Copyright

Preface

Effective Use of the International Residential Code

Legislation

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 Building Planning

Chapter 4 Foundations

Chapter 5 Floors

Chapter 6 Wall Construction

Chapter 7 Wall Covering

Chapter 8 Roof-Ceiling Construction

Chapter 9 Roof Assemblies

Chapter 10 Chimneys and Fireplaces

Chapter 11 [Re] Energy Efficiency

Chapter 12 Mechanical Administration

Chapter 13 General Mechanical System Requirements

Chapter 14 Heating and Cooling Equipment and Appliances

Chapter 15 Exhaust Systems

Chapter 16 Duct Systems

Chapter 17 Combustion Air

Chapter 18 Chimneys and Vents

Chapter 19 Special Appliances, Equipment and Systems

Chapter 20 Boilers and Water Heaters

Chapter 21 Hydronic Piping

Chapter 22 Special Piping and Storage Systems

Chapter 23 Solar Thermal Energy Systems

Chapter 24 Fuel Gas

Chapter 25 Plumbing Administration

Chapter 26 General Plumbing Requirements

Chapter 27 Plumbing Fixtures

Chapter 28 Water Heaters

Chapter 29 Water Supply and Distribution

Chapter 30 Sanitary Drainage

Chapter 31 Vents

Chapter 32 Traps

Chapter 33 Storm Drainage

Chapter 34 General Requirements

Chapter 35 Electrical Definitions

Chapter 36 Services

Chapter 37 Branch Circuit and Feeder Requirements

Chapter 38 Wiring Methods

Chapter 39 Power and Lighting Distribution

Chapter 40 Devices and Luminaires

Chapter 41 Appliance Installation

Chapter 42 Swimming Pools

Chapter 43 Class 2 Remote-Control, Signaling and Power-Limited Circuits

Chapter 44 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Sizing and Capacities of Gas Piping

Appendix B Sizing of Venting Systems Serving Appliances Equipped With Draft Hoods, Category I Appliances, and Appliances Listed for Use With Type B Vents

Appendix C Exit Terminals of Mechanical Draft and Direct-Vent Venting Systems

Appendix D Recommended Procedure for Safety Inspection of an Existing Appliance Installation

Appendix E Manufactured Housing Used as Dwellings

Appendix F Passive Radon Gas Controls

Appendix G Piping Standards for Various Applications

Appendix H Patio Covers

Appendix I Private Sewage Disposal

Appendix J Existing Buildings and Structures

Appendix K Sound Transmission

Appendix L Permit Fees

Appendix M HOME DAY CARE—R-3 OCCUPANCY

Appendix N Venting Methods

Appendix O Automatic Vehicular Gates

Appendix P Sizing of Water Piping System

Appendix Q Reserved

Appendix R Light Straw-Clay Construction

Appendix S Strawbale Construction

Appendix T Recommended Procedure for Worst-Case Testing of Atmospheric Venting Systems Under N1102.4 or N1105 Conditions

Appendix U SOLAR-READY PROVISIONS—DETACHED ONE- AND TWO-FAMILY DWELLINGS, MULTIPLE SINGLE- FAMILY DWELLINGS (TOWNHOUSES)

User note: Code change proposals to this chapter will be considered by the IRC – Plumbing and Mechanical Code Development Committee during the 2015 (Group A) Code Development Cycle.
The provisions of this chapter shall govern the materials, design, construction and installation of sanitary drainage systems. Plumbing materials shall conform to the requirements of this chapter. The drainage, waste and vent (DWV) system shall consist of piping for conveying wastes from plumbing fixtures, appliances and appurtenances, including fixture traps; above-grade drainage piping; below-grade drains within the building (building drain); below- and above-grade venting systems; and piping to the public sewer or private septic system.
No portion of the above-grade DWV system, other than vent terminals, shall be located outside of a building, in attics or crawl spaces, concealed in outside walls, or in any other place subjected to freezing temperatures unless adequate provision is made to protect them from freezing by insulation or heat or both, except in localities having a winter design temperature greater than 32°F (0°C) (ASHRAE 97.5 percent column, winter, see Chapter 3).
In flood hazard areas as established by Table R301.2(1), drainage, waste and vent systems shall be located and installed to prevent infiltration of floodwaters into the systems and discharges from the systems into floodwaters.
Drain, waste and vent (DWV) piping in buildings shall be as indicated in Tables P3002.1(1) and P3002.1(2) except that galvanized wrought-iron or galvanized steel pipe shall not be used underground and shall be maintained not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above ground. Allowance shall be made for the thermal expansion and contraction of plastic piping.

TABLE P3002.1(1) ABOVE-GROUND DRAINAGE AND VENT PIPE

MATERIAL STANDARD
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipe in IPS diameters, including
schedule 40, DR 22 (PS 200) and DR 24 (PS 140); with a solid, cellular core or
composite wall
ASTM D 2661; ASTM F 628; ASTM F 1488; CSA B181.1
Cast-iron pipe ASTM A 74; CISPI 301; ASTM A 888
Copper or copper-alloy pipe ASTM B 42; ASTM B 43; ASTM B 302
Copper or copper-alloy tubing (Type K, L, M or DWV) ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; ASTM B 251; ASTM B 306
Galvanized steel pipe ASTM A 53
Polyolefin pipe CSA B181.3
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe in IPS diameters, including schedule 40,
DR 22 (PS 200) and DR 24 (PS 140); with a solid, cellular core or composite wall
ASTM D 2665; ASTM F 891; CSA B181.2; ASTM F 1488
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe with a 3.25 inch O.D. and a solid, cellular
core or composite wall
ASTM D 2949; ASTM F 1488
Stainless steel drainage systems, Types 304 and 316L ASME A 112.3.1

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.


