Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
This chapter shall apply to the design of nonprestressed and prestressed concrete structures assigned to Seismic Design Categories (SDC) B through F, including, where applicable:

(a) Structural systems designated as part of the seismic-force-resisting system, including diaphragms, moment frames, structural walls, and foundations

(b) Members not designated as part of the seismic-force-resisting system but required to support other loads while undergoing deformations associated with earthquake effects

Structures designed according to the provisions of this chapter are intended to resist earthquake motions through ductile inelastic response of selected members.
All structures shall be assigned to a SDC in accordance with 4.4.6.1.

18.2.1.2

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Structures assigned to Seismic Design Category A shall satisfy requirements of Chapters 1 through 17 and 19 through 26; Chapter 18 does not apply. Structures assigned to Seismic Design Category B, C, D, E or F shall satisfy 18.2.1.3 through 18.2.1.7, as applicable. Except for structural elements of plain concrete complying with Section 1905.1.7 of the International Building Code, structural elements of plain concrete are prohibited in structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, E or F.
Structures assigned to SDC B shall satisfy 18.2.2.
Structures assigned to SDC C shall satisfy 18.2.2 and 18.2.3.
Structures assigned to SDC D, E, or F shall satisfy 18.2.2 through 18.2.8 and 18.12 through 18.14.

18.2.1.6

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Structural systems designated as part of the seismic force-resisting system shall be restricted to those permitted by ASCE 7. Except for Seismic Design Category A, for which Chapter 18 does not apply, the following provisions shall be satisfied for each structural system designated as part of the seismic force-resisting system, regardless of the seismic design category:

(a) Ordinary moment frames shall satisfy 18.3.

(b) Ordinary reinforced concrete structural walls and ordinary precast structural walls need not satisfy any provisions in Chapter 18.

(c) Intermediate moment frames shall satisfy 18.4.

(d) Intermediate precast structural walls shall satisfy 18.5.

(e) Special moment frames shall satisfy 18.6 through 18.9.


(f) Special structural walls shall satisfy 18.10.

(g) Special structural walls constructed using precast concrete shall satisfy 18.11.


Special moment frames and special structural walls shall also satisfy 18.2.4 through 18.2.8.
A reinforced concrete structural system not satisfying this chapter shall be permitted if it is demonstrated by experimental evidence and analysis that the proposed system will have strength and toughness equal to or exceeding those provided by a comparable reinforced concrete structure satisfying this chapter.
The interaction of all structural and nonstructural members that affect the linear and nonlinear response of the structure to earthquake motions shall be considered in the analysis.
Rigid members assumed not to be a part of the seismic-force-resisting system shall be permitted provided their effect on the response of the system is considered in the structural design. Consequences of failure of structural and nonstructural members that are not a part of the seismic-force-resisting system shall be considered.
Structural members extending below the base of structure that are required to transmit forces resulting from earthquake effects to the foundation shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 18 that are consistent with the seismic-force-resisting system above the base of structure.
Anchors resisting earthquake-induced forces in structures assigned to SDC C, D, E, or F shall be in accordance with 17.2.3.
Strength reduction factors shall be in accordance with Chapter 21.
Specified compressive strength of concrete in special moment frames and special structural walls shall be in accordance with the special seismic systems requirements of Table 19.2.1.1.
Reinforcement in special moment frames and special structural walls shall be in accordance with the special seismic systems requirements of 20.2.2.
Mechanical splices shall be classified as (a) or (b):

(a) Type 1 — Mechanical splice conforming to 25.5.7

(b) Type 2 — Mechanical splice conforming to 25.5.7 and capable of developing the specified tensile strength of the spliced bars

Type 1 mechanical splices shall not be located within a distance equal to twice the member depth from the column or beam face for special moment frames or from critical sections where yielding of the reinforcement is likely to occur as a result of lateral displacements beyond the linear range of behavior. Type 2 mechanical splices shall be permitted at any location, except as noted in 18.9.2.1(c).
Welded splices in special moment frames and special structural walls
Welded splices in reinforcement resisting earthquake-induced forces shall conform to 25.5.7 and shall not be located within a distance equal to twice the member depth from the column or beam face for special moment frames or from critical sections where yielding of the reinforcement is likely to occur as a result of lateral displacements beyond the linear range of behavior.
Welding of stirrups, ties, inserts, or other similar elements to longitudinal reinforcement required by design shall not be permitted.
This section shall apply to ordinary moment frames forming part of the seismic-force-resisting system.
Beams shall have at least two continuous bars at both top and bottom faces. Continuous bottom bars shall have area not less than one-fourth the maximum area of bottom bars along the span. These bars shall be anchored to develop fy in tension at the face of support.
Columns having unsupported length u ≤ 5c1 shall have ϕVn at least the lesser of (a) and (b):

(a) The shear associated with development of nominal moment strengths of the column at each restrained end of the unsupported length due to reverse curvature bending. Column flexural strength shall be calculated for the factored axial force, consistent with the direction of the lateral forces considered, resulting in the highest flexural strength.

(b) The maximum shear obtained from design load combinations that include E, with ΩoE substituted for E.

This section shall apply to intermediate moment frames including two-way slabs without beams forming part of the seismic-force-resisting system.
Beams shall have at least two continuous bars at both top and bottom faces. Continuous bottom bars shall have area not less than one-fourth the maximum area of bottom bars along the span. These bars shall be anchored to develop fy in tension at the face of support.
The positive moment strength at the face of the joint shall be at least one-third the negative moment strength provided at that face of the joint. Neither the negative nor the positive moment strength at any section along the length of the beam shall be less than one-fifth the maximum moment strength provided at the face of either joint.
ϕVn shall be at least the lesser of (a) and (b):

(a) The sum of the shear associated with development of nominal moment strengths of the beam at each restrained end of the clear span due to reverse curvature bending and the shear calculated for factored gravity loads

(b) The maximum shear obtained from design load combinations that include E, with E taken as twice that prescribed by the general building code

At both ends of the beam, hoops shall be provided over a length of at least 2h measured from the face of the supporting member toward midspan. The first hoop shall be located not more than 2 in. from the face of the supporting member. Spacing of hoops shall not exceed the smallest of (a) through (d):

(a) d/4

(b) Eight times the diameter of the smallest longitudinal bar enclosed

(c) 24 times the diameter of the hoop bar

(d) 12 in.

