About this chapter: Chapter 9 prescribes the minimum requirements for active fire protection equipment systems to perform the functions of detecting a fire, alerting the occupants or fire department of a fire emergency, mass notification, gas detection, controlling smoke and controlling or extinguishing the fire. Generally, the requirements are based on the occupancy, the height and the area of the building, because these are the factors that most affect fire-fighting capabilities and the relative hazard of a specific building or portion thereof. This chapter parallels and is substantially duplicated in Chapter 9 of the International Building Code®; however, this chapter also contains periodic testing criteria that are not contained in the International Building Code In addition, the special fire protection systemrequirements based on use and occupancy found in Chapter 4 of the International Building Code are duplicated in this chapter as a user convenience.
Fire protection systems shall be inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the referenced standards listed in Table 901.6.1.
FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM MAINTENANCE STANDARDS
|Portable fire extinguishers||NFPA 10|
|Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system||NFPA 12|
|Halon 1301 fire-extinguishing systems||NFPA 12A|
|Dry-chemical extinguishing systems||NFPA 17|
|Wet-chemical extinguishing systems||NFPA 17A|
|Water-based fire protection systems||NFPA 25|
|Fire alarm systems||NFPA 72|
|Smoke and heat vents||NFPA 204|
|Water-mist systems||NFPA 750|
|Clean-agent extinguishing systems||NFPA 2001|
|Aerosol fire-extinguishing systems||NFPA 2010|
Where a required fire protection system is out of service, the fire department and the fire code official shall be notified immediately and, where required by the fire code official, the building shall be either evacuated or an approved fire watch shall be provided for all occupants left unprotected by the shutdown until the fire protection system has been returned to service.
Where utilized, fire watches shall be provided with not less than one approved means for notification of the fire department and their only duty shall be to perform constant patrols of the protected premises and keep watch for fires.
Preplanned impairments shall be authorized by the impairment coordinator. Before authorization is given, a designated individual shall be responsible for verifying that all of the following procedures have been implemented:
- The extent and expected duration of the impairment have been determined.
- The areas or buildings involved have been inspected and the increased risks determined.
- Recommendations have been submitted to management or the building owner/manager.
- The fire department has been notified.
- The insurance carrier, the alarm company, the building owner/manager and other authorities having jurisdiction have been notified.
- The supervisors in the areas to be affected have been notified.
- A tag impairment system has been implemented.
- Necessary tools and materials have been assembled on the impairment site.
Where impaired equipment is restored to normal working order, the impairment coordinator shall verify that all of the following procedures have been implemented:
- Necessary inspections and tests have been conducted to verify that affected systems are operational.
- Supervisors have been advised that protection is restored.
- The fire department has been advised that protection is restored.
- The building owner/manager, insurance carrier, alarm company and other involved parties have been advised that protection is restored.
- The impairment tag has been removed.
Any fire protection system component regulated by this code that is the subject of a voluntary or mandatory recall under federal law shall be replaced with approved, listed components in compliance with the referenced standards of this code. The fire code official shall be notified in writing by the building owner when the recalled component parts have been replaced.
The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:
FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL.
- Approved automatic sprinkler systems for proposed (new) buildings and structures approved for construction as set forth in 103.3.1 of this Code, or where specifically required for existing buildings and structures, shall as the minimum level of protection, be that required by the applicable provisions of NFPA 101, Life Safety Code and applicable provisions of other codes and standards adopted by Chapter 120-3-3 of the Rules and Regulations of the Georgia Safety Fire Commissioner, and this Code section; provided, however, the International Building Code (IBC) shall govern the requirements for sprinkler protection that are related to minimum building construction types, or to increases in building area and height limitations imposed by the IBC. (Refer to Table 102.13, CODES REFERENCE GUIDE)
- Where a new automatic sprinkler system is required by this Code or other code, standard, rule or regulation, the system shall be designed and installed in accordance with the requirements applicable to systems in proposed (new) buildings and structures.
