Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
All premises intended for human habitation or occupancy shall be provided with a potable water supply. The potable water supply shall not be connected to non-potable water and shall be protected from backflow and back siphonage. (See Appendix I.Illustration A.)

(Source: Amended at 38 Ill. Reg. 9940, effective April 24, 2014)
Identification of Piping. All piping conveying non-potable water shall be permanently identified by a continuous purple coloring so that the piping is readily distinguishable from piping carrying potable water. (See the color codes of ANSI/NEMA Z535.1 and ASME A13.1.)

(Source: Amended at 38 Ill. Reg. 9940, effective April 24, 2014)
  1. Cross-Connection (Submergence). Potable water supply piping and water discharge outlets shall not be submerged in any sewage or toxic substance. Potable water supply piping or water discharge outlets that are submerged in other substances shall be provided with backflow protection as listed in subsection (f). (See Appendix I.Illustrations B and C.)
  2. Approval of Devices and Maintenance. All devices and assemblies for the prevention of backflow shall comply with the standards listed in Appendix A.Table A. All reduced pressure principle (RPZ), reduced pressure detector (RPDA), double check (DCA) and double check detector (DCDA) backflow prevention assemblies shall be tested and approved by a Cross-Connection Control Device Inspector (CCCDI) before initial operation, and at least annually after initial inspection. Records to verify testing and maintenance shall be available at the site of the installation.
  3. Backflow. The water distribution system shall be protected against backflow. Each water outlet shall be protected from backflow by having the outlet end from which the water flows spaced a sufficient distance above the flood-level rim of the receptacle into which the water flows to provide a minimum fixed air gap. When it is not possible to provide a minimum fixed air gap, the water outlet shall be equipped with an accessible backflow prevention device or assembly in accordance with subsection (f) of this Section or Section 890.1140.
  4. Fire Safety Systems. The installation of any fire safety system involving the potable water supply system shall be protected against backflow as follows:
    1. Backflow protection is not required for fire safety systems constructed as follows:
      1. The system shall be looped, with no dead ends, to allow circulation, to prevent the stagnation of water in the line;
      2. The system shall not have any non-potable connections or a fire department hose (Siamese) connection;
      3. The system shall have 20 sprinkler heads or less; and
      4. The system shall be constructed of potable water supply quality pipe in accordance with Appendix A.Table A.
    2. When backflow protection is required, a double detector check valve or double check valve backflow preventer assembly shall be installed at the fire safety system's point of connection to the potable water supply when a fire safety system has no chemical additives or non-potable connection and:
      1. The fire safety system has no fire department hose connections; or
      2. The fire safety system has one or more fire department hose connections (for boosting pressure and flow to the fire safety system) that are served only by fire fighting apparatus connected to a public water supply or a fire department that does not use chemical additives or rely upon any non-potable water supply.
    3. A fixed air gap with a break tank or other storage vessel or a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer assembly (RPZ) shall be installed at the fire safety system's point of connection to the potable water supply if:
      1. The fire safety system contains additives such as antifreeze, fire retardant or other chemicals. (The RPZ may be located at the point of connection to that section of the system containing additives when the system's connection to the water supply is protected by a double detector check valve backflow preventer assembly.); or
      2. Non-potable water flows into the fire safety system by gravity; or
      3. There is a permanent or emergency connection through which water can be pumped into the fire safety system from any other non-potable source; or
      4. Fire department connections are available that could permit water to be pumped into the fire safety system from a non-potable source capable of serving the fire safety system. A non-potable source of water shall be considered capable of serving the fire safety system under the following conditions: it must be capable of year-round use, maintained with at least 50,000 gallons of usable water not subject to freezing, accessible to fire fighting pumper equipment, and located within 1,700 feet of the facility.
  5. Prohibited Connections
    1. Sewage Lines. There shall be no direct connection between potable water lines and sewage lines or equipment and vessels containing sewage. Connections shall be made only through a minimum fixed air gap as outlined in subsection (f)(5).
    2. Chemical or Petroleum Pressure Vessels. No direct connection shall occur between any potable water supply and any pressure vessel, i.e., storage tank, tank car, tank truck or trailer, or other miscellaneous pressurized tank or cylinder containing or having contained liquified gaseous petroleum products or other liquified gaseous chemicals. When it is necessary to discharge from a potable water line to a pressure vessel, the discharge shall be through a minimum fixed air gap as outlined in subsection (f)(5). Exception: Chemical pressure vessels containing chemicals used in the water treatment process, for uses other than private purposes, are exempt from this subsection (e)(2).
    3. If water under pressure is required, as in subsections (e)(1) and (2), it shall be supplied by means of an auxiliary pump taking suction from a tank provided for this purpose only with an over-rim supply having the required minimum fixed air gap.
    4. A potable water line to a single wall refrigerant condenser shall be provided with a backflow preventer complying with ASSE 1012 or 1013.
    5. No pipe or fitting of the water supply system shall be drilled or tapped nor shall any band or saddle be used except at the water main in the street. Exception: See Section 890.320(h) for potable water use only.