Transverse reinforcement spacing shall not exceed d/2 throughout the length of the beam.
In beams having factored axial compressive force exceeding Agf'c/10, transverse reinforcement required by 18.4.2.5 shall conform to 25.7.2.2 and either 25.7.2.3 or 25.7.2.4.
ϕVn shall be at least the lesser of (a) and (b):

(a) The shear associated with development of nominal moment strengths of the column at each restrained end of the unsupported length due to reverse curvature bending. Column flexural strength shall be calculated for the factored axial force, consistent with the direction of the lateral forces considered, resulting in the highest flexural strength

(b) The maximum shear obtained from factored load combinations that include E, with ΩoE substituted for E

Columns shall be spirally reinforced in accordance with Chapter 10 or shall be in accordance with 18.4.3.3 through 18.4.3.5. Provision 18.4.3.6 shall apply to all columns supporting discontinuous stiff members.
At both ends of the column, hoops shall be provided at spacing so over a length o measured from the joint face. Spacing so shall not exceed the smallest of (a) through (d):

(a) 8 times the diameter of the smallest longitudinal bar enclosed

(b) 24 times the diameter of the hoop bar

(c) One-half of the smallest cross-sectional dimension of the column

(d) 12 in.

Length o shall not be less than the greatest of (e), (f), and (g):

(e) One-sixth of the clear span of the column

(f) Maximum cross-sectional dimension of the column

(g) 18 in.

The first hoop shall be located not more than so/2 from the joint face.
Outside of length o, spacing of transverse reinforcement shall be in accordance with 10.7.6.5.2.
Columns supporting reactions from discontinuous stiff members, such as walls, shall be provided with transverse reinforcement at the spacing so in accordance with 18.4.3.3 over the full height beneath the level at which the discontinuity occurs if the portion of factored axial compressive force in these members related to earthquake effects exceeds Agf'c/10. If design forces have been magnified to account for the overstrength of the vertical elements of the seismic-force-resisting system, the limit of Agf'c/10 shall be increased to Agf'c/4. Transverse reinforcement shall extend above and below the column in accordance with 18.7.5.6(b).
Beam-column joints shall have transverse reinforcement conforming to Chapter 15.
Factored slab moment at the support including earthquake effects, E, shall be calculated for load combinations given in Eq. (5.3.1e) and (5.3.1g). Reinforcement to resist Msc shall be placed within the column strip defined in 8.4.1.5.
Reinforcement placed within the effective width given in 8.4.2.3.3 shall be designed to resist γfMsc. Effective slab width for exterior and corner connections shall not extend beyond the column face a distance greater than ct measured perpendicular to the slab span.
At least one-half of the reinforcement in the column strip at the support shall be placed within the effective slab width given in 8.4.2.3.3.
At least one-fourth of the top reinforcement at the support in the column strip shall be continuous throughout the span.
Continuous bottom reinforcement in the column strip shall be at least one-third of the top reinforcement at the support in the column strip.
At least one-half of all bottom middle strip reinforcement and all bottom column strip reinforcement at midspan shall be continuous and shall develop fy at the face of support as defined in 8.10.3.2.1.
At discontinuous edges of the slab, all top and bottom reinforcement at the support shall be developed at the face of support as defined in 8.10.3.2.1.
At the critical sections for columns defined in 22.6.4.1, two-way shear caused by factored gravity loads shall not exceed 0.4ϕVc, where Vc shall be calculated in accordance with 22.6.5. This requirement need not be satisfied if the slab satisfies 18.14.5.
This section shall apply to intermediate precast structural walls forming part of the seismic-force-resisting system.
In connections between wall panels, or between wall panels and the foundation, yielding shall be restricted to steel elements or reinforcement.

18.5.2.2

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Connections that are designed to yield shall be capable of maintaining 80 percent of their design strength at the deformation induced by the design displacement or shall use Type 2 mechanical splices.

18.5.2.2 18.5.2.3

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Elements of the connection that are not designed to yield shall develop at least 1.5 Sy.

18.5.2.3 18.5.2.4

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
In structures assigned to SDC D, E or F, wall piers shall be designed in accordance with 18.10.8 or 18.14 in ACI 318.
This section shall apply to beams of special moment frames that form part of the seismic-force-resisting system and are proportioned primarily to resist flexure and shear.
Beams of special moment frames shall frame into columns of special moment frames satisfying 18.7.
Beams shall satisfy (a) through (c):

(a) Clear span n shall be at least 4d

(b) Width bw shall be at least the lesser of 0.3h and 10 in.

(c) Projection of the beam width beyond the width of the supporting column on each side shall not exceed the lesser of c2 and 0.75c1.

Beams shall have at least two continuous bars at both top and bottom faces. At any section, for top as well as for bottom reinforcement, the amount of reinforcement shall be at least that required by 9.6.1.2 and the reinforcement ratio ρ shall not exceed 0.025.
Positive moment strength at joint face shall be at least one-half the negative moment strength provided at that face of the joint. Both the negative and the positive moment strength at any section along member length shall be at least one-fourth the maximum moment strength provided at face of either joint.
Lap splices of deformed longitudinal reinforcement shall be permitted if hoop or spiral reinforcement is provided over the lap length. Spacing of the transverse reinforcement enclosing the lap-spliced bars shall not exceed the lesser of d/4 and 4 in. Lap splices shall not be used in locations (a) through (c):

(a) Within the joints

(b) Within a distance of twice the beam depth from the face of the joint

(c) Within a distance of twice the beam depth from critical sections where flexural yielding is likely to occur as a result of lateral displacements beyond the elastic range of behavior

Mechanical splices shall conform to 18.2.7 and welded splices shall conform to 18.2.8.
Unless used in a special moment frame as permitted by 18.9.2.3, prestressing shall satisfy (a) through (d):

(a) The average prestress fpc calculated for an area equal to the least cross-sectional dimension of the beam multiplied by the perpendicular cross-sectional dimension shall not exceed the lesser of 500 psi and fc'/10.

(b) Prestressing steel shall be unbonded in potential plastic hinge regions, and the calculated strains in prestressing steel under the design displacement shall be less than 0.01.

(c) Prestressing steel shall not contribute more than one-fourth of the positive or negative flexural strength at the critical section in a plastic hinge region and shall be anchored at or beyond the exterior face of the joint.

(d) Anchorages of post-tensioning tendons resisting earthquake-induced forces shall be capable of allowing tendons to withstand 50 cycles of loading, with prestressed reinforcement forces bounded by 40 and 85 percent of the specified tensile strength of the prestressing steel.

Hoops shall be provided in the following regions of a beam:

(a) Over a length equal to twice the beam depth measured from the face of the supporting column toward midspan, at both ends of the beam

(b) Over lengths equal to twice the beam depth on both sides of a section where flexural yielding is likely to occur as a result of lateral displacements beyond the elastic range of behavior.

Where hoops are required, primary longitudinal reinforcing bars closest to the tension and compression faces shall have lateral support in accordance with 25.7.2.3 and 25.7.2.4. The spacing of transversely supported flexural reinforcing bars shall not exceed 14 in. Skin reinforcement required by 9.7.2.3 need not be laterally supported.
Hoops in beams shall be permitted to be made up of two pieces of reinforcement: a stirrup having seismic hooks at both ends and closed by a crosstie. Consecutive crossties engaging the same longitudinal bar shall have their 90-degree hooks at opposite sides of the flexural member. If the longitudinal reinforcing bars secured by the crossties are confined by a slab on only one side of the beam, the 90-degree hooks of the crossties shall be placed on that side.
The first hoop shall be located not more than 2 in. from the face of a supporting column. Spacing of the hoops shall not exceed the least of (a) through (c):

(a) d/4

(b) Six times the diameter of the smallest primary flexural reinforcing bars excluding longitudinal skin reinforcement required by 9.7.2.3

(c) 6 in.