- In addition, an automatic sprinkler system may be required for new or existing buildings, structures, spaces, or conditions by other NFPA standards adopted by this Chapter 120-3-3, or other Rules and Regulations of the Safety Fire Commissioner.
- The requirements for the installation, design, and testing of automatic sprinkler systems shall be as applicable, NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, NFPA 13R, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in Residential Occupancies up to and Including Four Stories in Height; and NFPA 13D, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in One- and Two-Family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes, or as adopted and modified by this Chapter 120-3-3.
Automatic sprinklers shall not be required in the following rooms or areas where such rooms or areas are protected with an approved automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 that will respond to visible or invisible particles of combustion. Sprinklers shall not be omitted from a room merely because it is damp, of fire-resistance-rated construction or contains electrical equipment.
- A room where the application of water, or flame and water, constitutes a serious life or fire hazard.
- A room or space where sprinklers are considered undesirable because of the nature of the contents, where approved by the fire code official.
- Generator and transformer rooms separated from the remainder of the building by walls and floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assemblies having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours.
- Rooms or areas that are of noncombustible construction with wholly noncombustible contents.
- Fire service access elevator machine rooms and machinery spaces.
- Machine rooms, machinery spaces, control rooms and control spaces associated with occupant evacuation elevators designed in accordance with Section 3008 of the International Building Code.
Automatic sprinkler systems in Group R occupancies up to and including four stories in height in buildings not exceeding 60 feet (18 288 mm) in height above grade plane shall be permitted to be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13R.
The number of stories of Group R occupancies constructed in accordance with Sections 510.2 and 510.4 of the International Building Code shall be measured from the horizontal assembly creating separate buildings.
- The building is of Type V construction, provided that there is a roof or deck above.
- Exterior balconies, decks and ground floor patios of dwelling units and sleeping units are constructed in accordance with Section 705.2.3.1, Exception 3 of the International Building Code.
Sidewall sprinklers that are used to protect such areas shall be permitted to be located such that their deflectors are within 1 inch (25 mm) to 6 inches (152 mm) below the structural members and a maximum distance of 14 inches (356 mm) below the deck of the exterior balconies and decks that are constructed of open wood joist construction.
Attic protection shall be provided as follows:
- Attics that are used or intended for living purposes or storage shall be protected by an automatic sprinkler system.
- Where fuel-fired equipment is installed in an unsprinklered attic, not fewer than one quick-response intermediate temperature sprinkler shall be installed above the equipment.
- 4.1. Provide automatic sprinkler system protection.
- 4.2. Provide a heat detection system throughout the attic that is arranged to activate the building fire alarm system.
- 4.3. Construct the attic using noncombustible materials.
- 4.4. Construct the attic using fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Section 2303.2 of the International Building Code.
- 4.5. Fill the attic with noncombustible insulation.
Where automatic sprinkler systems are required by this code, quick-response or residential automatic sprinklers shall be installed in all of the following areas in accordance with Section 903.3.1 and their listings:
- Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment containing care recipient sleeping units in Group I-2 in accordance with the International Building Code.
- Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment containing treatment rooms in ambulatory care facilities.
- Dwelling units and sleeping units in Group I-1 and R occupancies.
- Light-hazard occupancies as defined in NFPA 13.
Automatic sprinklers shall be installed with regard to obstructions that will delay activation or obstruct the water distribution pattern and shall be in accordance with the applicable automatic sprinkler system standard that is being used. Automatic sprinklers shall be installed in or under covered kiosks, displays, booths, concession stands or equipment that exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm) in width. Not less than a 3-foot (914 mm) clearance shall be maintained between automatic sprinklers and the top of piles of combustible fibers.
Valves controlling the water supply for automatic sprinkler systems, pumps, tanks, water levels and temperatures, critical air pressures and waterflow switches on all sprinkler systems shall be electrically supervised by a listed fire alarm control unit.
- Automatic sprinkler systems protecting one- and two-family dwellings.
- Limited area sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.3.8.
- Automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance with NFPA 13R where a common supply main is used to supply both domestic water and the automatic sprinkler system, and a separate shutoff valve for the automatic sprinkler system is not provided.
- Jockey pump control valves that are sealed or locked in the open position.
- Control valves to commercial kitchen hoods, paint spray booths or dip tanks that are sealed or locked in the open position.
- Valves controlling the fuel supply to fire pump engines that are sealed or locked in the open position.
- Trim valves to pressure switches in dry, preaction and deluge sprinkler systems that are sealed or locked in the open position.
Alarm, supervisory and trouble signals shall be distinctly different and shall be automatically transmitted to an approved supervising station or, where approved by the fire code official, shall sound an audible signal at a constantly attended location.
- Underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes provided by the municipality or public utility are not required to be monitored.
- Backflow prevention device test valves located in limited area sprinkler system supply piping shall be locked in the open position. In occupancies required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, the backflow preventer valves shall be electrically supervised by a tamper switch installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and separately annunciated.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be automatically actuated and provided with a manual means of actuation in accordance with Section 904.12.1. Where more than one hazard could be simultaneously involved in fire due to their proximity, all hazards shall be protected by a single system designed to protect all hazards that could become involved.
Exception: Multiple systems shall be permitted to be installed if they are designed to operate simultaneously.
Prior to conducting final acceptance tests, all of the following items shall be inspected:
- Hazard specification for consistency with design hazard.
- Type, location and spacing of automatic- and manual-initiating devices.
- Size, placement and position of nozzles or discharge orifices.
- Location and identification of audible and visible alarm devices.
- Identification of devices with proper designations.
- Operating instructions.
Cooktops and ranges installed in the following occupancies shall be protected in accordance with Section 904.13.1:
- In Group I-1 occupancies where domestic cooking facilities are installed in accordance with Section 420.8 of the International Building Code.
- In Group I-2, Condition 1 occupancies where domestic cooking facilities are installed in accordance with Section 407.2.6 of the International Building Code.
- In Group R-2 college dormitories where domestic cooking facilities are installed in accordance with Section 420.10 of the International Building Code.
- The automatic fire-extinguishing system shall be of a type recognized for protection of domestic cooking equipment. Preengineered automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 300A and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
- Manual actuation of the fire-extinguishing system shall be provided in accordance with Section 904.12.1.
- Interconnection of the fuel and electric power supply shall be in accordance with Section 904.12.2.
Aerosol fire-extinguishing systems shall be installed, periodically inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with Sections 901 and 904.4, NFPA 2010, and in accordance with their listing.
Such devices and appurtenances shall be listed and installed in compliance with manufacturer's instructions.
Class III standpipe systems shall be installed throughout buildings where any of the following conditions exist:
- Four or more stories are above or below grade plane.
- The floor level of the highest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) above the lowest level of the fire department vehicle access.
- The floor level of the lowest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the highest level of fire department vehicle access.
- Class I standpipes are allowed in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
- Class I standpipes are allowed in Group B and E occupancies.
- Class I manual standpipes are allowed in open parking garages where the highest floor is located not more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.
- Class I manual dry standpipes are allowed in open parking garages that are subject to freezing temperatures, provided that the hose connections are located as required for Class II standpipes in accordance with Section 905.5.
- Class I standpipes are allowed in basements equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system.
- Class I standpipes are allowed in buildings where occupant-use hose lines will not be utilized by trained personnel or the fire department.
- 7.1. Recessed loading docks for four vehicles or less.
- 7.2. Conditions where topography makes access from the fire department vehicle to the building impractical or impossible.
Covered mall and open mall buildings shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system where required by Section 905.3.1. Mall buildings not required to be equipped with a standpipe system by Section 905.3.1 shall be equipped with Class I hose connections connected to the automatic sprinkler system sized to deliver water at 250 gallons per minute (946.4 L/min) at the hydraulically most remote hose connection while concurrently supplying the automatic sprinkler system demand. The standpipe system shall be designed not to exceed a 50 pounds per square inch (psi) (345 kPa) residual pressure loss with a flow of 250 gallons per minute (946.4 L/min) from the fire department connection to the hydraulically most remote hose connection. Hose connections shall be provided at each of the following locations:
- Within the mall at the entrance to each exit passageway or corridor.