  6. Devices for the Protection of the Potable Water Supply. Approved backflow preventers or vacuum breakers shall be installed with all plumbing fixtures and equipment that may have a submerged potable water supply outlet and that are not protected by a minimum fixed air gap. Connection to the potable water supply system for the following fixtures or equipment shall be protected against backflow with one of the appropriate devices as indicated below:
    1. Inlet to receptacles containing low hazard substances (steam, compressed air, food, beverages, etc.):
      1. fixed air gap fitting;
      2. reduced pressure principle backflow preventer assembly;
      3. atmospheric vacuum breaker unit;
      4. double check valve backflow preventer assembly;
      5. double check backflow preventer with atmospheric vent assembly; or
      6. dual check valve.
    2. Inlet to receptacles containing high hazard substances (vats, storage containers, plumbing fixtures, etc.):
      1. fixed air gap fitting;
      2. reduced pressure principle backflow preventer assembly; or
      3. atmospheric vacuum breaker unit.
    3. Coils or jackets used as heat exchangers in compressors, degreasers and other equipment involving high hazard substances:
      1. fixed air gap fitting; or
      2. reduced pressure principle backflow preventer assembly.
    4. Direct connections that are subject to back pressure:
      1. Receptacles containing low hazard substances (vats, storage containers, plumbing fixtures, etc.):
        1. fixed air gap fitting;
        2. reduced pressure principle backflow preventer assembly;
        3. double check valve backflow preventer assembly;
        4. double check backflow preventer with atmospheric vent assembly; or
        5. dual check valve.
      2. Receptacles containing high hazard substances (vats, storage containers, etc.):
        1. fixed air gap fitting; or
        2. a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer assembly.
    5. Inlet to or direct connection with sewage or lethal substances: fixed air gap fitting.
    6. Hose and spray units or stations shall be protected by one of the appropriate devices as indicated below:
      1. Fixed air gap;
      2. Reduced pressure principle backflow preventer assembly;
      3. Double check valve backflow preventer assembly;
      4. Double check valve backflow preventer with atmospheric vent assembly;
      5. Dual check valve backflow preventer assembly;
      6. Atmospheric vacuum breaker unit.
  7. Installation of Devices or Assemblies
    1. Devices of All Types. Backflow preventer assemblies and devices shall be installed to be accessible for observation, maintenance and replacement services. Backflow preventer devices or assemblies shall not be installed where they would be subject to freezing conditions, except as allowed in Section 890.1140(d).
    2. All in-line backflow/back siphonage preventer assemblies shall have a full port type valve with a resilient seated shut-off valve on each side of the preventer. Relocation of the valves is not permitted.
    3. A protective strainer shall be located upstream of the first check valve on all backflow/back siphonage preventers unless the device contains a built-in strainer. Fire safety systems are exempt from the strainer requirement.
    4. Atmospheric vacuum breakers shall be installed with the critical level above the flood level rim of the fixture they serve, and on the discharge side of the last control valve of the fixture. No shut-off valve or faucet shall be installed beyond the vacuum breaker.
    5. No in-line double check valve backflow preventer assembly (DCV) or reduced pressure principle backflow preventer assembly (RPZ) shall be located more than 5 feet above a floor, or be installed where it is subject to freezing or flooding conditions. After installation, each DCV and RPZ shall be field tested in-line in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions by a cross-connection control device inspector before initial operation. (See subsection (b).)
    6. A dual check backflow preventer with atmospheric vent assembly shall not be installed where it is subject to freezing or flooding conditions.
    7. Closed water systems with hot water storage shall have a properly sized thermal expansion tank located in the cold water supply as near to the water heater as possible and with no shut-off valve or other device between the heater and the expansion tank. Exception: In existing buildings with a closed water system, a properly sized pressure relief valve may be substituted in place of a thermal expansion tank. For closed water systems created by backflow protection in manufactured housing, as required in Section 890.1140(i), a ballcock with a relief valve may be substituted for the thermal expansion tank.
(Source: Amended at 38 Ill. Reg. 9940, effective April 24, 2014)
  1. Atmospheric Vacuum Breaker. An atmospheric vacuum breaker shall be installed between the control valve and the fixture in a manner that it will not be subject to water pressure, except the pressure incidental to water flowing to the fixture. An atmospheric vacuum breaker shall be installed on the outlet side of the control valve.
  2. Flushometer Valve. Flush valves shall be equipped with vacuum breakers installed on the discharge side of the flushing valve with the critical level at least 4 inches above the overflow rim of the bowl or 4 inches above the top of the urinal. (See Appendix I.Illustration D.)
  3. Flushing Tanks. Flushing tanks shall be equipped with anti-siphon ballcocks. The ballcocks shall be installed with the critical level of the vacuum breaker at least 1 inch above the full opening of the overflow pipe. If the ballcock has no hush tube, the bottom of the water supply inlet shall be installed 1 inch above the top of the overflow pipe. (See Section 890.650(d).)
  4. Lawn Sprinklers. Any lawn sprinkler system connected to a potable water supply shall be equipped with an RPZ. The RPZ may be located outside provided that it is protected from freezing or is removed at the end of the season, and it complies with Section 890.1130(g)(1).
