Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
The value of fc' shall be in accordance with (a) through (d):
(b) Durability requirements in Table 22.214.171.124
(c) Structural strength requirements
(d) fc' for lightweight concrete in special moment frames and special structural walls, and their foundations, shall not exceed 5000 psi, unless demonstrated by experimental evidence that members made with lightweight concrete provide strength and toughness equal to or exceeding those of comparable members made with normalweight concrete of the same strength.
|Application||Minimum fc', psi|
|Foundations for structures assigned to SDC A, B, or C||2500|
|Foundations for Residential and Utility use and occupancy classification with stud bearing wall construction two stories or less assigned to SDC D, E, or F||2500|
|Foundations for structures assigned to SDC D, E, or F other than Residential and Utility use and occupancy classification with stud bearing wall construction two stories or less||3000|
|Special moment frames Special structural walls with Grade 60 or 80 reinforcement||3000|
|Special structural walls with Grade 100 reinforcement||5000|
|Precast-nonprestressed driven piles Drilled shafts||4000|
|Precast-prestressed driven piles||5000|
It shall be permitted to calculate Ec in accordance with (a) or (b):
(a) For values of wc between 90 and 160 lb/ft3
(b) For normalweight concrete
It shall be permitted to specify Ec based upon testing of concrete mixtures to be used in the Work in accordance with (a) through (c):
(b) Testing to verify that the specified Ec has been achieved shall be conducted, and results shall be provided with the mixture submittal.
(c) Test age of measurement of Ec shall be 28 days or as indicated in the construction documents.
Except as required in Table 126.96.36.199, the value of λ shall be determined using Table 188.8.131.52(a) based on the equilibrium density, wc, of the concrete mixture used in design, or Table 184.108.40.206(b) based on the composition of the aggregate in the concrete mixture assumed in the design.
|100 < wc ≤ 135||0.0075wc ≤ 1.0||(b)|
Table 220.127.116.11(b)—Values of λ for lightweight concrete based on composition of aggregates
|Concrete||Composition of aggregates||λ|
|All-lightweight||Fine: ASTM C330 |
Coarse: ASTM C330
|Lightweight, fine blend||Fine: Combination of ASTM |
C330 and C33
Coarse: ASTM C330
|0.75 to 0.85|
|Sand-lightweight||Fine: ASTM C33 |
Coarse: ASTM C330
|Sand-lightweight, coarse blend||Fine: ASTM C33 |
Coarse: Combination of ASTM
C330 and C33
|0.85 to 1|
Linear interpolation from 0.75 to 0.85 is permitted based on the absolute volume of normalweight fine aggregate as a fraction of the total absolute volume of fine aggregate.
Linear interpolation from 0.85 to 1 is permitted based on the absolute volume of normalweight coarse aggregate as a fraction of the total absolute volume of aggregate.
The licensed design professional shall assign exposure classes in accordance with the severity of the anticipated exposure of members for each exposure category in Table 18.104.22.168.
Table 22.214.171.124—Exposure categories and classes
|Freezing and thawing (F)||F0||Concrete not exposed to freezing-and-thawing cycles|
|F1||Concrete exposed to freezing-and-thawing cycles with limited exposure to water|
|F2||Concrete exposed to freezing-and-thawing cycles with frequent exposure to water|
|F3||Concrete exposed to freezing-and-thawing cycles with frequent exposure to water and exposure to deicing chemicals|
|Sulfate (S)||Water-soluble sulfate (SO42—) in soil, percent by mass||Dissolved sulfate (SO42—) in water, ppm|
|S0||SO42— < 0.10||SO42— < 150|
|S1||0.10 ≤ SO42— < 0.20||150 ≤ SO42— < 1500 or seawater|
|S2||0.20 ≤ SO42— ≤ 2.00||1500 ≤ SO42— ≤ 10,000|
|S3||SO42— > 2.00||SO42— >10,000|
|In contact with water (W)||W0||Concrete dry in service|
|W1||Concrete in contact with water where low permeability is not required|
|W2||Concrete in contact with water where low permeability is required|
|Corrosion protection of reinforcement (C)||C0||Concrete dry or protected from moisture|
|C1||Concrete exposed to moisture but not to an external source of chlorides|
|C2||Concrete exposed to moisture and an external source of chlorides from deicing chemicals, salt, brackish water, seawater, or spray from these sources|
Percent sulfate by mass in soil shall be determined by ASTM C1580.
