Copyright

Preface

Effective Use of the International Fire Code

Ordinance

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 General Requirements

Chapter 4 Emergency Planning and Preparedness

Chapter 5 Fire Service Features

Chapter 6 Building Services and Systems

Chapter 7 Fire-Resistance-Rated Construction

Chapter 8 Interior Finish, Decorative Materials and Furnishings

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Aviation Facilities

Chapter 12 Dry Cleaning

Chapter 13 Combustible Dust-Producing Operations

Chapter 14 Fire Safety During Construction and Demolition

Chapter 15 Flammable Finishes

Chapter 16 Fruit and Crop Ripening

Chapter 17 Fumigation and Thermal Insecticidal Fogging

Chapter 18 Semiconductor Fabrication Facilities

Chapter 19 Lumber Yards and Woodworking Facilities

Chapter 20 Manufacture of Organic Coatingsmanufacture of Organic Coatings

Chapter 21 Industrial Ovens

Chapter 22 Motor Fuel-Dispensing Facilities and Repair Garages

Chapter 23 High-Piled Combustible Storage

Chapter 24 Tents and Other Membrane Structures

Chapter 25 Tire Rebuilding and Tire Storage

Chapter 26 Welding and Other Hot Work

Chapter 27 Hazardous Materials - General Provisions

Chapter 28 Aerosols

Chapter 29 Combustible Fibers

Chapter 30 Compressed Gases

Chapter 31 Corrosive Materials

Chapter 32 Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 33 Explosives and Fireworks

Chapter 34 Flammable and Combustible Liquids

Chapter 35 Flammable Gases and Flammable Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 36 Flammable Solids

Chapter 37 Highly Toxic and Toxic Materials

Chapter 38 Liquefied Petroleum Gases

Chapter 39 Organic Peroxides

Chapter 40 Oxidizers, Oxidizing Gases and Oxidizing Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 41 Pyrophoric Materials

Chapter 42 Pyroxylin (Cellulose Nitrate) Plastics

Chapter 43 Unstable (Reactive) Materials

Chapter 44 Water-Reactive Solids and Liquids

Chapter 45 Marinas

Chapter 46 Construction Requirements for Existing Buildings

Chapter 47 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Board of Appeals

Appendix B Fire-Flow Requirements for Buildings

Appendix C Fire Hydrant Locations and Distribution

Appendix D Fire Apparatus Access Roads

Appendix E Hazard Categories

Appendix F Hazard Ranking

Appendix G Cryogenic Fluids— Weight and Volume Equivalents

Appendix H Hazardous Materials Management Plan (HMMP) and Hazardous Materials Inventory Statement (HMIS) Instructions

Appendix I Fire Protection Systems—noncompliant Conditions

Appendix J Emergency Responder Radio Coverage

Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have the meanings shown in this chapter.
Words used in the present tense include the future; words stated in the masculine gender include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes the plural and the plural, the singular.
Where terms are not defined in this code and are defined in the International Building Code, International Fuel Gas Code, International Mechanical Code or International Plumbing Code, such terms shall have the meanings ascribed to them as in those codes.
Where terms are not defined through the methods authorized by this section, such terms shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context implies. Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th Edition, shall be considered as providing ordinarily accepted meanings.

[B] ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS. See Section 1002.1.

[B] ACCESSIBLE ROUTE. A continuous, unobstructed path that complies with Chapter 11 of the International Building Code.

AEROSOL. See Section 2802.1.

Level 1 aerosol products. See Section 2802.1.

Level 2 aerosol products. See Section 2802.1.

Level 3 aerosol products. See Section 2802.1.

AEROSOL CONTAINER. See Section 2802.1.

AEROSOL WAREHOUSE. See Section 2802.1.

AGENT. A person who shall have charge, care or control of any structure as owner, or agent of the owner, or as executor, executrix, administrator, administratrix, trustee or guardian of the estate of the owner. Any such person representing the actual owner shall be bound to comply with the provisions of this code to the same extent as if that person was the owner.

[B] AGRICULTURAL BUILDING. A structure designed and constructed to house farm implements, hay, grain, poultry, livestock or other horticultural products. This structure shall not be a place of human habitation or a place of employment where agricultural products are processed, treated or packaged, nor shall it be a place used by the public.

[B] AIR-INFLATED STRUCTURE. See Section 2402.1.

AIR-SUPPORTED STRUCTURE. See Section 2402.1.

AIRCRAFT MOTOR-VEHICLE FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. See Section 2202.1.

AIRCRAFT OPERATION AREA (AOA). See Section 1102.1.

AIRPORT. See Section 1102.1.

[B] AISLE. See Section 1002.1.

[B] AISLE ACCESSWAY. See Section 1002.1.

ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. See Section 902.1.

ALARM SIGNAL. See Section 902.1.

ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE. See Section 902.1.

ALCOHOL-BASED HAND RUB. See Section 3402.1.

ALCOHOL BLENDED FUELS. See Section 2202.1.

[EB] ALTERATION. Any construction or renovation to an existing structure other than a repair or addition.

[B] ALTERNATING TREAD DEVICE. See Section 1002.1.

[B] AMBULATORY HEALTH CARE FACILITY. Buildings or portions thereof used to provide medical, surgical, psychiatric, nursing or similar care on a less than 24-hour basis to individuals who are rendered incapable of self-preservation.

AMMONIUM NITRATE. See Section 3302.1.

