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About this chapter: Codes, by their very nature, are technical documents. Every word, term and punctuation mark can add to or change the meaning of a technical requirement. It is necessary to maintain a consensus on the specific meaning of each term contained in the code. Chapter 2 performs this function by stating clearly what specific terms mean for the purpose of the code.
Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have the meanings shown in this chapter.
Words stated in the present tense include the future; words stated in the masculine gender include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes the plural and the plural the singular.
Where terms are not defined in this code and are defined in the International Building Code, International Fire Code, International Fuel Gas Code or the International Mechanical Code, such terms shall have the meanings ascribed to them as in those codes.
Where terms are not defined through the methods authorized by this section, such terms shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context implies.
ACCEPTED ENGINEERING PRACTICE. That which conforms to accepted principles, tests or standards of nationally recognized technical or scientific authorities.
[M] ACCESS (TO). That which enables a fixture, appliance or equipment to be reached by ready access or by a means that first requires the removal or movement of a panel, door or similar obstruction (see "Ready access").
ACCESS COVER. A removable plate, usually secured by bolts or screws, to permit access to a pipe or pipe fitting for the purposes of inspection, repair or cleaning.
[BE] ACCESSIBLE. A site, building, facility or portion thereof that complies with Chapter 11 of the International Building Code.
ADAPTER FITTING. An approved connecting device that suitably and properly joins or adjusts pipes and fittings that do not otherwise fit together.
AIR ADMITTANCE VALVE. One-way valve designed to allow air to enter the plumbing drainage system when negative pressures develop in the piping system. The device shall close by gravity and seal the vent terminal at zero differential pressure (no-flow conditions) and under positive internal pressures. The purpose of an air admittance valve is to provide a method of allowing air to enter the plumbing drainage system without the use of a vent extended to open air and to prevent sewer gases from escaping into a building.
AIR BREAK (Drainage System). A piping arrangement in which a drain from a fixture, appliance or device discharges indirectly into another fixture, receptacle or interceptor at a point below the flood level rim and above the trap seal.
AIR GAP (Drainage System). The unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the outlet of the waste pipe and the flood level rim of the receptacle into which the waste pipe is discharging.
AIR GAP (Water Distribution System). The unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the lowest opening from any pipe or faucet supplying water to a tank, plumbing fixture or other device and the flood level rim of the receptacle.
ALTERNATE ON-SITE NONPOTABLE WATER. Nonpotable water from other than public utilities, on-site surface sources and subsurface natural freshwater sources. Examples of such water are graywater, on-site reclaimed water, collected rainwater, captured condensate and rejected water from reverse osmosis systems.
ALTERNATIVE ENGINEERED DESIGN. A plumbing system that performs in accordance with the intent of Chapters 3 through 14 and provides an equivalent level of performance for the protection of public health, safety and welfare. The system design is not specifically regulated by Chapters 3 through 14.
ANCHORS. See "Supports."
ANTISIPHON. A term applied to valves or mechanical devices that eliminate siphonage.
[A] APPROVED. Acceptable to the code official.
[A] APPROVED AGENCY. An established and recognized agency that is regularly engaged in conducting tests or furnishing inspection services, or furnishing product certification where such agency has been approved by the code official.
AREA DRAIN. A receptacle designed to collect surface or storm water from an open area.
BACKFLOW. Pressure created by any means in the water distribution system, which by being in excess of the pressure in the water supply mains causes a potential backflow condition.
Backpressure, low head. A pressure less than or equal to 4.33 psi (29.88 kPa) or the pressure exerted by a 10-foot (3048 mm) column of water.
Backsiphonage. The backflow of potentially contaminated water into the potable water system as a result of the pressure in the potable water system falling below atmospheric pressure of the plumbing fixtures, pools, tanks or vats connected to the potable water distribution piping.
Water supply system. The flow of water or other liquids, mixtures or substances into the distribution pipes of a potable water supply from any source except the intended source.
BACKFLOW CONNECTION. Any arrangement whereby backflow is possible.
BACKFLOW, DRAINAGE. A reversal of flow in the drainage system.
BACKFLOW PREVENTER. A backflow prevention assembly, a backflow prevention device or other means or method to prevent backflow into the potable water supply.
BACKWATER VALVE. A device or valve installed in the building drain or sewer pipe where a sewer is subject to backflow, and that prevents drainage or waste from backing up into a lower level or fixtures and causing a flooding condition.
