Effective Use of the International Residential Code


Chapter 1 Scope and Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 Building Planning

Chapter 4 Foundations

Chapter 5 Floors

Chapter 6 Wall Construction

Chapter 7 Wall Covering

Chapter 8 Roof-Ceiling Construction

Chapter 9 Roof Assemblies

Chapter 10 Chimneys and Fireplaces

Chapter 11 [Re] Energy Efficiency

Chapter 12 Mechanical Administration

Chapter 13 General Mechanical System Requirements

Chapter 14 Heating and Cooling Equipment and Appliances

Chapter 15 Exhaust Systems

Chapter 16 Duct Systems

Chapter 17 Combustion Air

Chapter 18 Chimneys and Vents

Chapter 19 Special Appliances, Equipment and Systems

Chapter 20 Boilers and Water Heaters

Chapter 21 Hydronic Piping

Chapter 22 Special Piping and Storage Systems

Chapter 23 Solar Thermal Energy Systems

Chapter 24 Fuel Gas

Chapter 25 Plumbing Administration

Chapter 26 General Plumbing Requirements

Chapter 27 Plumbing Fixtures

Chapter 28 Water Heaters

Chapter 29 Water Supply and Distribution

Chapter 30 Sanitary Drainage

Chapter 31 Vents

Chapter 32 Traps

Chapter 33 Storm Drainage

Chapter 34 General Requirements

Chapter 35 Electrical Definitions

Chapter 36 Services

Chapter 37 Branch Circuit and Feeder Requirements

Chapter 38 Wiring Methods

Chapter 39 Power and Lighting Distribution

Chapter 40 Devices and Luminaires

Chapter 41 Appliance Installation

Chapter 42 Swimming Pools

Chapter 43 Class 2 Remote-Control, Signaling and Power-Limited Circuits

Chapter 44 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Sizing and Capacities of Gas Piping

Appendix B Sizing of Venting Systems Serving Appliances Equipped With Draft Hoods, Category I Appliances, and Appliances Listed for Use With Type B Vents

Appendix C Exit Terminals of Mechanical Draft and Direct-Vent Venting Systems

Appendix D Recommended Procedure for Safety Inspection of an Existing Appliance Installation

Appendix E Manufactured Housing Used as Dwellings

Appendix F Passive Radon Gas Controls

Appendix G Piping Standards for Various Applications

Appendix H Patio Covers

Appendix I Private Sewage Disposal

Appendix J Existing Buildings and Structures

Appendix K Sound Transmission

Appendix L Permit Fees


Appendix N Venting Methods

Appendix O Automatic Vehicular Gates

Appendix P Sizing of Water Piping System

Appendix Q Reserved

Appendix R Light Straw-Clay Construction

Appendix S Strawbale Construction

Appendix T Recommended Procedure for Worst-Case Testing of Atmospheric Venting Systems Under N1102.4 or N1105 Conditions


This chapter contains definitions that shall apply only to the electrical requirements of Chapters 34 through 43. Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following terms shall, for the purpose of this code, have the meanings indicated in this chapter. Words used in the present tense include the future; the singular number includes the plural and the plural the singular. Where terms are not defined in this section and are defined in Section R202 of this code, such terms shall have the meanings ascribed to them in that section. Where terms are not defined in these sections, they shall have their ordinarily accepted meanings or such as the context implies.

ACCESSIBLE. (As applied to equipment.) Admitting close approach; not guarded by locked doors, elevation or other effective means.

ACCESSIBLE. (As applied to wiring methods.) Capable of being removed or exposed without damaging the building structure or finish, or not permanently closed in by the structure or finish of the building.

ACCESSIBLE, READILY. Capable of being reached quickly for operation, renewal or inspections, without requiring those to whom ready access is requisite to take actions such as to use tools, to climb over or remove obstacles or to resort to portable ladders, etc.

AMPACITY. The maximum current in amperes that a conductor can carry continuously under the conditions of use without exceeding its temperature rating.

APPLIANCE. Utilization equipment, normally built in standardized sizes or types, that is installed or connected as a unit to perform one or more functions such as clothes washing, air conditioning, food mixing, deep frying, etc.

