CODES

ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Swimming Pool and Spa Code 2012 (ISPSC 2012)

Copyright

Preface

Effective Use of the International Swimming Pool and Spa Code

Legislation

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 General Compliance

Chapter 4 Public Swimming Pools

Chapter 5 Public Spas and Public Exercise Spas

Chapter 6 Aquatic Recreation Facilities

Chapter 7 Onground Storable Residential Swimming Pools

Chapter 8 Permanent Inground Residential Swimming Pools

Chapter 9 Permanent Residential Spas and Permanent Residential Exercise Spas

Chapter 10 Portable Residential Spas and Portable Residential Exercise Spas

Chapter 11 Referenced Standards

Errata

Appendix A Symbols

Appendix B Field Checklist for Identifying Suction Entrapment Hazards

Appendix C Warning — Drowning Hazard

Appendix D Field Verification Procedures for Suction Outlet(s) Safety

The provisions of this chapter shall govern the general design and construction of public and residential aquatic vessels and all related piping, equipment, and materials. Provisions that are unique to a specific type of aquatic vessel are located in Chapters 4 through 10.
Where differences occur between the provisions of this chapter and the provisions of Chapters 4 through 10, the provisions of Chapter 4 through 10 shall apply.
Electrical requirements for aquatic facilities shall be in accordance with NFPA 70 or the International Residential Code, as applicable in accordance with Section 102.7.1.
Exception: Internal wiring for portable residential spas and portable residential exercise spas.
Piping and fittings used for water service, makeup and drainage piping for aquatic vessels shall comply with the International Plumbing Code. Fittings shall be approved for installation with the piping installed.
Pipe, fittings and components shall be listed and labeled in accordance with NSF 50 or NSF 14. Plastic jets, fittings, and outlets used in public spas shall be listed and labeled in accordance with NSF 50.
Exception: Portable residential spas and portable residential exercise spas listed and labeled in accordance with UL 1563 or CSA C22.2 No. 218.1.
Piping, including process piping, that is installed in trenches, shall be inspected prior to backfilling.
Water supplies for aquatic vessels shall be protected against backflow in accordance with the International Plumbing Code or the International Residential Code, as applicable in accordance with Section 102.7.1.
Where wastewater from aquatic vessels, backwash from filters and water from deck drains discharge to the building drainage system, such installation shall be in accordance with the International Plumbing Code or the International Residential Code, as applicable in accordance with Section 102.7.1.
Tests on piping systems constructed of plastic piping shall not use compressed air for the test.
Aquatic vessels shall be maintained in a clean and sanitary condition, and in good repair.
An operating and maintenance manual in accordance with industry-accepted standards shall be provided for each piece of equipment requiring maintenance.
The energy requirements for pools and inground permanently installed spas shall be as specified in Sections 303.2 through 303.4 and APSP 15. The energy requirements for residential portable electric spas shall be in accordance with APSP 14.
Heaters shall be equipped with an external on-off switch to allow the heater to be shutoff without adjusting the thermostat setting. Such switch shall be provided with ready access. Gas-fired heaters shall not be equipped with continuous pilot burners.
Exception: Portable residential spas and portable residential exercise spas.
Time switches or other control methods that can automatically turn off and on heaters and pumps according to a preset schedule shall be installed with or on all heaters and pumps. Heaters, pumps and motors that have built-in timers shall be deemed in compliance with this requirement.
Exceptions:
1. Where public health standards require 24-hour pump operation.
2. Pumps that operate waste-heat recovery pool heating systems.
3. Portable residential spas and portable residential exercise spas.
Heated pools and inground permanently installed spas shall be provided with a vapor retardant cover.
Exception: Where more than 70 percent of the energy for heating, computed over an operating season, is from site-recovered energy such as from a heat pump or solar energy source.

304.1 General

STATE AMENDMENT
The provisions of Section 304 shall control the design and construction of aquatic vessels installed in flood hazard areas.
Aquatic vessels located in flood hazard areas indicated within the International Building Code or the International Residential Code shall comply with Section 304.2.1 or 304.2.2.
Exception: Aquatic vessels located in riverine flood hazard areas that are outside of designated floodways and aquatic vessels located in flood hazard areas where the source of flooding is tides, storm surges or coastal storms.
Where aquatic vessels are located in designated floodways, documentation shall be submitted to the code official that demonstrates that the construction of the aquatic vessel will not increase the design flood elevation at any point within the jurisdiction.
Where aquatic vessels are located where design flood elevations are specified but floodways have not been designated, the applicant shall provide a floodway analysis that demonstrates that the proposed aquatic vessel and any associated grading and filling, will not increase the design flood elevation more than 1 foot (305 mm) at any point within the jurisdiction.
Aquatic vessels installed in flood hazard areas subject to high-velocity wave action (coastal high hazard areas) shall be designed and constructed in accordance with ASCE 24.
Equipment shall be elevated to or above the design flood elevation or be anchored to prevent flotation and protected to prevent water from entering or accumulating within the components during conditions of flooding.