[BS] BASE FLOOD ELEVATION. A reference point, determined in accordance with the building code, based on the depth or peak elevation of flooding, including wave height, which has a 1 percent (100-year flood) or greater chance of occurring in any given year.
BATHROOM GROUP. A group of fixtures consisting of a water closet, lavatory, bathtub or shower, including or excluding a bidet, an emergency floor drain or both. Such fixtures are located together on the same floor level.
BRANCH. Any part of the piping system except a riser, main or stack.
BRANCH INTERVAL. A vertical measurement of distance, 8 feet (2438 mm) or more in developed length, between the connections of horizontal branches to a drainage stack. Measurements are taken down the stack from the highest horizontal branch connection.
BRANCH VENT. A vent connecting one or more individual vents with a vent stack or stack vent.
[A] BUILDING. Any structure utilized or intended for supporting or sheltering any occupancy.
BUILDING DRAIN. That part of the lowest piping of a drainage system that receives the discharge from soil, waste and other drainage pipes inside and that extends 30 inches (762 mm) in developed length of pipe beyond the exterior walls of the building and conveys the drainage to the building sewer.
Combined. A building drain that conveys both sewage and storm water or other drainage.
Sanitary. A building drain that conveys sewage only.
Storm. A building drain that conveys storm water or other drainage, but not sewage.
BUILDING SEWER. That part of the drainage system that extends from the end of the building drain and conveys the discharge to a public sewer, private sewer, individual sewage disposal system or other point of disposal.
Combined. A building sewer that conveys both sewage and storm water or other drainage.
Sanitary. A building sewer that conveys sewage only.
Storm. A building sewer that conveys storm water or other drainage, but not sewage.
BUILDING SUBDRAIN. That portion of a drainage system that does not drain by gravity into the building sewer.
BUILDING TRAP. A device, fitting or assembly of fittings installed in the building drain to prevent circulation of air between the drainage system of the building and the building sewer.
CIRCUIT VENT. A vent that connects to a horizontal drainage branch and vents two traps to not more than eight traps or trapped fixtures connected into a battery.
CIRCULATING HOT WATER SYSTEM. A specifically designed water distribution system where one or more pumps are operated in the service hot water piping to circulate heated water from the water-heating equipment to fixture supply and back to the water-heating equipment.
CISTERN. A small covered tank for storing water for a home or farm. Generally, this tank stores rainwater to be utilized for purposes other than in the potable water supply, and such tank is placed underground in most cases.
CLEANOUT. An access opening in the drainage system utilized for the removal of obstructions. Types of cleanouts include a removable plug or cap, and a removable fixture or fixture trap.
[A] CODE. These regulations, subsequent amendments thereto or any emergency rule or regulation that the administrative authority having jurisdiction has lawfully adopted.
[A] CODE OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated authority charged with the administration and enforcement of this code, or a duly authorized representative.
COLLECTION PIPE. Unpressurized pipe used within the collection system that drains on-site nonpotable water or rainwater to a storage tank by gravity.
COMBINATION FIXTURE. A fixture combining one sink and laundry tray or a two- or three-compartment sink or laundry tray in one unit.
COMBINATION WASTE AND VENT SYSTEM. A specially designed system of waste piping embodying the horizontal wet venting of one or more sinks, lavatories, drinking fountains or floor drains by means of a common waste and vent pipe adequately sized to provide free movement of air above the flow line of the drain.
COMMON VENT. A vent connecting at the junction of two fixture drains or to a fixture branch and serving as a vent for both fixtures.
CONCEALED FOULING SURFACE. Any surface of a plumbing fixture that is not readily visible and is not scoured or cleansed with each fixture operation.
CONDUCTOR. A pipe inside the building that conveys storm water from the roof to a storm or combined building drain.
[A] CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENT. All of the written, graphic and pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing the design, location and physical characteristics of the elements of the project necessary for obtaining a building permit. The construction drawings shall be drawn to an appropriate scale.
CONTAMINATION. An impairment of the quality of the potable water that creates an actual hazard to the public health through poisoning or the spread of disease by sewage, industrial fluids or waste.
CRITICAL LEVEL (C-L). An elevation (height) reference point that determines the minimum height at which a backflow preventer or vacuum breaker is installed above the flood level rim of the fixture or receptor served by the device. The critical level is the elevation level below which there is a potential for backflow to occur. If the critical level marking is not indicated on the device, the bottom of the device shall constitute the critical level.