APPROVED. Acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction.

ARC-FAULT CIRCUIT INTERRUPTER. A device intended to provide protection from the effects of arc-faults by recognizing characteristics unique to arcing and by functioning to de-energize the circuit when an arc-fault is detected.

ATTACHMENT PLUG (PLUG CAP) (PLUG). A device that, by insertion into a receptacle, establishes connection between the conductors of the attached flexible cord and the conductors connected permanently to the receptacle.

AUTOMATIC. Performing a function without the necessity of human intervention.

BATHROOM. An area, including a basin, with one or more of the following: a toilet, a urinal, a tub, a shower, a bidet, or similar plumbing fixture.

BONDED (BONDING). Connected to establish electrical continuity and conductivity.

BONDING CONDUCTOR OR JUMPER. A reliable conductor to ensure the required electrical conductivity between metal parts required to be electrically connected.

BONDING JUMPER (EQUIPMENT). The connection between two or more portions of the equipment grounding conductor.

BONDING JUMPER, MAIN. The connection between the grounded circuit conductor and the equipment grounding conductor at the service.

BONDING JUMPER, SUPPLY-SIDE. A conductor installed on the supply side of a service or within a service equipment enclosure(s) that ensures the required electrical conductivity between metal parts required to be electrically connected.

BRANCH CIRCUIT. The circuit conductors between the final overcurrent device protecting the circuit and the outlet(s).

BRANCH CIRCUIT, APPLIANCE. A branch circuit that supplies energy to one or more outlets to which appliances are to be connected, and that has no permanently connected luminaires that are not a part of an appliance.

BRANCH CIRCUIT, GENERAL PURPOSE. A branch circuit that supplies two or more receptacle outlets or outlets for lighting and appliances.

BRANCH CIRCUIT, INDIVIDUAL. A branch circuit that supplies only one utilization equipment.

BRANCH CIRCUIT, MULTIWIRE. A branch circuit consisting of two or more ungrounded conductors having voltage difference between them, and a grounded conductor having equal voltage difference between it and each ungrounded conductor of the circuit, and that is connected to the neutral or grounded conductor of the system.

CABINET. An enclosure designed either for surface or flush mounting and provided with a frame, mat or trim in which a swinging door or doors are or may be hung.

CIRCUIT BREAKER. A device designed to open and close a circuit by nonautomatic means and to open the circuit automatically on a predetermined overcurrent without damage to itself when properly applied within its rating.

CLOTHES CLOSET. A nonhabitable room or space intended primarily for storage of garments and apparel.

CONCEALED. Rendered inaccessible by the structure or finish of the building.


Bare. A conductor having no covering or electrical insulation whatsoever.

Covered. A conductor encased within material of composition or thickness that is not recognized by this code as electrical insulation.

Insulated. A conductor encased within material of composition and thickness that is recognized by this code as electrical insulation.

CONDUIT BODY. A separate portion of a conduit or tubing system that provides access through a removable cover(s) to the interior of the system at a junction of two or more sections of the system or at a terminal point of the system. Boxes such as FS and FD or larger cast or sheet metal boxes are not classified as conduit bodies.

CONNECTOR, PRESSURE (SOLDERLESS). A device that establishes a connection between two or more conductors or between one or more conductors and a terminal by means of mechanical pressure and without the use of solder.

CONTINUOUS LOAD. A load where the maximum current is expected to continue for 3 hours or more.

COOKING UNIT, COUNTER-MOUNTED. A cooking appliance designed for mounting in or on a counter and consisting of one or more heating elements, internal wiring and built-in or separately mountable controls.

COPPER-CLAD ALUMINUM CONDUCTORS. Conductors drawn from a copper-clad aluminum rod with the copper metallurgically bonded to an aluminum core. The copper forms a minimum of 10 percent of the cross-sectional area of a solid conductor or each strand of a stranded conductor.

CUTOUT BOX. An enclosure designed for surface mounting and having swinging doors or covers secured directly to and telescoping with the walls of the box proper (see "Cabinet").

