ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Fire Code 2018 (IFC 2018)

Part I — Administrative

Part II — General Safety Provisions

Part III — Building and Equipment Design Features

Part IV — Special Occupancies and Operations

Part V — Hazardous Materials

Part VI — Referenced Standards

Part VII — Appendices

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.

User note:

About this chapter: Chapter 9 prescribes the minimum requirements for active fire protection equipment systems to perform the functions of detecting a fire, alerting the occupants or fire department of a fire emergency, mass notification, gas detection, controlling smoke and controlling or extinguishing the fire. Generally, the requirements are based on the occupancy, the height and the area of the building, because these are the factors that most affect fire-fighting capabilities and the relative hazard of a specific building or portion thereof. This chapter parallels and is substantially duplicated in Chapter 9 of the International Building Code®however, this chapter also contains periodic testing criteria that are not contained in the International Building Code In addition, the special fire protection systemrequirements based on use and occupancy found in Chapter 4 of the International Building Code are duplicated in this chapter as a user convenience.

The provisions of this chapter shall specify where fire protection and life safety systems are required and shall apply to the design, installation, inspection, operation, testing and maintenance of all fire protection systems.
The fire code official shall have the authority to require construction documents and calculations for all fire protection systems and to require permits be issued for the installation, rehabilitation or modification of any fire protection system. Construction documents for fire protection systems shall be submitted for review and approval prior to system installation.
Before requesting final approval of the installation, where required by the fire code official, the installing contractor shall furnish a written statement to the fire code official that the subject fire protection system has been installed in accordance with approved plans and has been tested in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications and the appropriate installation standard. Any deviations from the design standards shall be noted and copies of the approvals for such deviations shall be attached to the written statement.

901.3 Permits

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This section has been amended at the state or city level.

901.3 Approvals and Permits

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Fire protection systems shall be approved as set forth by the authority having jurisdiction. Local authorities having jurisdiction may require permits as required and set forth in 105.6 and 105.7 of this Code.
Fire protection systems shall be maintained in accordance with the original installation standards for that system. Required systems shall be extended, altered or augmented as necessary to maintain and continue protection where the building is altered, remodeled or added to. Alterations to fire protection systems shall be done in accordance with applicable standards.

901.4.1 Required Fire Protection Systems

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901.4.1 Required Fire Protection Systems

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Fire suppression systems required by this Code, the International Building Code, the Life Safety Code, or other codes and standards adopted by the Rules and Regulations of the Georgia Safety Fire Commissioner, shall be installed, operated, tested, repaired and maintained in accordance with this Code and applicable standards adopted by the Rules and Regulations of the Georgia Safety Fire Commissioner.

901.4.2 Nonrequired Fire Protection Systems

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901.4.2

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Provisions in excess of the minimum code requirements shall, as a minimum, be installed to meet the provisions of the currently adopted code(s) and/or standard(s) which may be applicable to the provision at the time of its installation. Any non-required fire protection system which is added onto, interconnected with, any required fire protection system (of a similar type), shall be designed, installed, and maintained in accordance with the provisions of the currently adopted code(s) and/or standard(s) which may be applicable to the provision at the time of its installation.

901.4.2.1

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The provisions of 901.4.2 shall not apply to other installations not conforming with the provisions of the currently adopted code(s) and/or standard(s) applicable to the provision at the time of its installation if such installations are reported and filed with the local responding fire department and the authority having jurisdiction. In addition such systems shall be identified as required by the authority having jurisdiction.

901.4.2.2

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The provisions of 901.4.2 shall not apply for non-required systems designed, reviewed, installed and approved in accordance with local codes and/or ordinances.

901.4.3 Fire Areas

ILLUSTRATION
Where buildings, or portions thereof, are divided into fire areas so as not to exceed the limits established for requiring a fire protection system in accordance with this chapter, such fire areas shall be separated by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the International Building Code or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711 of the International Building Code, or both, having a fire-resistance rating of not less than that determined in accordance with Section 707.3.10 of the International Building Code.
In occupancies of a hazardous nature, where special hazards exist in addition to the normal hazards of the occupancy, or where the fire code official determines that access for fire apparatus is unduly difficult, the fire code official shall have the authority to require additional safeguards. Such safeguards include, but shall not be limited to, the following: automatic fire detection systems, fire alarm systems, automatic fire-extinguishing systems, standpipe systems, or portable or fixed extinguishers. Fire protection equipment required under this section shall be installed in accordance with this code and the applicable referenced standards.
Any device that has the physical appearance of life safety or fire protection equipment but that does not perform that life safety or fire protection function shall be prohibited.
Where provided, fire pump rooms and automatic sprinkler system riser rooms shall be designed with adequate space for all equipment necessary for the installation, as defined by the manufacturer, with sufficient working space around the stationary equipment. Clearances around equipment to elements of permanent construction, including other installed equipment and appliances, shall be sufficient to allow inspection, service, repair or replacement without removing such elements of permanent construction or disabling the function of a required fire-resistance-rated assembly. Fire pump and automatic sprinkler system riser rooms shall be provided with doors and unobstructed passageways large enough to allow removal of the largest piece of equipment.
Automatic sprinkler system risers, fire pumps and controllers shall be provided with ready access. Where located in a fire pump room or automatic sprinkler system riser room, the door shall be permitted to be locked provided that the key is available at all times.
Access doors for automatic sprinkler system riser rooms and fire pump rooms shall be labeled with an approved sign. The lettering shall be in contrasting color to the background. Letters shall have a minimum height of 2 inches (51 mm) with a minimum stroke of 3/8 inch (10 mm).
Automatic sprinkler system riser rooms and fire pump rooms shall be maintained at a temperature of not less than 40°F (4°C). Heating units shall be permanently installed.
Permanently installed artificial illumination shall be provided in the automatic sprinkler system riser rooms and fire pump rooms.
Fire detection and alarm systems, emergency alarm systems, gas detection systems, fire-extinguishing systems, fire hydrant systems, fire standpipe systems, fire pump systems, private fire service mains and all other fire protection systems and appurtenances thereto shall be subject to acceptance tests as contained in the installation standards and as approved by the fire code official. The fire code official shall be notified before any required acceptance testing.
It shall be unlawful to occupy any portion of a building or structure until the required fire detection, alarm and suppression systems have been tested and approved.
Fire detection and alarm systems, emergency alarm systems, gas detection systems, fire-extinguishing systems, mechanical smoke exhaust systems and smoke and heat vents shall be maintained in an operative condition at all times, and shall be replaced or repaired where defective. Nonrequired fire protection systems and equipment shall be inspected, tested and maintained or removed.

Fire protection systems shall be inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the referenced standards listed in Table 901.6.1.

TABLE 901.6.1

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM MAINTENANCE STANDARDS

SYSTEMSTANDARD
Portable fire extinguishersNFPA 10
Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing systemNFPA 12
Halon 1301 fire-extinguishing systemsNFPA 12A
Dry-chemical extinguishing systemsNFPA 17
Wet-chemical extinguishing systemsNFPA 17A
Water-based fire protection systemsNFPA 25
Fire alarm systemsNFPA 72
Smoke and heat ventsNFPA 204
Water-mist systemsNFPA 750
Clean-agent extinguishing systemsNFPA 2001
Aerosol fire-extinguishing systemsNFPA 2010
Where two or more fire protection or life safety systems are interconnected, the intended response of subordinate fire protection and life safety systems shall be verified when required testing of the initiating system is conducted. In addition, integrated testing shall be performed in accordance with Sections 901.6.2.1 and 901.6.2.2.
For high-rise buildings, integrated testing shall comply with NFPA 4, with an integrated test performed prior to issuance of the certificate of occupancy and at intervals not exceeding 10 years, unless otherwise specified by an integrated system test plan prepared in accordance with NFPA 4. If an equipment failure is detected during integrated testing, a repeat of the integrated test shall not be required, except as necessary to verify operation of fire protection or life safety functions that are initiated by equipment that was repaired or replaced.
Where a fire alarm system is integrated with a smoke control system as outlined in Section 909, integrated testing shall comply with NFPA 4, with an integrated test performed prior to issuance of the certificate of occupancy and at intervals not exceeding 10 years, unless otherwise specified by an integrated system test plan prepared in accordance with NFPA 4. If an equipment failure is detected during integrated testing, a repeat of the integrated test shall not be required, except as necessary to verify operation of fire protection or life safety functions that are initiated by equipment that was repaired or replaced.
Records of all system inspections, tests and maintenance required by the referenced standards shall be maintained.
Initial records shall include the name of the installation contractor, type of components installed, manufacturer of the components, location and number of components installed per floor. Records shall include the manufacturers' operation and maintenance instruction manuals. Such records shall be maintained for the life of the installation.

Where a required fire protection system is out of service, the fire department and the fire code official shall be notified immediately and, where required by the fire code official, the building shall be either evacuated or an approved fire watch shall be provided for all occupants left unprotected by the shutdown until the fire protection system has been returned to service.

Where utilized, fire watches shall be provided with not less than one approved means for notification of the fire department and their only duty shall be to perform constant patrols of the protected premises and keep watch for fires.

The building owner shall assign an impairment coordinator to comply with the requirements of this section. In the absence of a specific designee, the owner shall be considered to be the impairment coordinator.
A tag shall be used to indicate that a system, or portion thereof, has been removed from service.
The tag shall be posted at each fire department connection, system control valve, fire alarm control unit, fire alarm annunciator and fire command center, indicating which system, or part thereof, has been removed from service. The fire code official shall specify where the tag is to be placed.

Preplanned impairments shall be authorized by the impairment coordinator. Before authorization is given, a designated individual shall be responsible for verifying that all of the following procedures have been implemented:

  1. The extent and expected duration of the impairment have been determined.
  2. The areas or buildings involved have been inspected and the increased risks determined.
  3. Recommendations have been submitted to management or the building owner/manager.
  4. The fire department has been notified.
  5. The insurance carrier, the alarm company, the building owner/manager and other authorities having jurisdiction have been notified.
  6. The supervisors in the areas to be affected have been notified.
  7. A tag impairment system has been implemented.
  8. Necessary tools and materials have been assembled on the impairment site.
Where unplanned impairments occur, appropriate emergency action shall be taken to minimize potential injury and damage. The impairment coordinator shall implement the steps outlined in Section 901.7.4.

Where impaired equipment is restored to normal working order, the impairment coordinator shall verify that all of the following procedures have been implemented:

  1. Necessary inspections and tests have been conducted to verify that affected systems are operational.
  2. Supervisors have been advised that protection is restored.
  3. The fire department has been advised that protection is restored.
  4. The building owner/manager, insurance carrier, alarm company and other involved parties have been advised that protection is restored.
  5. The impairment tag has been removed.
It shall be unlawful for any person to remove, tamper with or otherwise disturb any fire hydrant, fire detection and alarm system, fire suppression system or other fire appliance required by this code except for the purposes of extinguishing fire, training, recharging or making necessary repairs or where approved by the fire code official.
Locks, gates, doors, barricades, chains, enclosures, signs, tags or seals that have been installed by or at the direction of the fire code official shall not be removed, unlocked, destroyed, tampered with or otherwise vandalized in any manner.