- At each floor-level landing within interior exit stairways opening directly on the mall.
- At exterior public entrances to the mall of a covered mall building.
- At public entrances at the perimeter line of an open mall building.
- At other locations as necessary so that the distance to reach all portions of a tenant space does not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a hose connection.
Stages greater than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) in area shall be equipped with a Class III wet standpipe system with 11/2-inch and 21/2-inch (38 mm and 64 mm) hose connections on each side of the stage.
Exception: Where the building or area is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system, a 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose connection shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13 or in accordance with NFPA 14 for Class II or III standpipes.
Class I standpipe hose connections shall be provided in all of the following locations:
- In covered mall buildings, adjacent to each exterior public entrance to the mall and adjacent to each entrance from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the mall. In open mall buildings, adjacent to each public entrance to the mall at the perimeter line and adjacent to each entrance from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the mall.
- Where the roof has a slope less than four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33.3-percent slope), a hose connection shall be located to serve the roof or at the highest landing of an interior exit stairway with access to the roof provided in accordance with Section 1011.12.
- Where the most remote portion of a nonsprinklered floor or story is more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) from a hose connection or the most remote portion of a sprinklered floor or story is more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a hose connection, the fire code official is authorized to require that additional hose connections be provided in approved locations.
Risers and laterals of Class I standpipe systems not located within an interior exit stairway shall be protected by a degree of fire resistance equal to that required for vertical enclosures in the building in which they are located.
Exception: In buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system, laterals that are not located within an interior exit stairway are not required to be enclosed within fire-resistance-rated construction.
Cabinets shall be identified in an approved manner by a permanently attached sign with letters not less than 2 inches (51 mm) high in a color that contrasts with the background color, indicating the equipment contained therein.
- Doors not large enough to accommodate a written sign shall be marked with a permanently attached pictogram of the equipment contained therein.
- Doors that have either an approved visual identification clear glass panel or a complete glass door panel are not required to be marked.
Dry standpipes shall not be installed.
Exception: Where subject to freezing and in accordance with NFPA 14.
Valves controlling water supplies shall be supervised in the open position so that a change in the normal position of the valve will generate a supervisory signal at the supervising station required by Section 903.4. Where a fire alarm system is provided, a signal shall be transmitted to the control unit.
- Valves to underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes provided by the municipality or public utility do not require supervision.
- Valves locked in the normal position and inspected as provided in this code in buildings not equipped with a fire alarm system.
- Electronic monitoring shall confirm that extinguishers are properly positioned, properly charged and unobstructed.
- Loss of power or circuit continuity to the electronic monitoring device shall initiate a trouble signal.
- The extinguishers shall be installed inside of a building or cabinet in a noncorrosive environment.
- Electronic monitoring devices and supervisory circuits shall be tested every three years when extinguisher maintenance is performed.
- A written log of required hydrostatic test dates for extinguishers shall be maintained by the owner to ensure that hydrostatic tests are conducted at the frequency required by NFPA 10.
- The room in which such extinguishers are placed are located in close proximity to that portion of the corridor where a fire extinguisher would otherwise be placed in accordance with NFPA 10; Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers,
- A sign which states in white letters at least one inch in height on a red background, 'FIRE EXTINGUISHER LOCATED IN THIS ROOM,' is placed on the corridor wall immediately adjacent to the entrance way of each such room so that it can be clearly seen at all times;
- The rooms in which such extinguishers are placed shall be constantly supervised during school hours; and,
- Those rooms cannot be subject to being locked at any time the building is occupied.
Exception: Devices or equipment that are inaccessible because of safety considerations shall be tested during scheduled shutdowns where approved by the fire code official, but not less than every 18 months.