DEAD FRONT. Without live parts exposed to a person on the operating side of the equipment.

DEMAND FACTOR. The ratio of the maximum demand of a system, or part of a system, to the total connected load of a system or the part of the system under consideration.

DEVICE. A unit of an electrical system that carries or controls electrical energy as it principal function.

DISCONNECTING MEANS. A device, or group of devices, or other means by which the conductors of a circuit can be disconnected from their source of supply.


Dwelling unit. A single unit, providing complete and independent living facilities for one or more persons, including permanent provisions for living, sleeping, cooking and sanitation.

One-family dwelling. A building consisting solely of one dwelling unit.

Two-family dwelling. A building consisting solely of two dwelling units.

EFFECTIVE GROUND-FAULT CURRENT PATH. An intentionally constructed, low-impedance electrically conductive path designed and intended to carry current under ground-fault conditions from the point of a ground fault on a wiring system to the electrical supply source and that facilitates the operation of the overcurrent protective device or ground-fault detectors.

ENCLOSED. Surrounded by a case, housing, fence or walls that will prevent persons from accidentally contacting energized parts.

ENCLOSURE. The case or housing of apparatus, or the fence or walls surrounding an installation, to prevent personnel from accidentally contacting energized parts or to protect the equipment from physical damage.

ENERGIZED. Electrically connected to, or is, a source of voltage.

EQUIPMENT. A general term including material, fittings, devices, appliances, luminaires, apparatus, machinery and the like used as a part of, or in connection with, an electrical installation.

EXPOSED. (As applied to live parts.) Capable of being inadvertently touched or approached nearer than a safe distance by a person.

EXPOSED. (As applied to wiring methods.) On or attached to the surface or behind panels designed to allow access.

EXTERNALLY OPERABLE. Capable of being operated without exposing the operator to contact with live parts.

FEEDER. All circuit conductors between the service equipment, or the source of a separately derived system, or other power supply source and the final branch-circuit overcurrent device.

FITTING. An accessory such as a locknut, bushing or other part of a wiring system that is intended primarily to perform a mechanical rather than an electrical function.

GROUND. The earth.

GROUNDED (GROUNDING). Connected (connecting) to ground or to a conductive body that extends the ground connection.

GROUNDED, EFFECTIVELY. Intentionally connected to earth through a ground connection or connections of sufficiently low impedance and having sufficient current-carrying capacity to prevent the buildup of voltages that may result in undue hazards to connected equipment or to persons.

GROUNDED CONDUCTOR. A system or circuit conductor that is intentionally grounded.

GROUNDING CONDUCTOR, EQUIPMENT (EGC). The conductive path(s) that provides a ground-fault current path and connects normally noncurrent-carrying metal parts of equipment together and, to the system grounded conductor, the grounding electrode conductor or both.

GROUNDING ELECTRODE. A conducting object through which a direct connection to earth is established.

GROUNDING ELECTRODE CONDUCTOR. A conductor used to connect the system grounded conductor or the equipment to a grounding electrode or to a point on the grounding electrode system.

GROUND-FAULT CIRCUIT-INTERRUPTER. A device intended for the protection of personnel that functions to de-energize a circuit or portion thereof within an established period of time when a current to ground exceeds the value for a Class A device.

GROUND-FAULT CURRENT PATH. An electrically conductive path from the point of a ground fault on a wiring system through normally non-current-carrying conductors, equipment, or the earth to the electrical supply source.

Examples of ground-fault current paths are any combination of equipment grounding conductors, metallic raceways, metallic cable sheaths, electrical equipment, and any other electrically conductive material such as metal, water, and gas piping; steel framing members; stucco mesh; metal ducting; reinforcing steel; shields of communications cables; and the earth itself.

GUARDED. Covered, shielded, fenced, enclosed or otherwise protected by means of suitable covers, casings, barriers, rails, screens, mats or platforms to remove the likelihood of approach or contact by persons or objects to a point of danger.

IDENTIFIED. (As applied to equipment.) Recognizable as suitable for the specific purpose, function, use, environment, application, etc., where described in a particular code requirement.