CROSS CONNECTION. Any physical connection or arrangement between two otherwise separate piping systems, one of which contains potable water and the other either water of unknown or questionable safety or steam, gas or chemical, whereby there exists the possibility for flow from one system to the other, with the direction of flow depending on the pressure differential between the two systems (see "Backflow").
DEMAND RECIRCULATION WATER SYSTEM. A water distribution system where one or more pumps prime the service hot water piping with heated water upon a demand for hot water.
DEPTH OF TRAP SEAL. The depth of liquid that would have to be removed from a full trap before air could pass through the trap.
[BS] DESIGN FLOOD ELEVATION. The elevation of the "design flood," including wave height, relative to the datum specified on the community's legally designated flood hazard map. In areas designated as Zone AO, the design flood elevation shall be the elevation of the highest existing grade of the building's perimeter plus the depth number (in feet) specified on the flood hazard map. In areas designated as Zone AO where a depth number is not specified on the map, the depth number shall be taken as being equal to 2 feet (610 mm).
DEVELOPED LENGTH. The length of a pipeline measured along the centerline of the pipe and fittings.
DISCHARGE PIPE. A pipe that conveys the discharge from plumbing fixtures or appliances.
DRAIN. Any pipe that carries waste water or waterborne wastes in a building drainage system.
DRAINAGE FITTING. The type of fitting or fittings utilized in the drainage system. Drainage fittings are similar to cast-iron fittings, except that instead of having a bell and spigot, drainage fittings are recessed and tapped to eliminate ridges on the inside of the installed pipe.
Drainage (dfu). A measure of the probable discharge into the drainage system by various types of plumbing fixtures. The drainage fixture-unit value for a particular fixture depends on its volume rate of drainage discharge, on the time duration of a single drainage operation and on the average time between successive operations.

DRAINAGE SYSTEM. Piping within a public or private premise that conveys sewage, rainwater or other liquid waste to a point of disposal. A drainage system does not include the mains of a public sewer system or a private or public sewage treatment or disposal plant.
Sanitary. A drainage system that carries sewage and excludes storm, surface and ground water.
Storm. A drainage system that carries rainwater, surface water, subsurface water and similar liquid waste.
DRINKING FOUNTAIN. A plumbing fixture that is connected to the potable water distribution system and the drainage system. The fixture allows the user to obtain a drink directly from a stream of flowing water without the use of any accessories.
EFFECTIVE OPENING. The minimum cross-sectional area at the point of water supply discharge, measured or expressed in terms of the diameter of a circle or, if the opening is not circular, the diameter of a circle of equivalent cross-sectional area. For faucets and similar fittings, the effective opening shall be measured at the smallest orifice in the fitting body or in the supply piping to the fitting.
EMERGENCY FLOOR DRAIN. A floor drain that does not receive the discharge of any drain or indirect waste pipe, and that protects against damage from accidental spills, fixture overflows and leakage.
ESSENTIALLY NONTOXIC TRANSFER FLUID. Fluids having a Gosselin rating of 1, including propylene glycol; mineral oil; polydimethylsiloxane; hydrochlorofluorocarbon, chlorofluorocarbon and carbon refrigerants; and FDA-approved boiler water additives for steam boilers.
ESSENTIALLY TOXIC TRANSFER FLUID. Soil, waste or gray water and fluids having a Gosselin rating of 2 or more, including ethylene glycol, hydrocarbon oils, ammonia refrigerants and hydrazine.
EXISTING INSTALLATION. Any plumbing system regulated by this code that was legally installed prior to the effective date of this code, or for which a permit to install has been issued.
FAUCET. A valve end of a water pipe through which water is drawn from or held within the pipe.
FILL VALVE. A water supply valve, opened or closed by means of a float or similar device, utilized to supply water to a tank. An antisiphon fill valve contains an antisiphon device in the form of an approved air gap or vacuum breaker that is an integral part of the fill valve unit and that is positioned on the discharge side of the water supply control valve.
FIXTURE. See "Plumbing fixture."
FIXTURE BRANCH. A drain serving two or more fixtures that discharges to another drain or to a stack.
FIXTURE DRAIN. The drain from the trap of a fixture to a junction with any other drain pipe.
FIXTURE SUPPLY. The water supply pipe connecting a fixture to a branch water supply pipe or directly to a main water supply pipe.
[BS] FLOOD HAZARD AREA. The greater of the following two areas:
  1. The area within a flood plain subject to a 1-percent or greater chance of flooding in any given year.
  2. The area designated as a flood hazard area on a community's flood hazard map or as otherwise legally designated.
FLOOD LEVEL RIM. The edge of the receptacle from which water overflows.