To verify that each smoke detector is within its listed and marked sensitivity range, it shall be tested using one of the following methods:
- A calibrated test method.
- The manufacturer's calibrated sensitivity test instrument.
- Listed control equipment arranged for the purpose.
- A smoke detector/control unit arrangement whereby the detector causes a signal at the control unit where the detector's sensitivity is outside its acceptable sensitivity range.
- Another calibrated sensitivity test method acceptable to the fire code official.
Detectors found to have a sensitivity outside the listed and marked sensitivity range shall be cleaned and recalibrated or replaced.
- Detectors listed as field adjustable shall be permitted to be either adjusted within the listed and marked sensitivity range and cleaned and recalibrated or they shall be replaced.
- This requirement shall not apply to single-station smoke alarms.
- NFPA 92, Standard for Smoke Control Systems
- NFPA SPP-53, Smoke Control in Fire Safety Design
- ASHRAE/SFPE, Design of Smoke Management Systems
- ASHRAE, Guideline 5: Guideline for Commissioning Smoke Management Systems
- NFPA 101, Life Safety Code (For non-mandatory guidance involving systems for existing detention and correction facilities refer to A.220.127.116.11 of the 2012 Edition)
Smoke barriers required for passive smoke control and a smoke control system using the pressurization method shall comply with Section 709 of the International Building Code. The maximum allowable leakage area shall be the aggregate area calculated using the following leakage area ratios:
- Walls: A/Aw = 0.00100
- Interior exit stairways and ramps and exit passageways: A/Aw = 0.00035
- Enclosed exit access stairways and ramps and all other shafts: A/Aw = 0.00150
- Floors and roofs: A/AF = 0.00050
A =Total leakage area, square feet (m2).
AF = Unit floor or roof area of barrier, square feet (m2).
Aw = Unit wall area of barrier, square feet (m2).
The leakage area ratios shown do not include openings due to gaps around doors and operable windows. The total leakage area of the smoke barrier shall be determined in accordance with Section 909.5.1 and tested in accordance with Section 909.5.2.
Openings in smoke barriers shall be protected by automatic-closing devices actuated by the required controls for the mechanical smoke control system. Door openings shall be protected by fire door assemblies complying with Section 716 of the International Building Code.
- Passive smoke control systems with automatic-closing devices actuated by spot-type smoke detectors listed for releasing service installed in accordance with Section 907.3.
- Fixed openings between smoke zones that are protected utilizing the airflow method.
- In Group I-1, Condition 2; Group I-2; and ambulatory care facilities, where a pair of opposite-swinging doors are installed across a corridor in accordance with Section 909.5.3.1, the doors shall not be required to be protected in accordance with Section 716 of the International Building Code. The doors shall be close-fitting within operational tolerances and shall not have a center mullion or undercuts in excess of 3/4-inch (19.1 mm) louvers or grilles. The doors shall have head and jamb stops and astragals or rabbets at meeting edges and, where permitted by the door manufacturer's listing, positive-latching devices are not required.
- In Group I-2 and ambulatory care facilities, where such doors are special-purpose horizontal sliding, accordion or folding door assemblies installed in accordance with Section 1010.1.4.3 and are automatic closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 718.104.22.168 of the International Building Code.
- Group I-3.
- Openings between smoke zones with clear ceiling heights of 14 feet (4267 mm) or greater and bank-down capacity of greater than 20 minutes as determined by the design fire size.
In buildings permitted to be other than fully sprinklered, the smoke control system shall be designed to achieve pressure differences not less than two times the maximum calculated pressure difference produced by the design fire.
The maximum air pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be determined by required door-opening or closing forces. The actual force required to open exit doors when the system is in the smoke control mode shall be in accordance with Section 1010.1.3. Opening and closing forces for other doors shall be determined by standard engineering methods for the resolution of forces and reactions. The calculated force to set a side-hinged, swinging door in motion shall be determined by:
A = Door area, square feet (m2).
d = Distance from door handle to latch edge of door, feet (m).