  5. Valve Outlets for Hose Attachments
    1. All threaded valve outlets shall have backflow protection in accordance with Section 890.1130. All outside threaded valve outlets shall not be subject to freezing.
    2. Yard hydrants shall be installed as follows:
      1. Potable Water. All hydrants with threaded spigots shall have backflow protection attached to the hydrant spigot (if threaded) and either:
        1. Hydrants with buried drain down (weep) holes shall have the weep holes protected from ground water backup by proper open site drainage. A backflow preventer shall not be used on the buried weep hole to protect the hydrant from ground water backup; or
        2. A yard hydrant that automatically drains back to a sealed container when flow is shut off, such as a canister type hydrant.
      2. Non-potable Water. One or more hydrants may be installed for non-potable use if they are isolated from the potable water supply by a backflow preventer device installed in accordance with Section 890.1130(f). The hydrants shall be clearly identified as non-potable by color (see Section 890.1120) and bear a sign that reads as follows: "This water unsafe for drinking."
    3. In a campground licensed in accordance with the Department's rules titled Youth Camp Code or Recreational Area Code, backflow protection is not required if the water supply line is directly connected to a recreational vehicle and is under constant pressure.
  6. Commercial Laundry Machines. The potable water supply to commercial laundry machines shall be protected against back siphonage by an air gap or backflow protection device. If a vacuum breaker is used, it shall be a minimum of 26 inches above the top of the machine.
  7. Commercial Dishwashers. Commercial dishwashers shall be equipped with an approved vacuum breaker located in the rinse water supply line on the discharge side of the final control valve, a minimum distance of 6 inches above the uppermost spray outlets. The cold water or make-up water supply line shall be provided with an air gap or a vacuum breaker located on the discharge side of the final control valve, a minimum distance of 6 inches above the overflow level or flood rim.
  8. Aspirators. Water-operated aspirators shall meet the following specifications:
    1. The water supply line shall be equipped with a shut-off valve.
      1. If aspirators are used in operating rooms, emergency rooms, recovery rooms, delivery rooms, autopsy rooms, dental offices and laboratories for removing blood, pus or other fluids, a vacuum breaker shall be installed on the discharge side of the control valve, at ceiling height (a minimum of 7 feet, 6 inches) and the water supply shall be protected against backflow and back siphonage by an air gap; or an RPZ shall be used.
      2. Chemical dispensing units shall have a dedicated water supply and shut-off valves to each unit. Each unit shall have a backflow device installed to protect against backflow and back siphonage.
    2. The aspirator water discharge shall be provided with a 2-inch air gap to the receiving fixture.
  9. Manufactured Housing and Mobile Home Units Manufactured Prior to June 15, 1976. At the time of water service connection, backflow protection shall be installed between the water service line and any manufactured housing or mobile home unit that was manufactured prior to June 15, 1976. Backflow protection shall be provided by at least a dual check valve backflow preventer assembly (DuC) conforming to ASSE 1024. This backflow protection shall be installed in all instances where a unit manufactured prior to June 15, 1976 is connected or re-connected to a water service line, e.g., for connection of a relocated unit, or re-connection of a unit that was disconnected to allow repairs to the water line; however, backflow protection is not required for existing units unless a new connection or re-connection to the water service line occurs.
  10. Carbonated Beverage Dispensers Water Supply. The water supply to carbonated beverage dispensers shall be protected by one of the following methods:
    1. Air gap;
    2. ASSE 1022 backflow preventer; or
    3. ASSE 1022 backflow preventer with vent port added.
  11. Water-Powered Sump Pump. Sump pumps powered by potable or reclaimed water pressure shall be used only as an emergency backup pump. The water-powered pump shall be equipped with a battery powered alarm having a minimum rating of 85 dBa at 10 feet. Water-powered pumps shall have a water efficiency factor of pumping at least 1.4 gallons of water to a height of 10 feet for every gallon of water used to operate the pump, measured at a water pressure of 60 psi. Pumps shall be clearly labeled as to the gallons of water pumped per gallon of potable water consumed. Water-powered stormwater sump pumps shall be equipped with a dual check valve with atmospheric vent conforming to ASSE 1012 or CSA B64.
(Source: Amended at 38 Ill. Reg. 9940, effective April 24, 2014)
  1. Underground Water Service. Water service pipe shall be installed outside the foundation wall in accordance with either subsection (a)(1) or (2) and shall comply with both subsections (a)(3) and (4).
    1. Water service and building drain or building sewer may be installed in separate trenches with a minimum of 10 feet horizontal separation. Material listed in Appendix A.Table A (Approved Materials for Building Sewer and Approved Materials for Water Service Pipe) shall be used, provided that the material is specific for this type of installation. (See Appendix I.Illustration E.)
    2. The water service and the building drain or building sewer may be installed in the same trench provided that the water service is placed on a solid shelf a minimum of 18 inches above the building drain or building sewer. The building sewer shall be of material listed in Appendix A.Table A (Approved Building Drainage/Vent Pipe) for a building drain. (See Appendix I.Illustration F for the proper installation of water service, building drain and building sewer.)
    3. The minimum depth for any water service pipe shall be at least 36 inches or the maximum frost penetration of the local area, whichever is of greater depth.