FLOW CONTROL (Vented). A device installed upstream from the interceptor having an orifice that controls the rate of flow through the interceptor and an air intake (vent) downstream from the orifice that allows air to be drawn into the flow stream.
FLOW PRESSURE. The pressure in the water supply pipe near the faucet or water outlet while the faucet or water outlet is wide open and flowing.
FLUSH TANK. A tank designed with a fill valve and flush valve to flush the contents of the bowl or usable portion of the fixture.
FLUSHOMETER TANK. A device integrated within an air accumulator vessel that is designed to discharge a predetermined quantity of water to fixtures for flushing purposes.
FLUSHOMETER VALVE. A valve attached to a pressurized water supply pipe and designed so that when activated, the valve opens the line for direct flow into the fixture at a rate and quantity to operate the fixture properly, and then gradually closes to reseal fixture traps and avoid water hammer.
FULL-OPEN VALVE. A water control or shutoff component in the water supply system piping that, where adjusted for maximum flow, the flow path through the component's closure member is not a restriction in the component's through-flow area.
GRAYWATER. Waste discharged from lavatories, bathtubs, showers, clothes washers and laundry trays.
Fats, oils and greases (FOG) disposal system. A plumbing appurtenance that reduces nonpetroleum fats, oils and greases in effluent by separation or mass and volume reduction.
Gravity. Plumbing appurtenances of not less than 500 gallons (1893 L) capacity that are installed in the sanitary drainage system to intercept free-floating fats, oils and grease from waste water discharge. Separation is accomplished by gravity during a retention time of not less than 30 minutes.
Hydromechanical. Plumbing appurtenances that are installed in the sanitary drainage system to intercept freefloating fats, oils and grease from waste water discharge. Continuous separation is accomplished by air entrainment, buoyancy and interior baffling.
GREASE-LADEN WASTE. Effluent discharge that is produced from food processing, food preparation or other sources where grease, fats and oils enter automatic dishwater prerinse stations, sinks or other appurtenances.
GREASE REMOVAL DEVICE, AUTOMATIC (GRD). A plumbing appurtenance that is installed in the sanitary drainage system to intercept free-floating fats, oils and grease from waste water discharge. Such a device operates on a time- or event-controlled basis and has the ability to remove free-floating fats, oils and grease automatically without intervention from the user except for maintenance.
GRIDDED WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. A water distribution system where every water distribution pipe is interconnected so as to provide two or more paths to each fixture supply pipe.
HANGERS. See "Supports."

Dual flush water closet. A dual flush water closet or toilet that the average flush volume of two reduced flushes and one full flush does not exceed 1.28 gallons and is listed to the WaterSense Tank-Type High Efficiency Toilet Specification.

Kitchen faucet or kitchen faucet replacement aerator. A kitchen faucet or kitchen faucet replacement aerator that allows a flow of no more than 2.0 gallons of water per minute.

Lavatory faucet or lavatory faucet replacement aerator. A lavatory faucet or lavatory faucet replacement aerator that allows a flow of no more than 1.5 gallons per minute at a pressure of 60 pounds per square inch and is listed to the WaterSense High Efficiency Lavatory Faucet Specification.

Nonwater urinal. A urinal that is designed to receive and convey only liquid waste through a trap seal into the gravity drainage system without the use of water for such function.

Single flush water closet. A single flush water closet or toilet, including gravity, pressure assisted and electro-hydraulic tank types, that the average flush volume does not exceed 1.28 gallons and is listed to the WaterSense Tank-Type High Efficiency Toilet Specification.

Shower head. A shower head that allows a flow of no more than the average of 2.5 gallons of water per minute at 60 pounds per square inch of pressure.

Urinal. A urinal and associated flush valve that uses no more than 0.5 gallons of water per flush and is listed to the WaterSense Specification for Flushing Urinals.
(Effective January 1, 2020)
HORIZONTAL BRANCH DRAIN. A drainage branch pipe extending laterally from a soil or waste stack or building drain, with or without vertical sections or branches, that receives the discharge from two or more fixture drains or branches and conducts the discharge to the soil or waste stack or to the building drain.
HORIZONTAL PIPE. Any pipe or fitting that makes an angle of less than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) with a horizontal plane.
HOT WATER. Water at a temperature greater than or equal to 110°F (43°C).
HOUSE TRAP. See "Building trap."
