ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Fire Code 2018 (IFC 2018)

Part I — Administrative

Part II — General Safety Provisions

Part III — Building and Equipment Design Features

Part IV — Special Occupancies and Operations

Part V — Hazardous Materials

Part VI — Referenced Standards

Part VII — Appendices

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.

User note:

About this chapter: Chapter 6 focuses on building systems and services as they relate to potential safety hazards and when and how they should be installed. This chapter brings together all building system- and service-related issues for convenience and provides a more systematic view of buildings. The following building services and systems are addressed: fuel-fired appliances, electrical equipment, wiring and hazards, mechanical refrigeration, elevator operation, maintenance and fire service keys, commercial kitchen hoods, commercial kitchen cooking oil storage and hyperbaric facilities. Note that building systems focused on energy systems and components are addressed by Chapter 12.

The provisions of this chapter shall apply to the installation, operation and maintenance of fuel-fired appliances and heating systems, electrical systems and equipment, mechanical refrigeration systems, elevator recall and commercial kitchen equipment.

Permits shall be obtained for refrigeration systems, as set forth in Sections 105.6 and 105.7.

The installation of nonportable gas-fired appliances and systems shall comply with the International Fuel Gas Code. The installation of nonportable liquid fuelfired appliances and systems shall comply with this section and the International Mechanical Code. The installation of all other fuel-fired appliances, other than portable internal combustion engines, oil lamps and other portable devices such as blow torches, melting pots and weed burners, shall comply with this section and the International Mechanical Code.
The installation shall be made in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and applicable federal, state and local rules and regulations. Where it becomes necessary to change, modify or alter a manufacturer's instructions in any way, written approval shall first be obtained from the manufacturer.
The design, construction and installation of fuel-fired appliances shall be in accordance with the International Fuel Gas Code and the International Mechanical Code.
Electrical wiring and equipment used in connection with oil-burning equipment shall be installed and maintained in accordance with Section 604 and NFPA 70.
The grade of fuel oil used in a burner shall be that for which the burner is approved and as stipulated by the burner manufacturer. Oil containing gasoline shall not be used. Waste crankcase oil shall be an acceptable fuel in Group F, M and S occupancies where utilized in equipment listed for use with waste oil and where such equipment is installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and the terms of its listing.
The installation shall be provided with access to equipment for cleaning hot surfaces; removing burners; replacing motors, controls, air filters, chimney connectors, draft regulators and other working parts; and for adjusting, cleaning and lubricating parts.
After installation of the oil-burning equipment, operation and combustion performance tests shall be conducted to determine that the burner is in proper operating condition and that all accessory equipment, controls, and safety devices function properly.
Contractors installing industrial oil-burning systems shall furnish not less than two copies of diagrams showing the main oil lines and controlling valves, one copy of which shall be posted at the oil-burning equipment and another at an approved location that will be available in case of emergency.
After completing the installation, the installer shall instruct the owner or operator in the proper operation of the equipment. The installer shall furnish the owner or operator with the name and telephone number of persons to contact for technical information or assistance and routine or emergency services.
Working clearances between oil-fired appliances and electrical panelboards and equipment shall be in accordance with NFPA 70. Clearances between oil-fired equipment and oil supply tanks shall be in accordance with NFPA 31.
Masonry chimneys shall be constructed in accordance with the International Building Code. Factory-built chimneys shall be installed in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. Metal chimneys shall be constructed and installed in accordance with NFPA 211.
Fuel oil storage systems shall be installed in accordance with this code. Fuel-oil piping systems shall be installed in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.
Where connected to a fuel-oil piping system, the maximum amount of fuel oil storage allowed outside above ground without additional protection shall be 660 gallons (2498 L). The storage of fuel oil above ground in quantities exceeding 660 gallons (2498 L) shall comply with NFPA 31.
Fuel oil storage inside buildings shall comply with Sections 603.3.2.1 through 603.3.2.7 or Chapter 57.

One or more fuel oil storage tanks containing Class II or III combustible liquid shall be permitted in a building. The aggregate capacity of all tanks shall not exceed the following:

  1. 660 gallons (2498 L) in unsprinklered buildings, where stored in a tank complying with UL 80, UL 142 or UL 2085.
  2. 1,320 gallons (4996 L) in buildings equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, where stored in a tank complying with UL 142.
  3. 3,000 gallons (11 356 L) where stored in protected above-ground tanks complying with UL 2085 and Section 5704.2.9.7 and the room is protected by an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
Tanks installed in accordance with Section 603.3.2 shall be used only to supply fuel oil to fuel-burning equipment, generators or fire pumps installed in accordance with Section 603.3.2.4. Connections between tanks and equipment supplied by such tanks shall be made using closed piping systems.
The quantity of combustible liquid stored in tanks complying with Section 603.3.2 shall not be counted towards the maximum allowable quantity set forth in Table 5003.1.1(1), and such tanks shall not be required to be located in a control area.
Tanks and piping systems shall be installed in accordance with Section 915 and Chapter 13, both of the International Mechanical Code, as applicable.