    4. No water service pipe shall be installed or permitted outside of a building or in an exterior wall unless the pipe is protected from freezing, in accordance with Section 890.1210(a).
  2. Potable Water Piping and Sanitary Sewer Crossing Installation Requirements
    1. Potable water piping that passes above or below a sanitary sewer shall be installed with a minimum vertical separation of 18 inches for a distance of 10 feet on either side from the center of the sanitary sewer.
    2. If potable water piping passes beneath a sanitary sewer or drain, the sanitary sewer or drain shall be constructed of materials as specified in Appendix A.Table A (Approved Building Drainage/Vent Pipe) for building drains and shall extend on each side of the crossing to a distance of at least 10 feet as measured at right angles to the water line. The potable water piping shall comply with Appendix A.Table A as specified for a water service pipe (Approved Materials for Water Service Pipe). (See Appendix I.Illustration G.)
    3. When compliance with subsection (b)(1) or (2) is not possible, a pressure rated pipe, approved for building drain material listed in Appendix A.Table A, shall encase the water service pipe. The casing pipe shall be sealed with a casing seal and extend 10 feet on either side of the center of the sanitary sewer pipe. The sleeve or case shall be at least two times the size of the water service.
  3. When compliance with subsection (a) or (b) is not possible, the Department shall be contacted for consideration of alternative methods.
  4. Stop-and-Waste Valve. Combination stop-and-waste valves and cocks shall not be installed in an underground potable water pipe. Frost-free hydrants and fire hydrants shall not be considered stop-and-waste valves. (See Section 890.1140(e).)
(Source: Amended at 38 Ill. Reg. 9940, effective April 24, 2014)
  1. Pumps and Other Appliances. Potable water pumps, tanks, filters, and all other appliances and devices shall be protected against contamination.
  2. Water Supply Tanks. Potable water supply tanks shall be properly covered to prevent contamination of the water supply. Soil or waste lines shall not pass directly over such tanks.
  3. Cleaning, Painting, Repairing Water Tanks. A potable water supply tank used for domestic purposes shall not be lined, painted or repaired with any material which affects either the taste or the potability of the water. Tanks shall be disconnected from the system during such operations to prevent any foreign substance from entering the system.
  1. Water Pressure. When the water pressure from the public water supply main is insufficient during periods of peak flow or due to the building height to supply all fixtures in accordance with Section 890.1210(c), the rate of supply shall be supplemented by a gravity tank or auxiliary pressure (booster) system. Auxiliary pressure systems shall not substitute for adequate sizing of water distribution piping within the building.
  2. Support. All water supply tanks shall be supported in accordance with local building codes or authorities having jurisdiction.
  3. Tank Supply Inlet and Outlet. The water supply inlet to the tank shall have a minimum air gap of at least 6 inches. The supply outlet shall be a minimum of 4 inches above the bottom of the tank.
  4. Overflow For Water Supply Tanks. Overflow pipes for gravity tanks shall be indirectly connected to the drainage system with an air gap of at least 6 inches. Overflow pipes shall be full sized, unrestricted and screened with 24-mesh per inch stainless steel or bronze screen.
  5. Size of Overflow. Overflow drains for gravity water supply tanks shall have an area of at least twice the size of the supply pipe.
  6. Drains. Water supply tanks shall be provided with valved drain lines located at their lowest point and shall discharge through an indirect waste with an air gap of twice the diameter of the drain line. The drain line and valve shall have no restrictions and need not exceed 2 inches in diameter.
  7. Gravity and Suction Tanks. Tanks used for potable water supply or only to supply fire-fighting equipment shall be equipped with tight, overlapping covers that are rodent and insect proof. The tanks shall be vented with a return bend (turned down) pipe having an area at least 1/2 the area of the tank outlet pipe, and the vent opening shall be covered with a stainless steel or bronze screen of at least 24-mesh per inch.
  8. Pressure Tanks. Pressure tanks used for supplying water to the water distribution system, or only to supply standpipes for fire equipment, shall be equipped with a vacuum relief valve located on top of the tank. An air inlet of this device shall be covered with a stainless steel or bronze screen of at least 24-mesh per inch. (See Section 890.1230(f).)
(Source: Amended at 38 Ill. Reg. 9940, effective April 24, 2014)
New or repaired potable water systems shall be flushed or disinfected prior to use as follows:
  1. Chlorinated Water Supply. If the potable water supply serving the water supply system is chlorinated, e.g., a community water system, the water supply system, or appropriate repaired portion, shall be flushed with clean, potable water until no dirty water appears at the point of outlet.
  2. Non-Chlorinated Water Supply. The pipe system shall be flushed with clean, potable water until no dirty water appears at the point of outlet.
    1. The system, or part of the system, shall be filled with a chlorine solution containing at least 50 parts per million of chlorine and shall be valved off and allowed to stand for 24 hours, or the system, or part of the system, shall be filled with a chlorine solution containing at least 200 parts per million of chlorine and be allowed to stand for three hours.
    2. Following the required contact (standing) time, the system shall be flushed with clean, potable water until the chlorine level in the water discharging from the system is within acceptable limits for potable water, i.e., generally until the water has no detectable chlorine odor.