INDIRECT WASTE PIPE. A waste pipe that does not connect directly with the drainage system, but that discharges into the drainage system through an air break or air gap into a trap, fixture, receptor or interceptor.
INDIVIDUAL SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM. A system for disposal of domestic sewage by means of a septic tank, cesspool or mechanical treatment, designed for utilization apart from a public sewer to serve a single establishment or building.
INDIVIDUAL VENT. A pipe installed to vent a fixture trap and that connects with the vent system above the fixture served or terminates in the open air.
INDIVIDUAL WATER SUPPLY. A water supply that serves one or more families, and that is not an approved public water supply.
INTERCEPTOR. A device designed and installed to separate and retain for removal, by automatic or manual means, deleterious, hazardous or undesirable matter from normal wastes, while permitting normal sewage or wastes to discharge into the drainage system by gravity.
Expansion. A loop, return bend or return offset that provides for the expansion and contraction in a piping system and is utilized in tall buildings or where there is a rapid change of temperature, as in power plants, steam rooms and similar occupancies.
Flexible. Any joint between two pipes that permits one pipe to be deflected or moved without movement or deflection of the other pipe.
Mechanical. See "Mechanical joint."
Slip. A type of joint made by means of a washer or a special type of packing compound in which one pipe is slipped into the end of an adjacent pipe.

LAVATORY FAUCET. A faucet that discharges into a lavatory basin in a domestic or commercial installation.
(Effective January 1, 2020)
LEAD-FREE SOLDER AND FLUX. Containing not more than 0.2-percent lead.
LEADER. An exterior drainage pipe for conveying storm water from roof or gutter drains to an approved means of disposal.
MACERATING TOILET SYSTEM. An assembly consisting of a water closet and sump with a macerating pump that is designed to collect, grind and pump wastes from the water closet and up to two other fixtures connected to the sump.
MAIN. The principal pipe artery to which branches are connected.
MANIFOLD. See "Plumbing appurtenance."
[M] MECHANICAL JOINT. A connection between pipes, fittings, or pipes and fittings that is not screwed, caulked, threaded, soldered, solvent cemented, brazed, welded or heat fused. A joint in which compression is applied along the centerline of the pieces being joined. In some applications, the joint is part of a coupling, fitting or adapter.
MEDICAL GAS SYSTEM. The complete system to convey medical gases for direct patient application from central supply systems (bulk tanks, manifolds and medical air compressors), with pressure and operating controls, alarm warning systems, related components and piping networks extending to station outlet valves at patient use points.
MEDICAL VACUUM SYSTEM. A system consisting of central-vacuum-producing equipment with pressure and operating controls, shutoff valves, alarm-warning systems, gauges and a network of piping extending to and terminating with suitable station inlets at locations where patient suction may be required.
METER. A measuring device used to collect data and indicate water usage.
NONPOTABLE WATER. Water not safe for drinking, personal or culinary utilization.
NUISANCE. Public nuisance as known in common law or in equity jurisprudence; whatever is dangerous to human life or detrimental to health; whatever structure or premises is not sufficiently ventilated, sewered, drained, cleaned or lighted, with respect to its intended occupancy; and whatever renders the air, or human food, drink or water supply unwholesome.
[A] OCCUPANCY. The purpose for which a building or portion thereof is utilized or occupied.
OFFSET. A combination of approved bends that makes two changes in direction bringing one section of the pipe out of line but into a line parallel with the other section.
ON-SITE NONPOTABLE WATER REUSE SYSTEM. A water system for the collection, treatment, storage, distribution and reuse of nonpotable water generated on site, including but not limited to a gray water system. This definition does not include a rainwater harvesting system.
OPEN AIR. Outside the structure.
PLUMBING. The practice, materials and fixtures utilized in the installation, maintenance, extension and alteration of all piping, fixtures, plumbing appliances and plumbing appurtenances, within or adjacent to any structure, in connection with sanitary drainage or storm drainage facilities; venting systems; and public or private water supply systems.
PLUMBING APPLIANCE. Water or drain-connected devices intended to perform a special function. These devices have their operation or control dependent on one or more energized components, such as motors, controls or heating elements. Such devices are manually adjusted or controlled by the owner or operator, or are operated automatically through one or more of the following actions: a time cycle, a temperature range, a pressure range, a measured volume or weight.
PLUMBING APPURTENANCE. A manufactured device, prefabricated assembly or on-the-job assembly of component parts that is an adjunct to the basic piping system and plumbing fixtures. An appurtenance does not demand additional water supply and does not add any discharge load to a fixture or to the drainage system.