Where hoops are required, they shall be designed to resist shear according to 18.6.5.
Where hoops are not required, stirrups with seismic hooks at both ends shall be spaced at a distance not more than d/2 throughout the length of the beam.
In beams having factored axial compressive force exceeding Agf'c/10, hoops satisfying 18.7.5.2 through 18.7.5.4 shall be provided along lengths given in 18.6.4.1. Along the remaining length, hoops satisfying 18.7.5.2 shall have spacing s not exceeding the lesser of six times the diameter of the smallest longitudinal beam bars and 6 in. Where concrete cover over transverse reinforcement exceeds 4 in., additional transverse reinforcement having cover not exceeding 4 in. and spacing not exceeding 12 in. shall be provided.
Design forces—The design shear force Ve shall be calculated from consideration of the forces on the portion of the beam between faces of the joints. It shall be assumed that moments of opposite sign corresponding to probable flexural strength, Mpr, act at the joint faces and that the beam is loaded with the factored tributary gravity load along its span.
Transverse reinforcement—Transverse reinforcement over the lengths identified in 18.6.4.1 shall be designed to resist shear assuming Vc = 0 when both (a) and (b) occur:

(a) The earthquake-induced shear force calculated in accordance with 18.6.5.1 represents at least one-half of the maximum required shear strength within those lengths.

(b) The factored axial compressive force Pu including earthquake effects is less than Agf'c/20.

This section shall apply to columns of special moment frames that form part of the seismic-force-resisting system and are proportioned primarily to resist flexure, shear, and axial forces.
Columns shall satisfy (a) and (b):

(a) The shortest cross-sectional dimension, measured on a straight line passing through the geometric centroid, shall be at least 12 in.

(b) The ratio of the shortest cross-sectional dimension to the perpendicular dimension shall be at least 0.4.

Columns shall satisfy 18.7.3.2 or 18.7.3.3.
The flexural strengths of the columns shall satisfy
Mnc≥ (6/5)∑Mnb (18.7.3.2)

where

Mnc is sum of nominal flexural strengths of columns framing into the joint, evaluated at the faces of the joint. Column flexural strength shall be calculated for the factored axial force, consistent with the direction of the lateral forces considered, resulting in the lowest flexural strength.

Mnb is sum of nominal flexural strengths of the beams framing into the joint, evaluated at the faces of the joint. In T-beam construction, where the slab is in tension under moments at the face of the joint, slab reinforcement within an effective slab width defined in accordance with 6.3.2 shall be assumed to contribute to Mnb if the slab reinforcement is developed at the critical section for flexure.

Flexural strengths shall be summed such that the column moments oppose the beam moments. Equation (18.7.3.2) shall be satisfied for beam moments acting in both directions in the vertical plane of the frame considered.

If 18.7.3.2 is not satisfied at a joint, the lateral strength and stiffness of the columns framing into that joint shall be ignored when calculating strength and stiffness of the structure. These columns shall conform to 18.14.
Area of longitudinal reinforcement, Ast, shall be at least 0.01Ag and shall not exceed 0.06Ag.
In columns with circular hoops, there shall be at least six longitudinal bars.
Mechanical splices shall conform to 18.2.7 and welded splices shall conform to 18.2.8. Lap splices shall be permitted only within the center half of the member length, shall be designed as tension lap splices, and shall be enclosed within transverse reinforcement in accordance with 18.7.5.2 and 18.7.5.3.
Transverse reinforcement required in 18.7.5.2 through 18.7.5.4 shall be provided over a length o from each joint face and on both sides of any section where flexural yielding is likely to occur as a result of lateral displacements beyond the elastic range of behavior. Length o shall be at least the greatest of (a) through (c):

(a) The depth of the column at the joint face or at the section where flexural yielding is likely to occur

(b) One-sixth of the clear span of the column

(c) 18 in.

Transverse reinforcement shall be in accordance with (a) through (f):

(a) Transverse reinforcement shall comprise either single or overlapping spirals, circular hoops, or rectilinear hoops with or without crossties.

(b) Bends of rectilinear hoops and crossties shall engage peripheral longitudinal reinforcing bars.

(c) Crossties of the same or smaller bar size as the hoops shall be permitted, subject to the limitation of 25.7.2.2. Consecutive crossties shall be alternated end for end along the longitudinal reinforcement and around the perimeter of the cross section.

(d) Where rectilinear hoops or crossties are used, they shall provide lateral support to longitudinal reinforcement in accordance with 25.7.2.2 and 25.7.2.3.

(e) Reinforcement shall be arranged such that the spacing hx of longitudinal bars laterally supported by the corner of a crosstie or hoop leg shall not exceed 14 in. around the perimeter of the column.

(f) Where Pu > 0.3Agf'c or f'c > 10,000 psi in columns with rectilinear hoops, every longitudinal bar or bundle of bars around the perimeter of the column core shall have lateral support provided by the corner of a hoop or by a seismic hook, and the value of hx shall not exceed 8 in. Pu shall be the largest value in compression consistent with factored load combinations including E.

Spacing of transverse reinforcement shall not exceed the smallest of (a) through (c):

(a) One-fourth of the minimum column dimension

(b) Six times the diameter of the smallest longitudinal bar

(c) so, as calculated by:

(18.7.5.3)

The value of so from Eq. (18.7.5.3) shall not exceed 6 in. and need not be taken less than 4 in.

Amount of transverse reinforcement shall be in accordance with Table 18.7.5.4.

The concrete strength factor kf and confinement effectiveness factor kn are calculated according to Eq. (18.7.5.4a) and (18.7.5.4b).

(a) (18.7.5.4a)
(b) (18.7.5.4b)

where nl is the number of longitudinal bars or bar bundles around the perimeter of a column core with rectilinear hoops that are laterally supported by the corner of hoops or by seismic hooks.

Table 18.7.5.4—Transverse reinforcement for columns of special moment frames

Transverse reinforcement Conditions Applicable expressions
Ash/sbc for rectilinear hoop Pu ≤ 0.3Agfc' and fc' ≤ 10,000 psi Greater of (a) and (b)
Pu > 0.3Agfc' or fc' > 10,000 psi Greatest of (a), (b), and (c)
ρs for spiral or circular hoop Pu ≤ 0.3Agfc' and fc' ≤ 10,000 psi Greater of (d) and (e)
Pu > 0.3Agfc' or fc' > 10,000 psi Greatest of (d), (e), and (f)
Beyond the length o given in 18.7.5.1, the column shall contain spiral or hoop reinforcement satisfying 25.7.2 through 25.7.4 with spacing s not exceeding the lesser of six times the diameter of the smallest longitudinal column bars and 6 in., unless a greater amount of transverse reinforcement is required by 18.7.4.3 or 18.7.6.
Columns supporting reactions from discontinued stiff members, such as walls, shall satisfy (a) and (b):

(a) Transverse reinforcement required by 18.7.5.2 through 18.7.5.4 shall be provided over the full height at all levels beneath the discontinuity if the factored axial compressive force in these columns, related to earthquake effect, exceeds Agfc'/10. Where design forces have been magnified to account for the overstrength of the vertical elements of the seismic-force-resisting system, the limit of Agfc'/10 shall be increased to Agfc'/4.