304.5 GFCI Protection

STATE AMENDMENT
Electrical equipment installed below the design flood elevation shall be supplied by branch circuits that have ground-fault circuit interrupter protection for personnel.
The provisions of this section shall apply to the design of barriers for aquatic vessels. These design controls are intended to provide protection against the potential drowning and near drowning by restricting access to such vessels. These requirements provide an integrated level of protection against potential drowning through the use of physical barriers and warning devices.
Exceptions:
1. Spas and hot tubs with a lockable safety cover that complies with ASTM F 1346.
2. Swimming pools with a powered safety cover that complies with ASTM F 1346.
All outdoor aquatic vessels and indoor swimming pools shall be surrounded by a barrier that complies with Sections 305.2.1 through 305.7.
Barrier heights and clearances shall be in accordance with all of the following:
1. The top of the barrier shall be not less than 48 inches (1219 mm) above grade where measured on the side of the barrier that faces away from the aquatic vessel. Such height shall exist around the entire perimeter of the vessel and for a distance of 3 feet (914 mm) where measured horizontally from the required barrier.
2. The vertical clearance between grade and the bottom of the barrier shall not exceed 2 inches (51 mm) for grade surfaces that are not solid, such as grass or gravel, where measured on the side of the barrier that faces away from the vessel.
3. The vertical clearance between a surface below the barrier to a solid surface, such as concrete, and the bottom of the required barrier shall not exceed 4 inches (102 mm) where measured on the side of the required barrier that faces away from the vessel.
4. Where the top of the vessel structure is above grade, the barrier shall be installed on grade or shall be mounted on top of the vessel structure. Where the barrier is mounted on the top of the vessel, the vertical clearance between the top of the vessel and the bottom of the barrier shall not exceed 4 inches (102 mm).
Openings in the barrier shall not allow passage of a 4 inch (102 mm) diameter sphere.
Solid barriers that do not have openings shall not contain indentations or protrusions that form handholds and footholds, except for normal construction tolerances and tooled masonry joints.
Mesh fences, other than chain link fences in accordance with Section 305.2.7, shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and shall comply with the following:
1. The bottom of the mesh restraining fence shall be not more than 1 inch (25 mm) above the deck or installed surface or grade.
2. The maximum vertical clearance from the bottom of the mesh fence and the solid surface shall not permit the fence to be lifted more than 4 inches (102 mm) from grade or decking.
3. The fence shall be designed and constructed so that it does not allow passage of a 4-inch (102 mm) sphere under any mesh panel. The maximum vertical clearance from the bottom of the mesh fence and the solid surface shall not be more than 4 inches (102 mm) from grade or decking.
4. An attachment device shall attach each barrier section at a height not lower than 45 inches (1143 mm) above grade. Common attachment devices include, but are not limited to, devices that provide the security equal to or greater than that of a hook-and-eye-type latch incorporating a spring-actuated retaining lever such as a safety gate hook.
5. Where a hinged gate is used with a mesh barrier, the gate shall comply with Section 305.3.
6. Patio deck sleeves such as vertical post receptacles which are placed inside the patio surface shall be of a nonconductive material.
7. Mesh fences shall not be used on top of on ground residential pools.
Where the barrier is composed of horizontal and vertical members and the distance between the tops of the horizontal members is less than 45 inches (1143 mm), the horizontal members shall be located on the aquatic vessel side of the fence. Spacing between vertical members shall not exceed 1.75 inches (44 mm) in width. Where there are decorative cutouts within vertical members, spacing within the cutouts shall not exceed 1.75 inches (44 mm) in width.
Where the barrier is composed of horizontal and vertical members and the distance between the tops of the horizontal members is 45 inches (1143 mm) or more, spacing between vertical members shall not exceed 4 inches (102 mm). Where there are decorative cutouts within vertical members, spacing within the cutouts shall not exceed 1.75 inches (44 mm) in width.
The maximum opening formed by a chain link fence shall be not more than 1.75 inches (44 mm). Where the fence is provided with slats fastened at the top and bottom which reduces the openings, such openings shall be not more than 1.75 inches (44 mm).
Where the barrier is composed of diagonal members, the maximum opening formed by the diagonal members shall be not more than 1.75 inches (44 mm). The angle of diagonal members shall not be greater than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) from vertical.
There shall be a clear zone of not less than 36 inches (914 mm) around the exterior of the barrier and around any permanent structures or equipment such as pumps, filters and heaters that can be used to climb the barrier.