Rooms containing fuel oil tanks for internal combustion engines shall be separated from the remainder of the building by fire barriers, horizontal assemblies, or both, with a minimum 1-hour fire-resistance rating with 1-hour fire-protection-rated opening protectives constructed in accordance with the International Building Code.

Exception: Rooms containing protected above-ground tanks complying with Section 5704.2.9.7 shall not be required to be separated from surrounding areas.

Tanks exceeding 55-gallon (208 L) capacity or an aggregate capacity of 1,000 gallons (3785 L) that are not provided with integral secondary containment shall be provided with spill containment sized to contain a release from the largest tank.
Tanks in basements shall be located not more than two stories below grade plane.
The storage of fuel oil in underground storage tanks shall comply with NFPA 31.

603.4 Portable Unvented Heaters

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

Portable unvented fuel-fired heating equipment shall be prohibited in occupancies in Groups A, E, I, R-1, R-2, R-3 and R-4 and ambulatory care facilities.


Exceptions:

  1. In one- and two-family dwellings portable unvented fuel-fired heaters, where approved and listed in accordance with UL 647.
  2. Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances in accordance with Section 603.4.2.
  3. In emergency conditions, when approved by the authority having jurisdiction, equipment designed to be portable may be used for a specified time provided such equipment is properly protected and separated from combustibles as specified by the manufacturer's instructions and the authority having jurisdiction. Such devices shall be supervised during their period of operation by the establishment of a fire watch system based on the definition of "Fire Watch" in Chapter 2 of this Code. Persons assigned to perform fire watch duties shall be instructed as to their duties.
Unvented fuel-fired heating equipment shall not be located in, or obtain combustion air from, any of the following rooms or spaces: sleeping rooms, bathrooms, toilet rooms or storage closets.
Portable gas-fired heating appliances located outdoors shall be in accordance with Sections 603.4.2.1 through 603.4.2.3.4.
Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be located in accordance with Sections 603.4.2.1.1 through 603.4.2.1.4.

The storage or use of portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances is prohibited in any of the following locations:

  1. Inside of any occupancy where connected to the fuel gas container.
  2. Inside of tents, canopies and membrane structures.
  3. On exterior balconies.

    Exception: As allowed in Section 6.22 of NFPA 58.

Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be located not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) from buildings.
Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall not be located beneath, or closer than 5 feet (1524 mm) to combustible decorations and combustible overhangs, awnings, sunshades or similar combustible attachments to buildings.
Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall not be located within 5 feet (1524 mm) of exits or exit discharges.
Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be installed and operated in accordance with Sections 603.4.2.2.1 through 603.4.2.2.4.
Only listed and approved portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances utilizing a fuel gas container that is integral to the appliance shall be used.
Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be equipped with a tilt or tip-over switch that automatically shuts off the flow of gas if the appliance is tilted more than 15 degrees (0.26 rad) from the vertical.
The heating element or combustion chamber of portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be permanently guarded so as to prevent accidental contact by persons or material.
Fuel gas containers for portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall comply with Sections 603.4.2.3.1 through 603.4.2.3.4.
Only approved DOTn or ASME gas containers shall be used.
Replacement of fuel gas containers in portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall not be conducted while the public is present.
The maximum individual capacity of gas containers used in connection with portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall not exceed 20 pounds (9 kg).
Gas containers shall not be stored inside of buildings except in accordance with Section 6109.9.
Heating appliances shall be listed and shall comply with Sections 603.5.1 and 603.5.2.
The heating element or combustion chamber shall be permanently guarded so as to prevent accidental contact by persons or material.
Heating appliances shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, the International Building Code, the International Mechanical Code, the International Fuel Gas Code and NFPA 70.
Chimneys, incinerators, smokestacks or similar devices for conveying smoke or hot gases to the outer air and the stoves, furnaces, fireboxes or boilers to which such devices are connected, shall be maintained so as not to create a fire hazard.
Masonry chimneys that, upon inspection, are found to be without a flue liner and that have open mortar joints which will permit smoke or gases to be discharged into the building, or which are cracked as to be dangerous, shall be repaired or relined with a listed chimney liner system installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions or a flue lining system installed in accordance with the requirements of the International Building Code and appropriate for the intended class of chimney service.
Metal chimneys that are corroded or improperly supported shall be repaired or replaced.
Decorative shrouds installed at the termination of factory-built chimneys shall be removed except where such shrouds are listed and labeled for use with the specific factory-built chimney system and are installed in accordance with the chimney manufacturer's instructions.
Existing factory-built chimneys that are damaged, corroded or improperly supported shall be repaired or replaced.
Existing chimney and vent connectors that are damaged, corroded or improperly supported shall be repaired or replaced.
The fire code official is authorized to order that measures be taken to prevent the operation of any existing stove, oven, furnace, incinerator, boiler or any other heat-producing device or appliance found to be defective or in violation of code requirements for existing appliances after giving notice to this effect to any person, owner, firm or agent or operator in charge of the same. The fire code official is authorized to take measures to prevent the operation of any device or appliance without notice when inspection shows the existence of an immediate fire hazard or when imperiling human life. The defective device shall remain withdrawn from service until all necessary repairs or alterations have been made.
It shall be a violation of this code for any person, user, firm or agent to continue the utilization of any device or appliance (the operation of which has been discontinued or ordered discontinued in accordance with Section 603.7) unless written authority to resume operation is given by the fire code official. Removing or breaking the means by which operation of the device is prevented shall be a violation of this code.
Commercial, industrial and residential-type incinerators and chimneys shall be constructed in accordance with the International Building Code, the International Fuel Gas Code and the International Mechanical Code.
Residential incinerators shall be of an approved type.
Incinerators shall be equipped with an effective means for arresting sparks.
Where the fire code official determines that burning in incinerators located within 500 feet (152 m) of mountainous, brush or grass-covered areas will create an undue fire hazard because of atmospheric conditions, such burning shall be prohibited.
Burning shall take place only during approved hours.
The fire code official is authorized to require incinerator use to be discontinued immediately if the fire code official determines that smoke emissions are offensive to occupants of surrounding property or if the use of incinerators is determined by the fire code official to constitute a hazardous condition.
In Group I-2 occupancies, the continued use of existing flue-fed incinerators is prohibited.
Incinerators in Group I-2 occupancies shall be inspected not less than annually in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Inspection records shall be maintained on the premises and made available to the fire code official upon request
Above-ground gas meters, regulators and piping subject to damage shall be protected by a barrier complying with Section 312 or otherwise protected in an approved manner.
Identified electrical hazards shall be abated. Identified hazardous electrical conditions in permanent wiring shall be brought to the attention of the responsible code official. Electrical wiring, devices, appliances and other equipment that is modified or damaged and constitutes an electrical shock or fire hazard shall not be used.
Illumination shall be provided for service equipment areas, motor control centers and electrical panelboards.