ANNUNCIATOR. See Section 902.1.

APPROVED. Acceptable to the fire code official.

[B] AREA, BUILDING. The area included within surrounding exterior walls (or exterior walls and fire walls) exclusive of vent shafts and courts. Areas of the building not provided with surrounding walls shall be included in the building area if such areas are included within the horizontal projection of the roof or floor above.

[B] AREA OF REFUGE. See Section 1002.1.

ARRAY. See Section 2302.1.

ARRAY, CLOSED. See Section 2302.1.

[B] ATRIUM. An opening connecting two or more stories other than enclosed stairways, elevators, hoistways, escalators, plumbing, electrical, air-conditioning or other equipment, which is closed at the top and not defined as a mall. Stories, as used in this definition, do not include balconies within assembly groups or mezzanines that comply with Section 505 of the International Building Code.

[B] ATTIC. The space between the ceiling beams of the top story and the roof rafters.

AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. See Section 902.1.

AUTOMATED RACK STORAGE. See Section 2302.1.

AUTOMATIC. See Section 902.1.

AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

AUTOMATIC SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

AUTOMOTIVE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. See Section 2202.1.

AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL. See Section 902.1.

[B] AWNING. An architectural projection that provides weather protection, identity or decoration and is wholly supported by the building to which it is attached. An awning is comprised of a lightweight, rigid skeleton structure over which a covering is attached.

BARRICADE. See Section 3302.1.

Artificial barricade. See Section 3302.1.

Natural barricade. See Section 3302.1.

BARRICADED. See Section 3302.1.

[B] BASEMENT. A story that is not a story above grade plane.

BATTERY SYSTEM, STATIONARY LEAD ACID. See Section 602.1.

BATTERY TYPES. See Section 602.1.

Lithium-ion battery. See Section 602.1.

Lithium metal polymer battery. See Section 602.1.

Nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd) battery. See Section 602.1.

Nonrecombinant battery. See Section 602.1.

Recombinant battery. See Section 602.1.

Stationary storage battery. See Section 602.1.

Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery. See Section 602.1.

Vented (Flooded) lead-acid battery. See Section 602.1.

BIN BOX. See Section 2302.1.

BLAST AREA. See Section 3302.1.

BLAST SITE. See Section 3302.1.

BLASTER. See Section 3302.1.

BLASTING AGENT. See Section 3302.1.

[B] BLEACHERS. See Section 1002.1.

[B] BOARDING HOUSE. A building arranged or used for lodging for compensation, with or without meals, and not occupied as a single-family unit.

BOILING POINT. See Section 2702.1.

BONFIRE. See Section 302.1.

BRITISH THERMAL UNIT (BTU). The heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 pound (0.454 kg) of water by 1°F (0.5565°C).

[B] BUILDING. Any structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy.

[B] BUILDING OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated authority charged with the administration and enforcement of the International Building Code, or a duly authorized representative.

BULK HYDROGEN COMPRESSED GAS SYSTEM. See Section 3502.1.

BULK LIQUEFIED HYDROGEN GAS SYSTEM. See Section 3502.1.

BULK OXYGEN SYSTEM. See Section 4002.1.

BULK PLANT OR TERMINAL. See Section 3402.1.

BULK TRANSFER. See Section 3402.1.

BULLET RESISTANT. See Section 3302.1.

CANOPY. A structure or architectural projection of rigid construction over which a covering is attached that provides weather protection, identity or decoration, and may be structurally independent or supported by attachment to a building on one end and by not less than one stanchion on the outer end.

CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

CARTON. A cardboard or fiberboard box enclosing a product.

CEILING LIMIT. See Section 2702.1.

[EB] CHANGE OF OCCUPANCY. A change in the purpose or level of activity within a building that involves a change in application of the requirements of this code.

CHEMICAL. See Section 2702.1.

CHEMICAL NAME. See Section 2702.1.

[B] CHILD CARE FACILITIES. Facilities that provide care on a 24-hour basis to more than five children, 21/2 years of age or less.

[B] CHIMNEY. A primarily vertical enclosure containing one or more passageways for conveying flue gases to the outside atmosphere.

CLEAN AGENT. See Section 902.1.

[B] CLINIC–OUTPATIENT. Buildings or portions thereof used to provide medical care on less than a 24-hour basis to individuals who are not rendered incapable of self-preservation by the services provided.

CLOSED CONTAINER. See Section 2702.1.

CLOSED SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous material involving a closed vessel or system that remains closed during normal operations where vapors emitted by the product are not liberated outside of the vessel or system and the product is not exposed to the atmosphere during normal operations; and all uses of compressed gases. Examples of closed systems for solids and liquids include product conveyed through a piping system into a closed vessel, system or piece of equipment.

COLD DECK. See Section 1902.1.

COMBUSTIBLE DUST. See Section 1302.1.

COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS. See Section 2902.1.

COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. See Section 3402.1.

Class II. See Section 3402.1.

Class IIIA. See Section 3402.1.

Class IIIB. See Section 3402.1.

[M] COMMERCIAL COOKING APPLIANCES. See Section 602.1.

COMMODITY. See Section 2302.1.

[B] COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL. See Section 1002.1.

COMPRESSED GAS. See Section 3002.1.

COMPRESSED GAS CONTAINER. See Section 3002.1.

COMPRESSED GAS SYSTEM. See Section 3002.1.