The fire code official is authorized to permit the removal of existing occupant-use hose lines where both of the following conditions exist:

  1. The hose line would not be utilized by trained personnel or the fire department.
  2. The remaining outlets are compatible with local fire department fittings.
For fire alarm systems required to be monitored by this code, notice shall be made to the fire code official whenever alarm monitoring services are terminated. Notice shall be made in writing by the provider of the monitoring service being terminated.

Any fire protection system component regulated by this code that is the subject of a voluntary or mandatory recall under federal law shall be replaced with approved, listed components in compliance with the referenced standards of this code. The fire code official shall be notified in writing by the building owner when the recalled component parts have been replaced.

The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE.

ALARM SIGNAL.

ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE.

ANNUNCIATOR.

AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE.

AUTOMATIC.

AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.

AUTOMATIC SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEM.

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM.

AUTOMATIC WATER MIST SYSTEM.

AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL.

CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.

CLEAN AGENT.

COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE.

CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION.

DELUGE SYSTEM.

DETECTOR, HEAT.

DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT.

ELEVATOR GROUP.

EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM.

EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICATIONS.

FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL.

FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT.

FIRE ALARM SIGNAL.

FIRE ALARM SYSTEM.

FIRE AREA.

FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM.

FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS.

FIXED BASE OPERATOR (FBO).

FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.

GAS DETECTION SYSTEM.

HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.

IMPAIRMENT COORDINATOR.

INITIATING DEVICE.

MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX.

MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE.

MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM.

NOTIFICATION ZONE.

NUISANCE ALARM.

PRIVATE GARAGE.

RECORD DRAWINGS.

SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM.

SLEEPING UNIT.

SMOKE ALARM.

SMOKE DETECTOR.

STANDPIPE, TYPES OF.

STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF.

Class I system.

Class II system.

Class III system.

SUPERVISING STATION.

SUPERVISORY SERVICE.

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL.

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE.

TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF.

TRANSIENT AIRCRAFT.

TROUBLE SIGNAL.

VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE.

WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT.

WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM.

ZONE.

ZONE, NOTIFICATION.

Automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with this section.
Alternative automatic fire-extinguishing systems complying with Section 904 shall be permitted instead of automatic sprinkler protection where recognized by the applicable standard and approved by the fire code official.

903.2 Where Required

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903.2.1 Group A

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903.2.1.1 Group A-1

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903.2.1.2 Group A-2

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903.2.1.3 Group A-3

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903.2.1.4 Group A-4

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903.2.1.5 Group A-5

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903.2.1.5.1 Spaces Under Grandstands or Bleachers

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903.2.1.6 Assembly Occupancies on Roofs

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903.2.1.7 Multiple Fire Areas

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903.2.2 Ambulatory Care Facilities

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903.2.3 Group E

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903.2.4 Group F-1

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903.2.4.1 Woodworking Operations

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903.2.5 Group H

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903.2.5.1 General

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903.2.5.2 Group H-5 Occupancies

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903.2.5.3 Pyroxylin Plastics

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903.2.6 Group I

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903.2.7 Group M

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903.2.7.1 High-Piled Storage

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903.2.8 Group R

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903.2.8.1 Group R-3

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903.2.8.2 Group R-4, Condition 1

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903.2.8.3 Group R-4, Condition 2

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903.2.8.4 Care Facilities

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903.2.9 Group S-1

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903.2.9.1 Repair Garages

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903.2.9.2 Bulk Storage of Tires

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903.2.10 Group S-2 Enclosed Parking Garages

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903.2.10.1 Commercial Parking Garages

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903.2.11 Specific Buildings Areas and Hazards

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903.2.11.1 Stories Without Openings

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903.2.11.1.1 Opening Dimensions and Access

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903.2.11.1.2 Openings on One Side Only

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903.2.11.1.3 Basements

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903.2.11.2 Rubbish and Linen Chutes

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903.2.11.3 Buildings 55 Feet or More in Height

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903.2.11.4 Ducts Conveying Hazardous Exhausts

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903.2.11.5 Commercial Cooking Operations

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903.2.11.6 Other Required Suppression Systems

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903.2.12 During Construction

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903.2 Where Required

AMENDMENT
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  1. Approved automatic sprinkler systems for proposed (new) buildings and structures approved for construction as set forth in 103.3.1 of this Code, or where specifically required for existing buildings and structures, shall as the minimum level of protection, be that required by the applicable provisions of NFPA 101, Life Safety Code and applicable provisions of other codes and standards adopted by Chapter 120-3-3 of the Rules and Regulations of the Georgia Safety Fire Commissioner, and this Code section; provided, however, the International Building Code (IBC) shall govern the requirements for sprinkler protection that are related to minimum building construction types, or to increases in building area and height limitations imposed by the IBC. (Refer to Table 102.13, CODES REFERENCE GUIDE)
  2. Where a new automatic sprinkler system is required by this Code or other code, standard, rule or regulation, the system shall be designed and installed in accordance with the requirements applicable to systems in proposed (new) buildings and structures.
  3. In addition, an automatic sprinkler system may be required for new or existing buildings, structures, spaces, or conditions by other NFPA standards adopted by this Chapter 120-3-3, or other Rules and Regulations of the Safety Fire Commissioner.
  4. The requirements for the installation, design, and testing of automatic sprinkler systems shall be as applicable, NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, NFPA 13R, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in Residential Occupancies up to and Including Four Stories in Height; and NFPA 13D, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in One- and Two-Family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes, or as adopted and modified by this Chapter 120-3-3.

903.2.1

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The sprinkler protection provision of 903.2 shall not be mandatory for spaces or areas in telecommunications buildings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, associated electrical power distribution equipment, batteries and standby engines, provided those spaces or areas are equipped throughout with a supervised automatic fire alarm system, and are separated from the remainder of the building by fire barriers consisting of walls and floor/ceiling assemblies having a fire resistance rating of not less than 2-hours.

NOTE: NFPA 76, Fire Protection of Telecommunications Facilities, should be consulted. Refer to the edition adopted by this Chapter 120-3-3.
Automatic sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sections 903.3.1 through 903.3.8.
Sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, unless otherwise permitted by Sections 903.3.1.2 and 903.3.1.3 and other chapters of this code, as applicable.
Where the provisions of this code require that a building or portion thereof be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with this section, sprinklers shall be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13 except as provided in Sections 903.3.1.1.1 and 903.3.1.1.2.

Automatic sprinklers shall not be required in the following rooms or areas where such rooms or areas are protected with an approved automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 that will respond to visible or invisible particles of combustion. Sprinklers shall not be omitted from a room merely because it is damp, of fire-resistance-rated construction or contains electrical equipment.

  1. A room where the application of water, or flame and water, constitutes a serious life or fire hazard.
  2. A room or space where sprinklers are considered undesirable because of the nature of the contents, where approved by the fire code official.
  3. Generator and transformer rooms separated from the remainder of the building by walls and floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assemblies having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours.
  4. Rooms or areas that are of noncombustible construction with wholly noncombustible contents.
  5. Fire service access elevator machine rooms and machinery spaces.
  6. Machine rooms, machinery spaces, control rooms and control spaces associated with occupant evacuation elevators designed in accordance with Section 3008 of the International Building Code.
In Group R occupancies, sprinklers shall not be required in bathrooms that do not exceed 55 square feet (5 m2) in area and are located within individual dwelling units or sleeping units, provided that walls and ceilings, including the walls and ceilings behind a shower enclosure or tub, are of noncombustible or limited-combustible materials with a 15-minute thermal barrier rating.

Automatic sprinkler systems in Group R occupancies up to and including four stories in height in buildings not exceeding 60 feet (18 288 mm) in height above grade plane shall be permitted to be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13R.

The number of stories of Group R occupancies constructed in accordance with Sections 510.2 and 510.4 of the International Building Code shall be measured from the horizontal assembly creating separate buildings.

Sprinkler protection shall be provided for exterior balconies, decks and ground floor patios of dwelling units and sleeping units where either of the following conditions exists:

  1. The building is of Type V construction, provided that there is a roof or deck above.
  2. Exterior balconies, decks and ground floor patios of dwelling units and sleeping units are constructed in accordance with Section 705.2.3.1, Exception 3 of the International Building Code.

Sidewall sprinklers that are used to protect such areas shall be permitted to be located such that their deflectors are within 1 inch (25 mm) to 6 inches (152 mm) below the structural members and a maximum distance of 14 inches (356 mm) below the deck of the exterior balconies and decks that are constructed of open wood joist construction.

Sprinkler protection shall be provided in open-ended corridors and associated exterior stairways and ramps as specified in Section 1027.6, Exception 3.

Attic protection shall be provided as follows:

  1. Attics that are used or intended for living purposes or storage shall be protected by an automatic sprinkler system.
  2. Where fuel-fired equipment is installed in an unsprinklered attic, not fewer than one quick-response intermediate temperature sprinkler shall be installed above the equipment.
  3. Where located in a building of Type III, Type IV or Type V construction designed in accordance with Section 510.2 or 510.4 of the International Building Code, attics not required by Item 1 to have sprinklers shall comply with one of the following if the roof assembly is located more than 55 feet (16 764 mm) above the lowest level of required fire department vehicle access:

    1. 3.1. Provide automatic sprinkler system protection.
    2. 3.2. Construct the attic using noncombustible materials.
    3. 3.3. Construct the attic using fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Section 2303.2 of the International Building Code.
    4. 3.4. Fill the attic with noncombustible insulation.

    The height of the roof assembly shall be determined by measuring the distance from the lowest required fire vehicle access road surface adjacent to the building to the eave of the highest pitched roof, the intersection of the highest roof to the exterior wall, or the top of the highest parapet, whichever yields the greatest distance. For the purpose of this measurement, required fire vehicle access roads shall include only those roads that are necessary for compliance with Section 503.

  4. Group R-4, Condition 2 occupancy attics not required by Item 1 to have sprinklers shall comply with one of the following:

    1. 4.1. Provide automatic sprinkler system protection.
    2. 4.2. Provide a heat detection system throughout the attic that is arranged to activate the building fire alarm system.
    3. 4.3. Construct the attic using noncombustible materials.
    4. 4.4. Construct the attic using fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Section 2303.2 of the International Building Code.
    5. 4.5. Fill the attic with noncombustible insulation.
Automatic sprinkler systems installed in one- and two-family dwellings; Group R-3; Group R-4, Condition 1; and townhouses shall be permitted to be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13D.