The aquatic vessel side of the required barrier shall be not less than 20 inches (508 mm) from the water’s edge.
Access gates shall comply with the requirements of Sections 305.3.1 through 305.3.3 and shall be equipped to accommodate a locking device. Pedestrian access gates shall open outward away from the vessel and shall be self-closing and have a self-latching device.
Gates not intended for pedestrian use, such as utility or service gates, shall remain locked when not in use.
Double gates or multiple gates shall have at least one leaf secured in place and the adjacent leaf shall be secured with a self-latching device. The gate and barrier shall not have openings larger than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) within 18 inches (457 mm) of the latch release mechanism. The self-latching device shall comply with the requirements of Section 305.3.3.
Where the release mechanism of the self-latching device is located less than 54 inches (1372 mm) from grade, the release mechanism shall be located on the vessel side of the gate at least 3 inches (76 mm) below the top of the gate, and the gate and barrier shall not have openings greater than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) within 18 inches (457 mm) of the release mechanism.
Where a wall of a dwelling or structure serves as part of the barrier, doors and operable windows with a sill height of less than 48 inches (1219 mm) that provide direct access to the aquatic vessel through the wall, shall be equipped with one or more of the following:
1. An alarm that produces an audible warning when the door or its screen or window, is opened. The alarm shall be listed and labeled as a water hazard entrance alarm in accordance with UL 2017. In dwellings or structures not required to be Accessible units, Type A units or Type B units, the deactivation switch shall be located 54 inches (1372 mm) or more above the threshold of the door. In dwellings or structures required to be Accessible units, Type A units or Type B units, the deactivation switch shall be located not greater than 54 inches (1372 mm) and not less than 48 inches (1219 mm) above the threshold of the door.
2. A safety cover that is listed and labeled in accordance with ASTM F 1346.
3. An approved means of protection, such as self-closing doors with self-latching devices, provided that the degree of protection afforded is not less than the protection afforded by Items 1 or 2.
Where an onground residential pool structure is used as a barrier or where the barrier is mounted on top of the pool structure, the following shall apply:
1. An onground pool wall, itself, shall be permitted to be the barrier where the pool structure is on grade and the wall is at least 48 inches (1219 mm) above grade for the entire perimeter of the pool and complies with the requirements of Section 305.2.
2. Where the means of access is a ladder or steps, the ladder or steps shall be capable of being secured, locked or removed to prevent access or the ladder or steps shall be surrounded by a barrier that meets the requirements of this section.
3. When the ladder or steps are secured, locked or removed, any opening created shall not allow the passage of a 4 inch (102 mm) diameter sphere.
4. The barrier shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
In the case where the vessel area abuts the edge of a lake or other natural body of water, public access is not permitted or allowed along the shoreline, and required barriers extend to and beyond the water’s edge a minimum of 18 inches (457 mm), a barrier is not required between the natural body of water shoreline and the vessel.
Natural topography that prevents direct access to the aquatic vessel area shall include but not be limited to mountains and natural rock formations. A natural barrier approved by the governing body shall be acceptable provided that the degree of protection is not less than the protection afforded by the requirements of Sections 305.2 through 305.5.
Decks shall be designed and installed in accordance with the International Residential Code or the International Building Code, as applicable in accordance with Section 102.7, except as provided in this section.
Decks, ramps, coping, and similar step surfaces shall be slip-resistant and cleanable. Special features in or on decks such as markers, brand insignias, and similar materials shall be slip-resistant.
Stair riser heights shall be in accordance with the International Residential Code or the International Building Code, as applicable in accordance with Section 102.7.1.
The minimum slope of decks shall be in accordance with Table 306.4 except where an alternative drainage method is provided that prevents the accumulation or pooling of water. The slope for decks, other than wood decks, shall be not greater than 1/2 inch per foot (1 mm per 24 mm) except for ramps. The slope for wood and wood/plastic composite decks shall be not greater than 1/4 inch per 1 foot (1 mm per 48 mm). Decks shall be sloped so that standing water will not be deeper than 1/8 inch (3.2 mm), 20 minutes after the cessation of the addition of water to the deck.