[B] CONGREGATE LIVING FACILITIES. A building or part thereof that contains sleeping units where residents share bathroom and/or kitchen facilities.

CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION. See Section 902.1.

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. The written, graphic and pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing the design, location and physical characteristics of the elements of the project necessary for obtaining a permit.

CONTAINER. See Section 2702.1.

CONTAINMENT SYSTEM. See Section 3702.1.

CONTAINMENT VESSEL. See Section 3702.1.

CONTINUOUS GAS DETECTION SYSTEM. See Section 1802.1.

CONTROL AREA. See Section 2702.1.

[B] CORRIDOR. See Section 1002.1.

CORROSIVE. See Section 3102.1.

COTTON. See Section 2902.1.

Baled cotton. See Section 2902.1.

Baled cotton, densely packed. See Section 2902.1.

Seed cotton. See Section 2902.1.

[B] COURT. An open, uncovered space, unobstructed to the sky, bounded on three or more sides by exterior building walls or other enclosing devices.

[B] COVERED MALL BUILDING. A single building enclosing a number of tenants and occupants such as retail stores, drinking and dining establishments, entertainment and amusement facilities, passenger transportation terminals, offices, and other similar uses wherein two or more tenants have a main entrance into one or more malls. For the purpose of this chapter, anchor buildings shall not be considered as a part of the covered mall building. The term “covered mall building” shall include open mall buildings as defined below.

Mall. A roofed or covered common pedestrian area within a covered mall building that serves as access for two or more tenants and not to exceed three levels that are open to each other. The term “mall” shall include open malls as defined below.

Open mall. An unroofed common pedestrian way serving a number of tenants not exceeding three levels. Circulation at levels above grade shall be permitted to include open exterior balconies leading to exits discharging at grade.

Open mall building. Several structures housing a number of tenants such as retail stores, drinking and dining establishments, entertainment and amusement facilities, offices, and other similar uses wherein two or more tenants have a main entrance into one or more open malls. For the purpose of Chapter 4 of the International Building Code, anchor buildings are not considered as a part of the open mall building.

CRYOGENIC CONTAINER. See Section 3202.1.

CRYOGENIC FLUID. See Section 3202.1.

CRYOGENIC VESSEL. See Section 3202.1.

CYLINDER. See Section 2702.1.

[B] DAMPER. See “Fire damper” and “Smoke damper.”

DAY BOX. See Section 2702.1.

DECORATIVE MATERIALS. All materials applied over the building interior finish for decorative, acoustical or other effect (such as curtains, draperies, fabrics, streamers and surface coverings) and all other materials utilized for decorative effect (such as batting, cloth, cotton, hay, stalks, straw, vines, leaves, trees, moss and similar items), including foam plastics and materials containing foam plastics. Decorative materials do not include floor coverings, ordinary window shades, interior finish and materials 0.025 inch (0.64 mm) or less in thickness applied directly to and adhering tightly to a substrate.

DEFLAGRATION. See Section 2702.1.

DELUGE SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

DESIGN PRESSURE. See Section 2702.1.

DETACHED BUILDING. See Section 2702.1.

DETEARING. See Section 1502.1.

DETECTOR, HEAT. See Section 902.1.

DETONATING CORD. See Section 3302.1.

DETONATION. See Section 3302.1.

DETONATOR. See Section 3302.1.

[B] DETOXIFICATION FACILITIES. Facilities that serve patients who are provided treatment for substance abuse on a 24-hour basis and who are incapable of self-preservation or who are harmful to themselves or others.

DIP TANK. See Section 1502.1.

DISCHARGE SITE. See Section 3302.1.

DISPENSING. See Section 2702.1.

DISPENSING DEVICE, OVERHEAD TYPE. See Section 2202.1.

DISPLAY SITE. See Section 3302.1.

[B] DOOR, BALANCED. See Section 1002.1.

[B] DORMITORY. A space in a building where group sleeping accommodations are provided in one room, or in a series of closely associated rooms, for persons not members of the same family group, under joint occupancy and single management, as in college dormitories or fraternity houses.

DRAFT CURTAIN. See Section 2302.1.

[B] DRAFTSTOP. See Section 702.1.

DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. See Section 902.1.

DRY CLEANING. See Section 1202.1.

DRY CLEANING PLANT. See Section 1202.1.

DRY CLEANING ROOM. See Section1202.1.

DRY CLEANING SYSTEM. See Section 1202.1.

[B] DWELLING. A building that contains one or two dwelling units used, intended or designed to be used, rented, leased, let or hired out to be occupied for living purposes.

[B] DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete, independent living facilities for one or more persons, including permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitation.

EARLY SUPPRESSION FAST-RESPONSE (ESFR) SPRINKLER. See Section 2302.1.

[B] EGRESS COURT. See Section 1002.1.

ELECTROSTATIC FLUIDIZED BED. See Section 1502.1.

ELEVATOR GROUP. See Section 902.1.

EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION. See Section 1802.1.

[B] EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. See Section 1002.1.

EMERGENCY EVACUATION DRILL. See Section 402.1.

EMERGENCY SHUTOFF VALVE. A valve designed to shut off the flow of gases or liquids.

EMERGENCY SHUTOFF VALVE, AUTOMATIC. A fail-safe automatic-closing valve designed to shut off the flow of gases or liquids initiated by a control system that is activated by automatic means.