PLUMBING FIXTURE. A receptacle or device that receives water, waste or both and discharges water, waste, or both into a drainage system, and that is either permanently or temporarily connected to the water distribution system of the premises and demands a supply of water therefrom; discharges wastewater, liquid-borne waste materials or sewage either directly or indirectly to the drainage system of the premises; or requires both a water supply connection and a discharge to the drainage system of the premises. The term includes a kitchen sink, utility sink, lavatory, bidet, bathtub, shower, urinal, toilet, water closet or drinking water fountain.
(Effective January 1, 2020)
PLUMBING FIXTURE FITTING. A device that controls and directs the flow of water or conveys sanitary waste. The term includes a sink faucet, lavatory faucet, showerhead, or bath filler.
Supply fitting. A fitting that controls the volume, direction of flow or both of water and is either attached to or accessed from a fixture or is used with an open or atmospheric discharge.
Waste fitting. A combination of components that conveys the sanitary waste from the outlet of a fixture to the connection to the sanitary drainage system.
(Effective January 1, 2020)
PLUMBING SYSTEM. A system that includes the water distribution pipes; plumbing fixtures and traps; water-treating or water-using equipment; soil, waste and vent pipes; and building drains; in addition to their respective connections, devices and appurtenances within a structure or premises; and the water service, building sewer and building storm sewer serving such structure or premises.
POLLUTION. An impairment of the quality of the potable water to a degree that does not create a hazard to public health but that does adversely and unreasonably affect the aesthetic qualities of such potable water for domestic use.
POTABLE WATER. Water free from impurities present in amounts sufficient to cause disease or harmful physiological effects and conforming to the bacteriological and chemical quality requirements of the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards or the regulations of the public health authority having jurisdiction.
[M] PRESS-CONNECT JOINT. A permanent mechanical joint incorporating an elastomeric seal or an elastomeric seal and corrosion-resistant grip ring. The joint is made with a pressing tool and jaw or ring approved by the fitting manufacturer.
PRESSURIZED FLUSHING DEVICE. A device that contains a valve that:
  1. Is attached to a pressurized water supply pipe that is of sufficient size to deliver water at the necessary rate of flow to ensure flushing when the valve is open; and
  2. Opens on actuation to allow water to flow into the fixture at a rate and in a quantity necessary for the operation of the fixture and gradually closes to avoid water hammer.
(Effective January 1, 2020)
PRIVATE. In the classification of plumbing fixtures, "private" applies to fixtures in residences and apartments, and to fixtures in nonpublic toilet rooms of hotels and motels and similar installations in buildings where the plumbing fixtures are intended for utilization by a family or an individual.
PUBLIC OR PUBLIC UTILIZATION. In the classification of plumbing fixtures, "public" applies to fixtures in general toilet rooms of schools, gymnasiums, hotels, airports, bus and railroad stations, public buildings, bars, public comfort stations, office buildings, stadiums, stores, restaurants and other installations where a number of fixtures are installed so that their utilization is similarly unrestricted.
PUBLIC SWIMMING POOL. A pool, other than a residential pool, that is intended to be used for swimming or bathing and is operated by an owner, lessee, operator, licensee or concessionaire, regardless of whether a fee is charged for use.
PUBLIC WATER MAIN. A water supply pipe for public utilization controlled by public authority.
QUICK-CLOSING VALVE. A valve or faucet that closes automatically when released manually or that is controlled by a mechanical means for fast-action closing.
RAINWATER. Water from natural precipitation.
[M] READY ACCESS. That which enables a fixture, appliance or equipment to be directly reached without requiring the removal or movement of any panel, door or similar obstruction and without the use of a portable ladder, step stool or similar device.
RECLAIMED WATER. Nonpotable water that has been derived from the treatment of waste water by a facility or system licensed or permitted to produce water meeting the jurisdiction's water requirements for its intended uses. Also known as "recycled water."
REDUCED PRESSURE PRINCIPLE BACKFLOW PREVENTION ASSEMBLY. A backflow prevention device consisting of two independently acting check valves, internally force-loaded to a normally closed position and separated by an intermediate chamber (or zone) in which there is an automatic relief means of venting to the atmosphere, internally loaded to a normally open position between two tightly closing shutoff valves and with a means for testing for tightness of the checks and opening of the relief means.
[A] REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An individual who is registered or licensed to practice their respective design profession, as defined by the statutory requirements of the professional registration laws of the state or jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed.
