Copyright

Preface

Effective Use of the International Fire Code

Legislation

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 General Requirements

Chapter 4 Emergency Planning and Preparedness

Chapter 5 Fire Service Features

Chapter 6 Building Services and Systems

Chapter 7 Fire and Smoke Protection Features

Chapter 8 Interior Finish, Decorative Materials and Furnishings

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Construction Requirements for Existing Buildings

Chapter 12 through 19

Chapter 20 Aviation Facilities

Chapter 21 Dry Cleaning

Chapter 22 Combustible Dust-Producing Operations

Chapter 23 Motor Fuel-Dispensing Facilities and Repair Garages

Chapter 24 Flammable Finishes

Chapter 25 Fruit and Crop Ripening

Chapter 26 Fumigation and Insecticidal Fogging

Chapter 27 Semiconductor Fabrication Facilities

Chapter 28 Lumber Yards and Agro-Industrial, Solid Biomass and Woodworking Facilities

Chapter 29 Manufacture of Organic Coatings

Chapter 30 Industrial Ovens

Chapter 31 Tents and Other Membrane Structures

Chapter 32 High-Piled Combustible Storage

Chapter 33 Fire Safety During Construction and Demolition

Chapter 34 Tire Rebuilding and Tire Storage

Chapter 35 Welding and Other Hot Work

Chapter 36 Marinas

Chapter 37 Combustible Fibers

Chapter 38 through 49

Chapter 50 HAZARDOUS MATERIALS—GENERAL PROVISIONS

Chapter 51 Aerosols

Chapter 52 Reserved

Chapter 53 Compressed Gases

Chapter 54 Corrosive Materials

Chapter 55 Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 56 Explosives and Fireworks

Chapter 57 Flammable and Combustible Liquids

Chapter 58 Flammable Gases and Flammable Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 59 Flammable Solids

Chapter 60 Highly Toxic and Toxic Materials

Chapter 61 Liquefied Petroleum Gases

Chapter 62 Organic Peroxides

Chapter 63 Oxidizers, Oxidizing Gases and Oxidizing Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 64 Pyrophoric Materials

Chapter 65 Pyroxylin (Cellulose Nitrate) Plastics

Chapter 66 Unstable (Reactive) Materials

Chapter 67 Water-Reactive Solids and Liquids

Chapter 68 through 79

Chapter 80 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Board of Appeals

Appendix B Fire-Flow Requirements for Buildings

Appendix C Fire Hydrant Locations and Distribution

Appendix D Fire Apparatus Access Roads

Appendix E Hazard Categories

Appendix F Hazard Ranking

Appendix G Cryogenic Fluids - Weight and Volume Equivalents

Appendix H Hazardous Materials Management Plan (Hmmp) and Hazardous Materials Inventory Statement (Hmis) Instructions

Appendix I Fire Protection Systems - Noncompliant Conditions

Appendix J Building Information Sign

Appendix K Construction Requirements for Existing Ambulatory Care Facilities

Appendix L Requirements for Fire Fighter Air Replenishment Systems

Appendix M HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS—RETROACTIVE AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER REQUIREMENT

Part V‒Hazardous Materials
Prevention, control and mitigation of dangerous conditions related to storage, dispensing, use and handling of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with this chapter.

This chapter shall apply to all hazardous materials, including those materials regulated elsewhere in this code, except that where specific requirements are provided in other chapters, those specific requirements shall apply in accordance with the applicable chapter. Where a material has multiple hazards, all hazards shall be addressed.

Exceptions:

1. In retail or wholesale sales occupancies, the quantities of medicines, foodstuff or consumer products and cosmetics containing not more than 50 percent by volume of water-miscible liquids and with the remainder of the solutions not being flammable shall not be limited, provided such materials are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons (5 L).

2. Quantities of alcoholic beverages in retail or wholesale sales occupancies shall not be limited providing the liquids are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons (5 L).

3. Application and release of pesticide and agricultural products and materials intended for use in weed abatement, erosion control, soil amendment or similar applications where applied in accordance with the manufacturers’ instructions and label directions.

4. The off-site transportation of hazardous materials where in accordance with Department of Transportation (DOTn) regulations.

5. Building materials not otherwise regulated by this code.

6. Refrigeration systems (see Section 606).

7. Stationary storage battery systems regulated by Section 608.

8. The display, storage, sale or use of fireworks and explosives in accordance with Chapter 56.

9. Corrosives utilized in personal and household products in the manufacturers’ original consumer packaging in Group M occupancies.

10. The storage of distilled spirits and wines in wooden barrels and casks.

11. The use of wall-mounted dispensers containing alcohol-based hand rubs classified as Class I or II liquids where in accordance with Section 5705.5.
The provisions of this chapter are waived where the fire code official determines that such enforcement is preempted by other codes, statutes or ordinances. The details of any action granting such a waiver shall be recorded and entered in the files of the code enforcement agency.
Hazardous materials are those chemicals or substances defined as such in this code. Definitions of hazardous materials shall apply to all hazardous materials, including those materials regulated elsewhere in this code.
Mixtures shall be classified in accordance with hazards of the mixture as a whole. Mixtures of hazardous materials shall be classified in accordance with nationally recognized reference standards; by an approved qualified organization, individual, or Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS); or by other approved methods.
Hazardous materials shall be classified according to hazard categories. The categories include materials regulated by this chapter and materials regulated elsewhere in this code.
The material categories listed in this section are classified as physical hazards. A material with a primary classification as a physical hazard can also pose a health hazard.

1. Explosives and blasting agents.

2. Combustible liquids.

3. Flammable solids, liquids and gases.

4. Organic peroxide solids or liquids.

5. Oxidizer, solids or liquids.

6. Oxidizing gases.

7. Pyrophoric solids, liquids or gases.

8. Unstable (reactive) solids, liquids or gases.

9. Water-reactive materials solids or liquids.

10. Cryogenic fluids.
The material categories listed in this section are classified as health hazards. A material with a primary classification as a health hazard can also pose a physical hazard.

1. Highly toxic and toxic materials.

2. Corrosive materials.
Where approved by the fire code official, buildings and facilities where hazardous materials are stored, used or handled shall be permitted to comply with this section as an alternative to compliance with the other requirements set forth in this chapter and Chapters 51 through 67.
The objective of Section 5001.3 is to protect people and property from the consequences of unauthorized discharge, fires or explosions involving hazardous materials.
Performance-based design alternatives are based on the following functional statements:

1. Provide safeguards to minimize the risk of unwanted releases, fires or explosions involving hazardous materials.

2. Provide safeguards to minimize the consequences of an unsafe condition involving hazardous materials during normal operations and in the event of an abnormal condition.
Where safeguards, systems, documentation, written plans or procedures, audits, process hazards analysis, mitigation measures, engineering controls or construction features are required by Sections 5001.3.3.1 through 5001.3.3.18, the details of the design alternative shall be subject to approval by the fire code official. The details of actions granting the use of the design alternatives shall be recorded and entered in the files of the jurisdiction.
The physical- and health-hazard properties of hazardous materials on site shall be known and shall be made readily available to employees, neighbors and the fire code official.
Equipment and operations involving hazardous materials shall be designed, installed and maintained to ensure that they reliably operate as intended.
Safeguards shall be provided to minimize the risk of an unintentional reaction or release that could endanger people or property.
Spill containment systems or means to render a spill harmless to people or property shall be provided where a spill is determined to be a plausible event and where such an event would endanger people or property.
Safeguards shall be provided to minimize the risk of exposing combustible hazardous materials to unintended sources of ignition.
Safeguards shall be provided to minimize the risk of exposing hazardous materials to a fire or physical damage whereby such exposure could endanger or lead to the endangerment of people or property.
Safeguards shall be provided to minimize the risk of and limit damage from a fire or explosion involving explosive hazardous materials whereby such fire or explosion could endanger or lead to the endangerment of people or property.
Where a release of hazardous materials gas or vapor would cause immediate harm to persons or property, means of mitigating the dangerous effects of a release shall be provided.
Where a power supply is relied upon to prevent or control an emergency condition that could endanger people or property, the power supply shall be from a reliable source.
Where ventilation is necessary to limit the risk of creating an emergency condition resulting from normal or abnormal operations, means of ventilation shall be provided.
Process hazard analyses shall be conducted to ensure reasonably the protection of people and property from dangerous conditions involving hazardous materials.
Written documentation of pre-startup safety review procedures shall be developed and enforced to ensure that operations are initiated in a safe manner. The process of developing and updating such procedures shall involve the participation of affected employees.
Written documentation of operating procedures and procedures for emergency shut down shall be developed and enforced to ensure that operations are conducted in a safe manner. The process of developing and updating such procedures shall involve the participation of affected employees.
A written plan for management of change shall be developed and enforced. The process of developing and updating the plan shall involve the participation of affected employees.
A written emergency plan shall be developed to ensure that proper actions are taken in the event of an emergency, and the plan shall be followed if an emergency condition occurs. The process of developing and updating the plan shall involve the participation of affected employees.
Written procedures for investigation and documentation of accidents shall be developed, and accidents shall be investigated and documented in accordance with these procedures.
Where an accidental release of hazardous materials could endanger people or property, either on or off-site, an analysis of the expected consequences of a plausible release shall be performed and utilized in the analysis and selection of active and passive hazard mitigation controls.
Safety audits shall be conducted on a periodic basis to verify compliance with the requirements of this section.
For retail and wholesale storage and display of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials in Group M occupancies and storage in Group S occupancies, see Section 5003.11.
Permits shall be required as set forth in Sections 105.6 and 105.7.