TABLE P3002.1(2) UNDERGROUND BUILDING DRAINAGE AND VENT PIPE

PIPE STANDARD
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipe in IPS diameters,
including schedule 40, DR 22 (PS 200) and DR 24 (PS 140); with a
solid, cellular core or composite wall
ASTM D 2661; ASTM F 628; ASTM F 1488; CSA B181.1
Cast-iron pipe ASTM A 74; CISPI 301; ASTM A 888
Copper or copper alloy tubing (Type K, L, M or DWV) ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; ASTM B 251; ASTM B 306
Polyolefin pipe ASTM F 1412; CSA B181.3
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe in IPS diameters,
including schedule 40, DR 22 (PS 200) and DR 24 (PS 140); with a solid,
cellular core or
composite wall
ASTM D 2665; ASTM F 891; ASTM F 1488; CSA B181.2
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe with a 3.25 inch O.D. and a solid,
cellular core or composite wall
ASTM D 2949; ASTM F 1488
Stainless steel drainage systems, Type 316L ASME A 112.3.1

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
Building sewer piping shall be as shown in Table P3002.2. Forced main sewer piping shall conform to one of the standards for ABS plastic pipe, copper or copper-alloy tubing, PVC plastic pipe or pressure-rated pipe indicated in Table P3002.2.

TABLE P3002.2 BUILDING SEWER PIPE

MATERIAL STANDARD
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipe in IPS diameters,
including schedule 40, DR 22 (PS 200) and DR 24 (PS 140); with a
solid, cellular core or composite wall
ASTM D 2661; ASTM F 628; ASTM F 1488
Cast-iron pipe ASTM A 74; ASTM A 888; CISPI 301
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipe in sewer and drain
diameters, including SDR 42 (PS 20), PS35, SDR 35 (PS 45), PS50,
PS100, PS140, SDR 23.5 (PS 150) and PS200; with a solid, cellular
core or composite wall
ASTM F 1488; ASTM D 2751
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe in sewer and drain diameters,
including PS 25, SDR 41 (PS 28), PS 35, SDR 35 (PS 46), PS 50,
PS 100, SDR 26 (PS 115), PS140 and PS 200; with a solid, cellular core
or composite wall
ASTM F 891; ASTM F 1488; ASTM D 3034; CSA B182.2;
CSA B182.4
Concrete pipe ASTM C 14; ASTM C 76; CSA A257.1M; CSA A257.2M
Copper or copper-alloy tubing (Type K or L) ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; ASTM B 251
Polyethylene (PE) plastic pipe (SDR-PR) ASTM F 714
Polyolefin pipe ASTM F 1412; CSA B181.3
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe in IPS diameters, including
schedule 40, DR 22 (PS 200) and DR 24 (PS 140); with solid, cellular
core or composite wall
ASTM D 2665; ASTM D 2949; ASTM D 3034;
ASTM F 1412; CSA B182.2; CSA B182.4
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe with a 3.25 inch O.D. and a
solid, cellular core or composite wall
ASTM D 2949, ASTM F 1488
Stainless steel drainage systems, Types 304 and 316L ASME A 112.3.1
Vitrified clay pipe ASTM C 425; ASTM C 700

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
The proximity of a building sewer to a water service shall comply with Section P2905.4.1.
Pipe fittings shall be approved for installation with the piping material installed and shall comply with the applicable standards indicated in Table P3002.3.

TABLE P3002.3 PIPE FITTINGS

PIPE MATERIAL FITTING STANDARD
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipe in IPS diameters ASTM D 2661; ASTM D 3311; ASTM F 628; CSA B181.1
Cast-iron ASME B 16.4; ASME B 16.12; ASTM A 74; ASTM A 888; CISPI 301
Acrylonotrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipe in sewer and drain diameters ASTM D 2751
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe in sewer and drain diameters ASTM D 3034
Copper or copper alloy ASME B 16.15; ASME B 16.18; ASME B 16.22;
ASME B 16.23; ASME B 16.26; ASME B 16.29
Gray iron and ductile iron AWWA C 110/A21.10
Polyolefin ASTM F 1412; CSA B181.3
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic in IPS diameters ASTM D 2665; ASTM D 3311; ASTM F 1866
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe with a 3.25 inch O.D. ASTM D 2949
PVC fabricated fittings ASTM F 1866
Stainless steel drainage systems, Types 304 and 316L ASME A 112.3.1
Vitrified clay ASTM C 700

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
Drainage fittings shall have a smooth interior waterway of the same diameter as the piping served. Fittings shall conform to the type of pipe used. Drainage fittings shall not have ledges, shoulders or reductions that can retard or obstruct drainage flow in the piping. Threaded drainage pipe fittings shall be of the recessed drainage type, black or galvanized. Drainage fittings shall be designed to maintain one-fourth unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) grade. This section shall not be applicable to tubular waste fittings used to convey vertical flow upstream of the trap seal liquid level of a fixture trap.
Sheet lead, lead bends, lead traps and sheet copper shall comply with Sections P3002.4.1 through P3002.4.3.
Sheet lead shall weigh not less than indicated for the following applications:

1. Flashing of vent terminals, 3 psf (15 kg/m2).

2. Prefabricated flashing for vent pipes, 21/2 psf (12 kg/m2).
Lead bends and lead traps shall be not less than 1/8-inch (3 mm) wall thickness.
Sheet copper shall weigh not less than indicated for the following applications:

1. General use, 12 ounces per square feet (4 kg/m2).

2. Flashing for vent pipes, 8 ounces per square feet (2.5 kg/m2).
Joints and connections in the DWV system shall be gas tight and water tight for the intended use or pressure required by test.
Pipe and fitting threads shall be tapered.
Running threads and bands shall not be used in the drainage system. Drainage and vent piping shall not be drilled, tapped, burned or welded.