    3. To ensure that the water supplied by the water system is safe for drinking, a bacteriological examination of a water sample taken from the water supply system shall be secured. This examination shall be performed by a laboratory certified in accordance with 77 Ill. Adm. Code 465. The chlorine residual in any water sample collected for examination shall not exceed 4 parts per million (or 4 milligrams/liter) for a reliable laboratory result. If the examination reveals that contamination still persists in the system, the procedure for disinfection shall be repeated.
(Source: Amended at 38 Ill. Reg. 9940, effective April 24, 2014)
  1. A full-port shut-off valve shall be located near the curb or property line and immediately inside the building, on the inlet and outlet side of the water meter. When located underground, this valve shall be in a stop box or meter vault. (See Appendix I.Illustration H.)
  2. The utility meter may be installed outside in an accessible meter vault or within the building. The meter shall have unions on the inlet and outlet openings. A full-port valve with an open area at least that of the water service shall be provided for all meters and shall be provided with a drain valve installed on the discharge side of the meter valve when located inside of a building. (See Appendix I.Illustrations H and I.)
  3. Tank Controls. Supply lines taken from pressure or gravity tanks shall be valved at or near their source.
  4. Water Heating Equipment. A shut-off valve shall be provided in the cold water branch within 5 developed feet of each water storage tank or each water heater and located in the same room.
  5. Separate Controls for Each Family Unit. In multiple family dwellings, the water service or water distribution pipe to each family unit shall be controlled by an arrangement of line valves that permits each group of fixtures and each individual fixture to be shut off without interference with the water supply to any other family unit or portion of the building. The location of these valves shall be uniform in each family unit of a multiple family dwelling. (See Appendix I.Illustration J.)
  6. Buildings Other Than Dwellings. In all buildings other than dwellings and health care facilities as specified in subsection (g), line valves shall be installed to permit the water supply to all equipment or fixtures in each separate room to be shut off without interfering with the water supply to any other room or portion of the building. For plumbing equipment or fixtures that are installed back-to-back in adjacent rooms, e.g., in adjacent restrooms, a common line valve may be used to shut off the water supply to the back-to-back fixtures in no more than two adjacent rooms. (See Appendix I.Illustration K.)
  7. Health Care Facilities. In the residence rooms of health care facilities, the water distribution pipe to each resident unit shall be controlled by an arrangement of line valves that permits each group of fixtures, and each individual fixture, to be shut off without interference with the water supply to any other unit or portion of the building.
(Source: Amended at 38 Ill. Reg. 9940, effective April 24, 2014)
  1. Water Service Pipe Sizing. The water service pipe from the street main (including the tap) to the water distribution system for the building shall be sized in accordance with Appendix A, Tables M, N, O, P and Q. Water service pipe and fittings shall be at least 3/4 inch diameter. Plastic water pipe shall be rated at a minimum of 160 psi at 73.4°F. If flushometers or other devices requiring a high rate of water flow are used, the water service pipe shall be designed and installed to provide this additional flow.
  2. Demand Load. The calculation of the water service demand load for a building shall be based on the total number and types of fixtures installed in the building, assuming the simultaneous use of such fixtures.
  3. Unused sections of water service or water distribution piping ("dead ends"), where the water in the piping may become stagnant, are prohibited. A developed length of more than 2 feet shall be considered a dead end.
(Source: Amended at 28 Ill. Reg. 4215, effective February 18, 2004)
  1. Design and Installation. The design and installation of the hot and cold water building distribution systems shall provide a volume of water at the required rates and pressures to ensure the safe, efficient and satisfactory operation of fixtures, fittings, appliances and other connected devices during periods of peak use. No distribution pipe or pipes shall be installed or permitted outside of a building or in an exterior wall or attic unless the pipe is protected from freezing.
  2. Size of Water Distribution Pipes. The fixture supply for each fixture shall be at least the minimum size provided in Appendix A.Table D. The size of all other water distribution pipes shall be determined by calculating the water supply demand (in water supply fixture units) for that portion of the water distribution system served by the pipe. Using Appendix A.Tables M, N, O, P and Q, the cumulative water supply demand or load shall be calculated for all fixtures, piping, valves and fittings served by the water distribution pipe, and the pipe shall meet the minimum size provided in Appendix A.Table N or O, as applicable. Exception: As an alternative to using Tables M, N, O, P and Q to design and size the piping in the water distribution system, the system may be designed and sized employing current engineering practices, provided that the design/plans are approved in writing by an Illinois licensed professional engineer, an Illinois licensed architect or an individual Certified in Plumbing Design (CPD) by the American Society of Plumbing Engineers and approved in writing by the Department.
  3. Minimum Water Pressure. The minimum constant water service pressure on the discharge side of the water meter shall be (at least) 20 psi, and the minimum constant water pressure at each fixture shall be at least 8 psi or the minimum recommended by the fixture manufacturer.
  4. Auxiliary Pressure. Supplementary Tank. If the pressure in the system is below the minimum 8 psi at the highest water outlet when the flow in the system is at peak demand, an automatically controlled pressure tank or gravity tank of a capacity to supply sections of the building installation that are too high to be supplied directly from the public water main shall be installed.