A working space of not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in width, 36 inches (914 mm) in depth and 78 inches (1981 mm) in height shall be provided in front of electrical service equipment. Where the electrical service equipment is wider than 30 inches (762 mm), the working space shall be not less than the width of the equipment. Storage of materials shall not be located within the designated working space.

Exceptions:

  1. Where other dimensions are required or allowed by NFPA 70.
  2. Access openings into attics or under-floor areas that provide a minimum clear opening of 22 inches (559 mm) by 30 inches (762 mm).
Doors into electrical control panel rooms shall be marked with a plainly visible and legible sign stating ELECTRICAL ROOM or similar approved wording. The disconnecting means for each service, feeder or branch circuit originating on a switchboard or panelboard shall be legibly and durably marked to indicate its purpose unless such purpose is clearly evident. Where buildings or structures are supplied by more than one power source, markings shall be provided at each service equipment location and at all interconnected electric power production sources identifying all electric power sources at the premises in accordance with NFPA 70.

604.4 Multiplug Adapters

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

604.4.1 Power Tap Design

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

604.4.2 Power Supply

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

604.4.3 Installation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

604.4 Multiplug Adapters & Relocatable Power Taps (RPTs)

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

604.4.1 Multiplug Adapters

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The use of multiplug electrical outlet adapters, such as but not limited to cube adapters or plug strips, or any other similar device that is not UL listed and is not equipped with overcurrent protection shall be prohibited. Such devices that are UL listed and are equipped with overcurrent protection shall only be used in accordance with the UL listing and in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Such listed devices shall not be used where specifically prohibited by a provision of NFPA 70, National Electrical Code. Where there is any conflict between the UL listing and the manufacturer's instructions, the UL listing provisions shall prevail. The suitability for the use of RTP's shall be based, by the user, on 110.3(A)(1) of the National Electrical Code.

604.4.2 Relocatable Power Taps (RPT's):

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

604.4.2.1

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Relocatable Power Taps (RPT's) shall be UL listed and labeled in accordance with UL1363. They shall be of the polarized or grounded type, and be equipped with overcurrent protection. RPT's shall be used in accordance with their UL listing and the manufacturer's instructions. [NEC, 110.3(B)] Where there is any conflict between the UL listing and the manufacturer's instructions, the UL listing provisions shall prevail. Such listed devices shall not be used where specifically prohibited by a provision of NFPA 70, National Electrical Code.

604.4.2.2 RPT Power Supply

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
RPT's shall be directly connected to a permanently installed electrical receptacle. An RPT shall not be plugged into another RPT or into an extension cord or flexible cord. A UL listed extension cord or flexible cord having only one outlet and serving only one device may be plugged into an RPT so long as the arrangement does not cause an overcurrent condition in the RPT.

604.4.2.3 RPT Power Cords

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Power cords of RPT's shall not be extended through holes in walls, structural ceilings, or floors. Such cords shall not be run under doors or floor coverings. They shall not be run through doorways, windows, or similar openings.