The following types of joints and connections shall be prohibited:

1. Cement or concrete.

2. Mastic or hot-pour bituminous joints.

3. Joints made with fittings not approved for the specific installation.

4. Joints between different diameter pipes made with elastomeric rolling O-rings.

5. Solvent-cement joints between different types of plastic pipe.

6. Saddle-type fittings.
Joints between ABS plastic pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections P3003.3.1 through P3003.3.3.
Mechanical joints on drainage pipes shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM C 1173, ASTM D 3212 or CSA B602. Mechanical joints shall be installed only in underground systems unless otherwise approved. Joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. Solvent cement that conforms to ASTM D 2235 or CSA B181.1 shall be applied to joint surfaces. The joint shall be made while the cement is wet. Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM D 2235, ASTM D 2661, ASTM F 628 or CSA B181.1. Solvent-cement joints shall be permitted above or below ground.
Threads shall conform to ASME B1.20.1. Schedule 80 or heavier pipe shall be permitted to be threaded with dies specifically designed for plastic pipe. Approved thread lubricant or tape shall be applied on the male threads only.
Joints between cast-iron pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections P3003.4.1 through P3003.4.3.
Joints for hub and spigot pipe shall be firmly packed with oakum or hemp. Molten lead shall be poured in one operation to a depth of not less than 1 inch (25 mm). The lead shall not recede more than 1/8 inch (3 mm) below the rim of the hub and shall be caulked tight. Paint, varnish or other coatings shall not be permitted on the jointing material until after the joint has been tested and approved. Lead shall be run in one pouring and shall be caulked tight.
Compression gaskets for hub and spigot pipe and fittings shall conform to ASTM C 564. Gaskets shall be compressed when the pipe is fully inserted.
Mechanical joint couplings for hubless pipe and fittings shall consist of an elastomeric sealing sleeve and a metallic shield that comply with CISPI 310, ASTM C 1277 or ASTM C 1540. The elastomeric sealing sleeve shall conform to ASTM C 564 or CSA B602 and shall have a center stop. Mechanical joint couplings shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Joints between concrete pipe and fittings shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM C 443, ASTM C 1173, CSA A257.3M or CSA B602.
Joints between copper or copper-alloy pipe tubing or fittings shall comply with Sections P3003.6.1 through P3003.6.4.
All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. An approved flux shall be applied where required. Brazing materials shall have a melting point in excess of 1,000ºF (538ºC). Brazing alloys filler metal shall be in accordance with AWS A5.8.
Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Copper and copper-alloy joints shall be soldered in accordance with ASTM B 828. Cut tube ends shall be reamed to the full inside diameter of the tube end. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. Fluxes for soldering shall be in accordance with ASTM B 813 and shall become noncorrosive and nontoxic after soldering. The joint shall be soldered with a solder conforming to ASTM B 32.
Threads shall conform to ASME B1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be applied on the male threads only.
Joints between galvanized steel pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections P3003.7.1 and P3003.7.2.
Threads shall conform to ASME B1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be applied on the male threads only.
Joints shall be made with an approved elastomeric seal. Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Joints between lead pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections P3003.8.1 and P3003.8.2.
Burned joints shall be uniformly fused together into one continuous piece. The thickness of the joint shall be not less than the thickness of the lead being joined. The filler metal shall be of the same material as the pipe.
Joints shall be fully wiped, with an exposed surface on each side of the joint not less than 3/4 inch (19 mm). The joint shall be not less than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) thick at the thickest point.
Joints between PVC plastic pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections P3003.9.1 through P3003.9.3.
Mechanical joints on drainage pipe shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM C 1173, ASTM D 3212 or CSA B602. Mechanical joints shall not be installed in above-ground systems, unless otherwise approved. Joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. A purple primer that conforms to ASTM F 656 shall be applied. Solvent cement not purple in color and conforming to ASTM D 2564, CSA B137.3 or CSA B181.2 shall be applied to all joint surfaces. The joint shall be made while the cement is wet, and shall be in accordance with ASTM D 2855. Solvent-cement joints shall be installed above or below ground.

Exception: A primer shall not be required where all of the following conditions apply:

1. The solvent cement used is third-party certified as conforming to ASTM D 2564.

2. The solvent cement is used only for joining PVC drain, waste and vent pipe and fittings in non-pressure applications in sizes up to and including 4 inches (102 mm) in diameter
Threads shall conform to ASME B1.20.1. Schedule 80 or heavier pipe shall be permitted to be threaded with dies specifically designed for plastic pipe. Approved thread lubricant or tape shall be applied on the male threads only.
Joints between vitrified clay pipe or fittings shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM C 425, ASTM C 1173 or CSA B602.
Joints between polyolefin plastic pipe and fittings shall comply with Sections P3003.11.1 and P3003.11.2.
Heat-fusion joints for polyolefin pipe and tubing joints shall be installed with socket-type heat-fused polyolefin fittings or electrofusion polyolefin fittings. Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. The joint shall be undisturbed until cool. Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM F 1412 or CSA B181.3.
Mechanical and compression sleeve joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Joints between polyethylene plastic pipe and fittings shall be underground and shall comply with Section P3003.12.1 or P3003.12.2.
Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. Joint surfaces shall be cut, heated to melting temperature and joined using tools specifically designed for the operation. Joints shall be undisturbed until cool. Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM D 2657 and the manufacturer’s instructions.
Mechanical joints in drainage piping shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM C 1173, ASTM D 3212 or CSA B602. Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Joints between different piping materials shall be made with a mechanical joint of the compression or mechanical-sealing type conforming to ASTM C 1173, ASTM C 1460 or ASTM C 1461. Connectors and adapters shall be approved for the application and such joints shall have an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM C 425, ASTM C 443, ASTM C 564, ASTM C 1440, ASTM D 1869, ASTM F 477, CSA A257.3M or CSA B602, or as required in Sections P3003.13.1 through P3003.13.6. Joints between glass pipe and other types of materials shall be made with adapters having a TFE seal. Joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Joints between copper or copper-alloy tubing and cast-iron hub pipe shall be made with a copper-alloy ferrule or compression joint. The copper or copper-alloy tubing shall be soldered to the ferrule in an approved manner, and the ferrule shall be joined to the cast-iron hub by a caulked joint or a mechanical compression joint.
Joints between copper or copper-alloy tubing and galvanized steel pipe shall be made with a copper-alloy fitting or dielectric fitting. The copper tubing shall be soldered to the fitting in an approved manner, and the fitting shall be screwed to the threaded pipe.
Joints between cast-iron and galvanized steel or copper-alloy pipe shall be made by either caulked or threaded joints or with an approved adapter fitting.
Joints between different types of plastic pipe or between plastic pipe and other piping material shall be made with an approved adapter fitting. Joints between plastic pipe and cast-iron hub pipe shall be made by a caulked joint or a mechanical compression joint.
Joints between lead pipe and other piping material shall be made by a wiped joint to a caulking ferrule, soldering nipple, or bushing or shall be made with an approved adapter fitting.
Joints between stainless steel drainage systems and other piping materials shall be made with approved mechanical couplings.
Joints between drainage piping and water closets or similar fixtures shall be made by means of a closet flange or a waste connector and sealing gasket compatible with the drainage system material, securely fastened to a structurally firm base. The joint shall be bolted, with an approved gasket flange to fixture connection complying with ASME A112.4.3 or setting compound between the fixture and the closet flange or waste connector and sealing gasket. The waste connector and sealing gasket joint shall comply with the joint-tightness test of ASME A112.4.3 and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
The load on DWV-system piping shall be computed in terms of drainage fixture unit (d.f.u.) values in accordance with Table P3004.1.