INTERRUPTING RATING. The highest current at rated voltage that a device is identified to interrupt under standard test conditions.

INTERSYSTEM BONDING TERMINATION. A device that provides a means for connecting intersystem bonding conductors for communications systems to the grounding electrode system.

ISOLATED. (As applied to location.) Not readily accessible to persons unless special means for access are used.

KITCHEN. An area with a sink and permanent provisions for food preparation and cooking.

LABELED. Equipment or materials to which has been attached a label, symbol or other identifying mark of an organization acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction and concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic inspection of production of labeled equipment or materials and by whose labeling the manufacturer indicates compliance with appropriate standards or performance in a specified manner.

LIGHTING OUTLET. An outlet intended for the direct connection of a lampholder or luminaire.

LIGHTING TRACK (Track Lighting). A manufactured assembly designed to support and energize luminaires that are capable of being readily repositioned on the track. Its length can be altered by the addition or subtraction of sections of track.

LISTED. Equipment, materials or services included in a list published by an organization that is acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction and concerned with evaluation of products or services, that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of services, and whose listing states either that the equipment, material or services meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.

LIVE PARTS. Energized conductive components.

LOCATION, DAMP. Location protected from weather and not subject to saturation with water or other liquids but subject to moderate degrees of moisture.

LOCATION, DRY. A location not normally subject to dampness or wetness. A location classified as dry may be temporarily subject to dampness or wetness, as in the case of a building under construction.

LOCATION, WET. Installations underground or in concrete slabs or masonry in direct contact with the earth and locations subject to saturation with water or other liquids, such as vehicle-washing areas, and locations exposed to weather.

LUMINAIRE. A complete lighting unit consisting of a light source such as a lamp or lamps together with the parts designed to position the light source and connect it to the power supply. A luminaire can include parts to protect the light source or the ballast or to distribute the light. A lampholder itself is not a luminaire.

MULTIOUTLET ASSEMBLY. A type of surface, or flush, or freestanding raceway; designed to hold conductors and receptacles, assembled in the field or at the factory.

NEUTRAL CONDUCTOR. The conductor connected to the neutral point of a system that is intended to carry current under normal conditions.

NEUTRAL POINT. The common point on a wye-connection in a polyphase system or midpoint on a single-phase, 3-wire system, or midpoint of a single-phase portion of a 3-phase delta system, or a midpoint of a 3-wire, direct-current system.

OUTLET. A point on the wiring system at which current is taken to supply utilization equipment.

OVERCURRENT. Any current in excess of the rated current of equipment or the ampacity of a conductor. Such current might result from overload, short circuit or ground fault.

OVERLOAD. Operation of equipment in excess of normal, full-load rating, or of a conductor in excess of rated ampacity that, when it persists for a sufficient length of time, would cause damage or dangerous overheating. A fault, such as a short circuit or ground fault, is not an overload.

PANELBOARD. A single panel or group of panel units designed for assembly in the form of a single panel, including buses and automatic overcurrent devices, and equipped with or without switches for the control of light, heat or power circuits, designed to be placed in a cabinet or cutout box placed in or against a wall, partition or other support and accessible only from the front.

PLENUM. A compartment or chamber to which one or more air ducts are connected and that forms part of the air distribution system.

POWER OUTLET. An enclosed assembly that may include receptacles, circuit breakers, fuseholders, fused switches, buses and watt-hour meter mounting means, intended to supply and control power to mobile homes, recreational vehicles or boats, or to serve as a means for distributing power required to operate mobile or temporarily installed equipment.

PREMISES WIRING (SYSTEM). Interior and exterior wiring, including power, lighting, control and signal circuit wiring together with all of their associated hardware, fittings and wiring devices, both permanently and temporarily installed. This includes wiring from the service point or power source to the outlets and wiring from and including the power source to the outlets where there is no service point. Such wiring does not include wiring internal to appliances, luminaires, motors, controllers, and similar equipment.

QUALIFIED PERSON. One who has the skills and knowledge related to the construction and operation of the electrical equipment and installations and has received safety training to recognize and avoid the hazards involved.