604.4.2.4 Protection From Physical Damage

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
RPT's shall be mounted off floors to a wall or fixture so as to be protected against physical damage. The method of mounting shall not be permanent so that the devices may be easily relocated as need dictates.

Informational Note: Based on UL1363, RPT's are intended for indoor use as an extension of a grounding alternating-current branch circuit for general use. Where such devices are used or intended to be used for voltage surge suppression, the RPT is also required by UL1363 to meet the provisions of UL1449 for Transient Voltage Surge Suppressors. UL1363 incorporates this compliance. Such devices may be utilized for the protection of personal or laptop computers, computer related devices, word processors, memory typewriters, and other low load devices. They are not intended for use with high load equipment such as, but not limited to, refrigerators, coffee pots, microwave ovens, toasters, toaster ovens, space heaters, and other high power load devices. The labeling and manufacturer's information and instructions need to be consulted to determine if the RPT is also listed for transient voltage suppression. In addition, some RPT devices have additional options included in the device such as "electrical noise" filtration. UL1363 would also require and ensure that component would meet UL1283. The safety requirements relative RPT's regardless of the various extras that may be included in a device covered by UL1363 and the RPT manufacturer's instructions. RPT's have also been referred to as "Temporary Power Taps (TPT's)", "power strips", "Surge/Spike Protectors", or "Portable Outlets" among other designations. NFPA 70, National Electrical Code (NEC), 2011 edition, does not utilize the term "Relocatable Power Tap or RPT, however, for safety provisions similar to those utilized by UL, reference can be made to NEC Article 400, Flexible Cords and Cables, Article 406, Receptacles, Cord Connectors, and Attachment Plugs (CAPS), and Article 517 Health Care Facilities.

604.4.2.5 Restricted Use in Health Care Occupancies

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
"Hospital grade" RPT's listed, based on UL 1363A, for use in "patient care" or "patient sleeping rooms" of a hospital, limited care facility, nursing home, hospice, or ambulatory health care facility may be used in such locations, unless such use is specifically prohibited by this Code, NFPA 70, National Electrical Code, NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, NFPA 99, Health Care Facilities Code, or other applicable State or Federal rule or regulation.
Extension cords and flexible cords shall not be a substitute for permanent wiring and shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 817. Extension cords and flexible cords shall not be affixed to structures, extended through walls, ceilings or floors, or under doors or floor coverings, nor shall such cords be subject to environmental damage or physical impact. Extension cords shall be used only with portable appliances. Extension cords marked for indoor use shall not be used outdoors.
Extension cords shall be plugged directly into an approved receptacle, power tap or multiplug adapter and, except for approved multiplug extension cords, shall serve only one portable appliance.
The ampacity of the extension cords shall be not less than the rated capacity of the portable appliance supplied by the cord.
Extension cords shall be maintained in good condition without splices, deterioration or damage.

604.5.4 Grounding

ILLUSTRATION
Extension cords shall be grounded where serving grounded portable appliances.
Open junction boxes and open-wiring splices shall be prohibited. Approved covers shall be provided for all switch and electrical outlet boxes.
Electrical equipment and fixtures shall be tested and listed by an approved agency and installed and maintained in accordance with all instructions included as part of such listing.
Electrical motors shall be maintained free from excessive accumulations of oil, dirt, waste and debris.

Temporary wiring for electrical power and lighting installations is allowed for a period not to exceed 90 days. Temporary wiring methods shall meet the applicable provisions of NFPA 70.

Exception: Temporary wiring for electrical power and lighting installations is allowed during periods of construction, remodeling, repair or demolition of buildings, structures, equipment or similar activities.

Temporary wiring attached to a structure shall be attached in an approved manner.

604.10 Portable, Electric Space Heaters

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

604.10 Portable, Electric Space Heaters

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Portable, electric heaters are prohibited in all portions of occupancies in Groups A, E (including day care), I-1, I-3, R-1, R-2, and R-4. Where not prohibited by other chapters of this Code, or by provisions of NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, as adopted by Chapter 120-3-3 of the Rules and Regulations of the Safety Fire Commissioner, portable, electrical space heaters shall be permitted to be used in all other occupancy groups. Where use is permitted, portable electric space heaters shall comply with Sections 604.10.1 through 604.10.5 and 604.10.6 where applicable.
Only listed and labeled portable, electric space heaters shall be used.
Portable, electric space heaters shall be plugged directly into an approved receptacle.
Portable, electric space heaters shall not be plugged into extension cords.
Portable, electric space heaters shall not be operated within 3 feet (914 mm) of any combustible materials. Portable, electric space heaters shall be operated only in locations for which they are listed.
Where used in Group I-2 and ambulatory care facilities, portable, electric space heaters shall be limited to those having a heating element that cannot exceed a temperature of 212°F (100°C), and such heaters shall only be used in nonsleeping staff and employee areas.