(b) Transverse reinforcement shall extend into the discontinued member at least d of the largest longitudinal column bar, where d is in accordance with 18.8.5. Where the lower end of the column terminates on a wall, the required transverse reinforcement shall extend into the wall at least d of the largest longitudinal column bar at the point of termination. Where the column terminates on a footing or mat, the required transverse reinforcement shall extend at least 12 in. into the footing or mat.

If the concrete cover outside the confining transverse reinforcement required by 18.7.5.1, 18.7.5.5, and 18.7.5.6 exceeds 4 in., additional transverse reinforcement having cover not exceeding 4 in. and spacing not exceeding 12 in. shall be provided.
The design shear force Ve shall be calculated from considering the maximum forces that can be generated at the faces of the joints at each end of the column. These joint forces shall be calculated using the maximum probable flexural strengths, Mpr, at each end of the column associated with the range of factored axial forces, Pu, acting on the column. The column shears need not exceed those calculated from joint strengths based on Mpr of the beams framing into the joint. In no case shall Ve be less than the factored shear calculated by analysis of the structure.
Transverse reinforcement over the lengths o, given in 18.7.5.1, shall be designed to resist shear assuming Vc = 0 when both (a) and (b) occur:

(a) The earthquake-induced shear force, calculated in accordance with 18.7.6.1, is at least one-half of the maximum required shear strength within o.

(b) The factored axial compressive force Pu including earthquake effects is less than Agfc'/20.

This section shall apply to beam-column joints of special moment frames forming part of the seismic-force-resisting system.
Forces in longitudinal beam reinforcement at the joint face shall be calculated assuming that the stress in the flexural tensile reinforcement is 1.25fy.
Beam longitudinal reinforcement terminated in a column shall extend to the far face of the confined column core and shall be developed in tension in accordance with 18.8.5 and in compression in accordance with 25.4.9.
Where longitudinal beam reinforcement extends through a beam-column joint, the column dimension parallel to the beam reinforcement shall be at least 20 times the diameter of the largest longitudinal beam bar for normalweight concrete or 26 times the diameter of the largest longitudinal bar for lightweight concrete.
Depth h of the joint shall not be less than one-half of depth h of any beam framing into the joint and generating joint shear as part of the seismic-force-resisting system.
Joint transverse reinforcement shall satisfy 18.7.5.2, 18.7.5.3, 18.7.5.4, and 18.7.5.7, except as permitted in 18.8.3.2.
Where beams frame into all four sides of the joint and where each beam width is at least three-fourths the column width, the amount of reinforcement required by 18.7.5.4 shall be permitted to be reduced by one-half, and the spacing required by 18.7.5.3 shall be permitted to be increased to 6 in. within the overall depth h of the shallowest framing beam.
Longitudinal beam reinforcement outside the column core shall be confined by transverse reinforcement passing through the column that satisfies spacing requirements of 18.6.4.4, and requirements of 18.6.4.2, and 18.6.4.3, if such confinement is not provided by a beam framing into the joint.
Where beam negative moment reinforcement is provided by headed deformed bars that terminate in the joint, the column shall extend above the top of the joint a distance at least the depth h of the joint. Alternatively, the beam reinforcement shall be enclosed by additional vertical joint reinforcement providing equivalent confinement to the top face of the joint.
Vn of the joint shall be in accordance with Table 18.8.4.1.

Table 18.8.4.1—Nominal joint shear strength Vn

Joint configuration Vn
For joints confined by beams on all four faces[1] [2]
For joints confined by beams on three faces or on two opposite faces[1] [2]
For other cases [2]

[1]Refer to 18.8.4.2.

[2]λ shall be 0.75 for lightweight concrete and 1.0 for normalweight concrete. Aj is given in 18.8.4.3.

In Table 18.8.4.1, a joint face is considered to be confined by a beam if the beam width is at least three-quarters of the effective joint width. Extensions of beams at least one overall beam depth h beyond the joint face are considered adequate for confining that joint face. Extensions of beams shall satisfy 18.6.2.1(b), 18.6.3.1, 18.6.4.2, 18.6.4.3, and 18.6.4.4.
Effective cross-sectional area within a joint, Aj, shall be calculated from joint depth times effective joint width. Joint depth shall be the overall depth of the column, h. Effective joint width shall be the overall width of the column, except where a beam frames into a wider column, effective joint width shall not exceed the lesser of (a) and (b):

(a) Beam width plus joint depth

(b) Twice the smaller perpendicular distance from longitudinal axis of beam to column side

For bar sizes No. 3 through No. 11 terminating in a standard hook, dh shall be calculated by Eq. (18.8.5.1), but dh shall be at least the greater of 8db and 6 in. for normalweight concrete and at least the greater of 10db and 7-1/2 in. for lightweight concrete.
(18.8.5.1)

The value of λ shall be 0.75 for lightweight and 1.0 for normalweight concrete.

The hook shall be located within the confined core of a column or of a boundary element, with the hook bent into the joint.

For headed deformed bars satisfying 20.2.1.6, development in tension shall be in accordance with 25.4.4, except clear spacing between bars shall be permitted to be at least 3db or greater.
For bar sizes No. 3 through No. 11, d, the development length in tension for a straight bar, shall be at least the greater of (a) and (b):

(a) 2.5 times the length in accordance with 18.8.5.1 if the depth of the concrete cast in one lift beneath the bar does not exceed 12 in.

(b) 3.25 times the length in accordance with 18.8.5.1 if the depth of the concrete cast in one lift beneath the bar exceeds 12 in.