EMERGENCY SHUTOFF VALVE, MANUAL. A manually operated valve designed to shut off the flow of gases or liquids.

EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICATIONS. See Section 902.1.

[B] EQUIPMENT PLATFORM. An unoccupied, elevated platform used exclusively for mechanical systems or industrial process equipment, including the associated elevated walkways, stairs, alternating tread devices and ladders necessary to access the platform (see Section 505.5 of the International Building Code).

EXCESS FLOW CONTROL. See Section 2702.1.

EXCESS FLOW VALVE. See Section 3702.1.

EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE. See Section 2702.1.

EXISTING. See Section 4602.1.

[B] EXIT. See Section 1002.1.

[B] EXIT ACCESS. See Section 1002.1.

[B] EXIT ACCESS DOORWAY. See Section 1002.1.

[B] EXIT DISCHARGE. See Section 1002.1.

[B] EXIT DISCHARGE, LEVEL OF. See Section 1002.1.

[B] EXIT ENCLOSURE. See Section 1002.1.

[B] EXIT, HORIZONTAL. See Section 1002.1.

[B] EXIT PASSAGEWAY. See Section 1002.1.

EXPANDED PLASTIC. See Section 2302.1.

EXPLOSION. See Section 2702.1.

EXPLOSIVE. See Section 3302.1.

High Explosive. See Section 3302.1.

Low Explosive. See Section 3302.1.

Mass-detonating Explosives. See Section 3302.1.

UN/DOTn Class 1 Explosives. See Section 3302.1.

Division 1.1. See Section 3302.1.

Division 1.2. See Section 3302.1.

Division 1.3. See Section 3302.1.

Division 1.4. See Section 3302.1.

Division 1.5. See Section 3302.1.

Division 1.6. See Section 3302.1.

EXPLOSIVE MATERIAL. See Section 3302.1.

[B] EXTERIOR WALL. A wall, bearing or nonbearing, that is used as an enclosing wall for a building, other than a fire wall, and that has a slope of 60 degrees (1.05 rad) or greater with the horizontal plane.

EXTRA-HIGH-RACK COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE. See Section 2302.1.

FABRICATION AREA. See Section 1802.1.

FACILITY. A building or use in a fixed location including exterior storage areas for flammable and combustible substances and hazardous materials, piers, wharves, tank farms and similar uses. This term includes recreational vehicles, mobile home and manufactured housing parks, sales and storage lots.

FAIL-SAFE. A design condition incorporating a feature for automatically counteracting the effect of an anticipated possible source of failure; also, a design condition eliminating or mitigating a hazardous condition by compensating automatically for a failure or malfunction.

FALLOUT AREA. See Section 3302.1.

FALSE ALARM. The willful and knowing initiation or transmission of a signal, message or other notification of an event of fire when no such danger exists.

FINES. See Section 1902.1.

FIRE ALARM. The giving, signaling or transmission to any public fire station, or company or to any officer or employee thereof, whether by telephone, spoken word or otherwise, of information to the effect that there is a fire at or near the place indicated by the person giving, signaling or transmitting such information.

FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL. See Section 902.1.

FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. See Section 902.1.

FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. See Section 902.1.

FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROAD. See Section 502.1.

FIRE AREA. See Section 902.1.

[B] FIRE BARRIER. A fire-resistance-rated wall assembly of materials designed to restrict the spread of fire in which continuity is maintained.

FIRE CHIEF. The chief officer of the fire department serving the jurisdiction, or a duly authorized representative.

FIRE CODE OFFICIAL. The fire chief or other designated authority charged with the administration and enforcement of the code, or a duly authorized representative.

FIRE COMMAND CENTER. See Section 502.1.

[B] FIRE DAMPER. A listed device installed in ducts and air transfer openings designed to close automatically upon detection of heat and resist the passage of flame. Fire dampers are classified for use in either static systems that will automatically shut down in the event of a fire, or in dynamic systems that continue to operate during a fire. A dynamic fire damper is tested and rated for closure under elevated temperature airflow.

FIRE DEPARTMENT MASTER KEY. See Section 502.1.

FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. See Section 902.1.

[B] FIRE DOOR. The door component of a fire door assembly.

[B] FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. Any combination of a fire door, frame, hardware and other accessories that together provide a specific degree of fire protection to the opening.

[B] FIRE EXIT HARDWARE. See Section 1002.1.

FIRE LANE. See Section 502.1.

[B] FIRE PARTITION. A vertical assembly of materials designed to restrict the spread of fire in which openings are protected.

FIRE POINT. See Section 3402.1.

[B] FIRE PROTECTION RATING. The period of time that an opening protective assembly will maintain the ability to confine a fire as determined by tests prescribed in Section 715 of the International Building Code. Ratings are stated in hours or minutes.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

[B] FIRE RESISTANCE. That property of materials or their assemblies that prevents or retards the passage of excessive heat, hot gases or flames under conditions of use.

[B] FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING. The period of time a building element, component or assembly maintains the ability to confine a fire, continues to perform a given structural function, or both, as determined by the tests, or the methods based on tests, prescribed in Section 703 of the International Building Code.

[B] FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEM. See Section 702.1.

FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS. See Section 902.1.

[B] FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE. The distance measured from the building face to one of the following:

1. The closest interior lot line;

2. To the centerline of a street, an alley or public way; or

3. To an imaginary line between two buildings on the property.

The distance shall be measured at right angles from the face of the wall.