Where automatic sprinkler systems are required by this code, quick-response or residential automatic sprinklers shall be installed in all of the following areas in accordance with Section 903.3.1 and their listings:

  1. Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment containing care recipient sleeping units in Group I-2 in accordance with the International Building Code.
  2. Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment containing treatment rooms in ambulatory care facilities.
  3. Dwelling units and sleeping units in Group I-1 and R occupancies.
  4. Light-hazard occupancies as defined in NFPA 13.

Automatic sprinklers shall be installed with regard to obstructions that will delay activation or obstruct the water distribution pattern and shall be in accordance with the applicable automatic sprinkler system standard that is being used. Automatic sprinklers shall be installed in or under covered kiosks, displays, booths, concession stands or equipment that exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm) in width. Not less than a 3-foot (914 mm) clearance shall be maintained between automatic sprinklers and the top of piles of combustible fibers.

Exception: Kitchen equipment under exhaust hoods protected with a fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Section 904.

Automatic sprinkler systems shall be automatically actuated unless specifically provided for in this code.
Water supplies for automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with this section and the standards referenced in Section 903.3.1. The potable water supply shall be protected against backflow in accordance with the requirements of this section and the International Plumbing Code. For connections to public waterworks systems, the water supply test used for design of fire protection systems shall be adjusted to account for seasonal and daily pressure fluctuations based on information from the water supply authority and as approved by the fire code official.
Where the domestic service provides the water supply for the automatic sprinkler system, the supply shall be in accordance with this section.
A single combination water supply shall be allowed provided that the domestic demand is added to the sprinkler demand as required by NFPA 13R.
Fire hose threads and fittings used in connection with automatic sprinkler systems shall be as prescribed by the fire code official.

903.3.7 Fire Department Connections

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

903.3.7 Fire Department Connections

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The location of fire department connections shall be approved by the Fire Chief as set forth in subsection 501.5 of this Code, adopted by Chapter 120-3-3 of the Rules and Regulations of the Safety Fire Commissioner.
Limited area sprinkler systems shall be in accordance with the standards listed in Section 903.3.1 except as provided in Sections 903.3.8.1 through 903.3.8.5.
Limited area sprinkler systems shall not exceed six sprinklers in any single fire area.
Only areas classified by NFPA 13 as Light Hazard or Ordinary Hazard Group 1 shall be permitted to be protected by limited area sprinkler systems.
Where a limited area sprinkler system is installed in a building with an automatic wet standpipe system, sprinklers shall be supplied by the standpipe system. Where a limited area sprinkler system is installed in a building without an automatic wet standpipe system, water shall be permitted to be supplied by the plumbing system provided that the plumbing system is capable of simultaneously supplying domestic and sprinkler demands.
Control valves shall not be installed between the water supply and sprinklers unless the valves are of an approved indicating type that are supervised or secured in the open position.
Hydraulic calculations in accordance with NFPA 13 shall be provided to demonstrate that the available water flow and pressure are adequate to supply all sprinklers installed in any single fire area with discharge densities corresponding to the hazard classification.

Valves controlling the water supply for automatic sprinkler systems, pumps, tanks, water levels and temperatures, critical air pressures and waterflow switches on all sprinkler systems shall be electrically supervised by a listed fire alarm control unit.

Exceptions:

  1. Automatic sprinkler systems protecting one- and two-family dwellings.
  2. Limited area sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.3.8.
  3. Automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance with NFPA 13R where a common supply main is used to supply both domestic water and the automatic sprinkler system, and a separate shutoff valve for the automatic sprinkler system is not provided.
  4. Jockey pump control valves that are sealed or locked in the open position.
  5. Control valves to commercial kitchen hoods, paint spray booths or dip tanks that are sealed or locked in the open position.
  6. Valves controlling the fuel supply to fire pump engines that are sealed or locked in the open position.
  7. Trim valves to pressure switches in dry, preaction and deluge sprinkler systems that are sealed or locked in the open position.

Alarm, supervisory and trouble signals shall be distinctly different and shall be automatically transmitted to an approved supervising station or, where approved by the fire code official, shall sound an audible signal at a constantly attended location.

Exceptions:

  1. Underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes provided by the municipality or public utility are not required to be monitored.
  2. Backflow prevention device test valves located in limited area sprinkler system supply piping shall be locked in the open position. In occupancies required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, the backflow preventer valves shall be electrically supervised by a tamper switch installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and separately annunciated.
An approved audible device, located on the exterior of the building in an approved location, shall be connected to each automatic sprinkler system. Such sprinkler waterflow alarm devices shall be activated by water flow equivalent to the flow of a single sprinkler of the smallest orifice size installed in the system. Where a fire alarm system is installed, actuation of the automatic sprinkler system shall actuate the building fire alarm system.
Approved supervised indicating control valves shall be provided at the point of connection to the riser on each floor in high-rise buildings.
Sprinkler systems shall be tested and maintained in accordance with Section 901.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in existing buildings and structures where required in Chapter 11.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems, other than automatic sprinkler systems, shall be designed, installed, inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the provisions of this section and the applicable referenced standards.
Service personnel providing or conducting maintenance on automatic fire-extinguishing systems, other than automatic sprinkler systems, shall possess a valid certificate issued by an approved governmental agency, or other approved organization for the type of system and work performed.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall not be considered alternatives for the purposes of exceptions or reductions allowed for automatic sprinkler systems or by other requirements of this code.

904.2.2 Commercial Hood and Duct Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

904.2.2 Commercial Hood and Duct Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Each required commercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct system required by Section 607 to have a commercial hood complying with NFPA 96, shall be protected with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system installed in accordance with this Code and applicable provisions of NFPA 96.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be installed in accordance with this section.
Electrical wiring shall be in accordance with NFPA 70.

Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be automatically actuated and provided with a manual means of actuation in accordance with Section 904.12.1. Where more than one hazard could be simultaneously involved in fire due to their proximity, all hazards shall be protected by a single system designed to protect all hazards that could become involved.

Exception: Multiple systems shall be permitted to be installed if they are designed to operate simultaneously.

Automatic equipment interlocks with fuel shutoffs, ventilation controls, door closers, window shutters, conveyor openings, smoke and heat vents and other features necessary for proper operation of the fire-extinguishing system shall be provided as required by the design and installation standard utilized for the hazard.
Where alarms are required to indicate the operation of automatic fire-extinguishing systems, distinctive audible, visible alarms and warning signs shall be provided to warn of pending agent discharge. Where exposure to automatic-extinguishing agents poses a hazard to persons and a delay is required to ensure the evacuation of occupants before agent discharge, a separate warning signal shall be provided to alert occupants once agent discharge has begun. Audible signals shall be in accordance with Section 907.5.2.
Where a building fire alarm system is installed, automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be monitored by the building fire alarm system in accordance with NFPA 72.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be inspected and tested in accordance with the provisions of this section prior to acceptance.

Prior to conducting final acceptance tests, all of the following items shall be inspected:

  1. Hazard specification for consistency with design hazard.
  2. Type, location and spacing of automatic- and manual-initiating devices.
  3. Size, placement and position of nozzles or discharge orifices.
  4. Location and identification of audible and visible alarm devices.
  5. Identification of devices with proper designations.
  6. Operating instructions.
Notification appliances, connections to fire alarm systems and connections to approved supervising stations shall be tested in accordance with this section and Section 907 to verify proper operation.
The audibility and visibility of notification appliances signaling agent discharge or system operation, where required, shall be verified.
Connections to protected premises and supervising station fire alarm systems shall be tested to verify proper identification and retransmission of alarms from automatic fire-extinguishing systems.
Wet-chemical extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 17A and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at six-month intervals. Tests shall include a check of the detection system, alarms and releasing devices, including manual stations and other associated equipment. Extinguishing system units shall be weighed and the required amount of agent verified. Stored pressure-type units shall be checked for the required pressure. The cartridge of cartridge-operated units shall be weighed and replaced at intervals indicated by the manufacturer.
Fixed temperature-sensing elements shall be maintained to ensure proper operation of the system.
Dry-chemical extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 17 and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at six-month intervals. Tests shall include a check of the detection system, alarms and releasing devices, including manual stations and other associated equipment. Extinguishing system units shall be weighed, and the required amount of agent verified. Stored pressure-type units shall be checked for the required pressure. The cartridge of cartridge-operated units shall be weighed and replaced at intervals indicated by the manufacturer.
Fixed temperature-sensing elements shall be maintained to ensure proper operation of the system.
Foam-extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 11 and NFPA 16 and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Foam-extinguishing systems shall be inspected and tested at intervals in accordance with NFPA 25.
Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 12 and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at 12-month intervals.
High-pressure cylinders shall be weighed and the date of the last hydrostatic test shall be verified at six-month intervals. Where a container shows a loss in original content of more than 10 percent, the cylinder shall be refilled or replaced.
The liquid-level gauges of low-pressure containers shall be observed at one-week intervals. Where a container shows a content loss of more than 10 percent, the container shall be refilled to maintain the minimum gas requirements.
System hoses shall be examined at 12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be replaced or tested. At five-year intervals, all hoses shall be tested.
Hoses shall be tested at not less than 2,500 pounds per square inch (psi) (17 238 kPa) for high-pressure systems and at not less than 900 psi (6206 kPa) for low-pressure systems.
Auxiliary and supplementary components, such as switches, door and window releases, interconnected valves, damper releases and supplementary alarms, shall be manually operated at 12-month intervals to ensure that such components are in proper operating condition.
Halogenated extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 12A and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at 12-month intervals.
The extinguishing agent quantity and pressure of containers shall be checked at six-month intervals. Where a container shows a loss in original weight of more than 5 percent or a loss in original pressure (adjusted for temperature) of more than 10 percent, the container shall be refilled or replaced. The weight and pressure of the container shall be recorded on a tag attached to the container.
System hoses shall be examined at 12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be replaced or tested. At five-year intervals, all hoses shall be tested.
For Halon 1301 systems, hoses shall be tested at not less than 1,500 psi (10 343 kPa) for 600 psi (4137 kPa) charging pressure systems and not less than 900 psi (6206 kPa) for 360 psi (2482 kPa) charging pressure systems. For Halon 1211 hand-hose line systems, hoses shall be tested at 2,500 psi (17 238 kPa) for high-pressure systems and 900 psi (6206 kPa) for low-pressure systems.
Auxiliary and supplementary components, such as switches, door and window releases, interconnected valves, damper releases and supplementary alarms, shall be manually operated at 12-month intervals to ensure such components are in proper operating condition.
Clean-agent fire-extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 2001 and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at 12-month intervals.
The extinguishing agent quantity and pressure of the containers shall be checked at six-month intervals. Where a container shows a loss in original weight of more than 5 percent or a loss in original pressure, adjusted for temperature, of more than 10 percent, the container shall be refilled or replaced. The weight and pressure of the container shall be recorded on a tag attached to the container.
System hoses shall be examined at 12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be replaced or tested. All hoses shall be tested at five-year intervals.
Automatic water mist systems shall be permitted in applications that are consistent with the applicable listing or approvals and shall comply with Sections 904.11.1 through 904.11.3.
Automatic water mist systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sections 904.11.1.1 through 904.11.1.4.
Automatic water mist systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 750 and the manufacturer's instructions.
Automatic water mist systems shall be automatically actuated.
Connections to a potable water supply shall be protected against backflow in accordance with the International Plumbing Code.
Where a secondary water supply is required for an automatic sprinkler system, an automatic water mist system shall be provided with an approved secondary water supply.
Supervision and alarms shall be provided as required for automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.4.
Monitoring shall be provided as required for automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.4.1.
Alarms shall be provided as required for automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.4.2.
Floor control valves shall be provided as required for automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.4.3.
Automatic water mist systems shall be tested and maintained in accordance with Section 901.6.