Straight bars terminated at a joint shall pass through the confined core of a column or a boundary element. Any portion of d not within the confined core shall be increased by a factor of 1.6.
If epoxy-coated reinforcement is used, the development lengths in 18.8.5.1, 18.8.5.3, and 18.8.5.4 shall be multiplied by applicable factors in 25.4.2.4 or 25.4.3.2.
This section shall apply to special moment frames constructed using precast concrete forming part of the seismic-force-resisting system.
Special moment frames with ductile connections constructed using precast concrete shall satisfy (a) through (c):

(a) Requirements of 18.6 through 18.8 for special moment frames constructed with cast-in-place concrete

(b) Vn for connections calculated according to 22.9 shall be at least 2Ve, where Ve is in accordance with 18.6.5.1 or 18.7.6.1

(c) Mechanical splices of beam reinforcement shall be located not closer than h/2 from the joint face and shall satisfy 18.2.7

Special moment frames with strong connections constructed using precast concrete shall satisfy (a) through (e):

(a) Requirements of 18.6 through 18.8 for special moment frames constructed with cast-in-place concrete

(b) Provision 18.6.2.1(a) shall apply to segments between locations where flexural yielding is intended to occur due to design displacements

(c) Design strength of the strong connection, ϕSn, shall be at least Se

(d) Primary longitudinal reinforcement shall be made continuous across connections and shall be developed outside both the strong connection and the plastic hinge region

(e) For column-to-column connections, ϕSn shall be at least 1.4Se, ϕMn shall be at least 0.4Mpr for the column within the story height, and ϕVn shall be at least Ve in accordance with 18.7.6.1

Special moment frames constructed using precast concrete and not satisfying 18.9.2.1 or 18.9.2.2 shall satisfy (a) through (c):

(a) ACI 374.1

(b) Details and materials used in the test specimens shall be representative of those used in the structure

(c) The design procedure used to proportion the test specimens shall define the mechanism by which the frame resists gravity and earthquake effects, and shall establish acceptance values for sustaining that mechanism. Portions of the mechanism that deviate from Code requirements shall be contained in the test specimens and shall be tested to determine upper bounds for acceptance values.

This section shall apply to special structural walls and all components of special structural walls including coupling beams and wall piers forming part of the seismic-force-resisting system.
Special structural walls constructed using precast concrete shall be in accordance with 18.11 in addition to 18.10.
The distributed web reinforcement ratios, ρ and ρt, for structural walls shall be at least 0.0025, except that if Vu does not exceed , ρ and ρt shall be permitted to be reduced to the values in 11.6. Reinforcement spacing each way in structural walls shall not exceed 18 in. Reinforcement contributing to Vn shall be continuous and shall be distributed across the shear plane.
At least two curtains of reinforcement shall be used in a wall if or hw/w ≥ 2.0, in which hw and w refer to height and length of entire wall, respectively.
Reinforcement in structural walls shall be developed or spliced for fy in tension in accordance with 25.4, 25.5, and (a) through (c):

(a) Longitudinal reinforcement shall extend beyond the point at which it is no longer required to resist flexure by least 0.8w, except at the top of a wall

(b) At locations where yielding of longitudinal reinforcement is likely to occur as a result of lateral displacements, development lengths of longitudinal reinforcement shall be 1.25 times the values calculated for fy in tension

(c) Mechanical splices of reinforcement shall conform to 18.2.7 and welded splices of reinforcement shall conform to 18.2.8

Design forcesVu shall be obtained from the lateral load analysis in accordance with the factored load combinations.
Vn of structural walls shall not exceed:
(18.10.4.1)

where the coefficient αc is 3.0 for hw/w ≤ 1.5, is 2.0 for hw/w ≥ 2.0, and varies linearly between 3.0 and 2.0 for hw/w between 1.5 and 2.0.

In 18.10.4.1, the value of ratio hw/w used to calculate Vn for segments of a wall shall be the greater of the ratios for the entire wall and the segment of wall considered.
Walls shall have distributed shear reinforcement in two orthogonal directions in the plane of the wall. If hw/w does not exceed 2.0, reinforcement ratio ρ shall be at least the reinforcement ratio ρt.
For all vertical wall segments sharing a common lateral force, Vn shall not be taken greater than , where Acv is the gross area of concrete bounded by web thickness and length of section. For any one of the individual vertical wall segments, Vn shall not be taken greater than 10Acw , where Acw is the area of concrete section of the individual vertical wall segment considered.
For horizontal wall segments and coupling beams, Vn shall not be taken greater than , where Acw is the area of concrete section of a horizontal wall segment or coupling beam.
Structural walls and portions of such walls subject to combined flexure and axial loads shall be designed in accordance with 22.4. Concrete and developed longitudinal reinforcement within effective flange widths, boundary elements, and the wall web shall be considered effective. The effects of openings shall be considered.
Unless a more detailed analysis is performed, effective flange widths of flanged sections shall extend from the face of the web a distance equal to the lesser of one-half the distance to an adjacent wall web and 25 percent of the total wall height.
The need for special boundary elements at the edges of structural walls shall be evaluated in accordance with 18.10.6.2 or 18.10.6.3. The requirements of 18.10.6.4 and 18.10.6.5 shall also be satisfied.
Walls or wall piers with hw/w ≥ 2.0 that are effectively continuous from the base of structure to top of wall and are designed to have a single critical section for flexure and axial loads shall satisfy (a) and (b), or shall be designed by 18.10.6.3:

(a) Compression zones shall be reinforced with special boundary elements where

(18.10.6.2)

and c corresponds to the largest neutral axis depth calculated for the factored axial force and nominal moment strength consistent with the direction of the design displacement δu. Ratio δu/hw shall not be taken less than 0.005.

(b) Where special boundary elements are required by (a), the special boundary element transverse reinforcement shall extend vertically above and below the critical section at least the greater of w and Mu/4Vu, except as permitted in 18.10.6.4(g).

Structural walls not designed in accordance with 18.10.6.2 shall have special boundary elements at boundaries and edges around openings of structural walls where the maximum extreme fiber compressive stress, corresponding to load combinations including earthquake effects E, exceeds 0.2fc'. The special boundary element shall be permitted to be discontinued where the calculated compressive stress is less than 0.15fc'. Stresses shall be calculated for the factored loads using a linearly elastic model and gross section properties. For walls with flanges, an effective flange width as given in 18.10.5.2 shall be used.
Where special boundary elements are required by 18.10.6.2 or 18.10.6.3, (a) through (h) shall be satisfied:

(a) The boundary element shall extend horizontally from the extreme compression fiber a distance at least the greater of c — 0.1w and c/2, where c is the largest neutral axis depth calculated for the factored axial force and nominal moment strength consistent with δu.

(b) Width of the flexural compression zone, b, over the horizontal distance calculated by 18.10.6.4(a), including flange if present, shall be at least hu/16.

(c) For walls or wall piers with hw/w ≥ 2.0 that are effectively continuous from the base of structure to top of wall, designed to have a single critical section for flexure and axial loads, and with c/w ≥ 3/8, width of the flexural compression zone b over the length calculated in 18.10.6.4(a) shall be greater than or equal to 12 in.

(d) In flanged sections, the boundary element shall include the effective flange width in compression and shall extend at least 12 in. into the web.

(e) The boundary element transverse reinforcement shall satisfy 18.7.5.2(a) through (e) and 18.7.5.3, except the value hx in 18.7.5.2 shall not exceed the lesser of 14 in. and two-thirds of the boundary element thickness, and the transverse reinforcement spacing limit of 18.7.5.3(a) shall be one-third of the least dimension of the boundary element.

(f) The amount of transverse reinforcement shall be in accordance with Table 18.10.6.4(f).