When required by the fire code official, permittees shall apply for approval to permanently close a storage, use or handling facility. Such application shall be submitted not less than 30 days prior to the termination of the storage, use or handling of hazardous materials. The fire code official is authorized to require that the application be accompanied by an approved facility closure plan in accordance with Section 5001.6.3.
Where required by the fire code official, an application for a permit shall include a Hazardous Materials Management Plan (HMMP). The HMMP shall include a facility site plan designating the following:

1. Access to each storage and use area.

2. Location of emergency equipment.

3. Location where liaison will meet emergency responders.

4. Facility evacuation meeting point locations.

5. The general purpose of other areas within the building.

6. Location of all above-ground and underground tanks and their appurtenances including, but not limited to, sumps, vaults, below-grade treatment systems and piping.

7. The hazard classes in each area.

8. Locations of all control areas and Group H occupancies.

9. Emergency exits.
Where required by the fire code official, an application for a permit shall include an HMIS, such as Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) Title III, Tier II Report or other approved statement. The HMIS shall include the following information:

1. Product name.

2. Component.

3. Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) number.

4. Location where stored or used.

5. Container size.

6. Hazard classification.

7. Amount in storage.

8. Amount in use-closed systems.

9. Amount in use-open systems.
Facilities shall be placed out of service in accordance with Sections 5001.6.1 through 5001.6.3.
Facilities that are temporarily out of service shall continue to maintain a permit and be monitored and inspected.
Facilities for which a permit is not kept current or is not monitored and inspected on a regular basis shall be deemed to be permanently out of service and shall be closed in an approved manner. Where required by the fire code official, permittees shall apply for approval to close permanently storage, use or handling facilities. The fire code official is authorized to require that such application be accompanied by an approved facility closure plan in accordance with Section 5001.6.3.
Where a facility closure plan is required in accordance with Section 5001.5 to terminate storage, dispensing, handling or use of hazardous materials, it shall be submitted to the fire code official not less than 30 days prior to facility closure. The plan shall demonstrate that hazardous materials that are stored, dispensed, handled or used in the facility will be transported, disposed of or reused in a manner that eliminates the need for further maintenance and any threat to public health and safety.
The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

BOILING POINT.

CEILING LIMIT.

CHEMICAL.

CHEMICAL NAME.

CLOSED CONTAINER.

CONTAINER.

CONTROL AREA.

CYLINDER.

DAY BOX.

DEFLAGRATION.

DESIGN PRESSURE.

DETACHED BUILDING.

DISPENSING.

EXCESS FLOW CONTROL.

EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE.

EXPLOSION.

FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES.

GAS CABINET.

GAS ROOM.

HANDLING.

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS.

HEALTH HAZARD.

IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND HEALTH (IDLH).

INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS.

LIQUID.

LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT (LEL).

LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL).

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET (MSDS).

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA.

NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (NTP).

OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA.

PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LIMIT (PEL).

PESTICIDE.

PHYSICAL HAZARD.

PRESSURE VESSEL.

SAFETY CAN.

SECONDARY CONTAINMENT.

SEGREGATED.

SOLID.

STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS.

SYSTEM.

TANK, ATMOSPHERIC.

TANK, PORTABLE.

TANK, STATIONARY.

TANK VEHICLE.

UNAUTHORIZED DISCHARGE.

USE (MATERIAL).

VAPOR PRESSURE.
The storage, use and handling of all hazardous materials shall be in accordance with this section.
The maximum allowable quantity per control area shall be as specified in Tables 5003.1.1(1) through 5003.1.1(4).

For retail and wholesale storage and display in Group M occupancies and Group S storage, see Section 5003.11.

TABLE 5003.1.1(1) MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A PHYSICAL HAZARDa, j, m, n, p

MATERIAL CLASS GROUP WHEN
THE MAXIMUM
ALLOWABLE
QUANTITY IS
EXCEEDED
STORAGEb USE-CLOSED SYSTEMSb USE-OPEN SYSTEMSb
Solid
pounds
(cubic feet)
Liquid
gallons
(pounds)
Gas
(cubic feet
at NTP)
Solid
pounds
(cubic feet)
Liquid
gallons
(pounds)
Gas
(cubic feet
at NTP)
Solid
pounds
(cubic feet)
Liquid
gallons
(pounds)
Combustible
dust
NA H-2 See Note q NA NA See Note q NA NA See Note q NA
Combustible
fibersq
Loose
Baledo
H-3 (100)
(1,000)
NA NA (100)
(1,000)
NA NA (20)
(200)
NA
Combustible
liquidc, i
II
IIIA
IIIB
H-2 or H-3
H-2 or H-3
NA
NA 120d,e
330d, e
13,200e, f
NA NA 120d
330d
13,200f
NA NA 30d
80d
3,300f
Consumer
fireworks
1.4G H-3 125 e, l NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Cryogenic
Flammable
NA H-2 NA 45d NA NA 45d NA NA 10d
Cryogenic
Inert
NA NA NA NA NL NA NA NL NA NA
Cryogenic
Oxidizing
NA H-3 NA 45d NA NA 45d NA NA 10d
Explosives Division 1.1
Division 1.2
Division 1.3
Division 1.4
Division 1.4G
Division 1.5
Division 1.6
H-1
H-1
H-1 or H-2
H-3
H-3
H-1
H-1
1e, g
1e, g
5e, g
50e, g
125d, e, l
1e, g
1e, g
(1)e, g
(1)e, g
(5)e, g
(50)e, g
NA
(1)e,g
NA
NA 0.25g
0.25g
1g
50g
NA
0.25g
NA
(0.25)g
(0.25)g
(1)g
(50)g
NA
(0.25)g
NA
NA 0.25g
0.25g
1g
NA
NA
0.25g
NA
(0.25)g
(0.25)g
(1)g
NA
NA
(0.25)g
NA
Flammable
gas
Gaseous
Liquefied
H-2 NA NA
(150)d, e
1,000d, e
NA
NA NA
(150)d, e
1,000d, e
NA
NA NA
Flammable
liquidc
IA

IB and IC
H-2
or
H-3
NA 30d, e

120d, e
NA NA 30d

120d
NA NA 10d

30d
Flammable
liquid,
combination
(IA, IB, IC)
NA H-2
or
H-3
NA 120d, e, h NA NA 120d, h NA NA 30d, h
Flammable
solid
NA H-3 125d, e NA NA 125d NA NA 25d NA


(continued)

TABLE 5003.1.1(1)‒continued MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A PHYSICAL HAZARDa, j, m, n, p

MATERIAL CLASS GROUP WHEN
THE MAXIMUM
ALLOWABLE
QUANTITY IS
EXCEEDED
STORAGEb USE-CLOSED SYSTEMSb USE-OPEN SYSTEMSb
Solid
pounds
(cubic feet)
Liquid
gallons
(pounds)
Gas
(cubic feet
at NTP)
Solid
pounds
(cubic feet)
Liquid
gallons
(pounds)
Gas
(cubic feet
at NTP)
Solid
pounds
(cubic feet)
Liquid
gallons
(pounds)
Inert Gas Gaseous
Liquefied
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NL
NL
NA
NA
NA
NA
NL
NL
NA
NA
NA
NA
Organic peroxide UD
I
II
III
IV
V
H-1
H-2
H-3
H-3
NA
NA
1e, g
5d, e
50d, e
125d, e
NL
NL
(1)e, g
(5)d, e
(50)d, e
(125)d, e
NL
NL
NA 0.25g
1d
50d
125d
NL
NL
(0.25)g
(1)d
(50)d
(125)d
NL
NL
NA 0.25g
1d
10d
25d
NL
NL
(0.25)g
(1)d
(10)d
(25)d
NL
NL
Oxidizer 4
3k
2
1
H-1
H-2 or H-3
H-3
NA
1g
10d, e
250d, e
4,000e, f
(1)e, g
(10)d, e
(250)d, e
(4,000)e,f
NA 0.25g
2d
250d
4,000f
(0.25)g
(2)d
(250)d
(4,000)f
NA 0.25g
2d
50d
1,000f
(0.25)g
(2)d
(50)d
(1,000)f
Oxidizing gas Gaseous
Liquefied
H-3 NA NA
(150)d, e
1,500d, e
NA
NA NA
(150)d, e
1,500d, e
NA
NA NA
Pyrophoric NA H-2 4e, g (4)e, g 50e, g 1g (1)g 10e, g 0 0
Unstable (reactive) 4
3
2
1
H-1
H-1 or H-2
H-3
NA
1e, g
5d, e
50d, e
NL
(1)e, g
(5)d, e
(50)d, e
NL
10e, g
50d, e
750d, e
NL
0.25g
1d
50d
NL
(0.25)g
(1)d
(50)d
NL
2e, g
10d, e
750d, e
NL
0.25g
1d
10d
NL
(0.25)g
(1)d
(10)d
NL
Water reactive 3
2
1
H-2
H-3
NA
5d, e
50d, e
NL
(5)d, e
(50)d, e
NL
NA 5d
50d
NL
(5)d
(50)d
NL
NA 1d
10d
NL
(1)d
(10)d
NL