904.12 Commercial Cooking Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

904.12.1 Manual System Operation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

904.12.2 System Interconnection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

904.12.3 Carbon Dioxide Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

904.12.3.1 Ventilation System

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

904.12.4 Special Provisions for Automatic Sprinkler Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

904.12.4.1 Listed Sprinklers

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

904.12.5 Operations and Maintenance

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

904.12.5.1 Existing Automatic Fire-Extinguishing Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

904.12.5.2 Extinguishing System Service

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

904.12.5.3 Fusible Link and Sprinkler Head Replacement

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

904.12 Fire Protection for Commercial Cooking Operations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

904.12.1

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The requirements for, as well as the design, installation, protection and maintenance of cooking equipment, shall be as required by NFPA 101, Life Safety Code and NFPA 96, Standard for the Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of Commercial Cooking Operations, as adopted by this Chapter 120- 3-3. (Refer to Table 102.13, CODES REFERENCE GUIDE)

904.12.2

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Fire suppression systems approved for the protection of commercial cooking appliances shall be designed, installed, and maintained in accordance with the applicable standards adopted in this Chapter.

904.12.3

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Portable fire extinguishers for commercial cooking appliances. Portable fire extinguishers shall be installed in kitchens or other commercial cooking areas in accordance with NFPA 10 and NFPA 96, as adopted by this Chapter 120-3-3 of the Rules and Regulations of the Georgia Safety Fire Commissioner. Class K portable fire extinguishers and the required operation sequence signage required by NFPA 10, shall be located between 5 feet and 10 feet from the manual release device(s) of the kitchen exhaust hood fire suppression system(s).

Cooktops and ranges installed in the following occupancies shall be protected in accordance with Section 904.13.1:

  1. In Group I-1 occupancies where domestic cooking facilities are installed in accordance with Section 420.8 of the International Building Code.
  2. In Group I-2, Condition 1 occupancies where domestic cooking facilities are installed in accordance with Section 407.2.6 of the International Building Code.
  3. In Group R-2 college dormitories where domestic cooking facilities are installed in accordance with Section 420.10 of the International Building Code.
Cooktops and ranges shall be protected in accordance with Section 904.13.1.1 or 904.13.1.2.

The domestic recirculating or exterior vented cooking hood provided over the cooktop or range shall be equipped with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system complying with the following:

  1. The automatic fire-extinguishing system shall be of a type recognized for protection of domestic cooking equipment. Preengineered automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 300A and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
  2. Manual actuation of the fire-extinguishing system shall be provided in accordance with Section 904.12.1.
  3. Interconnection of the fuel and electric power supply shall be in accordance with Section 904.12.2.
Cooktops and ranges shall include burners that have been tested and listed to prevent ignition of cooking oil with burners turned on to their maximum heat settings and allowed to operate for 30 minutes.

Aerosol fire-extinguishing systems shall be installed, periodically inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with Sections 901 and 904.4, NFPA 2010, and in accordance with their listing.

Such devices and appurtenances shall be listed and installed in compliance with manufacturer's instructions.

Not less than semiannually, an inspection shall be conducted by a trained person to assess whether the system is in working order. Not less than annually, a certified fire suppression contractor having knowledge of and training in the installation, operation and maintenance of the specific fire-extinguishing system shall inspect, test, service and maintain such system in accordance with this section and the manufacturer's specifications and servicing manuals.

905.1 General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

905.1 General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The State's minimum requirements for standpipe systems shall be as required by the International Building Code (IBC) or This Code. Standpipe systems shall be designed, installed and tested in accordance with NFPA 14, Standard for the Installation of Standpipe, and Hose Systems as adopted by this Chapter 120-3-3. (Refer to Table 102.13, CODE REFERENCE GUIDE)
Standpipe systems shall be installed in accordance with this section and NFPA 14. Fire department connections for standpipe systems shall be in accordance with Section 912.

Standpipe systems shall be installed where required by Sections 905.3.1 through 905.3.8. Standpipe systems are allowed to be combined with automatic sprinkler systems.

Exception: Standpipe systems are not required in Group R-3 occupancies.

Class III standpipe systems shall be installed throughout buildings where any of the following conditions exist:

  1. Four or more stories are above or below grade plane.
  2. The floor level of the highest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) above the lowest level of the fire department vehicle access.
  3. The floor level of the lowest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the highest level of fire department vehicle access.

Exceptions:

  1. Class I standpipes are allowed in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
  2. Class I standpipes are allowed in Group B and E occupancies.
  3. Class I manual standpipes are allowed in open parking garages where the highest floor is located not more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.
  4. Class I manual dry standpipes are allowed in open parking garages that are subject to freezing temperatures, provided that the hose connections are located as required for Class II standpipes in accordance with Section 905.5.
  5. Class I standpipes are allowed in basements equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system.
  6. Class I standpipes are allowed in buildings where occupant-use hose lines will not be utilized by trained personnel or the fire department.
  7. In determining the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, it shall not be required to consider either of the following:

    1. 7.1. Recessed loading docks for four vehicles or less.
    2. 7.2. Conditions where topography makes access from the fire department vehicle to the building impractical or impossible.

Class I automatic wet standpipes shall be provided in nonsprinklered Group A buildings having an occupant load exceeding 1,000 persons.

Exceptions:

  1. Open-air-seating spaces without enclosed spaces.
  2. Class I automatic dry and semiautomatic dry standpipes or manual wet standpipes are allowed in buildings that are not high-rise buildings.

Covered mall and open mall buildings shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system where required by Section 905.3.1. Mall buildings not required to be equipped with a standpipe system by Section 905.3.1 shall be equipped with Class I hose connections connected to the automatic sprinkler system sized to deliver water at 250 gallons per minute (946.4 L/min) at the hydraulically most remote hose connection while concurrently supplying the automatic sprinkler system demand. The standpipe system shall be designed not to exceed a 50 pounds per square inch (psi) (345 kPa) residual pressure loss with a flow of 250 gallons per minute (946.4 L/min) from the fire department connection to the hydraulically most remote hose connection. Hose connections shall be provided at each of the following locations:

  1. Within the mall at the entrance to each exit passageway or corridor.
  2. At each floor-level landing within interior exit stairways opening directly on the mall.
  3. At exterior public entrances to the mall of a covered mall building.
  4. At public entrances at the perimeter line of an open mall building.
  5. At other locations as necessary so that the distance to reach all portions of a tenant space does not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a hose connection.

Stages greater than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) in area shall be equipped with a Class III wet standpipe system with 11/2-inch and 21/2-inch (38 mm and 64 mm) hose connections on each side of the stage.

Exception: Where the building or area is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system, a 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose connection shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13 or in accordance with NFPA 14 for Class II or III standpipes.

The 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose connections shall be equipped with sufficient lengths of 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose to provide fire protection for the stage area. Hose connections shall be equipped with an approved adjustable fog nozzle and be mounted in a cabinet or on a rack.
Underground buildings shall be equipped throughout with a Class I automatic wet or manual wet standpipe system.
Buildings with a rooftop helistop or heliport shall be equipped with a Class I or III standpipe system extended to the roof level on which the helistop or heliport is located in accordance with Section 2007.5.
Standpipes in marinas and boatyards shall comply with Chapter 36.
Buildings or structures that have rooftop gardens or landscaped roofs and that are equipped with a standpipe system shall have the standpipe system extended to the roof level on which the rooftop garden or landscaped roof is located.

Class I standpipe hose connections shall be provided in all of the following locations:

  1. In every required interior exit stairway, a hose connection shall be provided for each story above and below grade plane. Hose connections shall be located at the main floor landing unless otherwise approved by the fire code official.

    Exception: A single hose connection shall be permitted to be installed in the open corridor or open breezeway between open stairs that are not greater than 75 feet (22 860 mm) apart.

  2. On each side of the wall adjacent to the exit opening of a horizontal exit.

    Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to a horizontal exit are reachable from an interior exit stairway hose connection by a 30-foot (9144 mm) hose stream from a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose, a hose connection shall not be required at the horizontal exit.

  3. In every exit passageway, at the entrance from the exit passageway to other areas of a building.

    Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to an exit passageway are reachable from an interior exit stairway hose connection by a 30-foot (9144 mm) hose stream from a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose, a hose connection shall not be required at the entrance from the exit passageway to other areas of the building.

  4. In covered mall buildings, adjacent to each exterior public entrance to the mall and adjacent to each entrance from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the mall. In open mall buildings, adjacent to each public entrance to the mall at the perimeter line and adjacent to each entrance from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the mall.
  5. Where the roof has a slope less than four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33.3-percent slope), a hose connection shall be located to serve the roof or at the highest landing of an interior exit stairway with access to the roof provided in accordance with Section 1011.12.
  6. Where the most remote portion of a nonsprinklered floor or story is more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) from a hose connection or the most remote portion of a sprinklered floor or story is more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a hose connection, the fire code official is authorized to require that additional hose connections be provided in approved locations.

Risers and laterals of Class I standpipe systems not located within an interior exit stairway shall be protected by a degree of fire resistance equal to that required for vertical enclosures in the building in which they are located.

Exception: In buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system, laterals that are not located within an interior exit stairway are not required to be enclosed within fire-resistance-rated construction.