TABLE P3004.1 DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT (d.f.u.) VALUES FOR VARIOUS PLUMBING FIXTURES

TYPE OF FIXTURE OR GROUP OF FIXTURES DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT
VALUE (d.f.u.)a
Bar sink 1
Bathtub (with or without a shower head or whirlpool attachments) 2
Bidet 1
Clothes washer standpipe 2
Dishwasher 2
Floor drainb 0
Kitchen sink 2
Lavatory 1
Laundry tub 2
Shower stall 2
Water closet (1.6 gallons per flush) 3
Water closet (greater than 1.6 gallons per flush) 4
Full-bath group with bathtub (with 1.6 gallon per flush water closet, and with or without shower head and/or
whirlpool attachment on the bathtub or shower stall)
5
Full-bath group with bathtub (water closet greater than 1.6 gallon per flush, and with or without shower head
and/or whirlpool attachment on the bathtub or shower stall)
6
Half-bath group (1.6 gallon per flush water closet plus lavatory) 4
Half-bath group (water closet greater than 1.6 gallon per flush plus lavatory) 5
Kitchen group (dishwasher and sink with or without food-waste disposer) 2
Laundry group (clothes washer standpipe and laundry tub) 3
Multiple-bath groupsc:
1.5 baths 7
2 baths 8
2.5 baths 9
3 baths 10
3.5 baths 11

For SI: 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
a. For a continuous or semicontinuous flow into a drainage system, such as from a pump or similar device, 1.5 fixture units shall be allowed per gpm of flow. For a fixture not listed, use the highest d.f.u. value for a similar listed fixture.
b. A floor drain itself does not add hydraulic load. Where used as a receptor, the fixture unit value of the fixture discharging into the receptor shall be applicable.
c. Add 2 d.f.u. for each additional full bath.
Changes in direction in drainage piping shall be made by the appropriate use of sanitary tees, wyes, sweeps, bends or by a combination of these drainage fittings in accordance with Table P3005.1. Change in direction by combination fittings, heel or side inlets or increasers shall be installed in accordance with Table P3005.1 and Sections P3005.1.1 through P3005.1.4. based on the pattern of flow created by the fitting.

TABLE P3005.1 FITTINGS FOR CHANGE IN DIRECTION

TYPE OF FITTING PATTERN CHANGE IN DIRECTION
Horizontal to verticalc Vertical to horizontal Horizontal to horizontal
Sixteenth bend X X X
Eighth bend X X X
Sixth bend X X X
Quarter bend X Xa Xa
Short sweep X Xa,b Xa
Long sweep X X X
Sanitary tee Xc
Wye X X X
Combination wye and eighth bend X X X

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
a. The fittings shall only be permitted for a 2-inch or smaller fixture drain.
b. Three inches and larger.
c. For a limitation on multiple connection fittings, see Section P3005.1.1.
Double fittings such as double sanitary tees and tee-wyes or approved multiple connection fittings and back-to-back fixture arrangements that connect two or more branches at the same level shall be permitted as long as directly opposing connections are the same size and the discharge into directly opposing connections is from similar fixture types or fixture groups. Double sanitary tee patterns shall not receive the discharge of back-to-back water closets and fixtures or appliances with pumping action discharge.

Exception: Back-to-back water closet connections to double sanitary tee patterns shall be permitted where the horizontal developed length between the outlet of the water closet and the connection to the double sanitary tee is 18 inches (457 mm) or greater.
Heel-inlet quarter bends shall be an acceptable means of connection, except where the quarter bends serves a water closet. A low-heel inlet shall not be used as a wet-vented connection. Side-inlet quarter bends shall be an acceptable means of connection for both drainage, wet venting and stack venting arrangements.
Heel-inlet or side-inlet quarter bends, or any arrangement of pipe and fittings producing a similar effect, shall be acceptable as a dry vent where the inlet is placed in a vertical position. The inlet is permitted to be placed in a horizontal position only where the entire fitting is part of a dry vent arrangement.
One-quarter bends 3 inches (76 mm) in diameter shall be acceptable for water closet or similar connections, provided that a 4-inch by 3-inch (102 mm by 76 mm) flange is installed to receive the closet fixture horn. Alternately, a 4-inch by 3-inch (102 mm by 76 mm) elbow shall be acceptable with a 4-inch (102 mm) flange.
Where drainage has been roughed-in for future fixtures, the drainage unit values of the future fixtures shall be considered in determining the required drain sizes. Such future installations shall be terminated with an accessible permanent plug or cap fitting.
The size of the drainage piping shall not be reduced in size in the direction of the flow. A 4-inch by 3-inch (102 mm by 76 mm) water closet connection shall not be considered as a reduction in size.
Cleanouts shall be provided for drainage piping in accordance with Sections P3005.2.1 through P3005.2.11.
Horizontal drainage pipes in buildings shall have cleanouts located at intervals of not more than 100 feet (30 480 mm). Building drains shall have cleanouts located at intervals of not more than 100 feet (30 480 mm) except where manholes are used instead of cleanouts, the manholes shall be located at intervals of not more than 400 feet (122 m). The interval length shall be measured from the cleanout or manhole opening, along the developed length of the piping to the next drainage fitting providing access for cleaning, the end of the horizontal drain or the end of the building drain.