Table 18.10.6.4(f)—Transverse reinforcement for special boundary elements

Transverse reinforcement Applicable expressions
Ash/sbc for rectilinear hoop Greater of (a)
(b)
ρs for spiral or circular hoop Greater of (c)
(d)

(g) Where the critical section occurs at the wall base, the boundary element transverse reinforcement at the wall base shall extend into the support at least d, in accordance with 18.10.2.3, of the largest longitudinal reinforcement in the special boundary element. Where the special boundary element terminates on a footing, mat, or pile cap, special boundary element transverse reinforcement shall extend at least 12 in. into the footing, mat, or pile cap, unless a greater extension is required by 18.13.2.3.

(h) Horizontal reinforcement in the wall web shall extend to within 6 in. of the end of the wall. Reinforcement shall be anchored to develop fy within the confined core of the boundary element using standard hooks or heads. Where the confined boundary element has sufficient length to develop the horizontal web reinforcement, and Asfy/s of the horizontal web reinforcement does not exceed Asfyt/s of the boundary element transverse reinforcement parallel to the horizontal web reinforcement, it shall be permitted to terminate the horizontal web reinforcement without a standard hook or head.

Where special boundary elements are not required by 18.10.6.2 or 18.10.6.3, (a) and (b) shall be satisfied:

(a) If the longitudinal reinforcement ratio at the wall boundary exceeds 400/fy, boundary transverse reinforcement shall satisfy 18.7.5.2(a) through (e) over the distance calculated in accordance with 18.10.6.4(a). The longitudinal spacing of transverse reinforcement at the wall boundary shall not exceed the lesser of 8 in. and 8db of the smallest primary flexural reinforcing bars, except the spacing shall not exceed the lesser of 6 in. and 6db within a distance equal to the greater of w and Mu/4Vu above and below critical sections where yielding of longitudinal reinforcement is likely to occur as a result of inelastic lateral displacements.

(b) Except where Vu in the plane of the wall is less than , horizontal reinforcement terminating at the edges of structural walls without boundary elements shall have a standard hook engaging the edge reinforcement or the edge reinforcement shall be enclosed in U-stirrups having the same size and spacing as, and spliced to, the horizontal reinforcement.

Coupling beams with (n/h) ≥ 4 shall satisfy the requirements of 18.6, with the wall boundary interpreted as being a column. The provisions of 18.6.2.1(b) and (c) need not be satisfied if it can be shown by analysis that the beam has adequate lateral stability.
Coupling beams with (n/h) < 2 and with shall be reinforced with two intersecting groups of diagonally placed bars symmetrical about the midspan, unless it can be shown that loss of stiffness and strength of the coupling beams will not impair the vertical load-carrying ability of the structure, the egress from the structure, or the integrity of nonstructural components and their connections to the structure.
Coupling beams not governed by 18.10.7.1 or 18.10.7.2 shall be permitted to be reinforced either with two intersecting groups of diagonally placed bars symmetrical about the midspan or according to 18.6.3 through 18.6.5, with the wall boundary interpreted as being a column.
Coupling beams reinforced with two intersecting groups of diagonally placed bars symmetrical about the midspan shall satisfy (a), (b), and either (c) or (d), and the requirements of 9.9 need not be satisfied:

(a) Vn shall be calculated by

(18.10.7.4)

where α is the angle between the diagonal bars and the longitudinal axis of the coupling beam.

(b) Each group of diagonal bars shall consist of a minimum of four bars provided in two or more layers. The diagonal bars shall be embedded into the wall at least 1.25 times the development length for fy in tension.

(c) Each group of diagonal bars shall be enclosed by rectilinear transverse reinforcement having out-to-out dimensions of at least bw/2 in the direction parallel to bw and bw/5 along the other sides, where bw is the web width of the coupling beam. The transverse reinforcement shall be in accordance with 18.7.5.2(a) through (e), with Ash not less than the greater of (i) and (ii):

(i)

(ii)

For the purpose of calculating Ag, the concrete cover in 20.6.1 shall be assumed on all four sides of each group of diagonal bars. The transverse reinforcement shall have spacing measured parallel to the diagonal bars satisfying 18.7.5.3(c) and not exceeding 6db of the smallest diagonal bars, and shall have spacing of crossties or legs of hoops measured perpendicular to the diagonal bars not exceeding 14 in. The transverse reinforcement shall continue through the intersection of the diagonal bars. At the intersection, it is permitted to modify the arrangement of the transverse reinforcement provided the spacing and volume ratio requirements are satisfied. Additional longitudinal and transverse reinforcement shall be distributed around the beam perimeter with total area in each direction of at least 0.002bws and spacing not exceeding 12 in.

(d) Transverse reinforcement shall be provided for the entire beam cross section in accordance with 18.7.5.2(a) through (e) with Ash not less than the greater of (i) and (ii):

(i)

(ii)

Longitudinal spacing of transverse reinforcement shall not exceed the lesser of 6 in. and 6db of the smallest diagonal bars. Spacing of crossties or legs of hoops both vertically and horizontally in the plane of the beam cross section shall not exceed 8 in. Each crosstie and each hoop leg shall engage a longitudinal bar of equal or greater diameter. It shall be permitted to configure hoops as specified in 18.6.4.3.

Wall piers shall satisfy the special moment frame requirements for columns of 18.7.4, 18.7.5, and 18.7.6, with joint faces taken as the top and bottom of the clear height of the wall pier. Alternatively, wall piers with (w/bw) > 2.5 shall satisfy (a) through (f):

(a) Design shear force shall be calculated in accordance with 18.7.6.1 with joint faces taken as the top and bottom of the clear height of the wall pier. If the general building code includes provisions to account for overstrength of the seismic-force-resisting system, the design shear force need not exceed Ωo times the factored shear calculated by analysis of the structure for earthquake load effects.

(b) Vn and distributed shear reinforcement shall satisfy 18.10.4.

(c) Transverse reinforcement shall be hoops except it shall be permitted to use single-leg horizontal reinforcement parallel to w where only one curtain of distributed shear reinforcement is provided. Single-leg horizontal reinforcement shall have 180-degree bends at each end that engage wall pier boundary longitudinal reinforcement.

(d) Vertical spacing of transverse reinforcement shall not exceed 6 in.

(e) Transverse reinforcement shall extend at least 12 in. above and below the clear height of the wall pier.

(f) Special boundary elements shall be provided if required by 18.10.6.3.

For wall piers at the edge of a wall, horizontal reinforcement shall be provided in adjacent wall segments above and below the wall pier and be designed to transfer the design shear force from the wall pier into the adjacent wall segments.
Construction joints in structural walls shall be specified according to 26.5.6, and contact surfaces shall be roughened consistent with condition (b) of Table 22.9.4.2.
Columns supporting discontinuous structural walls shall be reinforced in accordance with 18.7.5.6.
This section shall apply to special structural walls constructed using precast concrete forming part of the seismic-force-resisting system.