For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
NA = Not Applicable, NL = Not Limited, UD = Unclassified Detonable.
a. For use of control areas, see Section 5003.8.3.
b. The aggregate quantity in use and storage shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage.
c. The quantities of alcoholic beverages in retail and wholesale sales occupancies shall not be limited providing the liquids are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons. In retail and wholesale sales occupancies, the quantities of medicines, foodstuff or consumer products and cosmetics containing not more than 50 percent by volume of water-miscible liquids with the remainder of the solutions not being flammable shall not be limited, provided that such materials are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons.
d. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where Note e also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
e. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent where stored in approved storage cabinets, day boxes, gas cabinets, gas rooms, exhausted enclosures or in listed safety cans in accordance with Section 5003.9.10. Where Note d also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
f. Quantities shall not be limited in a building equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
g. Allowed only in buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system.
h. Containing not more than the maximum allowable quantity per control area of Class IA, Class IB or Class IC flammable liquids.
i. The maximum allowable quantity shall not apply to fuel oil storage complying with Section 603.3.2.
j. Quantities in parenthesis indicate quantity units in parenthesis at the head of each column.
k. A maximum quantity of 200 pounds of solid or 20 gallons of liquid Class 3 oxidizers is allowed where such materials are necessary for maintenance purposes, operation or sanitation of equipment where the storage containers and the manner of storage are approved.
l. Net weight of pyrotechnic composition of the fireworks. Where the net weight of the pyrotechnic composition of the fireworks is not known, 25 percent of the gross weight of the fireworks including packaging shall be used.
m. For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 5003.1.2.
n. For storage and display quantities in Group M and storage quantities in Group S occupancies complying with Section 5003.11, see Table 5003.11.1.
o. Densely-packed baled cotton that complies with the packing requirements of ISO 8115 shall not be included in this material class.
p. The following shall not be included in determining the maximum allowable quantities:
1. Liquid or gaseous fuel in fuel tanks on vehicles.
2. Liquid or gaseous fuel in fuel tanks on motorized equipment operated in accordance with this code.
3. Gaseous fuels in piping systems and fixed appliances regulated by the International Fuel Gas Code.
4. Liquid fuels in piping systems and fixed appliances regulated by the International Mechanical Code.
5. Alcohol-based hand rubs classified as Class I or II liquids in dispensers that are installed in accordance with Sections 5705.5 and 5705.5.1. The location of the alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) dispensers shall be provided in the construction documents.
q. Where manufactured, generated or used in such a manner that the concentration and conditions create a fire or explosion hazard based on information prepared in accordance with Section 104.7.2.


TABLE 5003.1.1(2) MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POSING A HEALTH HAZARDa, c, f, h, i

MATERIAL STORAGEb USE-CLOSED SYSTEMSb USE-OPEN SYSTEMSb
Solid poundsd, e Liquid gallons
(pounds)d, e
Gas cubic feet at NTP
(pounds)d
Solid poundsd Liquid gallons
(pounds)d
Gas cubic feet at NTP
(pounds)d
Solid poundsd Liquid gallons
(pounds)
d
Corrosives 5,000 500 Gaseous 810e
Liquefied (150)
5,000 500 Gaseous 810e
Liquefied (150)
1,000 100
Highly Toxics 10 (10) Gaseous 20g
Liquefied (4)g
10 (10) Gaseous 20g
Liquified (4)g
3 (3)
Toxics 500 (500) Gaseous 810e
Liquefied (150)e
500 (500) Gaseous 810e
Liquefied (150)e
125 (125)

For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
a. For use of control areas, see Section 5003.8.3.
b. The aggregate quantity in use and storage shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage.
c. In retail and wholesale sales occupancies, the quantities of medicines, foodstuff or consumer products and cosmetics, containing not more than 50 percent by volume of water-miscible liquids and with the remainder of the solutions not being flammable, shall not be limited, provided that such materials are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons.
d. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where Note e also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
e. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent where stored in approved storage cabinets, gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures. Where Note d also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
f. For storage and display quantities in Group M and storage quantities in Group S occupancies complying with Section 5003.11, see Table 5003.11.1.
g. Allowed only where stored in approved exhausted gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures.
h. Quantities in parentheses indicate quantity units in parentheses at the head of each column.
i. For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 5003.1.2.


TABLE 5003.1.1(3) MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A PHYSICAL HAZARD IN AN OUTDOOR CONTROL AREAa, b, c, d

MATERIAL CLASS STORAGEb USE-CLOSED SYSTEMSb USE-OPEN SYSTEMSb
Solid pounds
(cubic feet)
Liquid gallons
(pounds)d
Gas cubic feet at NTP Solid pounds
(cubic feet)
Liquid gallons
(pounds)d
Gas cubic feet at NTP Solid pounds
(cubic feet)
Liquid gallons
(pounds)d
Flammable gas Gaseous
Liquefied
Not Applicable Not Applicable
(300)
3,000
Not Applicable
Not Applicable Not Applicable
(150)
1,500
Not Applicable
Not Applicable Not Applicable
Flammable solid Not Applicable 500 Not Applicable Not Applicable 250 Not Applicable Not Applicable 50 Not Applicable
Inert Gas

Cryogenic inert
Gaseous
Liquefied
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Limited
Not Limited
Not Limited
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Limited
Not Limited
Not Limited
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Organic peroxide Unclassified
Detonable
1 (1) Not Applicable 0.25 (0.25) Not Applicable 0.25 (0.25)
Organic peroxide I
II
III
IV
V
20
200
500
1,000
Not Limited
(20)
(200)
(500)
(1,000)
Not Limited
Not
Applicable
10
100
250
500
Not Limited
(10)
(100)
(250)
(500)
Not Limited
Not
Applicable
2
20
50
100
Not Limited
(2)
(20)
(50)
(100)
Not Limited
Oxidizer 4
3
2
1
2
40
1,000
Not Limited
(2)
(40)
(1,000)
Not Limited
Not
Applicable
1
20
500
Not Limited
(1)
(20)
(500)
Not Limited
Not
Applicable
0.25
4
100
Not Limited
(0.25)
(4)
(100)
Not Limited
Oxidizing gas Gaseous
Liquefied
Not
Applicable
Not Applicable
(600)
6,000
Not Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not Applicable
(300)
1,500
Not Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Pyrophoric
materials
Not
Applicable
8 (8) 100 4 (4) 10 0 0
Unstable
(reactive)
4
3
2
1
2
20
200
Not Limited
(2)
(20)
(200)
Not Limited
20
200
1,000
1,500
1
10
100
Not Limited
(1)
(10)
(100)
Not Limited
2
10
250
Not Limited
0.25
1
10
Not Limited
(0.25)
(1)
(10)
Not Limited
Water reactive 3
2
1
20
200
Not Limited
(20)
(200)
Not Limited
Not
Applicable
10
100
Not Limited
(10)
(100)
Not Limited
Not
Applicable
1
10
Not Limited
(1)
(10)
Not Limited

For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3.
a. For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 5003.1.2.
b. The aggregate quantities in storage and use shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage.
c. The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials allowed in outdoor storage per single property under the same ownership or control used for retail or wholesale sales is allowed to exceed the maximum allowable quantity per control area where such storage is in accordance with Section 5003.11.
d. Quantities in parentheses indicate quantity units in parentheses at the head of each column.


TABLE 5003.1.1(4) MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A HEALTH HAZARD IN AN OUTDOOR CONTROL AREAa, b, c, f

MATERIAL STORAGE USE-CLOSED SYSTEMS USE-OPEN SYSTEMS
Solid pounds Liquid gallons
(pounds)
Gas cubic feet at NTP
(pounds)
Solid pounds Liquid gallons
(pounds)
Gas cubic feet at NTP
(pounds)
Solid pounds Liquid gallons
(pounds)
Corrosives 20,000 2,000 Gaseous 1,620
Liquefied (300)
10,000 1,000 Gaseous 810
Liquefied (150)
1,000 100
Highly toxics 20 (20) Gaseous 40d
Liquefied (8)d
10 (10) Gaseous 20d
Liquefied (4)d
3 (3)
Toxics 1,000 (1,000)e Gaseous 1,620
Liquefied (300)
500 50e Gaseous 810
Liquefied (150)
125 (125)e

For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 pound per square inch absolute = 6.895 kPa,°C = [(°F)-32/1.8].
a. For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 5003.1.2.
b. The aggregate quantities in storage and use shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage.
c. The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials allowed in outdoor storage per single property under the same ownership or control used for retail or wholesale sales is allowed to exceed the maximum allowable quantity per control area where such storage is in accordance with Section 5003.11.
d. Allowed only where used in approved exhausted gas cabinets, exhausted enclosures or under fume hoods.
e. The maximum allowable quantity per control area for toxic liquids with vapor pressures in excess of 1 psia at 77°F shall be the maximum allowable quantity per control area listed for highly toxic liquids.
f. Quantities in parentheses indicate quantity units in parentheses at the head of each column.
Where quantities are indicated in pounds and where the weight per gallon of the liquid is not provided to the fire code official, a conversion factor of 10 pounds per gallon (1.2 kg/L) shall be used.
The storage, use and handling of hazardous materials in quantities not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Tables 5003.1.1(1) through 5003.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with Sections 5001 and 5003.
The storage and use of hazardous materials in quantities exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Tables 5003.1.1(1) through 5003.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with this chapter.
Systems, equipment and processes utilized for storage, dispensing, use or handling of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.2.1 through 5003.2.8.
Containers, cylinders and tanks shall be designed and constructed in accordance with approved standards. Containers, cylinders, tanks and other means used for containment of hazardous materials shall be of an approved type. Pressure vessels not meeting DOTn requirements for transportation shall comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.
Piping, tubing, valves, and fittings conveying hazardous materials shall be designed and installed in accordance with ASME B31 or other approved standards, and shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.2.2.1 and 5003.2.2.2.
Piping, tubing, valves, fittings and related components used for hazardous materials shall be in accordance with the following:

1. Piping, tubing, valves, fittings and related components shall be designed and fabricated from materials that are compatible with the material to be contained and shall be of adequate strength and durability to withstand the pressure, structural and seismic stress and exposure to which they are subject.