[B] FIRE WALL. A fire-resistance-rated wall having protected openings, which restricts the spread of fire and extends continuously from the foundation to or through the roof, with sufficient structural stability under fire conditions to allow collapse of construction on either side without collapse of the wall.

FIRE WATCH. A temporary measure intended to ensure continuous and systematic surveillance of a building or portion thereof by one or more qualified individuals for the purposes of identifying and controlling fire hazards, detecting early signs of unwanted fire, raising an alarm of fire and notifying the fire department.

[B] FIREBLOCKING. See Section 702.1.

FIREWORKS. See Section 3302.1.

Fireworks, 1.4G. See Section 3302.1.

Fireworks, 1.3G. See Section 3302.1.

FIREWORKS DISPLAY. See Section 3302.1.

[B] FIXED BASE OPERATOR (FBO). See Section 902.1.

FLAMMABLE CRYOGENIC FLUID. See Section 3202.1.

FLAMMABLE FINISHES. See Section 1502.1.

FLAMMABLE GAS. See Section 3502.1.

FLAMMABLE LIQUEFIED GAS. See Section 3502.1.

FLAMMABLE LIQUID. See Section 3402.1.

Class IA. See Section 3402.1.

Class IB. See Section 3402.1.

Class IC. See Section 3402.1.

FLAMMABLE MATERIAL. A material capable of being readily ignited from common sources of heat or at a temperature of 600ºF (316ºC) or less.

FLAMMABLE SOLID. See Section 3602.1.

FLAMMABLE VAPOR AREA. See Section 1502.1.

FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES. See Section 2702.1.

[B] FLAME SPREAD. See Section 802.1.

[B] FLAME SPREAD INDEX. See Section 802.1.

FLASH POINT. See Section 3402.1.

FLEET VEHICLE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. See Section 2202.1.

[B] FLIGHT. See Section 1002.1.

FLOAT. See Section 4502.1.

[B] FLOOR AREA, GROSS. See Section 1002.1.

[B] FLOOR AREA, NET. See Section 1002.1.

FLUIDIZED BED. See Section 1502.1.

FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

[B] FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING. See Section 1002.1.

FUEL LIMIT SWITCH. See Section 3402.1.

FUMIGANT. See Section 1702.1.

FUMIGATION. See Section 1702.1.

FURNACE CLASS A. See Section 2102.1.

FURNACE CLASS B. See Section 2102.1.

FURNACE CLASS C. See Section 2102.1.

FURNACE CLASS D. See Section 2102.1.

GAS CABINET. See Section 2702.1.

GAS DETECTION SYSTEM, CONTINUOUS. See “Continuous gas detection system.”

GAS ROOM. See Section 2702.1.

[B] GRADE FLOOR OPENING. A window or other opening located such that the sill height of the opening is not more than 44 inches (1118 mm) above or below the finished ground level adjacent to the opening.

[B] GRADE PLANE. A reference plane representing the average of finished ground level adjoining the building at exterior walls. Where the finished ground level slopes away from the exterior walls, the reference plane shall be established by the lowest points within the area between the building and the lot line or, where the lot line is more than 6 feet (1829 mm) from the building, between the building and a point 6 feet (1829 mm) from the building.

[B] GRANDSTAND. See Section 1002.1.

[B] GUARD. See Section 1002.1.

[B] GYPSUM BOARD. Gypsum wallboard, gypsum sheathing, gypsum base for gypsum veneer plaster, exterior gypsum soffit board, predecorated gypsum board or water-resistant gypsum backing board complying with the standards listed in Tables 2506.2 and 2507.2 and Chapter 35 of the International Building Code.

[B] HABITABLE SPACE. A space in a building for living, sleeping, eating or cooking. Bathrooms, toilet rooms, closets, halls, storage or utility spaces and similar areas are not considered habitable spaces.

HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

HANDLING. See Section 2702.1.

[B] HANDRAIL. See Section 1002.1.

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. See Section 2702.1.

HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). See Section 1802.1.

HEALTH HAZARD. See Section 2702.1.

[B] HEIGHT, BUILDING. The vertical distance from grade plane to the average height of the highest roof surface.

HELIPORT. See Section 1102.1.

HELISTOP. See Section 1102.1.

HI-BOY. See Section 302.1.

HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE. See Section 2302.1.

HIGH-PILED STORAGE AREA. See Section 2302.1.

HIGH-VOLTAGE TRANSMISSION LINE. See Section 302.1.

HIGHLY TOXIC. See Section 3702.1.

HIGHLY VOLATILE LIQUID. A liquefied compressed gas with a boiling point of less than 68ºF (20ºC).

HIGHWAY. See Section 3302.1.

[B] HISTORIC BUILDINGS. Buildings that are listed in or eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places, or designated as historic under an appropriate state or local law.

HOGGED MATERIALS. See Section 1902.1.

[B] HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLY. A fire-resistance-rated floor or roof assembly of materials designed to restrict the spread of fire in which continuity is maintained.

[M] HOOD. See Section 602.1.

Type I. See Section 602.1.

[B] HOSPITALS AND MENTAL HOSPITALS. Buildings or portions thereof used on a 24-hour basis for the medical, psychiatric, obstetrical, or surgical treatment of inpatients who are incapable of self-preservation.

HOT WORK. See Section 2602.1.

HOT WORK AREA. See Section 2602.1.

HOT WORK EQUIPMENT. See Section 2602.1.