Exception: Horizontal fixture drain piping serving a nonremovable trap shall not be required to have a cleanout for the section of piping between the trap and the vent connection for such trap.
Building sewers smaller than 8 inches (203 mm) shall have cleanouts located at intervals of not more than 100 feet (30 480 mm). Building sewers 8 inches (203 mm) and larger shall have a manhole located not more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) from the junction of the building drain and building sewer and at intervals of not more than 400 feet (122 m). The interval length shall be measured from the cleanout or manhole opening, along the developed length of the piping to the next drainage fitting providing access for cleaning, a manhole or the end of the building sewer.
The junction of the building drain and the building sewer shall be served by a cleanout that is located at the junction or within 10 feet (3048 mm) developed length of piping upstream of the junction. For the requirements of this section, removal of a water closet shall not be required to provide cleanout access.
Where a horizontal drainage pipe, a building drain or a building sewer has a change of horizontal direction greater than 45 degrees (0.79 rad), a cleanout shall be installed at the change of direction. Where more than one change of horizontal direction greater than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) occurs within 40 feet (12 192 mm) of developed length of piping, the cleanout installed for the first change of direction shall serve as the cleanout for all changes in direction within that 40 feet (12 192 mm) of developed length of piping.
Cleanouts shall be the same size as the piping served by the cleanout, except cleanouts for piping larger than 4 inches (102 mm) need not be larger than 4 inches (102 mm).

Exceptions:

1. A removable P-trap with slip or ground joint connections can serve as a cleanout for drain piping that is one size larger than the P-trap size.

2. Cleanouts located on stacks can be one size smaller than the stack size.

3. The size of cleanouts for cast-iron piping can be in accordance with the referenced standards for cast iron fittings as indicated in Table P3002.3.
Cleanout plugs shall be copper alloy, plastic or other approved materials. Cleanout plugs for borosilicate glass piping systems shall be of borosilicate glass. Brass cleanout plugs shall conform to ASTM A74 and shall be limited for use only on metallic piping systems. Plastic cleanout plugs shall conform to the referenced standards for plastic pipe fittings as indicated in Table P3002.3. Cleanout plugs shall have a raised square head, a countersunk square head or a countersunk slot head. Where a cleanout plug will have a trim cover screw installed into the plug, the plug shall be manufactured with a blind end threaded hole for such purpose.
Manholes and manhole covers shall be of an approved type. Manholes located inside of a building shall have gas-tight covers that require tools for removal.
The installation arrangement of a cleanout shall enable cleaning of drainage piping only in the direction of drainage flow.

Exceptions:

1. Test tees serving as cleanouts.

2. A two-way cleanout installation that is approved for meeting the requirements of Section P3005.2.3.
Cleanouts for 6-inch (153 mm) and smaller piping shall be provided with a clearance of not less than 18 inches (457 mm) from, and perpendicular to, the face of the opening to any obstruction. Cleanouts for 8-inch (203 mm) and larger piping shall be provided with a clearance of not less than 36 inches (914 mm) from, and perpendicular to, the face of the opening to any obstruction.
Required cleanouts shall not be installed in concealed locations. For the purposes of this section, concealed locations include, but are not limited to, the inside of plenums, within walls, within floor/ceiling assemblies, below grade and in crawl spaces where the height from the crawl space floor to the nearest obstruction along the path from the crawl space opening to the cleanout location is less than 24 inches (610 mm). Cleanouts with openings at a finished wall shall have the face of the opening located within 11/2 inches (38 mm) of the finished wall surface. Cleanouts located below grade shall be extended to grade level so that the top of the cleanout plug is at or above grade. A cleanout installed in a floor or walkway that will not have a trim cover installed shall have a counter-sunk plug installed so the top surface of the plug is flush with the finished surface of the floor or walkway.
Trim covers and access doors for cleanout plugs shall be designed for such purposes. Trim cover fasteners that thread into cleanout plugs shall be corrosion resistant. Cleanout plugs shall not be covered with mortar, plaster or any other permanent material.
Where it is necessary to protect a cleanout plug from the loads of vehicular traffic, cleanout assemblies in accordance with ASME A112.36.2M shall be installed.
The use of a threaded cleanout opening to add a fixture or extend piping shall be prohibited except where another cleanout of equal size is installed with the required access and clearance.
Horizontal drainage piping shall be installed in uniform alignment at uniform slopes not less than 1/4 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) for 21/2 inch (64 mm) diameter and less, and not less than 1/8 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (1-percent slope) for diameters of 3 inches (76 mm) or more.
Drain pipes shall be sized according to drainage fixture unit (d.f.u.) loads. The size of the drainage piping shall not be reduced in size in the direction of flow. The following general procedure is permitted to be used:

1. Draw an isometric layout or riser diagram denoting fixtures on the layout.

2. Assign d.f.u. values to each fixture group plus individual fixtures using Table P3004.1.

3. Starting with the top floor or most remote fixtures, work downstream toward the building drain accumulating d.f.u. values for fixture groups plus individual fixtures for each branch. Where multiple bath groups are being added, use the reduced d.f.u. values in Table P3004.1, which take into account probability factors of simultaneous use.