2. Piping and tubing shall be identified in accordance with ASME A13.1 to indicate the material conveyed.

3. Readily accessible manual valves or automatic remotely activated fail-safe emergency shutoff valves shall be installed on supply piping and tubing at the following locations:

3.1. The point of use.

3.2. The tank, cylinder or bulk source.

4. Manual emergency shutoff valves and controls for remotely activated emergency shutoff valves shall be identified and the location shall be clearly visible, accessible and indicated by means of a sign.

5. Backflow prevention or check valves shall be provided where the backflow of hazardous materials could create a hazardous condition or cause the unauthorized discharge of hazardous materials.

6. Where gases or liquids having a hazard ranking of:

Health Class 3 or 4
Flammability Class 4
Instability Class 3 or 4

in accordance with NFPA 704 are carried in pressurized piping above 15 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) (103 kPa), an approved means of leak detection and emergency shutoff or excess flow control shall be provided. Where the piping originates from within a hazardous material storage room or area, the excess flow control shall be located within the storage room or area. Where the piping originates from a bulk source, the excess flow control shall be located as close to the bulk source as practical.

Exceptions:

1. Piping for inlet connections designed to prevent backflow.

2. Piping for pressure relief devices.
Supply piping and tubing for gases and liquids having a health-hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accordance with NFPA 704 shall be in accordance with ASME B31.3 and the following:

1. Piping and tubing utilized for the transmission of highly toxic, toxic or highly volatile corrosive liquids and gases shall have welded, threaded or flanged connections throughout except for connections located within a ventilated enclosure if the material is a gas, or an approved method of drainage or containment is provided for connections if the material is a liquid.

2. Piping and tubing shall not be located within corridors, within any portion of a means of egress required to be enclosed in fire-resistance-rated construction or in concealed spaces in areas not classified as Group H occupancies.

Exception: Piping and tubing within the space defined by the walls of corridors and the floor or roof above or in concealed spaces above other occupancies where installed in accordance with Section 415.11.6.4 of the International Building Code for Group H-5 occupancies.
Equipment, machinery and required detection and alarm systems associated with the use, storage or handling of hazardous materials shall be listed or approved.
Installation of tanks shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.2.4.1 through 5003.2.4.2.1.
Underground tanks used for the storage of liquid hazardous materials shall be provided with secondary containment. In lieu of providing secondary containment for an underground tank, an above-ground tank in an underground vault complying with Section 5704.2.8 shall be permitted.
Above-ground stationary tanks used for the storage of hazardous materials shall be located and protected in accordance with the requirements for outdoor storage of the particular material involved.

Exception: Above-ground tanks that are installed in vaults complying with Section 5303.16 or 5704.2.8 shall not be required to comply with location and protection requirements for outdoor storage.
Above-ground stationary tanks shall be marked as required by Section 5003.5.
Empty containers and tanks previously used for the storage of hazardous materials shall be free from residual material and vapor as defined by DOTn, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or other regulating authority or maintained as specified for the storage of hazardous material.
In addition to the requirements of Section 5003.2.3, equipment, machinery and required detection and alarm systems associated with hazardous materials shall be maintained in an operable condition. Defective containers, cylinders and tanks shall be removed from service, repaired or disposed of in an approved manner. Defective equipment or machinery shall be removed from service and repaired or replaced. Required detection and alarm systems shall be replaced or repaired where defective.
Stationary tanks not used for a period of 90 days shall be properly safeguarded or removed in an approved manner. Such tanks shall have the fill line, gauge opening and pump connection secured against tampering. Vent lines shall be properly maintained.
Tanks that are to be placed back in service shall be tested in an approved manner.
Defective containers and tanks shall be removed from service, repaired in accordance with approved standards or disposed of in an approved manner.
Atmospheric tanks having a capacity greater than 500 gallons (1893 L) and that contain hazardous material liquids shall be equipped with a liquid-level limit control or other approved means to prevent overfilling of the tank.
Machinery and equipment utilizing hazardous materials shall be braced and anchored in accordance with the seismic design requirements of the International Building Code for the seismic design category in which the machinery or equipment is classified.
The equipment, devices and systems listed in Section 5003.2.9.1 shall be tested at the time of installation and at one of the intervals listed in Section 5003.2.9.2. Records of the tests conducted or maintenance performed shall be maintained in accordance with the provisions of Section 107.2.1.

Exceptions:

1. Periodic testing shall not be required where approved written documentation is provided stating that testing will damage the equipment, device or system and the equipment, device or system is maintained as specified by the manufacturer.

2. Periodic testing shall not be required for equipment, devices and systems that fail in a fail-safe manner.

3. Periodic testing shall not be required for equipment, devices and systems that self-diagnose and report trouble. Records of the self-diagnosis and trouble reporting shall be made available to the fire code official.

4. Periodic testing shall not be required if system activation occurs during the required test cycle for the components activated during the test cycle.

5. Approved maintenance in accordance with Section 5003.2.6 that is performed not less than annually or in accordance with an approved schedule shall be allowed to meet the testing requirements set forth in Sections 5003.2.9.1 and 5003.2.9.2.
The following equipment, systems and devices shall be tested in accordance with Sections 5003.2.9 and 5003.2.9.2.

1. Gas detection systems, alarms and automatic emergency shutoff valves required by Section 6004.2.2.10 for highly toxic and toxic gases.

2. Limit control systems for liquid level, temperature and pressure required by Sections 5003.2.7, 5004.8 and 5005.1.4.

3. Emergency alarm systems and supervision required by Sections 5004.9 and 5005.4.4.

4. Monitoring and supervisory systems required by Sections 5004.10 and 5005.1.6.

5. Manually activated shutdown controls required by Section 6403.1.1.1 for compressed gas systems conveying pyrophoric gases.
The equipment, systems and devices listed in Section 5003.2.9.1 shall be tested at one of the frequencies listed below:

1. Not less than annually.

2. In accordance with the approved manufacturer’s requirements.

3. In accordance with approved recognized industry standards.

4. In accordance with an approved schedule.
Hazardous materials in any quantity shall not be released into a sewer, storm drain, ditch, drainage canal, creek, stream, river, lake or tidal waterway or on the ground, sidewalk, street, highway or into the atmosphere.

Exceptions:

1. The release or emission of hazardous materials is allowed where in compliance with federal, state or local governmental agencies, regulations or permits.

2. The release of pesticides is allowed where used in accordance with registered label directions.

3. The release of fertilizer and soil amendments is allowed where used in accordance with manufacturer’s specifications.
Where hazardous materials are released in quantities reportable under state, federal or local regulations, the fire code official shall be notified and the following procedures required in accordance with Sections 5003.3.1.1 through 5003.3.1.4.
Records of the unauthorized discharge of hazardous materials by the permittee shall be maintained.
Provisions shall be made for controlling and mitigating unauthorized discharges.
Where an unauthorized discharge caused by primary container failure is discovered, the involved primary container shall be repaired or removed from service.
The person, firm or corporation responsible for an unauthorized discharge shall institute and complete all actions necessary to remedy the effects of such unauthorized discharge, whether sudden or gradual, without cost to the jurisdiction. Where deemed necessary by the fire code official, cleanup can be initiated by the fire department or by an authorized individual or firm. Costs associated with such cleanup shall be borne by the owner, operator or other person responsible for the unauthorized discharge.
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) shall be readily available on the premises for hazardous materials regulated by this chapter. Where a hazardous substance is developed in a laboratory, available information shall be documented.

Exception: Designated hazardous waste.
Unless otherwise exempted by the fire code official, visible hazard identification signs as specified in NFPA 704 for the specific material contained shall be placed on stationary containers and above-ground tanks and at entrances to locations where hazardous materials are stored, dispensed, used or handled in quantities requiring a permit and at specific entrances and locations designated by the fire code official.
Individual containers, cartons or packages shall be conspicuously marked or labeled in an approved manner. Rooms or cabinets containing compressed gases shall be conspicuously labeled: COMPRESSED GAS.
Signs and markings required by Sections 5003.5 and 5003.5.1 shall not be obscured or removed, shall be in English as a primary language or in symbols allowed by this code, shall be durable, and the size, color and lettering shall be approved.
Sources of ignition shall comply with Sections 5003.7.1 through 5003.7.3.
Smoking shall be prohibited and "No Smoking" signs provided as follows:

1. In rooms or areas where hazardous materials are stored or dispensed or used in open systems in amounts requiring a permit in accordance with Section 5001.5.

2. Within 25 feet (7620 mm) of outdoor storage, dispensing or open use areas.

3. Facilities or areas within facilities that have been designated as totally "no smoking" shall have "No Smoking" signs placed at all entrances to the facility or area. Designated areas within such facilities where smoking is permitted either permanently or temporarily, shall be identified with signs designating that smoking is permitted in these areas only.

4. In rooms or areas where flammable or combustible hazardous materials are stored, dispensed or used.

Signs required by this section shall be in English as a primary language or in symbols allowed by this code and shall comply with Section 310.
Open flames and high-temperature devices shall not be used in a manner that creates a hazardous condition and shall be listed for use with the hazardous materials stored or used.
Powered industrial trucks used in areas designated as hazardous (classified) locations in accordance with NFPA 70 shall be listed and labeled for use in the environment intended in accordance with NFPA 505.
Buildings, control areas, enclosures and cabinets for hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.8.1 through 5003.8.6.3.
Buildings, or portions thereof, in which hazardous materials are stored, handled or used shall be constructed in accordance with the International Building Code.
Group H occupancies containing quantities of hazardous materials in excess of those set forth in Table 5003.8.2 shall be in detached buildings.