HOT WORK PERMITS. See Section 2602.1.

HOT WORK PROGRAM. See Section 2602.1.

HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID. See Section 1802.1.

HPM ROOM. See Section 1802.1.

IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND HEALTH (IDLH). See Section 2702.1.

IMPAIRMENT COORDINATOR. See Section 902.1.

INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. See Section 2702.1.

INERT GAS. A gas that is capable of reacting with other materials only under abnormal conditions such as high temperatures, pressures and similar extrinsic physical forces. Within the context of the code, inert gases do not exhibit either physical or health hazard properties as defined (other than acting as a simple asphyxiant) or hazard properties other than those of a compressed gas. Some of the more common inert gases include argon, helium, krypton, neon, nitrogen and xenon.

INHABITED BUILDING. See Section 3302.1.

INITIATING DEVICE. See Section 902.1.

[B] INTERIOR FINISH. Interior finish includes interior wall and ceiling finish and interior floor finish.

INTERIOR FLOOR-WALL BASE. See Section 802.1.

[B] INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH. The exposed interior surfaces of buildings, including but not limited to: fixed or movable walls and partitions; toilet room privacy partitions; columns; ceilings; and interior wainscoting, paneling or other finish applied structurally or for decoration, acoustical correction, surface insulation, structural fire resistance or similar purposes, but not including trim.

IRRITANT. A chemical which is not corrosive, but which causes a reversible inflammatory effect on living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact. A chemical is a skin irritant if, when tested on the intact skin of albino rabbits by the methods of CPSC 16CFR Part 1500.41 for an exposure of four or more hours or by other appropriate techniques, it results in an empirical score of 5 or more. A chemical is classified as an eye irritant if so determined under the procedure listed in CPSC 16CFR Part 1500.42 or other approved techniques.

KEY BOX. See Section 502.1.

[B] JURISDICTION. The governmental unit that has adopted this code under due legislative authority.

LABELED. Equipment, materials or products to which have been affixed a label, seal, symbol or other identifying mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory, inspection agency or other organization concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic inspection of the production of the above-labeled items and whose labeling indicates either that the equipment, material or product meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.

LIMITED SPRAYING SPACE. See Section 1502.1.

LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG). See Section 2202.1.

LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LP-gas). See Section 3802.1.

LIQUID. See Section 2702.1.

LIQUID OXYGEN AMBULATORY CONTAINER. Section 4002.1.

LIQUID OXYGEN HOME CARE CONTAINER. Section 4002.1.

LIQUID STORAGE ROOM. See Section 3402.1.

LIQUID STORAGE WAREHOUSE. See Section 3402.1.

LISTED. Equipment, materials, products or services included in a list published by an organization acceptable to the fire code official and concerned with evaluation of products or services that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of services and whose listing states either that the equipment, material, product or service meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.

LOCKDOWN. See Section 402.1.

LONGITUDINAL FLUE SPACE. See Section 2302.1.

[B] LOT. A portion or parcel of land considered as a unit.

[B] LOT LINE. A line dividing one lot from another, or from a street or any public place.

LOW-PRESSURE TANK. See Section 3202.1.

LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT (LEL). See Section 2702.1.

LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). See Section 2702.1.

LP-GAS CONTAINER. See Section 3802.1.

MAGAZINE. See Section 3302.1.

Indoor. See Section 3302.1.

Type 1. See Section 3302.1.

Type 2. See Section 3302.1.

Type 3. See Section 3302.1.

Type 4. See Section 3302.1.

Type 5. See Section 3302.1.

MAGNESIUM. See Section 3602.1.

[B] MALL. See “Covered mall building.”

MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX. See Section 902.1.

MANUAL STOCKING METHODS. See Section 2302.1.

MARINA. See Section 4502.1.

MARINE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. See Section 2202.1.

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET (MSDS). See Section 2702.1.

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA. See Section 2702.1.

[B] MEANS OF EGRESS. See Section 1002.1.

MECHANICAL STOCKING METHODS. See Section 2302.1.

MEMBRANE STRUCTURE. See Section 2402.1.

[B] MENTAL HOSPITALS. See “Hospitals and Mental Hospitals.”

[B] MERCHANDISE PAD. See Section 1002.1.

METAL HYDRIDE. See Section 3502.1.

METAL HYDRIDE STORAGE SYSTEM. See Section 3502.1.

[B] MEZZANINE. An intermediate level or levels between the floor and ceiling of any story and in accordance with Section 505 of the International Building Code.

MOBILE FUELING. See Section 3402.1.

MORTAR. See Section 3302.1.

MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE. See Section 902.1.

MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. See Section 902.1.

NESTING. See Section 3002.1.

NET EXPLOSIVE WEIGHT (net weight). See Section 3302.1.

NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (NTP). See Section 2702.1.

[B] NOSING. See Section 1002.1.

NUISANCE ALARM. See Section 902.1.

[B] NURSING HOMES. Nursing homes are long-term care facilities on a 24-hour basis, including both intermediate care facilities and skilled nursing facilities, serving more than five persons and any of the persons are incapable of self-preservation.

OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION. For the purposes of this code, certain occupancies are defined as follows:

[B] Assembly Group A. Assembly Group A occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for the gathering of persons for purposes such as civic, social or religious functions; recreation, food or drink consumption; or awaiting transportation.