  5. Low Pressure Cut-Off. When a booster pump, except those used for fire protection, is used on an auxiliary pressure system, a low-pressure cut-off switch shall be installed on the booster pump to prevent the creation of pressures less than 5 psi on the suction side of the pump. A shut-off valve shall be installed on the suction side of the water system and within 5 feet from the pump suction inlet, and a pressure gauge shall be installed between the shut-off valve and pump.
  6. Water Hammer. All building water supply systems shall be provided with air chambers or approved mechanical devices or water hammer arrestors to absorb pressure surges. Water pressure absorbers shall be installed at the ends of long pipe runs or near batteries of fixtures.
    1. Air Chambers — An air chamber that is installed in a fixture supply shall be at least 12 inches in length and the same diameter as the fixture supply, or an air chamber with an equivalent volume may be used. An air chamber that is installed in a riser shall be at least 24 inches in length and at least the same size as the riser.
    2. Mechanical Devices — If a mechanical device or water hammer arrestor is used, the manufacturer's specifications for location and installation shall be followed.
  7. Excessive Static Water Pressure
    1. If water main pressure exceeds 80 psi, a pressure reducing valve and a strainer with a by-pass relief valve shall be installed in the water service pipe near the entrance to the building to reduce the water pressure to 80 psi or lower, except where the water service pipe supplies water directly to a water pressure booster system, an elevated water tank, or to pumps provided in connection with a hydropneumatic or elevated water supply tank system. Sill cocks and outside hydrants may be left on full water main pressure.
    2. When the water pressure exceeds 80 psi at any plumbing fixture, a pressure reducing valve, pressure gauge and a strainer with a by-pass relief valve shall be installed in a water supply pipe serving the fixture to reduce the water pressure at the fixture to 80 psi or lower.
  8. Approval of Auxiliary Pressure Systems. Whenever, in any building, structure or premises receiving its potable water supply from the public water system, a pump or any other device for increasing the water pressure is to be installed, installation plans shall be approved by the Department prior to installation in accordance with Section 890.1940.
  9. Variable Street Pressures. If the water main has a wide fluctuation in pressure, the water distribution system shall be designed for minimum pressure available at the main.
(Source: Amended at 38 Ill. Reg. 9940, effective April 24, 2014)
  1. All water heaters shall comply with Appendix A.Table A (Approved Standards for Plumbing Appliances/Appurtenances/Devices) and ASHRAE 90 Standards. Hot water storage tanks shall meet construction requirements of ASME, AGA or UL listed in Appendix A.Table A (Approved Standards for Plumbing Appliances/Appurtenances/Devices), as appropriate. Hot water supply boilers with heat input in excess of 200,000 BTU per hour, water temperature in excess of 200 degrees Fahrenheit, or capacity in excess of 120 gallons shall also comply with the requirements of 41 Ill. Adm. Code 120(Boiler and Pressure Vessel Safety). Smaller water storage tanks that are not subject to ASME requirements shall be constructed of durable materials and constructed to withstand 150 psi. (See Appendix I.Illustrations L and M, for examples of typical water heater installations.)
    1. All equipment used for heating and storage of hot water shall bear the marking of an approved testing agency certifying that it has been tested and approved and listed as meeting the requirements of the applicable standard. Listing by UL, the Canadian Standards Association (CSA), or National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors, or the ASME Standard shall constitute evidence of conformance with these standards.
    2. Solar Hot Water Heat Exchangers
      1. A hot water heat exchanger used in a solar-heated system may be of single wall construction if a non-toxic transfer fluid with no conditioning chemicals in the system is used.
      2. A hot water exchanger used in a solar-heated system using a toxic transfer fluid or having conditioning chemicals in the system shall be separated from the potable water by double wall construction that has an air gap vented to the atmosphere between the walls.
    3. A hot water heat exchanger may be of single wall construction if a non-toxic transfer fluid with no conditioning chemicals in the system is used.
    4. A hot water heat exchanger operating at or below 65 psi using a toxic transfer fluid or having conditioning chemicals in the system shall be separated from the potable water by double wall construction, with an air gap open to the atmosphere between the two walls.
    5. A hot water heat exchanger shall not be permitted on any hot water boiler system operating in excess of 65 psi or 250 degrees Fahrenheit, unless:
      1. the heat exchanger is double-walled;
      2. the heat exchanger has an air gap open to the atmosphere between the two walls; and
      3. the heat exchanger has a pressure gradient monitor system with a "fail-safe to off" switch installed to isolate the heat exchanger from the potable cold or hot water system. If pressure on the potable water side reaches a pressure less than 20 psi above the pressure of the transfer fluid or steam and a pressure-reducing valve is installed on the inlet to the heat exchanger with a setting 20 psi lower than the potable water pressure at the heat exchanger, an audible alarm shall be activated and the heat exchanger shall be automatically shut off until the alarm and heat exchanger can be reset manually.
    6. Any boiler using toxic chemicals shall have a label with a minimum size of 5 inches by 5 inches attached to the boiler in a conspicuous place. The label shall read as follows:

      WARNING

      Chemicals and additives used to treat the boiler feed water in this boiler are not approved for potable water. The steam or hot water produced by this boiler is not potable. If the steam or hot water produced by this boiler is used to heat water, the water will not be considered potable if the steam and potable water are mixed.