TABLE 5003.8.2 DETACHED BUILDING REQUIRED

A DETACHED BUILDING IS REQUIRED WHERE THE QUANTITY OF MATERIAL EXCEEDS THAT LISTED HEREIN
Material Class Solids and liquids (tons)a, b Gases (cubic feet)a, b
Explosives Division 1.1
Division 1.2
Division 1.3
Division 1.4
Division 1.4c
Division 1.5
Division 1.6
Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity
1
Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity
Not Applicable
Oxidizers Class 4 Maximum Allowable Quantity Maximum Allowable Quantity
Unstable (reactives) detonable Class 3 or 4 Maximum Allowable Quantity Maximum Allowable Quantity
Oxidizer, liquids and solids Class 3
Class 2
1,200
2,000
Not Applicable
Organic peroxides Detonable
Class I
Class II
Class III
Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity
25
50
Not Applicable
Unstable (reactives) nondetonable Class 3
Class 2
1
25
2,000
10,000
Water reactives Class 3
Class 2
1
25
Not Applicable
Pyrophoric gases Not Applicable Not Applicable 2,000

For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3, 1 ton = 2000 lbs. = 907.2 kg.
a. For materials that are detonable, the distance to other buildings or lot lines shall be as specified in the International Building Code. For materials classified as explosives, the required separation distances shall be as specified in Chapter 56.
b. "Maximum Allowable Quantity" means the maximum allowable quantity per control area set forth in Table 5003.1.1(1).
c. Limited to Division 1.4 materials and articles, including articles packaged for shipment, that are not regulated as an explosive under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives regulations, or unpackaged articles used in process operations that do not propagate a detonation or deflagration between articles, providing the net explosive weight of individual articles does not exceed 1 pound.
Control areas shall comply with Sections 5003.8.3.1 through 5003.8.3.5.
Control areas shall be separated from each other by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the International Building Code or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711 of the International Building Code, or both.
The percentage of maximum allowable quantities of hazardous materials per control area allowed at each floor level within a building shall be in accordance with Table 5003.8.3.2.

TABLE 5003.8.3.2 DESIGN AND NUMBER OF CONTROL AREAS

FLOOR LEVEL PERCENTAGE OF THE MAXIMUM
ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER
CONTROL AREAa
NUMBER OF CONTROL
AREAS PER FLOOR
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING FOR
FIRE BARRIERS IN HOURSb
Above grade plane Higher than 9
7-9
6
5
4
3
2
1
5
5
12.5
12.5
12.5
50
75
100
1
2
2
2
2
2
3
4
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
Below grade plane 1
2
Lower than 2
75
50
Not Allowed
3
2
Not Allowed
1
1
Not Allowed

a. Percentages shall be of the maximum allowable quantity per control area shown in Tables 5003.1.1(1) and 5003.1.1(2), with all increases allowed in the footnotes to those tables.
b. Separation shall include fire barriers and horizontal assemblies as necessary to provide separation from other portions of the building.
The maximum number of control areas per floor within a building shall be in accordance with Table 5003.8.3.2.
The required fire-resistance rating for fire barriers shall be in accordance with Table 5003.8.3.2. The floor assembly of the control area and the construction supporting the floor of the control area shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours.

Exception: The floor assembly of the control area and the construction supporting the floor of the control area is allowed to be 1-hour fire-resistance rated in buildings of Type IIA, IIIA and VA construction, provided that both of the following conditions exist:

1. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

2. The building is three stories or less above grade plane.
The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials allowed within a single control area of a Group M display and storage area or a Group S storage area is allowed to exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area specified in Tables 5003.1.1(1) and 5003.1.1(2) without classifying the building or use as a Group H occupancy, provided that the materials are displayed and stored in accordance with Section 5003.11.
Where a gas room is used to increase the maximum allowable quantity per control area or provided to comply with the provisions of Chapter 60, the gas room shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.8.4.1 and 5003.8.4.2.
Gas rooms shall be protected with an automatic sprinkler system. Gas rooms shall be separated from the remainder of the building in accordance with the requirements of the International Building Code based on the occupancy group into which it has been classified.
The ventilation system for gas rooms shall be designed to operate at a negative pressure in relation to the surrounding area. Highly toxic and toxic gases shall also comply with Section 6004.2.2.6. The ventilation system shall be installed in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.
Where an exhausted enclosure is used to increase maximum allowable quantity per control area or where the location of hazardous materials in exhausted enclosures is provided to comply with the provisions of Chapter 60, the exhausted enclosure shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.8.5.1 through 5003.8.5.3.
Exhausted enclosures shall be of noncombustible construction.
Exhausted enclosures shall be provided with an exhaust ventilation system. The ventilation system for exhausted enclosures shall be designed to operate at a negative pressure in relation to the surrounding area. Ventilation systems used for highly toxic and toxic gases shall also comply with Items 1, 2 and 3 of Section 6004.1.2. The ventilation system shall be installed in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.
Exhausted enclosures where flammable materials are used shall be protected by an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Chapter 9.
Where a gas cabinet is used to increase the maximum allowable quantity per control area or where the location of compressed gases in gas cabinets is provided to comply with the provisions of Chapter 60, the gas cabinet shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.8.6.1 through 5003.8.6.3.
Gas cabinets shall be constructed in accordance with the following:

1. Constructed of not less than 0.097-inch (2.5 mm) (No. 12 gage) steel.

2. Be provided with self-closing limited access ports or noncombustible windows to give access to equipment controls.

3. Be provided with self-closing doors.

4. Gas cabinet interiors shall be treated, coated or constructed of materials that are compatible with the hazardous materials stored. Such treatment, coating or construction shall include the entire interior of the cabinet.
Gas cabinets shall be provided with an exhaust ventilation system. The ventilation system for gas cabinets shall be designed to operate at a negative pressure in relation to the surrounding area. Ventilation systems used for highly toxic and toxic gases shall also comply with Items 1, 2 and 3 of Section 6004.1.2. The ventilation system shall be installed in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.
The number of cylinders contained in a single gas cabinet shall not exceed three.
Where storage cabinets are used to increase maximum allowable quantity per control area or to comply with this chapter, such cabinets shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.8.7.1 and 5003.8.7.2.
The interior of cabinets shall be treated, coated or constructed of materials that are nonreactive with the hazardous material stored. Such treatment, coating or construction shall include the entire interior of the cabinet. Cabinets shall either be listed in accordance with UL 1275 as suitable for the intended storage or constructed in accordance with the following:

1. Cabinets shall be of steel having a thickness of not less than 0.0478 inch (1.2 mm) (No. 18 gage). The cabinet, including the door, shall be double walled with a 11/2-inch (38 mm) airspace between the walls. Joints shall be riveted or welded and shall be tight fitting. Doors shall be well fitted, self-closing and equipped with a self-latching device.

2. The bottoms of cabinets utilized for the storage of liquids shall be liquid tight to a minimum height of 2 inches (51 mm).

Electrical equipment and devices within cabinets used for the storage of hazardous gases or liquids shall be in accordance with NFPA 70.
Cabinets shall be clearly identified in an approved manner with red letters on a contrasting background to read:

HAZARDOUS‒KEEP FIRE AWAY.
General precautions for the safe storage, handling or care of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.9.1 through 5003.9.10.
Persons responsible for the operation of areas in which hazardous materials are stored, dispensed, handled or used shall be familiar with the chemical nature of the materials and the appropriate mitigating actions necessary in the event of fire, leak or spill.
Responsible persons shall be designated and trained to be liaison personnel to the fire department. These persons shall aid the fire department in preplanning emergency responses and identifying the locations where hazardous materials are located, and shall have access to Material Safety Data Sheets and be knowledgeable in the site’s emergency response procedures.
Storage, dispensing, use and handling areas shall be secured against unauthorized entry and safeguarded in a manner approved by the fire code official.
Guard posts or other approved means shall be provided to protect storage tanks and connected piping, valves and fittings; dispensing areas; and use areas subject to vehicular damage in accordance with Section 312.
Electrical wiring and equipment shall be installed and maintained in accordance with NFPA 70.
Where processes or conditions exist where a flammable mixture could be ignited by static electricity, means shall be provided to prevent the accumulation of a static charge.
Materials that are sensitive to light shall be stored in containers designed to protect them from such exposure.
Materials that are shock sensitive shall be padded, suspended or otherwise protected against accidental dislodgement and dislodgement during seismic activity.
Incompatible materials in storage and storage of materials that are incompatible with materials in use shall be separated where the stored materials are in containers having a capacity of more than 5 pounds (2 kg) or 0.5 gallon (2 L). Separation shall be accomplished by:

1. Segregating incompatible materials in storage by a distance of not less than 20 feet (6096 mm).

2. Isolating incompatible materials in storage by a noncombustible partition extending not less than 18 inches (457 mm) above and to the sides of the stored material.

3. Storing liquid and solid materials in hazardous material storage cabinets.

4. Storing compressed gases in gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures in accordance with Sections 5003.8.5 and 5003.8.6. Materials that are incompatible shall not be stored within the same cabinet or exhausted enclosure.
Shelving shall be of substantial construction, and shall be braced and anchored in accordance with the seismic design requirements of the International Building Code for the seismic zone in which the material is located. Shelving shall be treated, coated or constructed of materials that are compatible with the hazardous materials stored. Shelves shall be provided with a lip or guard where used for the storage of individual containers.