18.11.2.1

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Special structural walls constructed using precast concrete shall satisfy all the requirements of 18.10 for cast-in-place special structural walls in addition to 18.5.2.
Special structural walls constructed using precast concrete and unbonded post-tensioning tendons and not satisfying the requirements of 18.11.2.1 are permitted provided they satisfy the requirements of ACI ITG-5.1.
This section shall apply to diaphragms and collectors forming part of the seismic-force-resisting system in structures assigned to SDC D, E, or F.
Section 18.12.11 shall apply to structural trusses forming part of the seismic-force-resisting system in structures assigned to SDC D, E, or F.
The earthquake design forces for diaphragms shall be obtained from the general building code using the applicable provisions and load combinations.
All diaphragms and their connections shall be designed and detailed to provide for transfer of forces to collector elements and to the vertical elements of the seismic-force-resisting system.
Elements of a structural diaphragm system that are subjected primarily to axial forces and used to transfer diaphragm shear or flexural forces around openings or other discontinuities shall satisfy the requirements for collectors in 18.12.7.5 and 18.12.7.6.
A cast-in-place composite topping slab on a precast floor or roof shall be permitted as a structural diaphragm, provided the cast-in-place topping slab is reinforced and the surface of the previously hardened concrete on which the topping slab is placed is clean, free of laitance, and intentionally roughened.
A cast-in-place noncomposite topping on a precast floor or roof shall be permitted as a structural diaphragm, provided the cast-in-place topping slab acting alone is designed and detailed to resist the design earthquake forces.
Concrete slabs and composite topping slabs serving as diaphragms used to transmit earthquake forces shall be at least 2 in. thick. Topping slabs placed over precast floor or roof elements, acting as diaphragms and not relying on composite action with the precast elements to resist the design earthquake forces, shall be at least 2-1/2 in. thick.
The minimum reinforcement ratio for diaphragms shall be in conformance with 24.4. Except for post-tensioned slabs, reinforcement spacing each way in floor or roof systems shall not exceed 18 in. Where welded wire reinforcement is used as the distributed reinforcement to resist shear in topping slabs placed over precast floor and roof elements, the wires parallel to the joints between the precast elements shall be spaced not less than 10 in. on center. Reinforcement provided for shear strength shall be continuous and shall be distributed uniformly across the shear plane.
Bonded tendons used as reinforcement to resist collector forces, diaphragm shear, or flexural tension shall be designed such that the stress due to design earthquake forces does not exceed 60,000 psi. Precompression from unbonded tendons shall be permitted to resist diaphragm design forces if a seismic load path is provided.
All reinforcement used to resist collector forces, diaphragm shear, or flexural tension shall be developed or spliced for fy in tension.
Type 2 splices are required where mechanical splices are used to transfer forces between the diaphragm and the vertical elements of the seismic-force-resisting system.
Collector elements with compressive stresses exceeding 0.2fc' at any section shall have transverse reinforcement satisfying 18.7.5.2(a) through (e) and 18.7.5.3, except the spacing limit of 18.7.5.3(a) shall be one-third of the least dimension of the collector. The amount of transverse reinforcement shall be in accordance with Table 18.12.7.5. The specified transverse reinforcement is permitted to be discontinued at a section where the calculated compressive stress is less than 0.15fc'.

If design forces have been amplified to account for the overstrength of the vertical elements of the seismic-force-resisting system, the limit of 0.2fc' shall be increased to 0.5fc', and the limit of 0.15fc' shall be increased to 0.4fc'.

Table 18.12.7.5 —Transverse reinforcement for collector elements

Transverse reinforcement Applicable expressions
Ash/sbc for rectilinear hoop (a)
ρs for spiral or circular hoop Greater of: (b)
(c)
Longitudinal reinforcement detailing for collector elements at splices and anchorage zones shall satisfy (a) or (b):

(a) Center-to-center spacing of at least three longitudinal bar diameters, but not less than 1-1/2 in., and concrete clear cover of at least two and one-half longitudinal bar diameters, but not less than 2 in.

(b) Area of transverse reinforcement, providing Av at least the greater of and 50bws/fyt, except as required in 18.12.7.5

Diaphragms and portions of diaphragms shall be designed for flexure in accordance with Chapter 12. The effects of openings shall be considered.
Vn of diaphragms shall not exceed:
(18.12.9.1)

For cast-in-place topping slab diaphragms on precast floor or roof members, Acv shall be calculated using only the thickness of topping slab for noncomposite topping slab diaphragms and the combined thickness of cast-in-place and precast elements for composite topping slab diaphragms. For composite topping slab diaphragms, the value of fc' used to calculate Vn shall not exceed the lesser of fc' for the precast members and fc' for the topping slab.

Vn of diaphragms shall not exceed .
Above joints between precast elements in noncomposite and composite cast-in-place topping slab diaphragms, Vn shall not exceed:
Vn = Avf fyµ (18.12.9.3)

where Avf is the total area of shear friction reinforcement within the topping slab, including both distributed and boundary reinforcement, that is oriented perpendicular to joints in the precast system and coefficient of friction, µ, is 1.0λ, where λ is given in 19.2.4. At least one-half of Avf shall be uniformly distributed along the length of the potential shear plane. The area of distributed reinforcement in the topping slab shall satisfy 24.4.3.2 in each direction.

Above joints between precast elements in noncomposite and composite cast-in-place topping slab diaphragms, Vn shall not exceed the limits in 22.9.4.4, where Ac is calculated using only the thickness of the topping slab.
Construction joints in diaphragms shall be specified according to 26.5.6, and contact surfaces shall be roughened consistent with condition (b) of Table 22.9.4.2.
Structural truss elements with compressive stresses exceeding 0.2fc' at any section shall have transverse reinforcement, in accordance with 18.7.5.2, 18.7.5.3, 18.7.5.7, and Table 18.12.11.1, over the length of the element.

Table 18.12.11.1—Transverse reinforcement for structural trusses

Transverse reinforcement Applicable expressions
Ash/sbc for rectilinear hoop Greater of: (a)
(b)
ρs for spiral or circular hoop Greater of: (c)
(d)
All continuous reinforcement in structural truss elements shall be developed or spliced for fy in tension.