    7. Indirect, External, Submerged Coils. Indirect, external, tankless or submerged coils used in heating water shall be equipped with a thermostatic mixing valve or valves when not connected to a storage tank. A pressure relief valve shall be installed on the cold water inlet of the tank. A properly sized temperature and pressure relief valve, based upon the energy input rating of the coils, shall be installed on the tempered line with the temperature sensing element immersed in the tempered water line as close as possible to the mixing valve.
    8. Water Heaters Used for Space Heating. Any water heater to be used for space heating, in addition to hot water supply, shall conform to ANSI Z21.10.1, Z21.10.1a and Z21.10.1b and shall be constructed for continuous use, and the piping for space heating shall be conducted to a proper terminal heating device.
      1. A thermostatic mixing valve, conforming to ASSE 1017, shall be installed on the hot water line to the plumbing fixtures. (The mixing valve shall be set to prevent temperatures exceeding 120 degrees Fahrenheit from reaching the plumbing fixtures.)
      2. A single check valve shall be installed in the cold water line supplying the water heater. This will prevent hot water backing up from the heating unit to the plumbing fixtures.
      3. A properly sized and approved expansion tank shall be located on the outlet side of the check valve in the water heater's cold water supply, with no shut-off valve between the heater and expansion tank.
      4. Valves (manual, automatic) supplying hot water to the heat transfer unit for space heating shall have a minimum of a 1/8-inch orifice. This will prohibit potable water from standing in the heat transfer unit when not in use. This does not prohibit full shut off/isolation valves on either side of the pump within a heat transfer unit, as needed, to permit the servicing of the pump.
      5. The water heater instructions shall have a statement specifying that piping and components connected to the water heater for the space heating application shall be suitable for use with potable water, and the water heater shall not exceed a developed length of more than 25 feet from the heating coil.
      6. A statement specifying that toxic chemicals, such as those used for boiler treatment, shall not be introduced into the potable water used for space heating shall be included in the instructions. A label with the following words shall be firmly attached to any water heater used for space heating: "DO NOT INJECT TOXIC MATERIALS INTO THIS TANK."
      7. A statement specifying that a water heater that will be used to supply potable water shall not be connected to any heating system or components previously used with a non-potable water heating appliance shall be included in the installation instructions.
      8. Each water heater shall bear a statement on the rating plate as follows: "SUITABLE FOR POTABLE WATER HEATING AND SPACE HEATING."
    9. Point-of-Use Water Heaters. Point-of-use water heaters shall meet the following requirements:
      1. Non-storage and non-pressurized units intended to deliver water temperatures exceeding 110 degrees Fahrenheit, or with no mechanical or electrical temperature limiting device, shall have the faucet located at least 3 inches from the 110 degrees Fahrenheit hot water or cold water faucet. Faucet outlets shall have labels clearly and conspicuously indicating extremely hot water. These units are exempt from the requirement that a relief valve or valves be used to protect against excessive or unsafe temperature or pressure.
      2. Units intended to deliver water temperatures 110 degrees Fahrenheit or less shall have an internal burnout element. These units are exempt from the requirement that a relief valve or valves to be used to protect against excessive or unsafe temperature and/or pressure.
      3. All pressurized point-of-use water heaters, other than those in subsection (a)(9)(A) or (B), shall be provided with proper temperature and pressure relief.
    10. Steam Heat. All water heaters, including storage heaters, instantaneous shell and tube heat exchangers, steam injection heaters and any other device using steam to heat water for potable use, shall meet the following requirements:
      1. All chemicals and additives used to treat the boiler feed water in a boiler supplying steam to heat potable water shall be approved for use with potable water. If approved chemicals and additives are used with steam boilers generating at 15 psi or less, or are used with pressure reducing stations with pressure relief valves set at 15 psi or less downstream from the pressure reducing valves, single wall heat exchangers may be used.
      2. All steam heat exchangers operating in excess of 15 psi but less than 50 psi shall be separated by double wall construction, with an air gap open to the atmosphere between the two walls.
      3. All steam heat exchangers operating in excess of 50 psi shall meet the following requirements:
        1. The heat exchanger shall be double-walled;
        2. The heat exchanger shall have an air gap open to the atmosphere between the 2 walls; and
        3. The heat exchanger shall have a pressure gradient monitoring system with a "fail-safe to off" switch installed to isolate the heat exchanger from the potable cold or hot water system. If the pressure on the potable water side reaches a pressure less than 20 psi above the pressure of the transfer fluid or steam and a pressure reducing valve is installed on the inlet to the heat exchanger with a setting 20 psi lower than the potable water pressure at the heat exchanger, an audible alarm shall be activated and the heat exchanger shall automatically shut off until the conditions resulting in an alarm are corrected and the heat exchanger pressure gradient monitoring system can be manually reset.
      4. The steam pressure to all the steam heat injectors shall be 15 psi lower than the water pressure at the ejector. Steam injection heaters shall be supplied with steam from a generator or boiler that uses only United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved additives or chemicals.