In buildings where more than one standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be interconnected in accordance with NFPA 14.
Class II standpipe hose connections shall be located so that all portions of the building are within 30 feet (9144 mm) of a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose. Class II standpipe hose connections shall be located where they will have ready access.
In Group A-1 and A-2 occupancies with occupant loads of more than 1,000, hose connections shall be located on each side of any stage, on each side of the rear of the auditorium, on each side of the balcony and on each tier of dressing rooms.
Fire-resistance-rated protection of risers and laterals of Class II standpipe systems is not required.
A minimum 1-inch (25 mm) hose shall be allowed to be used for hose stations in light-hazard occupancies where investigated and listed for this service and where approved by the fire code official.
Class III standpipe systems shall have hose connections located as required for Class I standpipes in Section 905.4 and shall have Class II hose connections as required in Section 905.5.
Risers and laterals of Class III standpipe systems shall be protected as required for Class I systems in accordance with Section 905.4.1.
In buildings where more than one Class III standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be interconnected in accordance with NFPA 14.
Cabinets containing fire-fighting equipment, such as standpipes, fire hose, fire extinguishers or fire department valves, shall not be blocked from use or obscured from view.

Cabinets shall be identified in an approved manner by a permanently attached sign with letters not less than 2 inches (51 mm) high in a color that contrasts with the background color, indicating the equipment contained therein.

Exceptions:

  1. Doors not large enough to accommodate a written sign shall be marked with a permanently attached pictogram of the equipment contained therein.
  2. Doors that have either an approved visual identification clear glass panel or a complete glass door panel are not required to be marked.

Cabinets shall be unlocked.

Exceptions:

  1. Visual identification panels of glass or other approved transparent frangible material that is easily broken and allows access.
  2. Approved locking arrangements.
  3. Group I-3 occupancies.

Dry standpipes shall not be installed.

Exception: Where subject to freezing and in accordance with NFPA 14.

Valves controlling water supplies shall be supervised in the open position so that a change in the normal position of the valve will generate a supervisory signal at the supervising station required by Section 903.4. Where a fire alarm system is provided, a signal shall be transmitted to the control unit.

Exceptions:

  1. Valves to underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes provided by the municipality or public utility do not require supervision.
  2. Valves locked in the normal position and inspected as provided in this code in buildings not equipped with a fire alarm system.
Standpipe systems required during construction and demolition operations shall be provided in accordance with Section 3313.
The fire code official is authorized to require locking caps on the outlets on dry standpipes where the responding fire department carries key wrenches for the removal that are compatible with locking FDC connection caps.
Where required in Chapter 11, existing structures shall be equipped with standpipes installed in accordance with Section 905.

905.13 Fire Department Connections

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The location of fire department connections shall be approved by the Fire Chief as set forth in subsection 501.5 of this Code, as adopted by Chapter 120-3-3 of the Rules and Regulations of the Safety Fire Commissioner.

906.1 Where Required

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

906.1 Portable Fire Extinguishers - General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be installed in all buildings, structures and facilities falling under this Code and O.C.G.A. 25-2. For any other building, structure, facility, or condition or special hazard, portable fire extinguishers shall be provided as may be required by this Code in Table 906.1, or by various codes and standards adopted by this Chapter 120-3-3 of the Rules and Regulations of the Safety Fire Commissioner. (Refer to Table 102.13, CODES REFERENCE GUIDE).

906.2 General Requirements

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

906.2.1 Certification of Service Personnel for Portable Fire Extinguishers

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

906.2 General Requirements

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The selection, distribution, installation, and maintenance of portable fire extinguishers shall comply with NFPA 10, Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers, as adopted by this Chapter 120-3-3.

906.2.1

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The maximum travel distance to reach an extinguisher shall not apply to the spectator seating portions of Group A-5 occupancies.

906.2.2

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Thirty-day inspections shall not be required and maintenance shall be allowed to be once every three years for dry-chemical or halogenated agent portable fire extinguishers that are supervised by a listed and approved electronic monitoring device, provided that all of the following conditions are met:
  1. Electronic monitoring shall confirm that extinguishers are properly positioned, properly charged and unobstructed.
  2. Loss of power or circuit continuity to the electronic monitoring device shall initiate a trouble signal.
  3. The extinguishers shall be installed inside of a building or cabinet in a noncorrosive environment.
  4. Electronic monitoring devices and supervisory circuits shall be tested every three years when extinguisher maintenance is performed.
  5. A written log of required hydrostatic test dates for extinguishers shall be maintained by the owner to ensure that hydrostatic tests are conducted at the frequency required by NFPA 10.

906.2.3

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
In Group E - Educational occupancies, in lieu of locating fire extinguishers in corridors and normal paths of travel as specified in NFPA 10, Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers, fire extinguishers may be located in rooms that open directly onto such corridors and pathways provided all of the following are met:
  1. The room in which such extinguishers are placed are located in close proximity to that portion of the corridor where a fire extinguisher would otherwise be placed in accordance with NFPA 10; Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers,
  2. A sign which states in white letters at least one inch in height on a red background, 'FIRE EXTINGUISHER LOCATED IN THIS ROOM,' is placed on the corridor wall immediately adjacent to the entrance way of each such room so that it can be clearly seen at all times;
  3. The rooms in which such extinguishers are placed shall be constantly supervised during school hours; and,
  4. Those rooms cannot be subject to being locked at any time the building is occupied.

906.3

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
UpCodes note: According to Georgia's Rules and Regulations of the Safety Fire Commissioner, "Delete sections 906.3 through 906.10 without substitution (Refer to NFPA 10)."

906.3 Size and Distribution

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

906.3.1 Class A Fire Hazards

AMENDMENT
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906.3.2 Class B Fire Hazards

AMENDMENT
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906.3.3 Class C Fire Hazards

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

906.3.4 Class D Fire Hazards

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

906.4 Cooking Equipment Fires

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

906.4.1 Portable Fire Extinguishers for Solid Fuel Cooking Appliances

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

906.4.2 Class K Portable Fire Extinguishers for Deep Fat Fryers

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

906.5 Conspicuous Location

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

906.6 Unobstructed and Unobscured

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

906.7 Hangers and Brackets

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

906.8 Cabinets

AMENDMENT
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906.9 Extinguisher Installation

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906.9.1 Extinguishers Weighing 40 Pounds or Less

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906.9.2 Extinguishers Weighing More Than 40 Pounds

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906.9.3 Floor Clearance

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906.10 Wheeled Units

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907.1 General

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907.1 Fire Alarm Systems - General

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(a) The State's minimum requirements for fire alarm systems in proposed (new) buildings and structures approved as set forth in 103.3.1 of this Code shall be as required by NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, as adopted by this Chapter 120-3-3. Fire alarm systems shall be designed, installed, tested, and maintained in accordance with NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code, as adopted by this Chapter 120-3-3. (b) New fire alarm systems to be installed in existing buildings shall be designed, installed, and maintained in accordance with NFPA 72, as adopted by this Chapter 120-3-3. (Refer to Table 102. 13 CODES REFERENCE GUIDE)
Construction documents for fire alarm systems shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed and show in detail that it will conform to the provisions of this code, the International Building Code and relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations, as determined by the fire code official.
Shop drawings for fire alarm systems shall be prepared in accordance with NFPA 72 and submitted for review and approval prior to system installation.
Systems and components shall be listed and approved for the purpose for which they are installed.

907.2 Where Required—New Buildings and Structures

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907.2.1 Group A

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907.2.1.1 System Initiation in Group A Occupancies With an Occupant Load of 1,000 or More

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907.2.1.2 Emergency Voice/Alarm Communication System Captions

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907.2.2 Group B

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907.2.2.1 Ambulatory Care Facilities

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907.2.3 Group E

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907.2.4 Group F

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907.2.5 Group H

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907.2.6 Group I

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907.2.6.1 Group I-1

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907.2.6.1.1 Smoke Alarms

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907.2.6.2 Group I-2

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907.2.6.3 Group I-3 Occupancies

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907.2.6.3.1 System Initiation

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907.2.6.3.2 Manual Fire Alarm Boxes

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907.2.6.3.2.1 Manual Fire Alarms Boxes in Detainee Areas

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907.2.6.3.3 Automatic Smoke Detection System

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907.2.7 Group M

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907.2.7.1 Occupant Notification

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907.2.8 Group R-1

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907.2.8.1 Manual Fire Alarm System

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907.2.8.2 Automatic Smoke Detection System

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907.2.8.3 Smoke Alarms

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907.2.9 Group R-2

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907.2.9.1 Manual Fire Alarm System

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907.2.9.2 Smoke Alarms

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907.2.9.3 Group R-2 College and University Buildings

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907.2.10 Single- And Multiple-Station Smoke Alarms

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907.2.10.1 Group R-1

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907.2.10.2 Groups R-2, R-3, R-4 and I-1

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907.2.10.3 Installation Near Cooking Appliances

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907.2.10.4 Installation Near Bathrooms

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907.2.10.5 Interconnection

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907.2.10.6 Power Source

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907.2.10.7 Smoke Detection System

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907.2.11 Special Amusement Buildings

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907.2.11.1 Alarm

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907.2.11.2 System Response

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907.2.11.3 Emergency Voice/Alarm Communication System

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907.2.12 High-Rise Buildings

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907.2.12.1 Automatic Smoke Detection

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907.2.12.1.1 Area Smoke Detection

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907.2.12.1.2 Duct Smoke Detection

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907.2.12.2 Fire Department Communication System

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907.2.12.3 Multiple-Channel Voice Evacuation

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907.2.13 Atriums Connecting More Than Two Stories

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907.2.14 High-Piled Combustible Storage Areas

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907.2.15 Aerosol Storage Uses

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907.2.16 Lumber, Wood Structural Panel and Veneer Mills

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907.2.17 Underground Buildings With Smoke Control Systems

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907.2.17.1 Smoke Detectors

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907.2.17.2 Alarm Required

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907.2.18 Deep Underground Buildings

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907.2.19 Covered and Open Mall Buildings

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907.2.20 Residential Aircraft Hangars

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907.2.21 Airport Traffic Control Towers

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907.2.21.1 Airport Traffic Control Towers With Multiple Exits and Automatic Sprinklers

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907.2.21.2 Other Airport Traffic Control Towers

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907.2.22 Battery Rooms

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907.2.23 Capacitor Energy Storage Systems

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907.3 Fire Safety Functions

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907.3.1 Duct Smoke Detectors

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907.3.2 Special Locking Systems

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907.3.3 Elevator Emergency Operation

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907.3.4 Wiring

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907.4 Initiating Devices

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907.4.1 Protection of Fire Alarm Control Unit

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907.4.2 Manual Fire Alarm Boxes

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907.4.2.1 Location

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907.4.2.2 Height

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907.4.2.3 Color

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907.4.2.4 Signs

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907.4.2.5 Protective Covers

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907.4.2.6 Unobstructed and Unobscured

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907.4.3 Automatic Smoke Detection

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907.4.3.1 Automatic Sprinkler System

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907.5 Occupant Notification Systems

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907.5.1 Presignal Feature

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907.5.2 Alarm Notification Appliances

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907.5.2.1 Audible Alarms

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907.5.2.1.1 Average Sound Pressure

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907.5.2.1.2 Maximum Sound Pressure

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907.5.2.2 Emergency Voice/Alarm Communication Systems