604.10.6

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Oil filled radiator type, portable electric space heaters that have a maximum surface temperature restriction of 250° F, may be permitted to be used in staff and employee areas that are located on floors not occupied by patient or staff sleeping areas and that are totally sprinkler protected in I-2 occupancies as defined in Chapter 2 of this Code. For single story I-2 occupancies, such devices may be used in staff and employee non-sleeping areas that are totally sprinkler protected and that are separated from staff and patient sleeping room areas by 1-hour fire rated construction. Such space heaters shall comply with 604.10.1 through 604.10.5.
Abandoned cables in plenums that are able to be accessed without causing damage, or requiring demolition to the building, shall be tagged for future use or shall be removed.

604.12 Separation From Transformers

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Space separation for transformers shall be as follows:
  1. Transformer pad locations shall be a minimum of 10 feet (3 m) from any building, building overhangs, canopies, exterior walls, balconies, exterior stairs and/or walkways connected to the building.
  2. Transformer pad edges shall be not less than 14 feet (4.3 m) from any doorway.
  3. Transformer pad edges shall be not less than 10 feet (3 m) from any window or other opening.
  4. If the building has an overhang, the 10 foot (3 m) clearance shall be measured from a point below the edge of the overhang only if the building is three stories or less. If the building is four stories or more, the 10 foot (3 m) clearance shall be measured from the outside building wall.
  5. Fire escapes, outside stairs, and covered walkways attached to or between buildings, shall be considered as part of the building.

604.12.1

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Transformer pads may be located closer to noncombustible walls than the above required minimum clearances in 605.12(1) upon written approval of the authority having jurisdiction, however, in no case shall the transformer location be less than 3 feet (0.9 m) from the building.

604.12.2

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Transformer pads existing prior to December 31, 1994, are exempted from the requirements of 605.11. When buildings are modified, reductions in space separations may be less than the above required minimum clearances upon written approval of the authority having jurisdiction.
Refrigeration systems shall be installed in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.
Where a refrigerant other than ammonia is used, refrigeration systems and the buildings in which such systems are installed shall be in accordance with ASHRAE 15.
Refrigeration systems using ammonia refrigerant and the buildings in which such systems are installed shall comply with IIAR-2 for system design and installation and IIAR-7 for operating procedures. Decommissioning of ammonia refrigeration systems shall comply with IIAR-8.
The use and purity of new, recovered and reclaimed refrigerants shall be in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.
A change in the type of refrigerant in a refrigeration system shall be in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.
Access to refrigeration systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 pounds (100 kg) of Group A1 or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any other group refrigerant shall be provided for the fire department at all times as required by the fire code official.
Refrigeration equipment and systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 pounds (100 kg) of Group A1 or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any other group refrigerant shall be subject to periodic testing in accordance with Section 605.6.1. Records of tests shall be maintained. Tests of emergency devices or systems required by this chapter shall be conducted by persons trained and qualified in refrigeration systems.

The following emergency devices or systems shall be periodically tested in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and as required by the fire code official.

  1. Treatment and flaring systems.
  2. Valves and appurtenances necessary to the operation of emergency refrigeration control boxes.
  3. Fans and associated equipment intended to operate emergency ventilation systems.
  4. Detection and alarm systems.
Refrigeration units or systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 pounds (100 kg) of Group A1 or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any other group refrigerant shall be provided with approved emergency signs, charts and labels in accordance with NFPA 704. Hazard signs shall be in accordance with the International Mechanical Code for the classification of refrigerants listed therein.
Machinery rooms shall be provided with a refrigerant detector with an audible and visible alarm. Where ammonia is used as the refrigerant, detection shall comply with IIAR 2. For refrigerants other than ammonia, refrigerant detection shall comply with Section 605.8.1

A detector, or a sampling tube that draws air to a detector, shall be provided at an approved location where refrigerant from a leak is expected to accumulate. The system shall be designed to initiate audible and visible alarms inside of and outside each entrance to the refrigerating machinery room and transmit a signal to an approved location where the concentration of refrigerant detected exceeds the lesser of the following:

  1. The corresponding TLV-TWA values shown in the International Mechanical Code for the refrigerant classification.
  2. Twenty-five percent of the lower flammable limit (LFL).

Detection of a refrigerant concentration exceeding the upper detection limit or 25 percent of the lower flammable limit (LFL), whichever is lower, shall stop refrigerant equipment in the machinery room in accordance with Section 605.9.1.