Exceptions:

1. A building or tenant space used for assembly purposes with an occupant load of less than 50 persons shall be classified as a Group B occupancy.

2. A room or space used for assembly purposes with an occupant load of less than 50 persons and accessory to another occupancy shall be classified as a Group B occupancy or as part of that occupancy.

3. A room or space used for assembly purposes that is less than 750 square feet (70 m2) in area and accessory to another occupancy shall be classified as a Group B occupancy or as part of that occupancy.

4. Assembly areas that are accessory to Group E occupancies are not considered separate occupancies except when applying the assembly occupancy requirements of Chapter 11 of the International Building Code.

5. Accessory religious educational rooms and religious auditoriums with occupant loads of less than 100 are not considered separate occupancies.

Assembly occupancies shall include the following:

A-1 Assembly uses, usually with fixed seating, intended for the production and viewing of performing arts or motion pictures including, but not limited to:

Motion picture theaters
Symphony and concert halls
Televison and radio studios admitting an audience
Theaters

A-2 Assembly uses intended for food and/or drink consumption including, but not limited to:

Banquet halls
Night clubs
Restaurants
Taverns and bars

A-3 Assembly uses intended for worship, recreation or amusement and other assembly uses not classified elsewhere in Group A, including, but not limited to:

Amusement arcades
Art galleries
Bowling alleys
Community halls
Courtrooms
Dance halls (not including food or drink
consumption)
Exhibition halls
Funeral parlors
Gymnasiums (without spectator seating)
Indoor swimming pools (without spectator seating)
Indoor tennis courts (without spectator seating)
Lecture halls
Libraries
Museums
Places of religious worship
Pool and billiard parlors
Waiting areas in transportation terminals

A-4 Assembly uses intended for viewing of indoor sporting events and activities with spectator seating including, but not limited to:

Arenas
Skating rinks
Swimming pools
Tennis courts

A-5 Assembly uses intended for participation in or viewing outdoor activities including, but not limited to:

Amusement park structures
Bleachers
Grandstands
Stadiums

[B] Business Group B. Business Group B occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for office, professional or service-type transactions, including storage of records and accounts. Business occupancies shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Airport traffic control towers
Ambulatory health-care facilities
Animal hospitals, kennels and pounds
Banks
Barber and beauty shops
Car wash
Civic administration
Clinic–outpatient
Dry cleaning and laundries: pick-up and delivery
stations and self-service
Educational occupancies for students above the
12th grade
Electronic data processing
Laboratories: testing and research
Motor vehicle showrooms
Post offices
Print shops
Professional services (architects, attorneys, dentists, physicians, engineers, etc.)
Radio and television stations
Telephone exchanges
Training and skill development not within a school or academic program

[B] Educational Group E. Educational Group E occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, by six or more persons at any one time for educational purposes through the 12th grade. Religious educational rooms and religious auditoriums, which are accessory to places of religious worship in accordance with Section 508.3.1 of the International Building Code and have occupant loads of less than 100, shall be classified as Group A-3 occupancies.

Day care. The use of a building or structure, or portion thereof, for educational, supervision or personal care services for more than five children older than 21/2 years of age shall be classified as an E occupancy.

[B] Factory Industrial Group F. Factory Industrial Group F occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for assembling, disassembling, fabricating, finishing, manufacturing, packaging, repair or processing operations that are not classified as a Group H high-hazard or Group S storage occupancy.

Factory Industrial F-1 Moderate-hazard occupancy. Factory industrial uses which are not classified as Factory Industrial F-2 Low Hazard shall be classified as F-1 Moderate Hazard and shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Aircraft (manufacturing, not to include repair)
Appliances
Athletic equipment
Automobiles and other motor vehicles
Bakeries
Beverages; over 16-percent alcohol content
Bicycles
Boats
Brooms or brushes
Business machines
Cameras and photo equipment
Canvas or similar fabric
Carpets and rugs (includes cleaning)
Clothing
Construction and agricultural machinery
Disinfectants
Dry cleaning and dyeing
Electric generation plants
Electronics
Engines (including rebuilding)
Food processing
Furniture
Hemp products
Jute products
Laundries
Leather products
Machinery
Metals
Millwork (sash and door)
Motion pictures and television filming (without spectators)
Musical instruments
Optical goods
Paper mills or products
Photographic film
Plastic products
Printing or publishing
Refuse incineration
Shoes
Soaps and detergents
Textiles
Tobacco
Trailers
Upholstering
Wood; distillation
Woodworking (cabinet)

[B] Factory Industrial F-2 Low-hazard Occupancy. Factory industrial uses involving the fabrication or manufacturing of noncombustible materials which, during finishing, packaging or processing do not involve a significant fire hazard, shall be classified as Group F-2 occupancies and shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Beverages; up to and including 16-percent
alcohol content
Brick and masonry
Ceramic products
Foundries
Glass products
Gypsum
Ice
Metal products (fabrication and assembly)

High-hazard Group H. High-hazard Group H occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, that involves the manufacturing, processing, generation or storage of materials that constitute a physical or health hazard in quantities in excess of those allowed in control areas complying with Section 2703.8.3, based on the maximum allowable quantity limits for control areas set forth in Tables 2703.1.1(1) and 2703.1.1(2). Hazardous occupancies are classified in Groups H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5 and shall be in accordance with this code and the requirements of Section 415 of the International Building Code. Hazardous materials stored or used on top of roofs or canopies shall be classified as outdoor storage or use and shall comply with this code.