Pressure relief valve. A pressure-actuated valve held closed by a spring or other means and designed to relieve pressure automatically at the pressure at which such valve is set.
Temperature and pressure relief (T&P) valve. A combination relief valve designed to function as both a temperature relief and a pressure relief valve.
Temperature relief valve. A temperature-actuated valve designed to discharge automatically at the temperature at which such valve is set.
RELIEF VENT. A vent whose primary function is to provide circulation of air between drainage and vent systems.
RIM. An unobstructed open edge of a fixture.
ROOF DRAIN. A drain installed to receive water collecting on the surface of a roof and to discharge such water into a leader or a conductor.
ROUGH-IN. Parts of the plumbing system that are installed prior to the installation of fixtures. This includes drainage, water supply, vent piping and the necessary fixture supports and any fixtures that are built into the structure.
SELF-CLOSING FAUCET. A faucet containing a valve that automatically closes upon deactivation of the opening means.
SEPARATOR. See "Interceptor."
SEWAGE. Any liquid waste containing animal or vegetable matter in suspension or solution, including liquids containing chemicals in solution.
SEWAGE EJECTOR. A device for lifting sewage by entraining the sewage in a high-velocity jet of steam, air or water.
Building sewer. See "Building sewer."
Public sewer. That part of the drainage system of pipes installed or maintained by a city, township, county, public utility company or other public entity, on public property, in the street or in an approved dedicated easement of public or community use.
(Effective January 1, 2020) 
Sanitary sewer. A sewer that carries sewage and excludes storm, surface and ground water.
Storm sewer. A sewer that conveys rainwater, surface water, subsurface water and similar liquid wastes.
SLOPE. The fall (pitch) of a line of pipe in reference to a horizontal plane. In drainage, the slope is expressed as the fall in units vertical per units horizontal (percent) for a length of pipe.
SOIL PIPE. A pipe that conveys sewage containing fecal matter to the building drain or building sewer.
SPILLPROOF VACUUM BREAKER. An assembly consisting of one check valve force-loaded closed and an air-inlet vent valve force-loaded open to atmosphere, positioned downstream of the check valve, and located between and including two tightly closing shutoff valves and a test cock.
STACK. A general term for any vertical line of soil, waste, vent or inside conductor piping that extends through not fewer than one story with or without offsets.
STACK VENT. The extension of a soil or waste stack above the highest horizontal drain connected to the stack.
STORM WATER. Natural precipitation, including snow-melt, that has contacted a surface at or below grade.
STACK VENTING. A method of venting a fixture or fixtures through the soil or waste stack.
[A] STRUCTURE. That which is built or constructed.
SUBSOIL DRAIN. A drain that collects subsurface water or seepage water and conveys such water to a place of disposal.
SUMP. A tank or pit that receives sewage or liquid waste, located below the normal grade of the gravity system and that must be emptied by mechanical means.
SUMP PUMP. An automatic water pump powered by an electric motor for the removal of drainage, except raw sewage, from a sump, pit or low point.
SUMP VENT. A vent from pneumatic sewage ejectors, or similar equipment, that terminates separately to the open air.
SUPPORTS. Devices for supporting and securing pipe, fixtures and equipment.
SWIMMING POOL. A permanent or temporary structure that is intended to be used for swimming, bathing or wading and that is designed and manufactured or built to be connected to a circulation system. A swimming pool can be open to the public regardless of whether a fee is charged for its use or can be accessory to a residential setting where the pool is available only to the household and guests of the household.
TEMPERED WATER. Water having a temperature range between 85°F (29°C) and 110°F (43°C).
THIRD-PARTY CERTIFICATION AGENCY. An approved agency operating a product or material certification system that incorporates initial product testing, assessment and surveillance of a manufacturer's quality control system.
THIRD-PARTY CERTIFIED. Certification obtained by the manufacturer indicating that the function and performance characteristics of a product or material have been determined by testing and ongoing surveillance by an approved third-party certification agency. Assertion of certification is in the form of identification in accordance with the requirements of the third-party certification agency.
TOILET. A water closet.
(Effective January 1, 2020)
TOILET FACILITY. A room or space that contains not less than one water closet and one lavatory.
TRAP. A fitting or device that provides a liquid seal to prevent the emission of sewer gases without materially affecting the flow of sewage or waste water through the trap.
TRAP SEAL. The vertical distance between the weir and the top of the dip of the trap.