TABLE 306.4
MINIMUM DRAINAGE SLOPES

SURFACETYPICAL MINIMUM DRAINAGE SLOPE
(INCH PER FOOT)
Brick and heavy textured finish3/8 inch
Carpet1/2 inch
Exposed aggregate1/4 inch
Textured, hand-finished concrete 1/8 inch
Wood1/8 inch
Wood/plastic composite1/8 inch
For SI: 1 inch per foot = 83.3 mm per m.
Gaps shall be provided between deck boards in wood and wood/plastic composite decks. Gaps shall be consistent with approved engineering methods with respect to the type of wood used and shall not cause a tripping hazard.
The open gap between pool decks and adjoining decks or walkways, including joint material, shall be not greater than 3/4 inch (19.1 mm). The difference in vertical elevation between the pool deck and the adjoining sidewalk shall be not greater than 1/4 inch (6.4 mm).
Isolation joints that occur where the pool coping meets the concrete deck shall be watertight.
Joints that occur where the pool coping meets the concrete deck shall be installed to protect the coping and its mortar bed from damage as a result of the anticipated movement of adjoining deck.
Joints in a deck shall be provided to minimize visible cracks outside of the control joints caused by imposed stresses or movement of the slab.
Areas where decks join existing concrete work shall be provided with a joint to protect the pool from damage due to relative movement.
The edges of all decks shall be radiused, tapered, or otherwise designed to eliminate sharp corners.
Valves installed in or under any deck shall be provided with access for operation, service, and maintenance as required by the International Plumbing Code or International Residential Code, as applicable in accordance with Section 102.7.1. Access covers shall be provided.
Hose bibbs shall be provided for rinsing down the entire deck and shall be installed in accordance with the International Plumbing Code or International Residential Code, as applicable in accordance with Section 102.7.1, and shall be located not more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) apart. Water-powered devices, such as water-powered lifts, shall have a dedicated hose bibb water source.

Exception: Residential pools and spas shall not be required to have hose bibbs located at 150-foot (45 720 mm) intervals, or have a dedicated hose bibb for water-powered devices.