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907.5.2.2.1 Manual Override

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907.5.2.2.2 Live Voice Messages

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907.5.2.2.3 Alternative Uses

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907.5.2.2.4 Emergency Voice/Alarm Communication Captions

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907.5.2.2.5 Emergency Power

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907.5.2.3 Visible Alarms

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907.5.2.3.1 Public Use Areas and Common Use Areas

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907.5.2.3.2 Groups I-1 and R-1

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907.5.2.3.3 Group R-2

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907.6 Installation and Monitoring

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907.6.1 Wiring

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907.6.2 Power Supply

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907.6.3 Initiating Device Identification

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907.6.3.1 Annunciation

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907.6.4 Zones

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907.6.4.1 Zoning Indicator Panel

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907.6.4.2 High-Rise Buildings

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907.6.5 Access

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907.6.6 Monitoring

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907.6.6.1 Automatic Telephone-Dialing Devices

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907.6.6.2 Termination of Monitoring Service

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Upon completion of the installation, the fire alarm system and all fire alarm components shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 72.
When the installation of the alarm devices is complete, each device and interconnecting wiring for multiple-station alarm devices shall be tested in accordance with the smoke alarm provisions of NFPA 72.
A record of completion in accordance with NFPA 72 verifying that the system has been installed and tested in accordance with the approved plans and specifications shall be provided.
Operating, testing and maintenance instructions and record drawings ("as builts") and equipment specifications shall be provided at an approved location.
The maintenance and testing schedules and procedures for fire alarm and fire detection systems shall be in accordance with Sections 907.8.1 through 907.8.5 and NFPA 72. Records of inspection, testing and maintenance shall be maintained.
Where required for compliance with the provisions of this code, devices, equipment, systems, conditions, arrangements, levels of protection or other features shall thereafter be continuously maintained in accordance with applicable NFPA requirements or as directed by the fire code official.

Testing shall be performed in accordance with the schedules in NFPA 72 or more frequently where required by the fire code official. Records of testing shall be maintained.

Exception: Devices or equipment that are inaccessible because of safety considerations shall be tested during scheduled shutdowns where approved by the fire code official, but not less than every 18 months.

Smoke detector sensitivity shall be checked within one year after installation and every alternate year thereafter. After the second calibration test, where sensitivity tests indicate that the detector has remained within its listed and marked sensitivity range (or 4-percent obscuration light gray smoke, if not marked), the length of time between calibration tests shall be permitted to be extended to not more than 5 years. Where the frequency is extended, records of detector-caused nuisance alarms and subsequent trends of these alarms shall be maintained. In zones or areas where nuisance alarms show any increase over the previous year, calibration tests shall be performed.

To verify that each smoke detector is within its listed and marked sensitivity range, it shall be tested using one of the following methods:

  1. A calibrated test method.
  2. The manufacturer's calibrated sensitivity test instrument.
  3. Listed control equipment arranged for the purpose.
  4. A smoke detector/control unit arrangement whereby the detector causes a signal at the control unit where the detector's sensitivity is outside its acceptable sensitivity range.
  5. Another calibrated sensitivity test method acceptable to the fire code official.

Detectors found to have a sensitivity outside the listed and marked sensitivity range shall be cleaned and recalibrated or replaced.

Exceptions:

  1. Detectors listed as field adjustable shall be permitted to be either adjusted within the listed and marked sensitivity range and cleaned and recalibrated or they shall be replaced.
  2. This requirement shall not apply to single-station smoke alarms.
Smoke detector sensitivity shall not be tested or measured using a device that administers an unmeasured concentration of smoke or other aerosol into the detector.
The building owner shall be responsible to maintain the fire and life safety systems in an operable condition at all times. Service personnel shall meet the qualification requirements of NFPA 72 for inspection, testing and maintenance of such systems. Records of inspection, testing and maintenance shall be maintained.
An approved fire alarm system shall be provided in existing buildings and structures where required in Chapter 11.
Smoke alarms shall be tested and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Smoke alarms shall be replaced when they fail to respond to operability tests, or when they exceed 10 years from the date of manufacture, unless an earlier replacement is specified in the manufacturer's published instructions.
Emergency alarms for the detection and notification of an emergency condition in Group H occupancies shall be provided as required in Chapter 50.
Emergency alarms for notification of an emergency condition in an HPM facility shall be provided as required in Section 2703.12.

909.1 Scope and Purpose

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909.1 Scope and Purpose

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This section applies to mechanical or passive smoke control systems when they are required for proposed (new) buildings or portions thereof by provisions of the Life Safety Code (LSC) or this Code, as adopted by this Chapter 120-3-3, or by provisions of the International Building Code (IBC), as adopted by the Department of Community Affairs. The purpose of this section is to establish minimum requirements for the design, installation, and acceptance testing of smoke control systems that are intended to provide a tenable environment for the evacuation or relocation of occupants. These provisions are not intended for the preservation of contents, the timely restoration of operations, or for assistance in fire suppression or overhaul activities. Smoke control systems regulated by this section serve a different purpose than the smoke and heat venting provisions found in Section 910. Mechanical smoke control systems shall not be considered exhaust systems under Chapter 5 of the International Mechanical Code (IMC).

909.2 General Design Requirements

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909.2 General Design Requirements

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Buildings, structures, or portions thereof required by provisions of the Life Safety Code (LSC) or this Code, as adopted by this Chapter, or by provisions of the International Building Code, as adopted by the Department of Community Affairs, to have a smoke control system or systems shall have such systems designed in accordance with the applicable requirements of Section 909 of this Code and the generally accepted and well established principles of engineering relevant to the design. The construction documents shall include sufficient information and detail to describe adequately the elements of the design necessary for the proper implementation of the smoke control systems. These documents shall be accompanied with sufficient information and analysis to demonstrate compliance with these provisions.

909.2.1 Smoke Control

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For the purposes of 909.2 the following publications shall be considered as providing the generally accepted and well established principals of engineering relevant to design of required smoke control systems.
  1. NFPA 92, Standard for Smoke Control Systems
  2. NFPA SPP-53, Smoke Control in Fire Safety Design
  3. ASHRAE/SFPE, Design of Smoke Management Systems
  4. ASHRAE, Guideline 5: Guideline for Commissioning Smoke Management Systems
  5. NFPA 101, Life Safety Code (For non-mandatory guidance involving systems for existing detention and correction facilities refer to A.23.3.1.3 of the 2012 Edition)

909.2.2 Deactivation of Mechanical Pressurization Systems

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The design of pressurization systems shall ensure that smoke is not introduced into the pressurized enclosure so as to result in the untenable contamination of the fresh air. Approved smoke detectors shall be installed at each intake in such approved manner that the operation of the fan providing mechanical pressurization to the enclosure where smoke is detected shall be deactivated upon detection of smoke.
UpCodes note: This section was to be added as Section 909.2.1 according to Georgia's Rules and Regulations of the Safety Fire Commissioner. UpCodes renumbered it to 909.2.2 since there is already a Section 909.2.1 .
In addition to the ordinary inspection and test requirements that buildings, structures and parts thereof are required to undergo, smoke control systems subject to the provisions of Section 909 shall undergo special inspections and tests sufficient to verify the proper commissioning of the smoke control design in its final installed condition. The design submission accompanying the construction documents shall clearly detail procedures and methods to be used and the items subject to such inspections and tests. Such commissioning shall be in accordance with generally accepted engineering practice and, where possible, based on published standards for the particular testing involved. The special inspections and tests required by this section shall be conducted under the same terms as in Section 1704 of the International Building Code.
A rational analysis supporting the types of smoke control systems to be employed, the methods of their operations, the systems supporting them and the methods of construction to be utilized shall accompany the construction documents submission and include, but not be limited to, the items indicated in Sections 909.4.1 through 909.4.7.
The system shall be designed such that the maximum probable normal or reverse stack effect will not adversely interfere with the system's capabilities. In determining the maximum probable stack effect, altitude, elevation, weather history and interior temperatures shall be used.
Buoyancy and expansion caused by the design fire in accordance with Section 909.9 shall be analyzed. The system shall be designed such that these effects do not adversely interfere with the system's capabilities.
The design shall consider the adverse effects of wind. Such consideration shall be consistent with the wind-loading provisions of the International Building Code.
The design shall consider the effects of the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems on both smoke and fire transport. The analysis shall include all permutations of systems status. The design shall consider the effects of the fire on the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems.
The design shall consider the effects of low temperatures on systems, property and occupants. Air inlets and exhausts shall be located so as to prevent snow or ice blockage.
All portions of active or engineered smoke control systems shall be capable of continued operation after detection of the fire event for a period of not less than either 20 minutes or 1.5 times the calculated egress time, whichever is greater.
The design shall consider the interaction effects of the operation of multiple smoke control systems for all design scenarios.

Smoke barriers required for passive smoke control and a smoke control system using the pressurization method shall comply with Section 709 of the International Building Code. The maximum allowable leakage area shall be the aggregate area calculated using the following leakage area ratios:

  1. Walls: A/Aw = 0.00100
  2. Interior exit stairways and ramps and exit passageways: A/Aw = 0.00035
  3. Enclosed exit access stairways and ramps and all other shafts: A/Aw = 0.00150
  4. Floors and roofs: A/AF = 0.00050

where:

A =Total leakage area, square feet (m2).

AF = Unit floor or roof area of barrier, square feet (m2).

Aw = Unit wall area of barrier, square feet (m2).

The leakage area ratios shown do not include openings due to gaps around doors and operable windows. The total leakage area of the smoke barrier shall be determined in accordance with Section 909.5.1 and tested in accordance with Section 909.5.2.

Total leakage area of the barrier is the product of the smoke barrier gross area multiplied by the allowable leakage area ratio, plus the area of other openings such as gaps around doors and operable windows.
Compliance with the maximum total leakage area shall be determined by achieving the minimum air pressure difference across the barrier with the system in the smoke control mode for mechanical smoke control systems utilizing the pressurization method. Compliance with the maximum total leakage area of passive smoke control systems shall be verified through methods such as door fan testing or other methods, as approved by the fire code official.

Openings in smoke barriers shall be protected by automatic-closing devices actuated by the required controls for the mechanical smoke control system. Door openings shall be protected by fire door assemblies complying with Section 716 of the International Building Code.