Exceptions:

1. Storage in hazardous material storage cabinets or laboratory furniture specifically designed for such use.

2. Storage of hazardous materials in amounts not requiring a permit in accordance with Section 5001.5.

Shelf storage of hazardous materials shall be maintained in an orderly manner.
Safety cans shall be listed in accordance with UL 30 where used to increase the maximum allowable quantities per control area of flammable or combustible liquids in accordance with Table 5003.1.1(1). Safety cans listed in accordance with UL 1313 are allowed for flammable and combustible liquids where not used to increase the maximum allowable quantities per control area and for other hazardous material liquids in accordance with the listing.
In addition to the requirements of Section 5003.2, the handling and transportation of hazardous materials in corridors or enclosures for stairways and ramps shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.10.1 through 5003.10.3.6.
Hazardous material gas containers, cylinders and tanks in transit shall have their protective caps in place. Containers, cylinders and tanks of highly toxic or toxic compressed gases shall have their valve outlets capped or plugged with an approved closure device in accordance with Chapter 53.
Liquids in containers exceeding 5 gallons (19 L) in a corridor or enclosure for a stairway or ramp shall be transported on a cart or truck. Containers of hazardous materials having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accordance with NFPA 704 and transported within corridors or interior exit stairways and ramps, shall be on a cart or truck. Where carts and trucks are required for transporting hazardous materials, they shall be in accordance with Section 5003.10.3.

Exceptions:

1. Two hazardous material liquid containers that are hand carried in acceptable safety carriers.

2. Not more than four drums not exceeding 55 gallons (208 L) each that are transported by suitable drum trucks.

3. Containers and cylinders of compressed gases that are transported by approved hand trucks, and containers and cylinders not exceeding 25 pounds (11 kg) that are hand carried.

4. Solid hazardous materials not exceeding 100 pounds (45 kg) that are transported by approved hand trucks, and a single container not exceeding 50 pounds (23 kg) that is hand carried.
Carts and trucks required by Section 5003.10.2 to be used to transport hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.10.3.1 through 5003.10.3.6.
Carts and trucks used to transport hazardous materials shall be designed to provide a stable base for the commodities to be transported and shall have a means of restraining containers to prevent accidental dislodgement. Compressed gas cylinders placed on carts and trucks shall be individually restrained.
Carts and trucks shall be provided with a device that will enable the operator to control safely movement by providing stops or speed-reduction devices.
Construction materials for hazardous material carts or trucks shall be compatible with the material transported. The cart or truck shall be of substantial construction.
Carts and trucks transporting liquids shall be capable of containing a spill from the largest single container transported.
Carts and trucks used to transport materials shall not obstruct or be left unattended within any part of a means of egress.
Incompatible materials shall not be transported on the same cart or truck.
The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials stored and displayed within a single control area of a Group M occupancy, or an outdoor control area, or stored in a single control area of a Group S occupancy, is allowed to exceed the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Section 5003.1 where in accordance with Sections 5003.11.1 through 5003.11.3.11.
The aggregate amount of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials stored and displayed within a single control area of a Group M occupancy or stored in a single control area of a Group S occupancy shall not exceed the amounts set forth in Table 5003.11.1.

TABLE 5003.11.1 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER INDOOR AND OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA IN GROUP M AND S OCCUPANCIES‒NONFLAMMABLE SOLIDS, NONFLAMMABLE AND NONCOMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDSd, e, f

CONDITION MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA
Materiala Class Solids pounds Liquids gallons
A. HEALTH-HAZARD MATERIALS‒NONFLAMMABLE AND NONCOMBUSTIBLE SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS
1. Corrosivesb, c Not Applicable 9,750 975
2. Highly Toxics Not Applicable 20b, c 2b, c
3. Toxicsb, c Not Applicable 1,000 100
B. PHYSICAL-HAZARD MATERIALS‒NONFLAMMABLE AND NONCOMBUSTIBLE SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS
1. Oxidizersb, c 4 Not Allowed Not Allowed
3 1,150g 115
2 2,250h 225
1 18,000i, j 1,800i, j
2. Unstable (Reactives)b, c 4 Not Allowed Not Allowed
3 550 55
2 1,150 115
1 Not Limited Not Limited
3. Water Reactives 3b, c 550 55
2b, c 1,150 115
1 Not Limited Not Limited

For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3.
a. Hazard categories are as specified in Section 5001.2.2.
b. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where Note c also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
c. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent where stored in approved storage cabinets in accordance with Section 5003.8. Where Note b also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
d. See Table 5003.8.3.2 for design and number of control areas.
e. Maximum allowable quantities for other hazardous material categories shall be in accordance with Section 5003.1.
f. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in outdoor control areas.
g. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased to 2,250 pounds where individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each.
h. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased to 4,500 pounds where individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each.
i. Quantities are unlimited where protected by an automatic sprinkler system.
j. Quantities are unlimited in an outdoor control area.
The aggregate amount of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials stored and displayed within a single outdoor control area of a Group M occupancy shall not exceed the amounts set forth in Table 5003.11.1.
Storage and display shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.11.3.1 through 5003.11.3.11.
Storage and display of solids shall not exceed 200 pounds per square foot (976 kg/m2) of floor area actually occupied by solid merchandise. Storage and display of liquids shall not exceed 20 gallons per square foot (0.50 L/m2) of floor area actually occupied by liquid merchandise.
Display height shall not exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) above the finished floor in display areas of Group M occupancies. Storage height shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm) above the finished floor in storage areas of Group M and Group S occupancies.
Individual containers less than 5 gallons (19 L) or less than 25 pounds (11 kg) shall be stored or displayed on pallets, racks or shelves.
Racks and shelves used for storage or display shall be in accordance with Section 5003.9.9.
Containers shall be approved for the intended use and identified as to their content.
Individual containers shall not exceed 100 pounds (45 kg) for solids or 10 gallons (38 L) for liquids in storage and display areas.
Incompatible materials shall be separated in accordance with Section 5003.9.8.
Floors shall be in accordance with Section 5004.12.
Aisles 4 feet (1219 mm) in width shall be maintained on three sides of the storage or display area.
Hazard identification signs shall be provided in accordance with Section 5003.5.
A storage plan illustrating the intended storage arrangement, including the location and dimensions of aisles, and storage racks shall be provided.
Outdoor control areas for hazardous materials in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per outdoor control area shall be in accordance with the following:

1. Outdoor control areas shall be kept free from weeds, debris and common combustible materials not necessary to the storage. The area surrounding an outdoor control area shall be kept clear of such materials for not less than 15 feet (4572 mm).

2. Outdoor control areas shall be located not closer than 20 feet (6096 mm) from a lot line that can be built upon, public street, public alley or public way.

Exceptions:

1. For solid and liquid hazardous materials, a 2-hour fire-resistance-rated wall without openings extending not less than 30 inches (762 mm) above and to the sides of the storage area shall be allowed in lieu of such distance.

2. For compressed gas hazardous materials, unless otherwise specified, the minimum required distances shall not apply where fire barriers without openings or penetrations having a minimum fire-resistance rating of 2 hours interrupt the line of sight between the storage and the exposure. The configuration of the fire barrier shall be designed to allow natural ventilation to prevent the accumulation of hazardous gas concentrations.

3. Where a property exceeds 10,000 square feet (929 m2), a group of two outdoor control areas is allowed where approved and where each control area is separated by a minimum distance of 50 feet (15 240 mm).

4. Where a property exceeds 35,000 square feet (3252 m2), additional groups of outdoor control areas are allowed where approved and where each group is separated by a minimum distance of 300 feet (91 440 mm).
Storage of hazardous materials in amounts exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area as set forth in Section 5003.1 shall be in accordance with Sections 5001, 5003 and 5004. Storage of hazardous materials in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area as set forth in Section 5003.1 shall be in accordance with Sections 5001 and 5003. Retail and wholesale storage and display of nonflammable solid and nonflammable and noncombustible liquid hazardous materials in Group M occupancies and Group S storage shall be in accordance with Section 5003.11.
Rooms, buildings or areas used for the storage of liquid or solid hazardous materials shall be provided with spill control and secondary containment in accordance with Sections 5004.2.1 through 5004.2.3.

Exception: Outdoor storage of containers on approved containment pallets in accordance with Section 5004.2.3.
Rooms, buildings or areas used for the storage of hazardous material liquids in individual vessels having a capacity of more than 55 gallons (208 L), or in which the aggregate capacity of multiple vessels exceeds 1,000 gallons (3785 L), shall be provided with spill control to prevent the flow of liquids to adjoining areas. Floors in indoor locations and similar surfaces in outdoor locations shall be constructed to contain a spill from the largest single vessel by one of the following methods:

1. Liquid-tight sloped or recessed floors in indoor locations or similar areas in outdoor locations.

2. Liquid-tight floors in indoor locations or similar areas in outdoor locations provided with liquid-tight raised or recessed sills or dikes.

3. Sumps and collection systems.

4. Other approved engineered systems.

Except for surfacing, the floors, sills, dikes, sumps and collection systems shall be constructed of noncombustible material, and the liquid-tight seal shall be compatible with the material stored. Where liquid-tight sills or dikes are provided, they are not required at perimeter openings having an open-grate trench across the opening that connects to an approved collection system.
Where required by Table 5004.2.2 buildings, rooms or areas used for the storage of hazardous materials liquids or solids shall be provided with secondary containment in accordance with this section where the capacity of an individual vessel or the aggregate capacity of multiple vessels exceeds both of the following:

1. Liquids: Capacity of an individual vessel exceeds 55 gallons (208 L) or the aggregate capacity of multiple vessels exceeds 1,000 gallons (3785 L).