The provisions of this section apply to all aquatic vessels.
Exception: The provisions of Sections 307.3 through 307.6 do not apply to listed and labeled portable residential spas and listed and labeled portable residential exercise spas.
Glazing in hazardous locations for residential pools and spas shall comply with the International Residential Code. Glazing in hazardous locations in all other occupancies shall comply with the International Building Code.
Aquatic vessels and appurtenances thereto shall be constructed of materials that are nontoxic to humans and the environment; that are generally or commonly regarded to be impervious and enduring; that will withstand the design stresses; and that will provide a watertight structure with a smooth and easily cleanable surface without cracks or joints, excluding structural joints, or that will provide a watertight structure to which a smooth, easily cleaned surface/finish is applied or attached. Material surfaces that come in contact with the user shall be finished, so that they do not constitute a cutting, pinching, puncturing or abrasion hazard under casual contact and intended use.
Clean sand or similar material, where used in a beach pool environment, shall be used over an impervious surface. The sand area shall be designed and controlled so that the circulation system, maintenance, safety, sanitation, and operation of the pool are not adversely affected.
Assemblies of different materials shall be chemically and mechanically compatible for their intended use and environment.
The structural design of aquatic vessels shall be in accordance with the International Building Code or International Residential Code, as applicable in accordance with Section 102.7.1.
Equipment for aquatic vessels shall be supported to prevent damage from misalignment and settling and located so as to allow access for inspection, servicing, removal and repair of component parts.
In climates subject to freezing temperatures, outdoor aquatic vessel shells and appurtenances, piping, filter systems, pumps and motors, and other components shall be designed and constructed to provide protection from damage from freezing.
The surfaces within public aquatic vessels intended to provide footing for users shall be slip resistant and shall not cause injury during normal use.
The colors, patterns, or finishes of the vessel interior shall not obscure objects or surfaces within the vessel.
Exception: Residential pools and spas.
Roofs or canopies over aquatic vessels shall be in accordance with the International Building Code or International Residential Code, as applicable in accordance with Section 102.7.1 and shall be constructed so as to prevent water runoff into the aquatic vessel.
An accessible route to the public aquatic vessel shall be provided in accordance with the International Building Code. Accessibility within the public aquatic vessel shall be provided as required by the accessible recreational facilities provisions of the International Building Code. Accessibility for aquatic vessels accessory to detached one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses not more than three stories in height shall be provided where required by the International Residential Code.
The slope of the floor from the point of the first slope change to the deep area shall not exceed one unit vertical in three units horizontal.
Exception: Portable residential spas and portable residential exercise spas.
Walls shall intersect with the floor at an angle or a transition profile. Where a transitional profile is provided at water depths of 3 feet (914 mm) or less, a transitional radius shall not exceed 6 inches (150 mm) and shall be tangent to the wall and is permitted to be tangent to or intersect the floor.
Exceptions:
1. Portable residential spas and portable residential exercise spas.
2. Onground storable pools.
This code is not intended to regulate the shape of aquatic vessels other than to take into account the effect that a given shape will have on the safety of the occupants and to maintain the minimum required level of circulation to ensure sanitation.
The design waterline shall have a maximum construction tolerance at the time of completion of the work of plus or minus 1/4 inch (6.35 mm) for aquatic vessels with adjustable weir surface skimming systems, and plus or minus 1/8 inch (3.175 mm) for aquatic vessels with nonadjustable surface skimming systems.
Electrically operated equipment shall be listed and labeled in accordance with applicable product standards. Treatment and circulation system equipment for public aquatic vessels shall be listed and labeled in accordance with NSF 50 and other applicable standards.
Exception: Portable residential spas and portable residential exercise spas listed and labeled in accordance with UL 1563 or CSA C22.2 No. 218.1.
Suction entrapment avoidance for aquatic vessels shall be provided in accordance with APSP 7.
Exception: Portable residential spas and portable residential exercise spas listed and labeled in accordance with UL 1563 or CSA C22.2 No. 218.1.
The provisions of this section apply to circulation systems for aquatic vessels.
Exception: Portable residential spas and portable residential exercise spas.
A circulation system consisting of pumps, piping, return inlets and outlets, filters, and other necessary equipment shall be provided for the complete circulation of water. Wading pools and spas shall have separate dedicated filtering systems.
Exception: Separate filtering systems are not required for residential aquatic vessels.
The equipment shall be sized to turn over the volume of water that the aquatic vessel is capable of containing as specified in this code for the specific installation.
Circulation system components that require replacement or servicing shall be provided with access for inspection, repair, or replacement and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications.
Aquatic vessel equipment and related piping shall be designed and installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.
The water velocity in return lines shall not exceed 8 feet (2.4 m) per second. The water velocity in suction piping shall be as required by Section 310.
Plastic pipe and fittings used in circulation systems shall be nontoxic and shall be able to withstand the design operating pressures and conditions of the aquatic vessel. Plastic pipe shall be listed and labeled as complying with NSF 14. Circulation system piping shall be listed and labeled as complying with one of the standards in Table 311.4.

TABLE 311.4
CIRCULATION SYSTEM PIPE MATERIAL STANDARD

MATERIALSTANDARD
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipeASTM D 1527
Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) plastic pipe and tubingASTM D 2846; CSA B137.6
Copper or copper-alloy tubingASTM B 88; ASTM B 447
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) hoseASTM D 1785; ASTM D 2241; ASTM D 2672; CSA B137.3
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipeASTM D 1785; CSA B137.3
Stainless steel pipe, Types 304, 304L, 316, 316LASTM A 312
Fittings used in circulation systems shall be listed and labeled as complying with one of the standards in Table 311.4.1.

Exceptions:

1. Suction outlet fitting assemblies and manufacturer-provided components certified in accordance with APSP 16.
2. Skimmers and manufacturer-provided components.
3. Gutter overflow grates and fittings installed above or outside of the overflow point of the pool or spa.