4. Size branches and stacks by equating the assigned d.f.u. values to pipe sizes shown in Table P3005.4.1.

5. Determine the pipe diameter and slope of the building drain and building sewer based on the accumulated d.f.u. values, using Table P3005.4.2.
Branches and stacks shall be sized in accordance with Table P3005.4.1. Below grade drain pipes shall be not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm) in diameter. Drain stacks shall be not smaller than the largest horizontal branch connected.

Exceptions:

1. A 4-inch by 3-inch (102 mm by 76 mm) closet bend or flange.

2. A 4-inch (102 mm) closet bend connected to a 3-inch (76 mm) stack tee shall not be prohibited.

TABLE P3005.4.1 MAXIMUM FIXTURE UNITS ALLOWED TO BE CONNECTED TO BRANCHES AND STACKS

NOMINAL PIPE SIZE
(inches)
ANY HORIZONTAL
FIXTURE BRANCH
ANY ONE VERTICAL
STACK OR DRAIN
11/4a
11/2b 3 4
2b 6 10
21/2b 12 20
3 20 48
4 160 240

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
a. 11/4-inch pipe size limited to a single-fixture drain or trap arm. See Table P3201.7.
b. No water closets.
Pipe sizes and slope shall be determined from Table P3005.4.2 on the basis of drainage load in fixture units (d.f.u.) computed from Table P3004.1.

TABLE P3005.4.2 MAXIMUM NUMBER OF FIXTURE UNITS ALLOWED TO BE CONNECTED TO THE BUILDING DRAIN, BUILDING DRAIN BRANCHES OR THE BUILDING SEWER

DIAMETER OF
PIPE (inches)
SLOPE PER FOOT
1/8 inch 1/4 inch 1/2 inch
11/2a, b Note a Note a
2b 21 27
21/2b 24 31
3 36 42 50
4 180 216 250

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. 11/2-inch pipe size limited to a building drain branch serving not more than two waste fixtures, or not more than one waste fixture if serving a pumped discharge fixture or food waste disposer discharge.
b. No water closets.
Horizontal branches shall connect to the bases of stacks at a point located not less than 10 times the diameter of the drainage stack downstream from the stack. Horizontal branches shall connect to horizontal stack offsets at a point located not less than 10 times the diameter of the drainage stack downstream from the upper stack.
An offset in a vertical drain, with a change of direction of 45 degrees (0.79 rad) or less from the vertical, shall be sized as a straight vertical drain.
A stack with an offset of more than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) from the vertical shall be sized as follows:

1. The portion of the stack above the offset shall be sized as for a regular stack based on the total number of fixture units above the offset.

2. The offset shall be sized as for a building drain in accordance with Table P3005.4.2.

3. The portion of the stack below the offset shall be sized as for the offset or based on the total number of fixture units on the entire stack, whichever is larger.
In soil or waste stacks below the lowest horizontal branch, a change in diameter shall not be required if the offset is made at an angle not greater than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) from the vertical. If an offset greater than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) from the vertical is made, the offset and stack below it shall be sized as a building drain (see Table P3005.4.2).
Building subdrains that cannot be discharged to the sewer by gravity flow shall be discharged into a tightly covered and vented sump from which the liquid shall be lifted and discharged into the building gravity drainage system by automatic pumping equipment or other approved method. In other than existing structures, the sump shall not receive drainage from any piping within the building capable of being discharged by gravity to the building sewer.
A check valve and a full open valve located on the discharge side of the check valve shall be installed in the pump or ejector discharge piping between the pump or ejector and the gravity drainage system. Access shall be provided to such valves. Such valves shall be located above the sump cover required by Section P3007.3.2 or, where the discharge pipe from the ejector is below grade, the valves shall be accessibly located outside the sump below grade in an access pit with a removable access cover.
The sump pump, pit and discharge piping shall conform to the requirements of Sections P3007.3.1 through P3007.3.5.
The sump pump capacity and head shall be appropriate to anticipated use requirements.
The sump pit shall be not less than 18 inches (457 mm) in diameter and 24 inches (610 mm) deep, unless otherwise approved. The pit shall be accessible and located so that drainage flows into the pit by gravity. The sump pit shall be constructed of tile, concrete, steel, plastic or other approved materials. The pit bottom shall be solid and provide permanent support for the pump. The sump pit shall be fitted with a gas-tight removable cover that is installed above grade level or floor level, or not more than 2 inches (51 mm) below grade or floor level. The cover shall be adequate to support anticipated loads in the area of use. The sump pit shall be vented in accordance with Chapter 31.
Discharge pipe and fittings serving sump pumps and ejectors shall be constructed of materials in accordance with Sections P3007.3.3.1 and P3007.3.3.2 and shall be approved.
Pipe and fitting materials shall be constructed of copper alloy, copper, CPVC, ductile iron, PE, or PVC.
Pipe and fittings shall be rated for the maximum system operating pressure and temperature. Pipe fitting materials shall be compatible with the pipe material. Where pipe and fittings are buried in the earth, they shall be suitable for burial.
The effluent level control shall be adjusted and maintained to at all times prevent the effluent in the sump from rising to within 2 inches (51 mm) of the invert of the gravity drain inlet into the sump.
Pumps connected to the drainage system shall connect to a building sewer, building drain, soil stack, waste stack or horizontal branch drain. Where the discharge line connects into horizontal drainage piping, the connection shall be made through a wye fitting into the top of the drainage piping and such wye fitting shall be located not less than 10 pipe diameters from the base of any soil stack, waste stack or fixture drain.
A sewage pump or sewage ejector shall automatically discharge the contents of the sump to the building drainage system.
Macerating toilet systems and pumped waste systems shall comply with ASME A112.3.4/CSA B45.9 and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Sewage pumps and sewage ejectors shall have the capacity and head for the application requirements. Pumps and ejectors that receive the discharge of water closets shall be capable of handling spherical solids with a diameter of up to and including 2 inches (51 mm). Other pumps or ejectors shall be capable of handling spherical solids with a diameter of up to and including 1 inch (25.4 mm). The minimum capacity of a pump or ejector based on the diameter of the discharge pipe shall be in accordance with Table 3007.6.