2. Solids: Capacity of an individual vessel exceeds 550 pounds (250 kg) or the aggregate capacity of multiple vessels exceeds 10,000 pounds (4540 kg).

TABLE 5004.2.2 REQUIRED SECONDARY CONTAINMENT‒HAZARDOUS MATERIAL SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS STORAGE

MATERIAL INDOOR STORAGE OUTDOOR STORAGE
Solids Liquids Solids Liquids
1. Physical-hazard materials
Combustible liquids Class II Not
Applicable
See Chapter 57 Not
Applicable
See Chapter 57
Class IIIA See Chapter 57 See Chapter 57
Class IIIB See Chapter 57 See Chapter 57
Cryogenic fluids See Chapter 55 See Chapter 55
Explosives See Chapter 56 See Chapter 56
Flammable liquids Class IA Not
Applicable
See Chapter 57 Not
Applicable
See Chapter 57
Class IB See Chapter 57 See Chapter 57
Class IC See Chapter 57 See Chapter 57
Flammable solids Not Required Not Applicable Not Required Not Applicable
Organic peroxides Unclassified
Detonable
Required Required Not Required Not Required
Class I
Class II
Class III
Class IV
Class V Not Required Not Required Not Required Not Required
Oxidizers Class 4 Required Required Not Required Not Required
Class 3
Class 2
Class 1 Not Required Not Required Not Required Not Required
Pyrophorics Not Required Required Not Required Required
Unstable (reactives) Class 4 Required Required Required Required
Class 3
Class 2
Class 1 Not Required Not Required Not Required Not Required
Water reactives Class 3 Required Required Required Required
Class 2
Class 1 Not Required Not Required Not Required Not Required
2. Health-hazard materials
Corrosives Not Required Required Not Required Required
Highly toxics Required Required Required Required
Toxics
The building, room or area shall contain or drain the hazardous materials and fire protection water through the use of one of the following methods:

1. Liquid-tight sloped or recessed floors in indoor locations or similar areas in outdoor locations.

2. Liquid-tight floors in indoor locations or similar areas in outdoor locations provided with liquid-tight raised or recessed sills or dikes.

3. Sumps and collection systems.

4. Drainage systems leading to an approved location.

5. Other approved engineered systems.
Incompatible materials used in open systems shall be separated from each other in the secondary containment system.
Secondary containment for indoor storage areas shall be designed to contain a spill from the largest vessel plus the design flow volume of fire protection water calculated to discharge from the fire-extinguishing system over the minimum required system design area or area of the room or area in which the storage is located, whichever is smaller. The containment capacity shall be designed to contain the flow for a period of 20 minutes.
Secondary containment for outdoor storage areas shall be designed to contain a spill from the largest individual vessel. If the area is open to rainfall, secondary containment shall be designed to include the volume of a 24-hour rainfall as determined by a 25-year storm and provisions shall be made to drain accumulations of groundwater and rainwater.
An approved monitoring method shall be provided to detect hazardous materials in the secondary containment system. The monitoring method is allowed to be visual inspection of the primary or secondary containment, or other approved means. Where secondary containment is subject to the intrusion of water, a monitoring method for detecting water shall be provided. Where monitoring devices are provided, they shall be connected to approved visual or audible alarms.
Drainage systems shall be in accordance with the International Plumbing Code and all of the following:

1. The slope of floors to drains in indoor locations, or similar areas in outdoor locations shall be not less than 1 percent.

2. Drains from indoor storage areas shall be sized to carry the volume of the fire protection water as determined by the design density discharged from the automatic fire-extinguishing system over the minimum required system design area or area of the room or area in which the storage is located, whichever is smaller.

3. Drains from outdoor storage areas shall be sized to carry the volume of the fire flow and the volume of a 24-hour rainfall as determined by a 25-year storm.

4. Materials of construction for drainage systems shall be compatible with the materials stored.

5. Incompatible materials used in open systems shall be separated from each other in the drainage system.

6. Drains shall terminate in an approved location away from buildings, valves, means of egress, fire access roadways, adjoining property and storm drains.
Where used as an alternative to spill control and secondary containment for outdoor storage in accordance with the exception in Section 5004.2, containment pallets shall comply with all of the following:

1. A liquid-tight sump accessible for visual inspection shall be provided.

2. The sump shall be designed to contain not less than 66 gallons (250 L).

3. Exposed surfaces shall be compatible with material stored.

4. Containment pallets shall be protected to prevent collection of rainwater within the sump.
Indoor storage areas and storage buildings shall be provided with mechanical exhaust ventilation or natural ventilation where natural ventilation can be shown to be acceptable for the materials as stored.

Exception: Storage areas for flammable solids complying with Chapter 59.
Exhaust ventilation systems shall comply with all of the following:

1. Installation shall be in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

2. Mechanical ventilation shall be at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot [0.00508 m3/(s • m2)] of floor area over the storage area.

3. Systems shall operate continuously unless alternative designs are approved.

4. A manual shutoff control shall be provided outside of the room in a position adjacent to the access door to the room or in an approved location. The switch shall be a break-glass or other approved type and shall be labeled: VENTILATION SYSTEM EMERGENCY SHUTOFF.

5. Exhaust ventilation shall be designed to consider the density of the potential fumes or vapors released. For fumes or vapors that are heavier than air, exhaust shall be taken from a point within 12 inches (305 mm) of the floor. For fumes or vapors that are lighter than air, exhaust shall be taken from a point within 12 inches (305 mm) of the highest point of the room.

6. The location of both the exhaust and inlet air openings shall be designed to provide air movement across all portions of the floor or room to prevent the accumulation of vapors.

7. Exhaust air shall not be recirculated to occupied areas if the materials stored are capable of emitting hazardous vapors and contaminants have not been removed. Air contaminated with explosive or flammable vapors, fumes or dusts; flammable, highly toxic or toxic gases; or radioactive materials shall not be recirculated.
Incompatible materials shall be separated in accordance with Section 5003.9.8.
Indoor storage areas and storage buildings shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. The design of the sprinkler system shall be not less than that required for Ordinary Hazard Group 2 with a minimum design area of 3,000 square feet (279 m2). Where the materials or storage arrangement are required by other regulations to be provided with a higher level of sprinkler system protection, the higher level of sprinkler system protection shall be provided.
Indoor storage rooms, areas and buildings shall be provided with explosion control in accordance with Section 911.
Where mechanical ventilation, treatment systems, temperature control, alarm, detection or other electrically operated systems are required, such systems shall be provided with an emergency or standby power in accordance with Section 604.

For storage areas for highly toxic or toxic materials, see Sections 6004.2.2.8 and 6004.3.4.2.
Standby or emergency power is not required for mechanical ventilation systems for any of the following:

1. Storage of Class IB and Class IC flammable and combustible liquids in closed containers not exceeding 61/2 gallons (25 L) capacity.

2. Storage of Class 1 and 2 oxidizers.

3. Storage of Class II, III, IV and V organic peroxides.

4. Storage of asphyxiant, irritant and radioactive gases.
Standby power for mechanical ventilation, treatment systems and temperature control systems shall not be required where an approved fail-safe engineered system is installed..
Limit controls shall be provided in accordance with Sections 5004.8.1 and 5004.8.2.
Materials that must be kept at temperatures other than normal ambient temperatures to prevent a hazardous reaction shall be provided with an approved means to maintain the temperature within a safe range. Redundant temperature control equipment that will operate on failure of the primary temperature control system shall be provided. Where approved, alternative means that prevent a hazardous reaction are allowed.
Stationary tanks and equipment containing hazardous material liquids that can generate pressures exceeding design limits because of exposure fires or internal reaction shall have some form of construction or other approved means that will relieve excessive internal pressure. The means of pressure relief shall vent to an approved location or to an exhaust scrubber or treatment system where required by Chapter 60.
An approved manual emergency alarm system shall be provided in buildings, rooms or areas used for storage of hazardous materials. Emergency alarm-initiating devices shall be installed outside of each interior exit or exit access door of storage buildings, rooms or areas. Activation of an emergency alarm-initiating device shall sound a local alarm to alert occupants of an emergency situation involving hazardous materials.
Emergency alarm, detection and automatic fire-extinguishing systems required by Section 5004 shall be electrically supervised and monitored by an approved supervising station or, where approved, shall initiate an audible and visual signal at a constantly attended on-site location.
The area surrounding an outdoor storage area or tank shall be kept clear of combustible materials and vegetation for a minimum distance of 25 feet (7620 mm).
Except for surfacing, floors of storage areas shall be of noncombustible construction.
Where overhead noncombustible construction is provided for sheltering outdoor hazardous material storage areas, such storage shall not be considered indoor storage where the area is constructed in accordance with the requirements for weather protection as required by the International Building Code.