TABLE 311.4.1
CIRCULATION SYSTEM FITTINGS

MATERIALSTANDARD
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipeASTM D 1527
Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) plastic pipe and tubingASTM D 2846; ASTM F 437;
ASTM F 438; ASTM F 439; CSA B137.6
Copper or copper-alloy tubingASME B 16.15
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipeASTM D 2464; ASTM D 2466;
ASTM D 2467; CSA B137.2; CSA B137.3
Stainless steel pipe, Types 304, 304L, 316, 316LASTM A 182; ASTM A 403
Joints shall be made in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions.
Piping subject to damage by freezing shall have a uniform slope in one direction and shall be equipped with valves for drainage or shall be capable of being evacuated to remove the water.
Equipment shall be designed and fabricated to drain the water from the equipment, together with exposed face piping, by removal of drain plugs, manipulating valves, or by other methods. Drainage shall be in accordance with manufacturer’s specifications.
Gauges shall be provided for public pools in the circulation system. Gauges shall be provided with ready access.
1. A pressure gauge shall be located downstream of the pump and between the pump and filter.
2. A vacuum gauge shall be located between the pump and filter and upstream of the pump.
Public swimming pools and wading pools shall be equipped with a flow-measuring device that indicates the rate of flow through the filter system. The flow rate measuring device shall indicate gallons per minute and shall be selected and installed to be accurate within plus or minus 10 percent of actual flow.
Written operation and maintenance instructions shall be provided for the circulation system of public pools.
Circulation system piping, other than that integrally included in the manufacture of the aquatic vessel, shall be subjected to a hydrostatic pressure test of 25 pounds per square inch (psi) (172.4 kPa). This pressure shall be held for not less than 15 minutes.
The provisions of this section apply to filters for all aquatic vessels.
Exception: Portable residential spas and portable residential exercise spas.
Filters shall have a flow rating equal to or greater than the design flow rate of the system. Filters shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Filters shall be designed so that filtration surfaces can be inspected and serviced.
For pressure-type filters, a means shall be provided to permit the release of internal pressure.
Filters incorporating an automatic means of internal air release as the principal means of air release shall have one or more lids that provide a slow and safe release of pressure as a part of the design and shall have a manual air release in addition to an automatic release.
A separation tank used in conjunction with a filter tank shall have a manual method of air release or a lid that provides for a slow and safe release of pressure as it is opened.
The provisions of this section apply to pumps and motors for aquatic vessels.
Exception: Portable residential spas and portable residential exercise spas.
A pump shall be provided for circulation of the pool water. The pump shall be capable of providing the flow required for filtering the pool water and filter cleaning, if applicable, against the total dynamic head developed by the complete system.
A cleanable strainer, skimmer basket, or screen shall be provided for aquatic vessels, upstream or as an integral part of circulation pumps, to remove solids, debris, hair, and lint on pressure filter systems.
Pumps and motors shall be accessible for inspection and service in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications.
The design, construction, and installation of pumps and component parts shall be in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications.
Shutoff valves shall be installed on the suction and discharge sides of pumps that are located below the waterline. Such valves shall be provided with access.
An emergency shutoff switch shall be provided to disconnect all power to recirculation and jet system pumps and air blowers. Emergency shutoff switches shall be: provided with access; located within sight of the aquatic vessel and located not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) horizontally from the inside walls of the aquatic vessel.
Exception: Onground storable and permanent inground residential swimming pools.
Motors shall comply with UL 1004-1, UL 1081, CSA C22.2 No. 108 or the relevant motor requirements of UL 1563 or CSA C22.2 No. 218.1, as applicable.
The provisions of this section apply to return and suction fittings for aquatic vessels.
Exception: Portable residential spas and portable residential exercise spas.
Entrapment avoidance means shall be provided in accordance with Section 310.
The suction outlet fitting assemblies, where installed, and the skimming systems shall each be designed to accommodate 100 percent of the circulation turnover rate.
Where multiple systems are used in a single pool to meet this requirement, each subsystem shall proportionately be designed such that the maximum design flow rates cannot be exceeded during normal operation.
There shall be one return inlet for each 300 square feet (27.87 m2) of pool surface area, or fraction thereof.
Exception: Onground storable pools.
Return and suction fittings for the circulation system shall be designed so as not to constitute a hazard to the bather.
Submerged vacuum fittings shall be in accordance with Section 310.
The provisions of this section apply to skimmers for aquatic vessels.
Exception: Portable residential spas and portable residential exercise spas.
A surface skimming system shall be provided for public aquatic vessels. Either a surface skimming system or perimeter overflow system shall be provided for permanent inground residential pools. The surface skimming system shall be designed and constructed to skim the surface when the water level is maintained within the operational parameters.
Exception: Class D public pools designed in accordance with Chapter 6.
Circulation systems shall be designed to process a minimum of 100 percent of the turnover rate through skimmers.
Where automatic surface skimmers are used as the sole overflow system, at least one surface skimmer shall be provided for the square foot (square meter) areas, or fractions thereof, noted in Table 315.3. Skimmers shall be located to maintain effective skimming action.