Where flammable refrigerants are used and compliance with Section 1106 of the International Mechanical Code is required, remote control of the mechanical equipment and appliances located in the machinery room as required by Sections 605.9.1 and 605.9.2 shall be provided at an approved location immediately outside the machinery room and adjacent to its principal entrance.
A clearly identified switch of the break-glass type or with an approved tamper-resistant cover shall provide off-only control of refrigerant compressors, refrigerant pumps and normally closed automatic refrigerant valves located in the machinery room. Additionally, this equipment shall be automatically shut off when the refrigerant vapor concentration in the machinery room exceeds the vapor detector's upper detection limit or 25 percent of the LEL, whichever is lower.
A clearly identified switch of the break-glass type or with an approved tamper-resistant cover shall provide on-only control of the machinery room ventilation fans.
Permanently installed refrigeration systems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of flammable, toxic or highly toxic refrigerant or ammonia shall be provided with an emergency pressure control system in accordance with Sections 605.10.1 and 605.10.2.
Each high- and intermediate-pressure zone in a refrigeration system shall be provided with a single automatic valve providing a crossover connection to a lower pressure zone. Automatic crossover valves shall comply with Sections 605.10.1.1 through 605.10.1.3.
Automatic crossover valves shall be arranged to automatically relieve excess system pressure to a lower pressure zone if the pressure in a high- or intermediate-pressure zone rises to within 90 percent of the set point for emergency pressure relief devices.
Where required by the fire code official, automatic crossover valves shall be capable of manual operation.
Refrigeration system zones that are connected to a higher pressure zone by an automatic crossover valve shall be designed to safely contain the maximum pressure that can be achieved by interconnection of the two zones.
An automatic emergency stop feature shall be provided in accordance with Sections 605.10.2.1 and 605.10.2.2.
Operation of an automatic crossover valve shall cause all compressors on the affected system to immediately stop. Dedicated pressure-sensing devices located immediately adjacent to crossover valves shall be permitted as a means for determining operation of a valve. To ensure that the automatic crossover valve system provides a redundant means of stopping compressors in an overpressure condition, high-pressure cutout sensors associated with compressors shall not be used as a basis for determining operation of a crossover valve.
The lowest pressure zone in a refrigeration system shall be provided with a dedicated means of determining a rise in system pressure to within 90 percent of the set point for emergency pressure relief devices. Activation of the overpressure sensing device shall cause all compressors on the affected system to immediately stop.

Flammable and combustible materials shall not be stored in machinery rooms for refrigeration systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 pounds (100 kg) of Group A1 or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any other group refrigerant. Storage, use or handling of extra refrigerant or refrigerant oils shall be as required by Chapters 50, 53, 55 and 57.

Exception: This provision shall not apply to spare parts, tools and incidental materials necessary for the safe and proper operation and maintenance of the system.

Pressure relief devices, fusible plugs and purge systems discharging to the atmosphere from refrigeration systems containing flammable, toxic or highly toxic refrigerants or ammonia shall comply with Sections 605.12.2 through 605.12.4.
Discharge piping and devices connected to the discharge side of a fusible plug or rupture member shall have provisions to prevent plugging the pipe in the event the fusible plug or rupture member functions.
Systems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of flammable refrigerants having a density equal to or greater than the density of air shall discharge vapor to the atmosphere only through an approved treatment system in accordance with Section 605.12.5 or a flaring system in accordance with Section 605.12.6. Systems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of flammable refrigerants having a density less than the density of air shall be permitted to discharge vapor to the atmosphere provided that the point of discharge is located outside of the structure at not less than 15 feet (4572 mm) above the adjoining grade level and not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) from any window, ventilation opening or exit.
Systems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of toxic or highly toxic refrigerants shall discharge vapor to the atmosphere only through an approved treatment system in accordance with Section 605.12.5 or a flaring system in accordance with Section 605.12.6.

Systems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of ammonia refrigerant shall discharge vapor to the atmosphere in accordance with one of the following methods:

  1. Directly to atmosphere where the fire code official determines, on review of an engineering analysis prepared in accordance with Section 104.7.2, that a fire, health or environmental hazard would not result from atmospheric discharge of ammonia.
  2. Through an approved treatment system in accordance with Section 605.12.5.
  3. Through a flaring system in accordance with Section 605.12.6.
  4. Through an approved ammonia diffusion system in accordance with Section 605.12.7.
  5. By other approved means.

Exception: Ammonia/water absorption systems containing less than 22 pounds (10 kg) of ammonia and for which the ammonia circuit is located entirely outdoors.

Treatment systems shall be designed to reduce the allowable discharge concentration of the refrigerant gas to not more than 50 percent of the IDLH at the point of exhaust. Treatment systems shall be in accordance with Chapter 60.
Flaring systems for incineration of flammable refrigerants shall be designed to incinerate the entire discharge. The products of refrigerant incineration shall not pose health or environmental hazards. Incineration shall be automatic upon initiation of dis-charge, shall be designed to prevent blowback and shall not expose structures or materials to threat of fire. Standby fuel, such as LP-gas, and standby power shall have the capacity to operate for one and one-half the required time for complete incineration of refrigerant in the system. Standby electrical power, where required to complete the incineration process, shall be in accordance with Section 1203.
Ammonia diffusion systems shall include a tank containing 1 gallon of water for each pound of ammonia (8.3 L of water for each 1 kg of ammonia) that will be released in 1 hour from the largest relief device connected to the discharge pipe. The water shall be prevented from freezing. The discharge pipe from the pressure relief device shall distribute ammonia in the bottom of the tank, but not lower than 33 feet (10 058 mm) below the maximum liquid level. The tank shall contain the volume of water and ammonia without overflowing.