Exceptions:

  1. Passive smoke control systems with automatic-closing devices actuated by spot-type smoke detectors listed for releasing service installed in accordance with Section 907.3.
  2. Fixed openings between smoke zones that are protected utilizing the airflow method.
  3. In Group I-1, Condition 2; Group I-2; and ambulatory care facilities, where a pair of opposite-swinging doors are installed across a corridor in accordance with Section 909.5.3.1, the doors shall not be required to be protected in accordance with Section 716 of the International Building Code. The doors shall be close-fitting within operational tolerances and shall not have a center mullion or undercuts in excess of 3/4-inch (19.1 mm) louvers or grilles. The doors shall have head and jamb stops and astragals or rabbets at meeting edges and, where permitted by the door manufacturer's listing, positive-latching devices are not required.
  4. In Group I-2 and ambulatory care facilities, where such doors are special-purpose horizontal sliding, accordion or folding door assemblies installed in accordance with Section 1010.1.4.3 and are automatic closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 716.2.6.6 of the International Building Code.
  5. Group I-3.
  6. Openings between smoke zones with clear ceiling heights of 14 feet (4267 mm) or greater and bank-down capacity of greater than 20 minutes as determined by the design fire size.
In Group I-1, Condition 2; Group I-2; and ambulatory care facilities, where doors are installed across a corridor, the doors shall be automatic closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 716.2.6.6 of the International Building Code and shall have a vision panel with fire-protection-rated glazing materials in fire-protection-rated frames, the area of which shall not exceed that tested.
Ducts and air transfer openings are required to be protected with a minimum Class II, 250°F (121°C) smoke damper complying with Section 717 of the International Building Code.
The primary mechanical means of controlling smoke shall be by pressure differences across smoke barriers. Maintenance of a tenable environment is not required in the smoke-control zone of fire origin.

The pressure difference across a smoke barrier used to separate smoke zones shall be not less than 0.05-inch water gage (0.0124 kPa) in fully sprinklered buildings.

In buildings permitted to be other than fully sprinklered, the smoke control system shall be designed to achieve pressure differences not less than two times the maximum calculated pressure difference produced by the design fire.

The maximum air pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be determined by required door-opening or closing forces. The actual force required to open exit doors when the system is in the smoke control mode shall be in accordance with Section 1010.1.3. Opening and closing forces for other doors shall be determined by standard engineering methods for the resolution of forces and reactions. The calculated force to set a side-hinged, swinging door in motion shall be determined by:

(Equation 9-1)

where:

A = Door area, square feet (m2).

d = Distance from door handle to latch edge of door, feet (m).

F = Total door opening force, pounds (N).

Fdc = Force required to overcome closing device, pounds (N).

K = Coefficient 5.2 (1.0).

W = Door width, feet (m).

ΔP = Design pressure difference, inches of water (Pa).

Where stairways or elevator hoistways are pressurized, such pressurization systems shall comply with Section 909 as smoke control systems, in addition to the requirements of Section 909.21 of this code and Section 909.20 of the International Building Code.
Where approved by the fire code official, smoke migration through openings fixed in a permanently open position, which are located between smoke control zones by the use of the airflow method, shall be permitted. The design airflow shall be in accordance with this section. Airflow shall be directed to limit smoke migration from the fire zone. The geometry of openings shall be considered to prevent flow reversal from turbulent effects. Smoke control systems using the airflow method shall be designed in accordance with NFPA 92.
This method shall not be employed where either the quantity of air or the velocity of the airflow will adversely affect other portions of the smoke control system, unduly intensify the fire, disrupt plume dynamics or interfere with exiting. Airflow toward the fire shall not exceed 200 feet per minute (1.02 m/s). Where the calculated airflow exceeds this limit, the airflow method shall not be used.
Where approved by the fire code official, mechanical smoke control for large enclosed volumes, such as in atriums or malls, shall be permitted to utilize the exhaust method. Smoke control systems using the exhaust method shall be designed in accordance with NFPA 92.
The height of the lowest horizontal surface of the smoke layer interface shall be maintained not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) above a walking surface that forms a portion of a required egress system within the smoke zone.
The design fire shall be based on a rational analysis performed by the registered design professional and approved by the fire code official. The design fire shall be based on the analysis in accordance with Section 909.4 and this section.
The engineering analysis shall include the characteristics of the fuel, fuel load, effects included by the fire and whether the fire is likely to be steady or unsteady.
Determination of the design fire shall include consideration of the type of fuel, fuel spacing and configuration.
The analysis shall make use of best available data from approved sources and shall not be based on excessively stringent limitations of combustible material.
A documented engineering analysis shall be provided for conditions that assume fire growth is halted at the time of sprinkler activation.
Equipment including, but not limited to, fans, ducts, automatic dampers and balance dampers shall be suitable for their intended use, suitable for the probable exposure temperatures that the rational analysis indicates, and as approved by the fire code official.

Components of exhaust fans shall be rated and certified by the manufacturer for the probable temperature rise to which the components will be exposed. This temperature rise shall be computed by:

(Equation 9-2)

where:

c = Specific heat of smoke at smoke layer temperature, Btu/lb°F • (kJ/kg • K).

m = Exhaust rate, pounds per second (kg/s).

Qc = Convective heat output of fire, Btu/s (kW).

Ta = Ambient temperature, °F (K).

Ts = Smoke temperature, °F (K).

Exception: Reduced Ts as calculated based on the assurance of adequate dilution air.

Duct materials and joints shall be capable of withstanding the probable temperatures and pressures to which they are exposed as determined in accordance with Section 909.10.1. Ducts shall be constructed and supported in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. Ducts shall be leak tested to 1.5 times the maximum design pressure in accordance with nationally accepted practices. Measured leakage shall not exceed 5 percent of design flow. Results of such testing shall be a part of the documentation procedure. Ducts shall be supported directly from fire-resistance-rated structural elements of the building by substantial, noncombustible supports.

Exception: Flexible connections, for the purpose of vibration isolation, complying with the International Mechanical Code and that are constructed of approved fire-resistance-rated materials.

Equipment shall be located so as to not expose uninvolved portions of the building to an additional fire hazard. Outside air inlets shall be located so as to minimize the potential for introducing smoke or flame into the building. Exhaust outlets shall be so located as to minimize reintroduction of smoke into the building and to limit exposure of the building or adjacent buildings to an additional fire hazard.
Automatic dampers, regardless of the purpose for which they are installed within the smoke control system, shall be listed and conform to the requirements of approved recognized standards.

In addition to other requirements, belt-driven fans shall have 1.5 times the number of belts required for the design duty with the minimum number of belts being two. Fans shall be selected for stable performance based on normal temperature and, where applicable, elevated temperature. Calculations and manufacturer's fan curves shall be part of the documentation procedures. Fans shall be supported and restrained by noncombustible devices in accordance with the structural design requirements of Chapter 16 of the International Building Code.

Motors driving fans shall not be operated beyond their nameplate horsepower (kilowatts) as determined from measurement of actual current draw and shall have a minimum service factor of 1.15.

Smoke control systems shall be provided with standby power in accordance with Section 1203.
The standby power source and its transfer switches shall be in a room separate from the normal power transformers and switch gears and ventilated directly to and from the exterior. The room shall be enclosed with not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the International Building Code or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711 of the International Building Code, or both.
Elements of the smoke control system relying on volatile memories or the like shall be supplied with uninterruptable power sources of sufficient duration to span 15-minute primary power interruption. Elements of the smoke control system susceptible to power surges shall be suitably protected by conditioners, suppressors or other approved means.
Fire detection systems providing control input or output signals to mechanical smoke control systems or elements thereof shall comply with the requirements of Section 907. Such systems shall be equipped with a control unit complying with UL 864 and listed as smoke control equipment.

Control systems for mechanical smoke control systems shall include provisions for verification. Verification shall include positive confirmation of actuation, testing, manual override and the presence of power downstream of all disconnects. A preprogrammed weekly test sequence shall report abnormal conditions audibly, visually and by printed report. The preprogrammed weekly test shall operate all devices, equipment, and components used for smoke control.

Exception: Where verification of individual components tested through the preprogrammed weekly testing sequence will interfere with, and produce unwanted effects to, normal building operation, such individual components are permitted to be bypassed from the preprogrammed weekly testing, where approved by the fire code official and in accordance with both of the following:

  1. Where the operation of components is bypassed from the preprogrammed weekly test, presence of power downstream of all disconnects shall be verified weekly by a listed control unit.
  2. Testing of all components bypassed from the preprogrammed weekly test shall be in accordance with Section 909.20.6.
In addition to meeting requirements of NFPA 70, all wiring, regardless of voltage, shall be fully enclosed within continuous raceways.
Smoke control systems shall be activated in accordance with this section.
Mechanical smoke control systems using the pressurization, airflow or exhaust method shall have completely automatic control.
Passive smoke control systems actuated by approved spot-type detectors listed for releasing service shall be permitted.
Where completely automatic control is required or used, the automatic-control sequences shall be initiated from an appropriately zoned automatic sprinkler system complying with Section 903.3.1.1, manual controls provided with ready access for the fire department and any smoke detectors required by the engineering analysis.
Control air tubing shall be of sufficient size to meet the required response times. Tubing shall be flushed clean and dry prior to final connections and shall be adequately supported and protected from damage. Tubing passing through concrete or masonry shall be sleeved and protected from abrasion and electrolytic action.

Control air tubing shall be hard drawn copper, Type L, ACR in accordance with ASTM B42, ASTM B43, ASTM B68, ASTM B88, ASTM B251 and ASTM B280. Fittings shall be wrought copper or brass, solder type, in accordance with ASME B16.18 or ASME B16.22. Changes in direction shall be made with appropriate tool bends. Brass compression-type fittings shall be used at final connection to devices; other joints shall be brazed using a BCuP5 brazing alloy with solidus above 1,100°F (593°C) and liquidus below 1,500°F (816°C). Brazing flux shall be used on copper-to-brass joints only.

Exception: Nonmetallic tubing used within control panels and at the final connection to devices, provided that all of the following conditions are met:

  1. Tubing shall comply with the requirements of Section 602.2.1.3 of the International Mechanical Code.
  2. Tubing and the connected device shall be completely enclosed within a galvanized or paint-grade steel enclosure having a minimum thickness of 0.0296 inch (0.7534 mm) (No. 22 gage). Entry to the enclosure shall be by copper tubing with a protective grommet of neoprene or Teflon or by suitable brass compression to male-barbed adapter.
  3. Tubing shall be identified by appropriately documented coding.
  4. Tubing shall be neatly tied and supported within the enclosure. Tubing bridging cabinets and doors or moveable devices shall be of sufficient length to avoid tension and excessive stress. Tubing shall be protected against abrasion. Tubing connected to devices on doors shall be fastened along hinges.
Control tubing serving other than smoke control functions shall be isolated by automatic isolation valves or shall be an independent system.
Control air tubing shall be tested at three times the operating pressure for not less than 30 minutes without any noticeable loss in gauge pressure prior to final connection to devices.
The detection and control systems shall be clearly marked at all junctions, accesses and terminations.
Identical control diagrams showing all devices in the system and identifying their location and function shall be maintained current and kept on file with the fire code official, the fire department and in the fire command center in a format and manner approved by the fire code official.
A fire fighter's smoke control panel for fire department emergency response purposes only shall be provided and shall include manual control or override of automatic control for mechanical smoke control systems. The panel shall be located in a fire command center complying with Section 508 in high-rise buildings or buildings with smoke-protected assembly seating. In all other buildings, the fire fighter's smoke control panel shall be installed in an approved location adjacent to the fire alarm control panel. The fire fighter's smoke control panel shall comply with Sections 909.16.1 through 909.16.3.