Exceptions:

1. Grinder pumps or grinder ejectors that receive the discharge of water closets shall have a discharge opening of not less than 11/4 inches (32 mm).

2. Macerating toilet assemblies that serve single water closets shall have a discharge opening of not less than 3/4 inch (19 mm).

TABLE 3007.6 MINIMUM CAPACITY OF SEWAGE PUMP OR SEWAGE EJECTOR

DIAMETER OF THE
DISCHARGE PIPE
(inches)
CAPACITY OF PUMP OR EJECTOR
(gpm)
2 21
21/2 30
3 46

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m.
Where the flood level rims of plumbing fixtures are below the elevation of the manhole cover of the next upstream manhole in the public sewer, the fixtures shall be protected by a backwater valve installed in the building drain, branch of the building drain or horizontal branch serving such fixtures. Plumbing fixtures having flood level rims above the elevation of the manhole cover of the next upstream manhole in the public sewer shall not discharge through a backwater valve.

Exception: In existing buildings, fixtures above the elevation of the manhole cover of the next upstream manhole in the public sewer shall not be prohibited from discharging through a backwater valve.
Bearing parts of backwater valves shall be of corrosion-resistant material. Backwater valves shall comply with ASME A112.14.1, CSA B181.1 or CSA B181.2.
Backwater valves shall be constructed to provide a mechanical seal against backflow.
Backwater valves, when fully opened, shall have a capacity not less than that of the pipes in which they are installed.
Backwater valves shall be installed so that the working parts are accessible for service and repair.
The provisions of this section shall govern the materials, design, construction and installation of subsurface landscape irrigation systems connected to nonpotable water from on-site water reuse systems.
Above-ground drain, waste and vent piping for subsurface landscape irrigation systems shall conform to one of the standards indicated in Table P3002.1(1). Subsurface landscape irrigation, underground building drainage and vent pipe shall conform to one of the standards indicated in Table P3002.1(2).
Drain, waste and vent piping for subsurface landscape irrigation systems shall be tested in accordance with Section P2503.
Subsurface landscape irrigation systems shall be inspected in accordance with Section R109.
Disinfection shall not be required for on-site nonpotable reuse water for subsurface landscape irrigation systems.
On-site nonpotable reuse water used for subsurface landscape irrigation systems shall not be required to be dyed.
The system shall be sized in accordance with the sum of the output of all water sources connected to the subsurface irrigation system. Where gray-water collection piping is connected to subsurface landscape irrigation systems, gray-water output shall be calculated according to the gallons-per-day-per-occupant (liters per day per occupant) number based on the type of fixtures connected. The gray-water discharge shall be calculated by the following equation:



where:

A = Number of occupants:
Number of occupants shall be determined by the actual number of occupants, but not less than two occupants for one bedroom and one occupant for each additional bedroom.
B = Estimated flow demands for each occupant:
25 gallons (94.6 L) per day per occupant for showers, bathtubs and lavatories and 15 gallons (56.7 L) per day per occupant for clothes washers or laundry trays.
C = Estimated gray-water discharge based on the total number of occupants.
The permeability of the soil in the proposed absorption system shall be determined by percolation tests or permeability evaluation.
Not less than three percolation tests in each system area shall be conducted. The holes shall be spaced uniformly in relation to the bottom depth of the proposed absorption system. More percolation tests shall be made where necessary, depending on system design.
The test hole shall be dug or bored. The test hole shall have vertical sides and a horizontal dimension of 4 inches to 8 inches (102 mm to 203 mm). The bottom and sides of the hole shall be scratched with a sharp-pointed instrument to expose the natural soil. Loose material shall be removed from the hole and the bottom shall be covered with 2 inches (51 mm) of gravel or coarse sand.
The hole shall be filled with clear water to not less than 12 inches (305 mm) above the bottom of the hole for tests in sandy soils. The time for this amount of water to seep away shall be determined, and this procedure shall be repeated if the water from the second filling of the hole seeps away in 10 minutes or less. The test shall proceed as follows: Water shall be added to a point not more than 6 inches (152 mm) above the gravel or coarse sand. Thereupon, from a fixed reference point, water levels shall be measured at 10-minute intervals for a period of 1 hour. Where 6 inches (152 mm) of water seeps away in less than 10 minutes, a shorter interval between measurements shall be used. The water depth shall not exceed 6 inches (152 mm). Where 6 inches (152 mm) of water seeps away in less than 2 minutes, the test shall be stopped and a rate of less than 3 minutes per inch (7.2 s/mm) shall be reported. The final water level drop shall be used to calculate the percolation rate. Soils not meeting these requirements shall be tested in accordance with Section P3009.8.1.3.
The hole shall be filled with clear water, and a minimum water depth of 12 inches (305 mm) shall be maintained above the bottom of the hole for a 4-hour period by refilling whenever necessary or by use of an automatic siphon. Water remaining in the hole after 4 hours shall not be removed. Thereafter, the soil shall be allowed to swell not less than 16 hours or more than 30 hours. Immediately after the soil swelling period, the measurements for determining the percolation rate shall be made as follows: any soil sloughed into the hole shall be removed and the water level shall be adjusted to 6 inches (152 mm) above the gravel or coarse sand. Thereupon, from a fixed reference point, the water level shall be measured at 30-minute intervals for a period of 4 hours, unless two successive water level drops do not vary by more than 1/16 inch (1.59 mm). Not less than three water level drops shall be observed and recorded. The hole shall be filled with clear water to a point not more than 6 inches (152 mm) above the gravel or coarse sand whenever it becomes nearly empty. Adjustments of the water level shall not be made during the three measurement periods except to the limits of the last measured water level drop. When the first 6 inches (152 mm) of water seeps away in less than 30 minutes, the time interval between measurements shall be 10 minutes and the test run for 1 hour. The water depth shall not exceed 5 inches (127 mm) at any time during the measurement period. The drop that occurs during the final measurement period shall be used in calculating the percolation rate.
Mechanical percolation test equipment shall be of an approved type.
Soil shall be evaluated for estimated percolation based on structure and texture in accordance with accepted soil evaluation practices. Borings shall be made in accordance with Section P3009.8.1.1 for evaluating the soil.
The surface grade of soil absorption systems shall be located at a point lower than the surface grade of any water well or reservoir on the same or adjoining lot. Where this is not possible, the site shall be located so surface water drainage from the site is not directed toward a well or reservoir. The soil absorption system shall be located with a minimum horizontal distance between various elements as indicated in Table P3009.9. Private sewage disposal systems in compacted areas, such as parking lots and driveways, are prohibited. Surface water shall be diverted away from any soil absorption site on the same or neighboring lots.