UNSTABLE GROUND. Earth that does not provide a uniform bearing for the barrel of the sewer pipe between the joints at the bottom of the pipe trench.
VACUUM. Any pressure less than that exerted by the atmosphere.
VACUUM BREAKER. A type of backflow preventer installed on openings subject to normal atmospheric pressure that prevents backflow by admitting atmospheric pressure through ports to the discharge side of the device.
VENT PIPE. See "Vent system."
VENT STACK. A vertical vent pipe installed primarily for the purpose of providing circulation of air to and from any part of the drainage system.
VENT SYSTEM. A pipe or pipes installed to provide a flow of air to or from a drainage system, or to provide a circulation of air within such system to protect trap seals from siphonage and backpressure.
VERTICAL PIPE. Any pipe or fitting that makes an angle of 45 degrees (0.79 rad) or more with the horizontal.
WALL-HUNG WATER CLOSET. A wall-mounted water closet installed in such a way that the fixture does not touch the floor.
WASTE. The discharge from any fixture, appliance, area or appurtenance that does not contain fecal matter.
WASTE PIPE. A pipe that conveys only waste.
WASTE RECEPTOR. A floor sink, standpipe, hub drain or floor drain that receives the discharge of one or more indirect waste pipes.
WATER COOLER. A drinking fountain that incorporates a means of reducing the temperature of the water supplied to it from the potable water distribution system.
WATER CLOSET. A fixture with a water-containing receptor that receives liquid and solid body waste and on actuation conveys the waste through an exposed integral trap into a drainage system and which is also referred to as a toilet.
(Effective January 1, 2020)
WATER DISPENSER. A plumbing fixture that is manually controlled by the user for the purpose of dispensing potable drinking water into a receptacle such as a cup, glass or bottle. Such fixture is connected to the potable water distribution system of the premises. This definition includes a freestanding apparatus for the same purpose that is not connected to the potable water distribution system and that is supplied with potable water from a container, bottle or reservoir.
WATER-HAMMER ARRESTOR. A device utilized to absorb the pressure surge (water hammer) that occurs when water flow is suddenly stopped in a water supply system.
[M] WATER HEATER. Any heating appliance or equipment that heats potable water and supplies such water to the potable hot water distribution system.
WATER MAIN. A water supply pipe or system of pipes, installed and maintained by a city, township, county, public utility company or other public entity, on public property, in the street or in an approved dedicated easement of public or community use.
WATER OUTLET. A discharge opening through which water is supplied to a fixture, into the atmosphere (except into an open tank that is part of the water supply system), to a boiler or heating system, or to any devices or equipment that require water to operate but are not part of the plumbing system.
Riser. A water supply pipe that extends one full story or more to convey water to branches or to a group of fixtures.
Water distribution pipe. A pipe within the structure or on the premises that conveys water from the water service pipe, or from the meter when the meter is at the structure, to the points of utilization.
Water service pipe. The pipe from the water main or other source of potable water supply, or from the meter when the meter is at the public right of way, to the water distribution system of the building served.
WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM. The water service pipe, water distribution pipes, and the necessary connecting pipes, fittings, control valves and all appurtenances in or adjacent to the structure or premises.
WATERSENSE. A voluntary program of the United States Environmental Protection Agency designed to identify and promote water efficient products and practices.
(Effective January 1, 2020)

WATERSENSE LISTED PLUMBING FIXTURE OR PLUMBING FIXTURE FITTING. A plumbing fixture or plumbing fixture fitting that has been tested by an accredited third-party certifying body or laboratory in accordance with the WaterSense Program of the United States Environmental Protection Agency and has been listed (certified) by such body or laboratory as meeting the performance and efficiency requirements of the program and has been authorized by the program to use its label.
(Effective January 1, 2020)

Bored. A well constructed by boring a hole in the ground with an auger and installing a casing.
Drilled. A well constructed by making a hole in the ground with a drilling machine of any type and installing a casing and screen.
Driven. A well constructed by driving a pipe in the ground. The drive pipe is usually fitted with a well point and screen.
Dug. A well constructed by excavating a large-diameter shaft and installing a casing.
WHIRLPOOL BATHTUB. A plumbing appliance consisting of a bathtub fixture that is equipped and fitted with a circulating piping system designed to accept, circulate and discharge bathtub water upon each use.
YOKE VENT. A pipe connecting upward from a soil or waste stack to a vent stack for the purpose of preventing pressure changes in the stacks.
Upcodes Diagrams