TABLE 315.3
SKIMMER SIZING TABLE

AQUATIC VESSELAREA PER SKIMMER (SQ. FT)
Public pool400
Residential pool800
Spas (all types)150
For SI: 1 square foot = 0.09 m2.
Where a perimeter-type surface skimming system is used as the sole surface skimming system, the system shall extend around not less than of 50 percent of the aquatic vessel perimeter.
Where perimeter surface skimming systems are used, they shall be connected to a circulation system with a system surge capacity of not less than 1 gallon for each square foot (40.7 liters per square meter) of water surface. The capacity of the perimeter overflow system and related piping is permitted to be considered as a portion of the surge capacity.
Equalizers on skimmers shall be prohibited.
Skimming devices shall be designed and installed so as not to create hazard to the user.
The provisions of this section apply to heaters for all aquatic vessels.
Exception: Portable residential spas and portable residential exercise spas.
Heaters shall be listed and labeled in accordance with the applicable standard listed in Table 316.2.

TABLE 316.2
WATER HEATERS

DEVICESTANDARD
Electric water heaterUL 1261, UL 1563 or CSA C22.2 No. 218.1
Gas-fired water heaterANSI Z21.56a/CSA 4.7a
Heat exchangerNSF 50
Heat pump water heaterUL 1995, AHRI 1160, CSA C22.2 No. 236
Photovoltaic solar water heatersNSF 50
Thermal radiant solar water heaterNSF 50
Heaters shall be sized in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications.

316.4 Installation

STATE AMENDMENT
Heaters shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications and the International Fuel Gas Code, International Mechanical Code, International Energy Conservation Code Georgia State Minimum Standard Electrical Code (National Electrical Code with Georgia State Amendments), NFPA 70 or International Residential Code, as applicable in accordance with Section 102.7.1.
A means shall be provided to monitor water temperature.
For public aquatic vessels, public access to controls shall not be allowed.
Heater circulation systems shall comply with Sections 316.5.1 and 316.5.2.
Water flow through the heater bypass piping, back-siphonage protection, and the use of heat sinks shall be in accordance with the heater manufacturer’s specifications.
Where required by the manufacturer, heaters shall be installed with an automatic device that will ensure that the pump continues to run after the heater shuts off for the time period specified by the manufacturer.
This section applies to all devices and systems that induce or allow air to enter aquatic vessels either by means of a powered pump or passive design.
Air blower systems shall be equipped with backflow protection as specified in UL 1563 or CSA C22.2 No. 218.1.
Air intake sources shall not induce water, dirt or contaminants.
Air induction systems shall be sized in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications.
Air blowers shall be provided with access for inspection and service.
Makeup water to maintain the water level and water used as a vehicle for sanitizers or other chemicals, for pump priming, or for other such additions, shall be from a potable water source.
Potable water supply systems shall be designed, installed and maintained so as to prevent contamination from nonpotable liquids, solids or gases being introduced into the potable water supply through cross-connections or other piping connections to the system. Means of protection against backflow in the potable water supply shall be provided through an air gap complying with ASME A112.1.2 and the International Residential Code or the International Plumbing Code, as applicable in accordance with Section 102.7.1.
Over-the-rim spouts shall be located under a diving board, adjacent to a ladder, or otherwise shielded so as not to create a hazard. The open end of such spouts shall not have sharp edges and shall not protrude more than 2 inches (51 mm) beyond the edge of the pool. The open end shall be separated from the water by an air gap of at least 1.5 pipe diameters measured from the pipe outlet to the rim.
Sanitizing equipment installed in public aquatic vessels shall be capable of introducing the quantity of sanitizer necessary to maintain the appropriate levels under all conditions of intended use.
Where installed, chemical feed systems shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications. Chemical feed pumps shall be wired so that they cannot operate unless there is adequate return flow to disburse the chemical throughout the vessel as designed.
Backwash water and draining water shall be discharged to the sanitary or storm sewer, or into an approved disposal system on the premise, or shall be disposed of by other means approved by the state or local authority. Direct connections shall not be made between the end of the backwash line and the disposal system. Drains shall discharge through an air gap.
Filter backwash water shall not be returned to the vessel except where the backwash water has been filtered to remove particulates, treated to eliminate coli form bacteria and waterborne pathogens, and such return has been approved by the state or local authority.
Where necessary, filter backwash water and drainage water shall be treated chemically or through the use of settling tanks to eliminate or neutralize chemicals, diatomaceous earth, and contaminants in the water that exceed the limits set by the state or local effluent discharge requirements.
The provisions of Sections 321.2 and 321.3 apply to lighting for public aquatic vessels. The provisions of Section 321.4 shall apply to lighting for residential aquatic vessels.
When a pool is open during periods of low natural illumination, artificial lighting shall be provided so that all areas of the pool, including the bottom main drains, will be visible.
Overhead or underwater lighting shall be provided to illuminate the pool and adjacent deck areas. Such lighting shall be listed, labeled and installed in accordance with NFPA 70 or the International Residential Code, as applicable in accordance with Section 102.7.1.
For outdoor pools, the combination of overhead and underwater lighting shall provide not less than 3 foot-candles of illumination at the pool water surface. For indoor pools, the combination of overhead and underwater lighting shall provide not less than of 10 foot-candles at the pool water surface.
Underwater lighting shall provide a minimum of 8 lumens per square foot of pool water surface area.