TABLE P3009.9 LOCATION OF SUBSURFACE IRRIGATION SYSTEM

ELEMENT MINIMUM HORIZONTAL DISTANCE
STORAGE TANK
(feet)
IRRIGATION
DISPOSAL FIELD
(feet)
Buildings 5 2
Lot line adjoining private
property
5 5
Water wells 50 100
Streams and lakes 50 50
Seepage pits 5 5
Septic tanks 0 5
Water service 5 5
Public water main 10 10

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
Absorption systems shall be installed in accordance with Sections P3009.10.1 through P3009.11 to provide landscape irrigation without surfacing of water.
The total absorption area required shall be computed from the estimated daily gray-water discharge and the design-loading rate based on the percolation rate for the site. The required absorption area equals the estimated gray-water discharge divided by the design loading rate from Table P3009.10.1.

TABLE P3009.10.1 DESIGN LOADING RATE

PERCOLATION RATE
(minutes per inch)
DESIGN LOADING FACTOR
(gallons per square foot per day)
0 to less than 10 1.2
10 to less than 30 0.8
30 to less than 45 0.72
45 to 60 0.4

For SI: 1 minute per inch = min/25.4 mm, 1 gallon per square foot = 40.7 L/m2.
Seepage trench excavations shall be not less than 1 foot (304 mm) in width and not greater than 5 feet (1524 mm) in width. Trench excavations shall be spaced not less than 2 feet (610 mm) apart. The soil absorption area of a seepage trench shall be computed by using the bottom of the trench area (width) multiplied by the length of pipe. Individual seepage trenches shall be not greater than 100 feet (30 480 mm) in developed length.
Seepage bed excavations shall be not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) in width and have more than one distribution pipe. The absorption area of a seepage bed shall be computed by using the bottom of the trench area. Distribution piping in a seepage bed shall be uniformly spaced not greater than 5 feet (1524 mm) and not less than 3 feet (914 mm) apart, and greater than 3 feet (914 mm) and not less than 1 foot (305 mm) from the sidewall or headwall.
The bottom of a trench or bed excavation shall be level. Seepage trenches or beds shall not be excavated where the soil is so wet that such material rolled between the hands forms a soil wire. Smeared or compacted soil surfaces in the sidewalls or bottom of seepage trench or bed excavations shall be scarified to the depth of smearing or compaction and the loose material removed. Where rain falls on an open excavation, the soil shall be left until sufficiently dry so a soil wire will not form when soil from the excavation bottom is rolled between the hands. The bottom area shall then be scarified and loose material removed.
Not less than 6 inches (150 mm) in depth of aggregate ranging in size from 1/2 to 21/2 inches (12.7 mm to 64 mm) shall be laid into the trench below the distribution piping elevation. The aggregate shall be evenly distributed not less than 2 inches (51 mm) in depth over the top of the distribution pipe. The aggregate shall be covered with approved synthetic materials or 9 inches (229 mm) of uncompacted marsh hay or straw. Building paper shall not be used to cover the aggregate. Not less than 9 inches (229 mm) of soil backfill shall be provided above the covering.
Distribution piping shall be not less than 3 inches (76 mm) in diameter. Materials shall comply with Table P3009.11. The top of the distribution pipe shall be not less than 8 inches (203 mm) below the original surface. The slope of the distribution pipes shall be not less than 2 inches (51 mm) and not greater than 4 inches (102 mm) per 100 feet (30 480 mm).

TABLE P3009.11 DISTRIBUTION PIPE

MATERIAL STANDARD
Polyethylene (PE) plastic pipe ASTM F 405
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe ASTM D 2729
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe with
a 3.5-inch O.D. and solid cellular core or
composite wall
ASTM F 1488

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
Joints in distribution pipe shall be made in accordance with Section P3003 of this code.
This section shall govern the replacement of existing building sewer piping by pipe-bursting methods.
The replacement of building sewer piping by pipe bursting methods shall be limited to gravity drainage piping of sizes 6 inches (150 mm) and smaller. The replacement piping shall be of the same nominal size as the existing piping.
The existing piping sections to be replaced shall be inspected internally by a recorded video camera survey. The survey shall include notations of the position of cleanouts and the depth of connections to the existing piping.
The replacement pipe shall be made of a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) that conforms to cell classification number PE3608, PE4608 or PE4710 as indicated in ASTM F 714. The pipe fittings shall be manufactured with an SDR of 17 and in compliance with ASTM F 714.
Pipe fittings to be connected to the replacement piping shall be made of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) that conforms to cell classification number PE3608, PE4608 or PE4710 as indicated in ASTM F 714. The pipe fittings shall be manufactured with an SDR of 17 and in compliance with ASTM D 2683.
Where the existing building sewer did not have cleanouts meeting the requirements of this code, cleanout fittings shall be installed as required by this code.
The completed replacement piping section shall be inspected internally by a recorded video camera survey. The video survey shall be reviewed and approved by the building official prior to pressure testing of the replacement piping system.
The replacement piping system and the connections to the replacement piping shall be tested in accordance with Section P2503.4.
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