F = Total door opening force, pounds (N).
Fdc = Force required to overcome closing device, pounds (N).
K = Coefficient 5.2 (1.0).
W = Door width, feet (m).
ΔP = Design pressure difference, inches of water (Pa).
Components of exhaust fans shall be rated and certified by the manufacturer for the probable temperature rise to which the components will be exposed. This temperature rise shall be computed by:
c = Specific heat of smoke at smoke layer temperature, Btu/lb°F • (kJ/kg • K).
m = Exhaust rate, pounds per second (kg/s).
Qc = Convective heat output of fire, Btu/s (kW).
Ta = Ambient temperature, °F (K).
Ts = Smoke temperature, °F (K).
Exception: Reduced Ts as calculated based on the assurance of adequate dilution air.
Duct materials and joints shall be capable of withstanding the probable temperatures and pressures to which they are exposed as determined in accordance with Section 909.10.1. Ducts shall be constructed and supported in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. Ducts shall be leak tested to 1.5 times the maximum design pressure in accordance with nationally accepted practices. Measured leakage shall not exceed 5 percent of design flow. Results of such testing shall be a part of the documentation procedure. Ducts shall be supported directly from fire-resistance-rated structural elements of the building by substantial, noncombustible supports.
In addition to other requirements, belt-driven fans shall have 1.5 times the number of belts required for the design duty with the minimum number of belts being two. Fans shall be selected for stable performance based on normal temperature and, where applicable, elevated temperature. Calculations and manufacturer's fan curves shall be part of the documentation procedures. Fans shall be supported and restrained by noncombustible devices in accordance with the structural design requirements of Chapter 16 of the International Building Code.
Motors driving fans shall not be operated beyond their nameplate horsepower (kilowatts) as determined from measurement of actual current draw and shall have a minimum service factor of 1.15.
Control systems for mechanical smoke control systems shall include provisions for verification. Verification shall include positive confirmation of actuation, testing, manual override and the presence of power downstream of all disconnects. A preprogrammed weekly test sequence shall report abnormal conditions audibly, visually and by printed report. The preprogrammed weekly test shall operate all devices, equipment, and components used for smoke control.
Exception: Where verification of individual components tested through the preprogrammed weekly testing sequence will interfere with, and produce unwanted effects to, normal building operation, such individual components are permitted to be bypassed from the preprogrammed weekly testing, where approved by the fire code official and in accordance with both of the following:
- Where the operation of components is bypassed from the preprogrammed weekly test, presence of power downstream of all disconnects shall be verified weekly by a listed control unit.
- Testing of all components bypassed from the preprogrammed weekly test shall be in accordance with Section 909.20.6.
Control air tubing shall be hard drawn copper, Type L, ACR in accordance with ASTM B42, ASTM B43, ASTM B68, ASTM B88, ASTM B251 and ASTM B280. Fittings shall be wrought copper or brass, solder type, in accordance with ASME B16.18 or ASME B16.22. Changes in direction shall be made with appropriate tool bends. Brass compression-type fittings shall be used at final connection to devices; other joints shall be brazed using a BCuP5 brazing alloy with solidus above 1,100°F (593°C) and liquidus below 1,500°F (816°C). Brazing flux shall be used on copper-to-brass joints only.
Exception: Nonmetallic tubing used within control panels and at the final connection to devices, provided that all of the following conditions are met:
- Tubing shall comply with the requirements of Section 602.2.1.3 of the International Mechanical Code.
- Tubing and the connected device shall be completely enclosed within a galvanized or paint-grade steel enclosure having a minimum thickness of 0.0296 inch (0.7534 mm) (No. 22 gage). Entry to the enclosure shall be by copper tubing with a protective grommet of neoprene or Teflon or by suitable brass compression to male-barbed adapter.
- Tubing shall be identified by appropriately documented coding.
- Tubing shall be neatly tied and supported within the enclosure. Tubing bridging cabinets and doors or moveable devices shall be of sufficient length to avoid tension and excessive stress. Tubing shall be protected against abrasion. Tubing connected to devices on doors shall be fastened along hinges.