RACEWAY. An enclosed channel of metallic or nonmetallic materials designed expressly for holding wires, cables, or busbars, with additional functions as permitted in this code.

RAINPROOF. Constructed, protected or treated so as to prevent rain from interfering with the successful operation of the apparatus under specified test conditions.

RAIN TIGHT. Constructed or protected so that exposure to a beating rain will not result in the entrance of water under specified test conditions.

RECEPTACLE. A receptacle is a contact device installed at the outlet for the connection of an attachment plug. A single receptacle is a single contact device with no other contact device on the same yoke. A multiple receptacle is two or more contact devices on the same yoke.

RECEPTACLE OUTLET. An outlet where one or more receptacles are installed.

SERVICE. The conductors and equipment for delivering energy from the serving utility to the wiring system of the premises served.

SERVICE CABLE. Service conductors made up in the form of a cable.

SERVICE CONDUCTORS. The conductors from the service point to the service disconnecting means.

SERVICE CONDUCTORS, OVERHEAD. The overhead conductors between the service point and the first point of connection to the service-entrance conductors at the building or other structure.

SERVICE CONDUCTORS, UNDERGROUND. The underground conductors between the service point and the first point of connection to the service-entrance conductors in a terminal box, meter, or other enclosure, inside or outside of the building wall.

SERVICE DROP. The overhead service conductors between the utility electric supply system and the service point.

SERVICE-ENTRANCE CONDUCTORS, OVERHEAD SYSTEM. The service conductors between the terminals of the service equipment and a point usually outside of the building, clear of building walls, where joined by tap or splice to the service drop or overhead service conductors.

SERVICE-ENTRANCE CONDUCTORS, UNDERGROUND SYSTEM. The service conductors between the terminals of the service equipment and the point of connection to the service lateral or underground service conductors.

SERVICE EQUIPMENT. The necessary equipment, usually consisting of a circuit breaker(s) or switch(es) and fuse(s), and their accessories, connected to the load end of the service conductors to a building or other structure, or an otherwise designated area, and intended to constitute the main control and cutoff of the supply.

SERVICE LATERAL. The underground service conductors between the electric utility supply system and the service point.

SERVICE POINT. The point of connection between the facilities of the serving utility and the premises wiring.

STRUCTURE. That which is built or constructed.


General-use switch. A switch intended for use in general distribution and branch circuits. It is rated in amperes and is capable of interrupting its rated current at its rated voltage.

General-use snap switch. A form of general-use switch constructed so that it can be installed in device boxes or on box covers or otherwise used in conjunction with wiring systems recognized by this code.

Isolating switch. A switch intended for isolating an electric circuit from the source of power. It has no interrupting rating and is intended to be operated only after the circuit has been opened by some other means.

Motor-circuit switch. A switch, rated in horsepower that is capable of interrupting the maximum operating overload current of a motor of the same horsepower rating as the switch at the rated voltage.

UNGROUNDED. Not connected to ground or to a conductive body that extends the ground connection.

UTILIZATION EQUIPMENT. Equipment that utilizes electric energy for electronic, electromechanical, chemical, heating, lighting or similar purposes.

VENTILATED. Provided with a means to permit circulation of air sufficient to remove an excess of heat, fumes or vapors.

VOLTAGE (OF A CIRCUIT). The greatest root-mean-square (rms) (effective) difference of potential between any two conductors of the circuit concerned.

VOLTAGE, NOMINAL. A nominal value assigned to a circuit or system for the purpose of conveniently designating its voltage class (e.g., 120/240). The actual voltage at which a circuit operates can vary from the nominal within a range that permits satisfactory operation of equipment.

VOLTAGE TO GROUND. For grounded circuits, the voltage between the given conductor and that point or conductor of the circuit that is grounded. For ungrounded circuits, the greatest voltage between the given conductor and any other conductor of the circuit.

WATERTIGHT. Constructed so that moisture will not enter the enclosure under specified test conditions.

WEATHERPROOF. Constructed or protected so that exposure to the weather will not interfere with successful operation.