Exhaust from mechanical ventilation systems serving refrigeration machinery rooms containing flammable, toxic or highly toxic refrigerants, other than ammonia, capable of exceeding 25 percent of the LFL or 50 percent of the IDLH shall be equipped with approved treatment systems to reduce the discharge concentrations to those values or lower.

Exception: Refrigeration systems containing Group A2L complying with Section 605.17.

The fire code official shall be notified immediately when a discharge becomes reportable under state, federal or local regulations in accordance with Section 5003.3.1.
A record of refrigerant quantities brought into and removed from the premises shall be maintained.

Where refrigerant of Groups A2, A3, B2 and B3, as defined in the International Mechanical Code, are used, refrigeration machinery rooms shall conform to the Class I, Division 2 hazardous location classification requirements of NFPA 70.

Exceptions:

  1. Ammonia machinery rooms that are provided with ventilation in accordance with Section 1106.3 of the International Mechanical Code.
  2. Machinery rooms for systems containing Group A2L refrigerants that are provided with ventilation in accordance with Section 605.17.

Machinery rooms with systems containing Group A2L refrigerants shall comply with Sections 605.17.1 through 605.17.3.

Exception: Machinery rooms conforming to the Class 1, Division 2 hazardous location classification requirements of NFPA 70.

The machinery room shall be provided with a refrigerant detection system. The refrigerant detection system shall be in accordance with Section 605.8 and all of the following:

  1. The detectors shall activate at or below a refrigerant concentration of 25 percent of the LFL.
  2. Upon activation, the detection system shall activate the emergency ventilation system in Section 605.17.3.
  3. The detection, signaling and control circuits shall be supervised.

An emergency ventilation system shall be provided at the minimum exhaust rate specified in ASHRAE 15 or Table 605.17.2. Shut down of the emergency ventilation system shall be by manual means.

TABLE [M] 605.17.2

MINIMUM EXHAUST RATE

REFRIGERANTQ (m3/sec)Q (cfm)
R3215.432,600
R143a13.628,700
R444A6.4613,700
R444B10.622,400
R445A7.8316,600
R446A23.950,700
R447A23.850,400
R451A7.0415,000
R451B7.0515,000
R1234yf7.8016,600
R1234ze(E)5.9212,600
The point of discharge to the atmosphere shall be located outside of the structure at not less than 15 feet (4572 mm) above the adjoining grade level and not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) from any window, ventilation opening or exit.
Existing elevators with a travel distance of 25 feet (7620 mm) or more shall comply with the requirements in Chapter 11. New elevators shall be provided with Phase I emergency recall operation and Phase II emergency in-car operation in accordance with ASME A17.1/CSA B44.

606.2 Standby Power

ILLUSTRATION
In buildings and structures where standby power is required or furnished to operate an elevator, standby power shall be provided in accordance with Section 1203. Operation of the system shall be in accordance with Sections 606.2.1 through 606.2.4.
Standby power shall be manually transferable to all elevators in each bank.
Where only one elevator is installed, the elevator shall automatically transfer to standby power within 60 seconds after failure of normal power.
Where two or more elevators are controlled by a common operating system, all elevators shall automatically transfer to standby power within 60 seconds after failure of normal power where the standby power source is of sufficient capacity to operate all elevators at the same time. Where the standby power source is not of sufficient capacity to operate all elevators at the same time, all elevators shall transfer to standby power in sequence, return to the designated landing and disconnect from the standby power source. After all elevators have been returned to the designated level, not less than one elevator shall remain operable from the standby power source.
Where standby power is connected to elevators, the machine room ventilation or air conditioning shall be connected to the standby power source.

An approved pictorial sign of a standardized design shall be posted adjacent to each elevator call station on all floors instructing occupants to use the exit stairways and not to use the elevators in case of fire. The sign shall read: IN FIRE EMERGENCY, DO NOT USE ELEVATOR. USE EXIT STAIRS.

Exceptions:

  1. The emergency sign shall not be required for elevators that are part of an accessible means of egress complying with Section 1009.4.
  2. The emergency sign shall not be required for elevators that are used for occupant self-evacuation in accordance with Section 3008 of the International Building Code.
Where fire service access elevators are required by Section 3007 of the International Building Code, fire service access elevator lobbies shall be maintained free of storage and furniture.
Where occupant evacuation elevators are provided in accordance with Section 3008 of the International Building Code, occupant evacuation elevator lobbies shall be maintained free of storage and furniture.
Methods to prevent water from infiltrating into a hoistway enclosure required by Section 3007.3 and Section 3008.3 of the International Building Code shall be maintained.
Keys for the elevator car doors and fire-fighter service keys shall be kept in an approved location for immediate use by the fire department.

Buildings with elevators equipped with Phase I emergency recall, Phase II emergency in-car operation, or a fire service access elevator shall be equipped to operate with a standardized fire service elevator key approved by the fire code official.

Exception: The owner shall be permitted to place the building's nonstandardized fire service elevator keys in a key box installed in accordance with Section 506.1.2.