Fans within the building shall be shown on the fire fighter's control panel. A clear indication of the direction of airflow and the relationship of components shall be displayed. Status indicators shall be provided for all smoke control equipment, annunciated by fan and zone and by pilot-lamp-type indicators as follows:
- Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their normal status—WHITE.
- Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their off or closed status—RED.
- Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their on or open status—GREEN.
- Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in a fault status—YELLOW/AMBER.
The fire fighter's control panel shall provide control capability over the complete smoke control system equipment within the building as follows:
- ON-AUTO-OFF control over each individual piece of operating smoke control equipment that can be controlled from other sources within the building. This includes stairway pressurization fans; smoke exhaust fans; supply, return and exhaust fans; elevator shaft fans; and other operating equipment used or intended for smoke control purposes.
- OPEN-AUTO-CLOSE control over individual dampers relating to smoke control and that are controlled from other sources within the building.
- ON-OFF or OPEN-CLOSE control over smoke control and other critical equipment associated with a fire or smoke emergency and that can only be controlled from the fire fighter's control panel.
The fire fighter's control panel actions shall be as follows:
- Only the AUTO position of each three-position firefighter's control panel switch shall allow automatic or manual control action from other control points within the building. The AUTO position shall be the NORMAL, nonemergency, building control position. Where a fire fighter's control panel is in the AUTO position, the actual status of the device (on, off, open, closed) shall continue to be indicated by the status indicator described in Section 909.16.1. Where directed by an automatic signal to assume an emergency condition, the NORMAL position shall become the emergency condition for that device or group of devices within the zone. Control actions shall not require the smoke control system to assume more than one configuration at any one time.
Testing shall be conducted in accordance with the following:
- During erection of ductwork and prior to concealment for the purposes of leakage testing and recording of device location.
- Prior to occupancy and after sufficient completion for the purposes of pressure-difference testing, flow measurements, and detection and control verification.
Buildings, or portions thereof, required by this code to comply with this section shall not be issued a certificate of occupancy until such time that the fire code official determines that the provisions of this section have been fully complied with and that the fire department has received satisfactory instruction on the operation, both automatic and manual, of the system and a written maintenance program complying with the requirements of Section 909.20.1 has been submitted and approved by the fire code official.
Exception: In buildings of phased construction, a temporary certificate of occupancy, as approved by the fire code official, shall be allowed, provided that those portions of the building to be occupied meet the requirements of this section and that the remainder does not pose a significant hazard to the safety of the proposed occupants or adjacent buildings.
Elevator hoistways shall be pressurized to maintain a minimum positive pressure of 0.10 inch of water (25 Pa) and a maximum positive pressure of 0.25 inch of water (67 Pa) with respect to adjacent occupied space on all floors. This pressure shall be measured at the midpoint of each hoistway door, with all elevator cars at the floor of recall and all hoistway doors on the floor of recall open and all other hoistway doors closed. The pressure differentials shall be measured between the hoistway and the adjacent elevator landing. The opening and closing of hoistway doors at each level must be demonstrated during this test. The supply air intake shall be from an outside, uncontaminated source located a minimum distance of 20 feet (6096 mm) from any air exhaust system or outlet.
- On floors containing only Group R occupancies, the pressure differential is permitted to be measured between the hoistway and a dwelling unit or sleeping unit.
- Where an elevator opens into a lobby enclosed in accordance with Section 3007.6 or 3008.6 of the International Building Code, the pressure differential is permitted to be measured between the hoistway and the space immediately outside the door(s) from the floor to the enclosed lobby.
- 3.1. The fire floor.
- 3.2. The two floors immediately below the fire floor.
- 3.3. The floor immediately above the fire floor.
- The minimum positive pressure of 0.10 inch of water (25 Pa) and a maximum positive pressure of 0.25 inch of water (67 Pa) with respect to occupied floors is not required at the floor of recall with the doors open.