Fans within the building shall be shown on the fire fighter's control panel. A clear indication of the direction of airflow and the relationship of components shall be displayed. Status indicators shall be provided for all smoke control equipment, annunciated by fan and zone and by pilot-lamp-type indicators as follows:

  1. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their normal status—WHITE.
  2. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their off or closed status—RED.
  3. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their on or open status—GREEN.
  4. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in a fault status—YELLOW/AMBER.

The fire fighter's control panel shall provide control capability over the complete smoke control system equipment within the building as follows:

  1. ON-AUTO-OFF control over each individual piece of operating smoke control equipment that can be controlled from other sources within the building. This includes stairway pressurization fans; smoke exhaust fans; supply, return and exhaust fans; elevator shaft fans; and other operating equipment used or intended for smoke control purposes.
  2. OPEN-AUTO-CLOSE control over individual dampers relating to smoke control and that are controlled from other sources within the building.
  3. ON-OFF or OPEN-CLOSE control over smoke control and other critical equipment associated with a fire or smoke emergency and that can only be controlled from the fire fighter's control panel.

Exceptions:

  1. Complex systems, where approved, where the controls and indicators are combined to control and indicate all elements of a single smoke zone as a unit.
  2. Complex systems, where approved, where the control is accomplished by computer interface using approved, plain English commands.

The fire fighter's control panel actions shall be as follows:

  1. ON-OFF and OPEN-CLOSE control actions shall have the highest priority of any control point within the building. Once issued from the fire fighter's control panel, automatic or manual control from any other control point within the building shall not contradict the control action. Where automatic means are provided to interrupt normal, nonemergency equipment operation or produce a specific result to safeguard the building or equipment including, but not limited to, duct freezestats, duct smoke detectors, high-temperature cutouts, temperature-actuated linkage and similar devices, such means shall be capable of being overridden by the fire fighter's control panel. The last control action as indicated by each fire fighter's control panel switch position shall prevail. Control actions shall not require the smoke control system to assume more than one configuration at any one time.

    Exception: Power disconnects required by NFPA 70.

  2. Only the AUTO position of each three-position firefighter's control panel switch shall allow automatic or manual control action from other control points within the building. The AUTO position shall be the NORMAL, nonemergency, building control position. Where a fire fighter's control panel is in the AUTO position, the actual status of the device (on, off, open, closed) shall continue to be indicated by the status indicator described in Section 909.16.1. Where directed by an automatic signal to assume an emergency condition, the NORMAL position shall become the emergency condition for that device or group of devices within the zone. Control actions shall not require the smoke control system to assume more than one configuration at any one time.
Smoke-control system activation shall be initiated immediately after receipt of an appropriate automatic or manual activation command. Smoke control systems shall activate individual components (such as dampers and fans) in the sequence necessary to prevent physical damage to the fans, dampers, ducts and other equipment. For purposes of smoke control, the fire fighter's control panel response time shall be the same for automatic or manual smoke control action initiated from any other building control point. The total response time, including that necessary for detection, shutdown of operating equipment and smoke control system startup, shall allow for full operational mode to be achieved before the conditions in the space exceed the design smoke condition. The system response time for each component and their sequential relationships shall be detailed in the required rational analysis and verification of their installed condition reported in the required final report.
Devices, equipment, components and sequences shall be individually tested. These tests, in addition to those required by other provisions of this code, shall consist of determination of function, sequence and, where applicable, capacity of their installed condition.
Smoke or fire detectors that are a part of a smoke control system shall be tested in accordance with Chapter 9 in their installed condition. Where applicable, this testing shall include verification of airflow in both minimum and maximum conditions.
Ducts that are part of a smoke control system shall be traversed using generally accepted practices to determine actual air quantities.
Dampers shall be tested for function in their installed condition.
Inlets and outlets shall be read using generally accepted practices to determine air quantities.
Fans shall be examined for correct rotation. Measurements of voltage, amperage, revolutions per minute and belt tension shall be made.
Measurements using inclined manometers or other approved calibrated measuring devices shall be made of the pressure differences across smoke barriers. Such measurements shall be conducted for each possible smoke control condition.
Each smoke zone equipped with an automatic-initiation device shall be put into operation by the actuation of one such device. Each additional device within the zone shall be verified to cause the same sequence without requiring the operation of fan motors in order to prevent damage. Control sequences shall be verified throughout the system, including verification of override from the fire fighter's control panel and simulation of standby power conditions.
Smoke control systems shall be tested by a special inspector in accordance with Section 1705.18 of the International Building Code.

Testing shall be conducted in accordance with the following:

  1. During erection of ductwork and prior to concealment for the purposes of leakage testing and recording of device location.
  2. Prior to occupancy and after sufficient completion for the purposes of pressure-difference testing, flow measurements, and detection and control verification.
Approved agencies for smoke control testing shall have expertise in fire protection engineering, mechanical engineering and certification as air balancers.
A complete report of testing shall be prepared by the approved agency. The report shall include identification of all devices by manufacturer, nameplate data, design values, measured values and identification tag or mark. The report shall be reviewed by the responsible registered design professional and, when satisfied that the design intent has been achieved, the responsible registered design professional shall sign, seal and date the report.
A copy of the final report shall be filed with the fire code official and an identical copy shall be maintained in an approved location at the building.
Charts, drawings and other documents identifying and locating each component of the smoke control system, and describing their proper function and maintenance requirements, shall be maintained on file at the building as an attachment to the report required by Section 909.18.8.3. Devices shall have an approved identifying tag or mark on them consistent with the other required documentation and shall be dated indicating the last time they were successfully tested and by whom.

Buildings, or portions thereof, required by this code to comply with this section shall not be issued a certificate of occupancy until such time that the fire code official determines that the provisions of this section have been fully complied with and that the fire department has received satisfactory instruction on the operation, both automatic and manual, of the system and a written maintenance program complying with the requirements of Section 909.20.1 has been submitted and approved by the fire code official.

Exception: In buildings of phased construction, a temporary certificate of occupancy, as approved by the fire code official, shall be allowed, provided that those portions of the building to be occupied meet the requirements of this section and that the remainder does not pose a significant hazard to the safety of the proposed occupants or adjacent buildings.

Smoke control systems shall be maintained to ensure to a reasonable degree that the system is capable of controlling smoke for the duration required. The system shall be maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and Sections 909.20.1 through 909.20.6.
A routine maintenance and operational testing program shall be initiated immediately after the smoke control system has passed the acceptance tests. A written schedule for routine maintenance and operational testing shall be established.
Records of smoke control system testing and maintenance shall be maintained. The record shall include the date of the maintenance, identification of the servicing personnel and notification of any unsatisfactory condition and the corrective action taken, including parts replaced.
Operational testing of the smoke control system shall include all equipment such as initiating devices, fans, dampers, controls, doors and windows.
Dedicated smoke control systems shall be operated for each control sequence semiannually. The system shall be tested under standby power conditions.
Nondedicated smoke control systems shall be operated for each control sequence annually. The system shall be tested under standby power conditions.
Where components of the smoke control system are bypassed by the preprogrammed weekly test required by Section 909.12.1, such components shall be tested semiannually. The system shall be tested under standby power conditions.
Where elevator hoistway pressurization is provided in lieu of required enclosed elevator lobbies, the pressurization system shall comply with Sections 909.21.1 through 909.21.11.

Elevator hoistways shall be pressurized to maintain a minimum positive pressure of 0.10 inch of water (25 Pa) and a maximum positive pressure of 0.25 inch of water (67 Pa) with respect to adjacent occupied space on all floors. This pressure shall be measured at the midpoint of each hoistway door, with all elevator cars at the floor of recall and all hoistway doors on the floor of recall open and all other hoistway doors closed. The pressure differentials shall be measured between the hoistway and the adjacent elevator landing. The opening and closing of hoistway doors at each level must be demonstrated during this test. The supply air intake shall be from an outside, uncontaminated source located a minimum distance of 20 feet (6096 mm) from any air exhaust system or outlet.

Exceptions:

  1. On floors containing only Group R occupancies, the pressure differential is permitted to be measured between the hoistway and a dwelling unit or sleeping unit.
  2. Where an elevator opens into a lobby enclosed in accordance with Section 3007.6 or 3008.6 of the International Building Code, the pressure differential is permitted to be measured between the hoistway and the space immediately outside the door(s) from the floor to the enclosed lobby.
  3. The pressure differential is permitted to be measured relative to the outdoor atmosphere on floors other than the following:

    1. 3.1. The fire floor.
    2. 3.2. The two floors immediately below the fire floor.
    3. 3.3. The floor immediately above the fire floor.
  4. The minimum positive pressure of 0.10 inch of water (25 Pa) and a maximum positive pressure of 0.25 inch of water (67 Pa) with respect to occupied floors is not required at the floor of recall with the doors open.
Ventilation systems, other than hoistway supply air systems, are permitted to be used to exhaust air from adjacent spaces on the fire floor, two floors immediately below and one floor immediately above the fire floor to the building's exterior where necessary to maintain positive pressure relationships as required in Section 909.21.1 during operation of the elevator shaft pressurization system.
A rational analysis complying with Section 909.4 shall be submitted with the construction documents.
Any duct system that is part of the pressurization system shall be protected with the same fire-resistance rating as required for the elevator shaft enclosure.
The fan system provided for the pressurization system shall be as required by Sections 909.21.4.1 through 909.21.4.4.
Where located within the building, the fan system that provides the pressurization shall be protected with the same fire-resistance rating required for the elevator shaft enclosure.
The fan system shall be equipped with a smoke detector that will automatically shut down the fan system when smoke is detected within the system.
A separate fan system shall be used for each elevator hoistway.
The supply fan shall be either adjustable with a capacity of not less than 1,000 cfm (0.4719 m3/s) per door, or that specified by a registered design professional to meet the requirements of a designed pressurization system.
The pressurization system shall be provided with standby power in accordance with Section 1203.
The elevator pressurization system shall be activated upon activation of either the building fire alarm system or the elevator lobby smoke detectors. Where both a building fire alarm system and elevator lobby smoke detectors are present, each shall be independently capable of activating the pressurization system.
Testing for performance shall be required in accordance with Section 909.18.8. System acceptance shall be in accordance with Section 909.19.
Detection and control systems shall be marked in accordance with Section 909.14.
Control diagrams shall be provided in accordance with Section 909.15.
A control panel complying with Section 909.16 shall be provided.