Concentration of dissolved sulfates in water, in ppm, shall be determined by ASTM D516 or ASTM D4130.
Based on the exposure classes assigned from Table 126.96.36.199, concrete mixtures shall conform to the most restrictive requirements in Table 188.8.131.52.
Table 184.108.40.206—Requirements for concrete by exposure class
|Exposure class||Maximum w/cm[1,2]||Minimum fc', psi||Additional requirements||Limits on cementitious materials|
|F1||0.55||3500||Table 220.127.116.11 for concrete or Table 18.104.22.168 for shotcrete||N/A|
|F2||0.45||4500||Table 22.214.171.124 for concrete or Table 126.96.36.199 for shotcrete||N/A|
|F3||0.40||5000||Table 188.8.131.52 for concrete or Table 184.108.40.206 for shotcrete||220.127.116.11(b)|
|Cementitious materials — Types||Calcium chloride admixture|
|ASTM C150||ASTM C595||ASTM C1157|
|S0||N/A||2500||No type restriction||No type restriction||No type restriction||No restriction|
|S1||0.50||4000||II||Types with (MS) designation||MS||No restriction|
|S2||0.45||4500||V||Types with (HS) designation||HS||Not permitted|
|S3||Option 1||0.45||4500||V plus pozzolan or slag cement||Types with (HS) designation plus pozzolan or slag cement||HS plus pozzolan or slag cement||Not permitted|
|Option 2||0.40||5000||V||Types with (HS) designation||HS||Not permitted|
|Maximum water-soluble chloride ion (Cl—) content in concrete, percent by mass of cementitious materials[9,10]||Additional provisions|
|Nonprestressed concrete||Prestressed concrete|
The w/cm is based on all cementitious and supplementary cementitious materials in the concrete mixture.
The maximum w/cm limits do not apply to lightweight concrete.
Alternative combinations of cementitious materials to those listed are permitted for all sulfate exposure classes when tested for sulfate resistance and meeting the criteria in 18.104.22.168(c).
For seawater exposure, other types of portland cements with tricalcium aluminate (C3A) contents up to 10 percent are permitted if the w/cm does not exceed 0.40.
Other available types of cement such as Type I or Type III are permitted in Exposure Classes S1 or S2 if the C3A contents are less than 8 percent for Exposure Class S1 or less than 5 percent for Exposure Class S2.
The amount of the specific source of the pozzolan or slag cement to be used shall be at least the amount that has been determined by service record to improve sulfate resistance when used in concrete containing Type V cement. Alternatively, the amount of the specific source of the pozzolan or slag cement to be used shall be at least the amount tested in accordance with ASTM C1012 and meeting the criteria in 22.214.171.124(c).
If Type V cement is used as the sole cementitious material, the optional sulfate resistance requirement of 0.040 percent maximum expansion in ASTM C150 shall be specified.
The mass of supplementary cementitious materials used in determining the chloride content shall not exceed the mass of the portland cement.
Criteria for determination of chloride content are in 126.96.36.199.
Concrete subject to freezing-and-thawing Exposure Classes F1, F2, or F3 shall be air entrained. Except as permitted in 188.8.131.52, air content shall conform to Table 184.108.40.206.
Table 220.127.116.11—Total air content for concrete exposed to cycles of freezing and thawing
|Nominal maximum aggregate size, in.||Target air content, percent|
|F1||F2 and F3|
Concrete shall be sampled in accordance with ASTM C172, and air content shall be measured in accordance with ASTM C231 or ASTM C173.
Wet-mix shotcrete subject to freezing-and-thawing Exposure Classes F1, F2, or F3 shall be air entrained. Dry-mix shotcrete subject to freezing-and-thawing Exposure Class F3 shall be air entrained. Except as permitted in 18.104.22.168, air content shall conform to Table 22.214.171.124.
Table 126.96.36.199—Total air content for shotcrete exposed to cycles of freezing and thawing
|Mixture type||Sampling location||Target air content, percent|
|Wet-mix shotcrete||Before placement||5.0||6.0||6.0|
Entrained air is not required in dry-mix shotcrete for these exposure classes.
Wet-mix shotcrete shall be sampled in accordance with ASTM C172, and air content shall be measured in accordance with ASTM C231 or ASTM C173.
Nonprestressed concrete that will be cast against stay-in-place galvanized steel forms shall comply with the chloride ion limits for Exposure Class C1 unless a more stringent limit is required by other project conditions.