Exception: Storage of explosive materials shall be considered as indoor storage.
Use, dispensing and handling of hazardous materials in amounts exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area set forth in Section 5003.1 shall be in accordance with Sections 5001, 5003 and 5005. Use, dispensing and handling of hazardous materials in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area set forth in Section 5003.1 shall be in accordance with Sections 5001 and 5003.
Separation of incompatible materials shall be in accordance with Section 5003.9.8.
Except for surfacing, floors of areas where liquid or solid hazardous materials are dispensed or used in open systems shall be of noncombustible, liquid-tight construction.
Where required by other provisions of Section 5005, spill control and secondary containment shall be provided for hazardous material liquids in accordance with Section 5004.2.
Limit controls shall be provided in accordance with Sections 5005.1.4.1 through 5005.1.4.4.
Open tanks in which liquid hazardous materials are used shall be equipped with a liquid-level limit control or other means to prevent overfilling of the tank.
Approved safeguards shall be provided to prevent a low-liquid level in a tank from creating a hazardous condition, including but not limited to, overheating of a tank or its contents.
Temperature control shall be provided in accordance with Section 5004.8.1.
Pressure control shall be provided in accordance with Section 5004.8.2.
Where mechanical ventilation, treatment systems, temperature control, manual alarm, detection or other electrically operated systems are required by this code, such systems shall be provided with emergency or standby power in accordance with Section 604.
Standby power for mechanical ventilation, treatment systems and temperature control systems shall not be required where an approved fail-safe engineered system is installed.
Manual alarm, detection and automatic fire-extinguishing systems required by other provisions of Section 5005 shall be electrically supervised and monitored by an approved supervisory service or, where approved, shall initiate an audible and visual signal at a constantly attended on-site location.
Adequate lighting by natural or artificial means shall be provided.
Indoor rooms or areas in which hazardous materials are dispensed or used shall be protected by an automatic fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Chapter 9. Sprinkler system design shall be not less than that required for Ordinary Hazard, Group 2, with a minimum design area of 3,000 square feet (279 m2). Where the materials or storage arrangement are required by other regulations to be provided with a higher level of sprinkler system protection, the higher level of sprinkler system protection shall be provided.
Indoor dispensing and use areas shall be provided with exhaust ventilation in accordance with Section 5004.3.

Exception: Ventilation is not required for dispensing and use of flammable solids other than finely divided particles.
Liquids having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accordance with NFPA 704 shall be transferred by one of the following methods:

1. From safety cans complying with UL 30.

2. Through an approved closed piping system.

3. From containers or tanks by an approved pump taking suction through an opening in the top of the container or tank.

4. From containers or tanks by gravity through an approved self-closing or automatic-closing valve where the container or tank and dispensing operations are provided with spill control and secondary containment in accordance with Section 5004.2. Highly toxic liquids shall not be dispensed by gravity from tanks.

5. Approved engineered liquid transfer systems.

Exceptions:

1. Liquids having a hazard ranking of 4 where dispensed from approved containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons (5 L).

2. Liquids having a hazard ranking of 3 where dispensed from approved containers not exceeding 5.3 gallons (20 L).
Systems shall be suitable for the use intended and shall be designed by persons competent in such design. Controls shall be designed to prevent materials from entering or leaving the process or reaction system at other than the intended time, rate or path. Where failure of an automatic control could result in a dangerous condition or reaction, the automatic control shall be fail-safe.
Indoor dispensing and use of hazardous materials shall be in buildings complying with the International Building Code and in accordance with Section 5005.1 and Sections 5005.2.1 through 5005.2.2.4.
Dispensing and use of hazardous materials in open containers or systems shall be in accordance with Sections 5005.2.1.1 through 5005.2.1.4.
Where gases, liquids or solids having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accordance with NFPA 704 are dispensed or used, mechanical exhaust ventilation shall be provided to capture gases, fumes, mists or vapors at the point of generation.

Exception: Gases, liquids or solids that can be demonstrated not to create harmful gases, fumes, mists or vapors.
Explosion control shall be provided in accordance with Section 5004.6 where an explosive environment can occur because of the characteristics or nature of the hazardous materials dispensed or used, or as a result of the dispensing or use process.
Buildings, rooms or areas where hazardous material liquids are dispensed into vessels exceeding a 1.3-gallon (5 L) capacity or used in open systems exceeding a 5.3-gallon (20 L) capacity shall be provided with spill control in accordance with Section 5004.2.1.
Where required by Table 5005.2.1.4, buildings, rooms or areas where hazardous material liquids are dispensed or used in open systems shall be provided with secondary containment in accordance with Section 5004.2.2 where the capacity of an individual vessel or system or the capacity of multiple vessels or systems exceeds the following:

1. Individual vessel or system: greater than 1.3 gallons (5 L).

2. Multiple vessels or systems: greater than 5.3 gallons (20 L).

TABLE 5005.2.1.4 REQUIRED SECONDARY CONTAINMENT‒HAZARDOUS MATERIAL LIQUIDS USE

MATERIAL INDOOR LIQUIDS USE OUTDOOR LIQUIDS USE
1. Physical-hazard materials
Combustible liquids Class II See Chapter 57 See Chapter 57
Class IIIA See Chapter 57 See Chapter 57
Class IIIB See Chapter 57 See Chapter 57
Cryogenic fluids See Chapter 55 See Chapter 55
Explosives See Chapter 56 See Chapter 56
Flammable liquids Class IA See Chapter 57 See Chapter 57
Class IB See Chapter 57 See Chapter 57
Class IC See Chapter 57 See Chapter 57
Flammable solids Not Applicable Not Applicable
Organic peroxides Unclassified Detonable Required Required
Class I Required Required
Class II
Class III
Class IV
Class V Not Required Not Required
Oxidizers Class 4 Required Required
Class 3
Class 2
Class 1
Pyrophorics Required Required
Unstable (reactives) Class 4 Required Required
Class 3
Class 2
Class 1 Not Required Required
Water reactives Class 3 Required Required
Class 2
Class 1 Not Required Required
2. Health-hazard materials
Corrosives Required Required
Highly toxics
Toxics
Use of hazardous materials in closed containers or systems shall be in accordance with Sections 5005.2.2.1 through 5005.2.2.4.
Where closed systems are designed to be opened as part of normal operations, ventilation shall be provided in accordance with Section 5005.2.1.1.
Explosion control shall be provided in accordance with Section 5004.6 where an explosive environment exists because of the hazardous materials dispensed or used, or as a result of the dispensing or use process.

Exception: Where process vessels are designed to contain fully the worst-case explosion anticipated within the vessel under process conditions based on the most likely failure.
Buildings, rooms or areas where hazardous material liquids are used in individual vessels exceeding a 55-gallon (208 L) capacity shall be provided with spill control in accordance with Section 5004.2.1.
Where required by Table 5005.2.1.4, buildings, rooms or areas where hazardous material liquids are used in vessels or systems shall be provided with secondary containment in accordance with Section 5004.2.2 where the capacity of an individual vessel or system or the capacity of multiple vessels or systems exceeds the following:

1. Individual vessel or system: greater than 55 gallons (208 L).

2. Multiple vessels or systems: greater than 1,000 gallons (3785 L).
Dispensing and use of hazardous materials outdoors shall be in accordance with Sections 5005.3.1 through 5005.3.9.
Outdoor dispensing or use of hazardous materials, in either closed or open containers or systems, in amounts exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Tables 5003.1.1(3) and 5003.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with Sections 5001, 5003, 5005.1 and 5005.3.
Outdoor dispensing or use of hazardous materials, in either closed or open containers or systems, in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Tables 5003.1.1(3) and 5003.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with Sections 5001 and 5003.
Outdoor dispensing and use areas for hazardous materials shall be located as required for outdoor storage in accordance with Section 5004.
Outdoor areas where hazardous material liquids are dispensed in vessels exceeding a 1.3-gallon (5 L) capacity or used in open systems exceeding a 5.3-gallon (20 L) capacity shall be provided with spill control in accordance with Section 5004.2.1.
Where required by Table 5005.2.1.4, outdoor areas where hazardous material liquids are dispensed or used in open systems shall be provided with secondary containment in accordance with Section 5004.2.2 where the capacity of an individual vessel or system or the capacity of multiple vessels or systems exceeds the following:

1. Individual vessel or system: greater than 1.3 gallons (5 L).

2. Multiple vessels or systems: greater than 5.3 gallons (20 L).
Outdoor areas where hazardous material liquids are used in closed systems exceeding 55 gallons (208 L) shall be provided with spill control in accordance with Section 5004.2.1.
Where required by Table 5005.2.1.4, outdoor areas where hazardous material liquids are dispensed or used in closed systems shall be provided with secondary containment in accordance with Section 5004.2.2 where the capacity of an individual vessel or system or the capacity of multiple vessels or systems exceeds the following:

1. Individual vessel or system: greater than 55 gallons (208 L).

2. Multiple vessels or systems: greater than 1,000 gallons (3785 L).
The area surrounding an outdoor dispensing or use area shall be kept clear of combustible materials and vegetation for a minimum distance of 30 feet (9144 mm).
Where overhead noncombustible construction is provided for sheltering outdoor hazardous material use areas, such use shall not be considered indoor use where the area is constructed in accordance with the requirements for weather protection as required in the International Building Code.

Exception: Use of explosive materials shall be considered as indoor use.
Handling of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 5005.4.1 through 5005.4.4.
Handling of hazardous materials in indoor and outdoor locations in amounts exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Tables 5003.1.1(1) through 5003.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with Sections 5001, 5003, 5005.1 and 5005.4.
Handling of hazardous materials in indoor locations in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Tables 5003.1.1(1) and 5003.1.1(2) shall be in accordance with Sections 5001, 5003 and 5005.1. Handling of hazardous materials in outdoor locations in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Tables 5003.1.1(3) and 5003.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with Sections 5001 and 5003.
Outdoor handling areas for hazardous materials shall be located as required for outdoor storage in accordance with Section 5004.
Where hazardous materials having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accordance with NFPA 704 are transported through corridors, interior exit stairways or ramps or exit passageways, there shall be an emergency telephone system, a local manual alarm station or an approved alarm-initiating device at not more than 150-foot (45 720 mm) intervals and at each exit and exit access doorway throughout the transport route. The signal shall be relayed to an approved central, proprietary or remote station service or constantly attended on-site location and shall also initiate a local audible alarm.
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