exception: Stairs that continue one-half story beyond their levels of exit discharge need not be provided with barriers where the exit discharge is obvious.
Exterior exit stairs shall be separated from the interior of the building as required in Section 1026.6. Openings shall be limited to those necessary for egress from normally occupied spaces.
Exceptions:
  1. Separation from the interior of the building is not required for buildings that are two stories or less above grade where the level of exit discharge serving such occupancies is the first story above grade.
  2. Separation from the interior of the building is not required where the exterior stairway is served by an exterior balcony that connects two remote exterior stairways or other approved exits, with a perimeter that is not less than 50 percent open. To be considered open, the opening shall be a minimum of 50 percent of the height of the enclosing wall, with the top of the opening not less than 7 feet (2134 mm) above the top of the balcony.
  3. Separation from the interior of the building is not required for an exterior stairway located in a building or structure that is permitted to have unenclosed interior stairways in accordance with Section 1022.
  4. Separation from the interior of the building is not required for exterior stairways connected to open-ended corridors, provided that:
    1. The building, including corridors and stairs, is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
    2. The open-ended corridors comply with Section 1018.
    3. The open-ended corridors are connected on each end to an exterior exit stairway complying with Section 1026.
    4. At any location in an open-ended corridor where a change of direction exceeding 45 degrees (0.79 rad) occurs, a clear opening of not less than 35 square feet (3 m2) or an exterior stairway shall be provided. Where clear openings are provided, they shall be located so as to minimize the accumulation of smoke or toxic gases.
The minimum clear width of aisles shall be:
  1. Forty-two inches (1067 mm) for aisle stairs having seating on each side.
    Exception: Thirty-six inches (914 mm) where the aisle serves less than 50 seats.
  2. Thirty-six inches (914 mm) for stepped aisles having seating on only one side.
    Exception: Thirty inches (760 mm) for catchment areas serving not more than 60 seats.
  3. Twenty inches (508 mm) between a stepped aisle handrail or guard and seating when the aisle is subdivided by the handrail.
  4. Forty-two inches (1067 mm) for level or ramped aisles having seating on both sides.
    Exception: Thirty-six inches (914 mm) where the aisle serves less than 50 seats.
  5. Thirty-six inches (914 mm) for level or ramped aisles having seating on only one side.
    Exception: Thirty inches (760 mm) for catchment areas serving not more than 60 seats.
  6. Twenty-three inches (584 mm) between a stepped stair handrail and seating where an aisle does not serve more than five rows on one side.

1104.24 Egress Path Markings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

Section 1105 Requirements for Outdoor Operations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1105.1 Tire Storage Yards

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1105.1.1 Access to Piles

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1105.1.2 Location Within Piles

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
UpCodes Premium
Leverage the most sophisticated code compliance platform.
TRY FREE FOR TWO WEEKS VISIT PRICING