Standardized fire service elevator keys shall comply with all of the following:

  1. All fire service elevator keys within the jurisdiction shall be uniform and specific for the jurisdiction. Keys shall be cut to a uniform key code.
  2. Fire service elevator keys shall be of a patent-protected design to prevent unauthorized duplication.
  3. Fire service elevator keys shall be factory restricted by the manufacturer to prevent the unauthorized distribution of key blanks. Uncut key blanks shall not be permitted to leave the factory.
  4. Fire service elevator keys subject to these rules shall be engraved with the words "DO NOT DUPLICATE."

Access to standardized fire service elevator keys shall be restricted to the following:

  1. Elevator owners or their authorized agents.
  2. Elevator contractors.
  3. Elevator inspectors of the jurisdiction.
  4. Fire code officials of the jurisdiction.
  5. The fire department and other emergency response agencies designated by the fire code official.
A person shall not duplicate a standardized fire service elevator key or issue, give, or sell a duplicated key unless in accordance with this code.
The building owner shall provide up to three standardized fire service elevator keys where required by the fire code official, upon installation of a standardized fire service key switch or switches in the building.

[M] 607.1 General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

607.1 General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Commercial kitchen exhaust hoods and residential cooking appliances in commercial and public buildings shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 96, Standard for Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of Commercial Cooking Operations, as adopted by this Chapter 120-3-3.

[M] 607.2 Where Required

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

607.2 Where Required

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
A commercial hood complying with NFPA 96, as adopted by this Chapter 120-3-3, shall be installed in any occupancy at or above all commercial cooking appliances, and domestic cooking appliances used for commercial purposes and which produce grease laden vapors.

607.2.1

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The provisions of 607.2 shall not apply where provided for in the scoping provisions of subsection 1.1.4 of NFPA 96, as adopted by this Chapter 120-3-3.

607.3 Operations and Maintenance

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

607.3.1 Ventilation System

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

607.3.2 Grease Extractors

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

607.3.3 Cleaning

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

607.3.3.1 Inspection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

607.3.3.2 Grease Accumulation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

607.3.3.3 Records

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

607.3.3.3.1 Tags

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

607.3.4 Extinguishing System Service

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

607.3 Operations and Maintenance

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Commercial cooking appliances, and domestic cooking appliances used for commercial purposes and which produce grease laden vapors, and all components of ventilation systems serving such appliances shall be installed, operated and maintained in accordance with the provisions of NFPA 96 as adopted by this Chapter 120-3-3.
Gas-fired commercial cooking appliances installed on casters and appliances that are moved for cleaning and sanitation purposes shall be connected to the piping system with an appliance connector listed as complying with ANSI Z21.69. The commercial cooking appliance connector installation shall be configured in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. Movement of appliances with casters shall be limited by a restraining device installed in accordance with the connector and appliance manufacturer's instructions.
Storage of cooking oil (grease) in commercial cooking operations utilizing above-ground tanks with a capacity greater than 60 gal (227 L) installed within a building shall comply with Sections 608.2 through 608.7 and NFPA 30. For purposes of this section, cooking oil shall be classified as a Class IIIB liquid unless otherwise determined by testing.
Metallic cooking oil storage tanks shall be listed in accordance with UL 142 or UL 80, and shall be installed in accordance with the tank manufacturer's instructions.
Nonmetallic cooking oil storage tanks shall be listed in accordance with UL 2152 and shall be installed in accordance with the tank manufacturer's instructions. Tank capacity shall not exceed 200 gallons (757 L) per tank.
Cooking oil storage system components shall include but are not limited to piping, connections, fittings, valves, tubing, hose, pumps, vents and other related components used for the transfer of cooking oil, and are permitted to be of either metallic or nonmetallic construction.
The design, fabrication and assembly of system components shall be suitable for the working pressures, temperatures and structural stresses to be encountered by the components.
System components that come in contact with heated cooking oil shall be rated for the maximum operating temperatures expected in the system.
Normal and emergency venting shall be provided for cooking oil storage tanks.
Normal vents shall be located above the maximum normal liquid line, and shall have a minimum effective area not smaller than the largest filling or withdrawal connection. Normal vents shall be permitted to vent inside the building.
Emergency relief vents shall be located above the maximum normal liquid line, and shall be in the form of a device or devices that will relieve excessive internal pressure caused by an exposure fire. For nonmetallic tanks, the emergency relief vent shall be allowed to be in the form of construction. Emergency vents shall be permitted to vent inside the building.
Electrical equipment used for heating cooking oil in cooking oil storage systems shall be listed to UL 499 and shall comply with NFPA 70. Use of electrical immersion heaters shall be prohibited in nonmetallic tanks.
Electrical equipment used for the operation of cooking oil storage systems shall comply with NFPA 70.
Hyperbaric facilities shall be inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with NFPA 99.
Records shall be maintained of all testing and repair conducted on the hyperbaric chamber and associated devices and equipment. Records shall be available to the fire code official.
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