      5. The following warning label with a minimum size of 5 inches by 5 inches shall be permanently attached on the front of any boiler providing steam to direct-injection steam hot water heaters:

        "If the chemicals used to treat the boiler feed water in this boiler are not approved for potable water, the steam produced by this boiler cannot be considered potable. Therefore, if steam from this boiler is used to heat water, the water shall not be considered potable and any cross-connections between the hot water produced and a potable water supply must be provided with a device to prevent the backflow of the non-potable hot water into the potable water supply."
  2. Water Heaters — Food Service. Water heaters installed and used in food service establishments with dishwashing machines shall comply with National Sanitation Foundation (NSF)/ANSI Standard Number 5.
  3. Discharge. With the exception of special water heaters used for space heating in addition to hot water supply, as provided in subsection (a)(8), water that leaves the potable water system for heating, cooling, use in equipment or other similar uses shall not be returned to the potable water distribution system. If water is discharged to the building drainage system, it shall be discharged through a fixed air gap.
(Source: Amended at 38 Ill. Reg. 9940, effective April 24, 2014)
  1. All equipment used for heating water or storing hot water shall be provided, at the time of installation of the equipment, with the required relief valve or valves to protect against excessive or unsafe temperature and pressure. This shall be achieved by installing either a pressure relief valve and a temperature relief valve or by installing a combination pressure-temperature relief valve.
  2. Pressure and Temperature Relief Valves
    1. Pressure Relief Valves. Pressure relief valves shall have an ASME relief rating to meet the pressure conditions specified on the equipment served. They shall be installed in the cold water supply line to the heating equipment served, except where scale formation from hard water may be encountered, in which case they shall be installed in the hot water supply line from the heating equipment served. There shall not be a shut-off valve between the pressure relief valve and the tank. Except when an alternate design is approved by the Department in writing pursuant to Section 890.140(a)(2) or 890.1940, the pressure relief valve shall be set to open at a maximum of the working pressure rating of the water heater, but shall not exceed 150 psi. Each pressure relief valve shall have a test lever.
    2. Temperature Relief Valves. Temperature relief valves shall bear the Canadian Standard Association (CSA) relief rating, expressed in British Thermal Units (BTU) of heat input per hour, for the equipment served. They shall be installed so that the temperature-sensing element is immersed in the hottest water within the top 6 inches of the tank. The valve shall be set to open full when the stored water temperature is 210 degrees Fahrenheit.
  3. Combination Pressure-Temperature Relief Valves
    1. Combination pressure-temperature relief valves shall comply with the applicable requirements listed in Appendix A.Table A (Approved Standards for Plumbing Appliances/Appurtenances/Devices) for individual pressure and individual temperature relief valves, shall be installed so that the temperature sensing element is immersed in the hottest water within the top 6 inches of the tank, and shall have a test lever.
    2. A check valve or shut-off valve shall not be installed between any safety device and the hot water equipment, nor shall there be any shut-off valve in the discharge pipe from the relief valve. (See Appendix I.Illustrations N and O.)
    3. Energy cut-off devices shall not be used in lieu of subsections (c)(1) and (2) and shall be of a design to properly serve the intended use of the plumbing appliance, appurtenance or device. Exception: Instantaneous cut-off devices are exempted or may be used.
  4. Relief Discharge Outlet
    1. A relief discharge outlet shall be installed and be indirectly connected to waste. The discharge pipe from the relief valve shall not be located so as to create a safety hazard or to discharge so as to cause damage to the building or its contents. The relief valve shall not discharge through a wall into the outside atmosphere or where there is a possibility of freezing.
    2. No reduced coupling, valve or any other restriction that would impede the flow of discharge shall be installed in the discharge line of any relief valve. The discharge line shall be installed from the relief valve to within 6 inches of the floor or receptor and the end of the line shall not be threaded.
    3. Any piping used for discharge from the relief valve shall be of metallic material, shall comply with Appendix A. Table A (Approved Materials for Water Distribution Pipe) for potable water piping, and shall drain continuously downward to the outlet.
    4. The discharge piping shall discharge indirectly into a floor drain, hub drain, service sink, sump or a trapped and vented P-trap that is located in the same room as the water heater. (See Sections 890.1010 and 890.1050(a), (b) and (c).) The trap shall have a deep seal to protect against evaporation or shall be fed by means of a priming device designed and installed for that purpose. The use of a light grade oil in the trap will retard evaporation.
  5. Pressure Marking — Hot Water Storage Tank. Hot water storage tanks shall be permanently marked in an accessible place with the maximum allowable working pressure.
  6. Vacuum Relief Valve. If a hot water storage tank or water heater is located at an elevation above the fixture outlets in the hot water system, or if the storage tank or water heater is bottom fed, a vacuum relief valve as listed in Appendix A.Table A (Approved Standards for Plumbing Appliances/Appurtenances/Devices) shall be installed on the storage tank or heater.
  7. Multiple Temperature Hot Water Systems. These systems shall be provided with thermostatic mixing valves to control the desired temperatures.
(Source: Amended at 38 Ill. Reg. 9940, effective April 24, 2014)
Drain Cock. All storage tanks shall be equipped with drain cocks.
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