18.13 Foundations

ILLUSTRATION

18.13.1.1

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Foundations resisting earthquake-induced forces or transferring earthquake-induced forces between a structure and ground shall comply with the requirements of 18.13 and other applicable provisions of ACI 318 unless modified by Chapter 18 of the International Building Code.
The provisions in this section for piles, drilled piers, caissons, and slabs-on-ground shall supplement other applicable Code design and construction criteria, including 1.4.5 and 1.4.6.
Footings, foundation mats, and pile caps
Longitudinal reinforcement of columns and structural walls resisting forces induced by earthquake effects shall extend into the footing, mat, or pile cap, and shall be fully developed for tension at the interface.
Columns designed assuming fixed-end conditions at the foundation shall comply with 18.13.2.1 and, if hooks are required, longitudinal reinforcement resisting flexure shall have 90-degree hooks near the bottom of the foundation with the free end of the bars oriented toward the center of the column.
Columns or boundary elements of special structural walls that have an edge within one-half the footing depth from an edge of the footing shall have transverse reinforcement in accordance with 18.7.5.2 through 18.7.5.4 provided below the top of the footing. This reinforcement shall extend into the footing, mat, or pile cap a length equal to the development length, calculated for fy in tension, of the column or boundary element longitudinal reinforcement.
Where earthquake effects create uplift forces in boundary elements of special structural walls or columns, flexural reinforcement shall be provided in the top of the footing, mat, or pile cap to resist actions resulting from the factored load combinations, and shall be at least that required by 7.6.1 or 9.6.1.
Structural plain concrete in footings and basement walls shall be in accordance with 14.1.4.
Grade beams designed to act as horizontal ties between pile caps or footings shall have continuous longitudinal reinforcement that shall be developed within or beyond the supported column or anchored within the pile cap or footing at all discontinuities.
Grade beams designed to act as horizontal ties between pile caps or footings shall be sized such that the smallest cross-sectional dimension shall be at least equal to the clear spacing between connected columns divided by 20, but need not exceed 18 in. Closed ties shall be provided at a spacing not to exceed the lesser of one-half the smallest orthogonal cross-sectional dimension and 12 in.
Grade beams and beams that are part of a mat foundation subjected to flexure from columns that are part of the seismic-force-resisting system shall be in accordance with 18.6.
Slabs-on-ground that resist earthquake forces from walls or columns that are part of the seismic-force-resisting system shall be designed as diaphragms in accordance with 18.12. The construction documents shall clearly indicate that the slab-on-ground is a structural diaphragm and part of the seismic-force-resisting system.
Piles, piers, or caissons resisting tension loads shall have continuous longitudinal reinforcement over the length resisting design tension forces. The longitudinal reinforcement shall be detailed to transfer tension forces within the pile cap to supported structural members.
Where tension forces induced by earthquake effects are transferred between pile cap or mat foundation and precast pile by reinforcing bars grouted or post-installed in the top of the pile, the grouting system shall have been demonstrated by test to develop at least 1.25fy of the bar.
Piles, piers, or caissons shall have transverse reinforcement in accordance with 18.7.5.2(a) through (e), 18.7.5.3, and 18.7.5.4 excluding requirements of (c) and (f) of Table 18.7.5.4 at locations (a) and (b):

(a) At the top of the member for at least five times the member cross-sectional dimension, and at least 6 ft below the bottom of the pile cap

(b) For the portion of piles in soil that is not capable of providing lateral support, or in air and water, along the entire unsupported length plus the length required in (a).

For precast concrete driven piles, the length of transverse reinforcement provided shall be sufficient to account for potential variations in the elevation of pile tips.
Concrete piles, piers, or caissons in foundations supporting one- and two-story stud bearing wall construction are exempt from the transverse reinforcement requirements of 18.13.4.3 and 18.13.4.4.
Pile caps incorporating batter piles shall be designed to resist the full compressive strength of the batter piles acting as short columns. The slenderness effects of batter piles shall be considered for the portion of the piles in soil that is not capable of providing lateral support, or in air or water.
This section shall apply to members not designated as part of the seismic-force-resisting system in structures assigned to SDC D, E, and F.
Members not designated as part of the seismic-force-resisting system shall be evaluated for gravity load combinations of (1.2D + 1.0L + 0.2S) or 0.9D, whichever is critical, acting simultaneously with the design displacement δu. The load factor on the live load, L, shall be permitted to be reduced to 0.5 except for garages, areas occupied as places of public assembly, and all areas where L is greater than 100 lb/ft2.
Cast-in-place beams and columns shall be detailed in accordance with 18.14.3.2 or 18.14.3.3 depending on the magnitude of moments and shears induced in those members when subjected to the design displacement δu. If effects of δu are not explicitly checked, the provisions of 18.14.3.3 shall be satisfied.
Where the induced moments and shears do not exceed the design moment and shear strength of the frame member, (a) through (c) shall be satisfied:

(a) Beams shall satisfy 18.6.3.1. Transverse reinforcement shall be provided throughout the length of the beam at spacing not to exceed d/2. Where factored axial force exceeds Agfc'/10, transverse reinforcement shall be hoops satisfying 18.7.5.2 at spacing so, according to 18.14.3.2(b).

(b) Columns shall satisfy 18.7.4.1, 18.7.5.2, and 18.7.6. The maximum longitudinal spacing of hoops shall be so for the full column length. Spacing so shall not exceed the lesser of six diameters of the smallest longitudinal bar enclosed and 6 in.

(c) Columns with factored gravity axial forces exceeding 0.35Po shall satisfy 18.14.3.2(b) and 18.7.5.7. The amount of transverse reinforcement provided shall be one-half of that required by 18.7.5.4 and spacing shall not exceed so for the full column length.

Where the induced moments or shears exceed ϕMn or ϕVn of the frame member, or if induced moments or shears are not calculated, (a) through (d) shall be satisfied:

(a) Materials, mechanical splices, and welded splices shall satisfy the requirements for special moment frames in 18.2.5 through 18.2.8.

(b) Beams shall satisfy 18.14.3.2(a) and 18.6.5.

(c) Columns shall satisfy 18.7.4, 18.7.5, and 18.7.6.

(d) Joints shall satisfy 18.8.3.1.

Precast concrete frame members assumed not to contribute to lateral resistance, including their connections, shall satisfy (a) through (d):

(a) Requirements of 18.14.3

(b) Ties specified in 18.14.3.2(b) over the entire column height, including the depth of the beams

(c) Structural integrity reinforcement, in accordance with 4.10

(d) Bearing length at the support of a beam shall be at least 2 in. longer than determined from 16.2.6

For slab-column connections of two-way slabs without beams, slab shear reinforcement satisfying the requirements of 8.7.6 or 8.7.7 shall be provided at any slab critical section defined in 22.6.4.1 if Δx/hsx ≥ 0.035 - (1/20) (vugvc). Required slab shear reinforcement shall provide vs at the slab critical section and shall extend at least four times the slab thickness from the face of the support adjacent to the slab critical section. The shear reinforcement requirements of this provision shall not apply if Δx/hsx ≤ 0.005.

The value of x/hsx) shall be taken as the greater of the values of the adjacent stories above and below the slab-column connection. vc shall be calculated in accordance with 22.6.5. vug is the factored shear stress on the slab critical section for two-way action due to gravity loads without moment transfer.

Wall piers not designated as part of the seismic-force-resisting system shall satisfy the requirements of 18.10.8. Where the general building code includes provisions to account for overstrength of the seismic-force-resisting system, it shall be permitted to calculate the design shear force as Ωo times the shear induced under design displacements, δu.
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