Exception: Where overhead lighting provides not less than 15 foot-candles of illumination at the pool surface and all areas of the pool are visible without glare.

Public pools and pool areas that operate during periods of low illumination shall be provided with sufficient emergency lighting to permit evacuation of the pool and securing of the area in the event of power failure. The emergency lighting intensity shall be not less than 1 foot-candle at the water surface and the walking surface of the deck.
Where installed in residential pools and permanent residential spas, lighting shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 70 or the International Residential Code, as applicable in accordance with Section 102.7.1.
Ladders and recessed treads shall comply with the provisions of this section and the applicable provisions of Chapters 4 through 10 based on the type of aquatic vessel.
Where installed, steps and ladders shall be located outside of the minimum diving water envelope as indicated in Figure 322.2.

FIGURE 322.2
MINIMUM WATER DIVING ENVELOPE

Ladder treads shall have a uniform horizontal depth of not less than 2 inches (51 mm). There shall be a uniform distance between ladder treads, with a distance of not less than 7 inches (178 mm) and not greater than 12 inches (305 mm). The top tread of a ladder shall be located not greater than 12 inches (305 mm) below the top of the deck or coping. Ladder treads shall have slip-resistant surfaces.
There shall be a clearance of not less than 3 inches (76 mm) and not greater than 6 inches (152 mm) between the pool wall and the ladder.
Ladders shall be provided with two handholds or two handrails. The clear distance between ladder handrails shall be not less than 17 inches (432 mm) and not greater than 24 inches (610 mm).
Recessed treads shall have minimum depth of not less than 5 inches (127 mm) and a width of not less than 12 inches (305 mm). The vertical distance between the pool coping edge, deck, or step surface and the uppermost recessed tread shall be not greater than 12 inches (305 mm). Recessed treads shall have slip-resistant surfaces.
Recessed treads at the centerline shall have a uniform vertical spacing of not less than 7 inches (178 mm) and not greater than 12 inches (305 mm).
Recessed treads shall drain into the pool.
Recessed treads shall be provided with a handrail or grab rail on each side of the treads. The clear distance between handrails and grab rails shall be not less than 17 inches (432 mm) and not greater than 24 inches (610 mm).
Where the depth below the design waterline of an aquatic vessel exceeds 42 inches (1067 mm), handholds along the perimeter shall be provided. Handholds shall be located at the top of deck or coping.
Exceptions:
1. Handholds shall not be required where an underwater bench, seat or swimout is installed.
2. Handholds shall not be required for wave action pools and action rivers.
Handholds shall be located not more than 12 inches (305 mm) above the design waterline.
Handholds shall be one or more of the following:
1. Top of pool deck or coping.
2. Secured rope.
3. Rail.
4. Rock.
5. Ledge.
6. Ladder.
7. Stair step.
8. Any design that allows holding on with one hand while at the side of the pool.
Handholds shall be horizontally spaced not greater than 4 feet (1219 mm) apart.
Where handrails are installed, they shall conform to this section.
Handrails shall be between 34 inches (864 mm) and 38 inches (965 mm) above the ramp or step surface as measured at the nosing of the step or finished surface of the slope.
Handrails shall be made of corrosion-resistant materials.
Handrails shall be installed so that they cannot be removed without the use of tools.
The leading edge of handrails for stairs, pool entries and exits shall be located not greater than 18 inches (457 mm) from the vertical face of the bottom riser.
The outside diameter or width of handrails shall be not less than 11/4 inches (32 mm) and not greater than 2 inches (51 mm).
There shall not be obstructions that can cause the user to be entrapped or injured. Types of entrapment include, but are not limited to, wedge or pinch-type openings and rigid, nongiving cantilevered protrusions.
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