Exceptions: The following shall not be classified as Group H, but shall be classified as the occupancy that they most nearly resemble.

1. Buildings and structures occupied for the application of flammable finishes, provided that such buildings or areas conform to the requirements of Chapter 15 of this code and Section 416 of the International Building Code.

2. Wholesale and retail sales and storage of flammable and combustible liquids in mercantile occupancies conforming to Chapter 34.

3. Closed piping system containing flammable or combustible liquids or gases utilized for the operation of machinery or equipment.

4. Cleaning establishments that utilize combustible liquid solvents having a flash point of 140°F (60°C) or higher in closed systems employing equipment listed by an approved testing agency, provided that this occupancy is separated from all other areas of the building by 1-hour fire barriers in accordance with Section 707 of the International Building Code or 1-hour horizontal assemblies in accordance with Section 712 of the International Building Code, or both.

5. Cleaning establishments that utilize a liquid solvent having a flash point at or above 200°F (93°C).

6. Liquor stores and distributors without bulk storage.

7. Refrigeration systems.

8. The storage or utilization of materials for agricultural purposes on the premises.

9. Stationary batteries utilized for facility emergency power, uninterrupted power supply or telecommunication facilities, provided that the batteries are equipped with safety venting caps and ventilation is provided in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

10. Corrosives shall not include personal or household products in their original packaging used in retail display or commonly used building materials.

11. Buildings and structures occupied for aerosol storage shall be classified as Group S-1, provided that such buildings conform to the requirements of Chapter 28.

12. Display and storage of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials in quantities not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area in Group M or S occupancies complying with Section 2703.8.3.5.

13. The storage of black powder, smokeless propellant and small arms primers in Groups M and R-3 and special industrial explosive devices in Groups B, F, M and S, provided such storage conforms to the quantity limits and requirements of this code.

High-hazard Group H-1. Buildings and structures containing materials that pose a detonation hazard shall be classified as Group H-1. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Detonable pyrophoric materials

Explosives:
Division 1.1
Division 1.2
Division 1.3

Exception: Materials that are used and maintained in a form where either confinement or configuration will not elevate the hazard from a mass fire to mass explosion hazard shall be allowed in Group H-2 occupancies.

Division 1.4

Exception: Articles, including articles packaged for shipment, that are not regulated as an explosive under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms regulations, or unpackaged articles used in process operations that do not propagate a detonation or deflagration between articles shall be allowed in Group H-3 occupancies.

Division 1.5
Division 1.6

Organic peroxides, unclassified detonable
Oxidizers, Class 4
Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 3 detonable, and Class 4

High-hazard Group H-2. Buildings and structures containing materials that pose a deflagration hazard or a hazard from accelerated burning shall be classified as Group H-2. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Class I, II or IIIA flammable or combustible liquids which are used or stored in normally open containers or systems, or in closed containers or systems pressurized at more than 15 pounds per square inch (103.4 kPa) gauge
Combustible dusts
Cryogenic fluids, flammable
Flammable gases
Organic peroxides, Class I
Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally
open containers or systems, or in closed containers or systems pressurized at more than 15 pounds per square inch (103.4 kPa) gauge
Pyrophoric liquids, solids and gases, nondetonable
Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 3, nondetonable
Water-reactive materials, Class 3

High-hazard Group H-3. Buildings and structures containing materials that readily support combustion or that pose a physical hazard shall be classified as Group H-3. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Class I, II or IIIA flammable or combustible liquids that are used or stored in normally closed
containers or systems pressurized at 15 pounds per square inch gauge (103.4 kPa) or less
Combustible fibers, other than densely packed baled
cotton
Consumer fireworks, 1.4G (Class C, Common)
Cryogenic fluids, oxidizing
Flammable solids
Organic peroxides, Class II and III
Oxidizers, Class 2
Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in
normally closed containers or systems
pressurized at 15 pounds per square inch gauge
(103 kPa) or less
Oxidizing gases
Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 2
Water-reactive materials, Class 2

High-hazard Group H-4. Buildings and structures which contain materials that are health hazards shall be classified as Group H-4. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Corrosives
Highly toxic materials
Toxic materials

High-hazard Group H-5. Semiconductor fabrication facilities and comparable research and development areas in which hazardous production materials (HPM) are used and the aggregate quantity of materials is in excess of those listed in Tables 2703.1.1(1) and 2703.1.1(2) shall be classified as Group H-5. Such facilities and areas shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Section 415.8 of the International Building Code.

[B] Institutional Group I. Institutional Group I occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, in which people are cared for or live in a supervised environment, having physical limitations because of health or age, are harbored for medical treatment or other care or treatment, or in which people are detained for penal or correctional purposes or in which the liberty of the occupants is restricted. Institutional occupancies shall be classified as Group I-1, I-2, I-3 or I-4.

Group I-1. This occupancy shall include buildings, structures or parts thereof housing more than 16 persons, on a 24-hour basis, who because of age, mental disability or other reasons, live in a supervised residential environment that provides personal care services. The occupants are capable of responding to an emergency situation without physical assistance from staff. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Alcohol and drug centers
Assisted living facilities
Congregate care facilities
Convalescent facilities
Group homes
Half-way houses
Residential board and care facilities
Social rehabilitation facilities

A facility such as the above with five or fewer persons shall be classified as Group R-3 or shall comply with the International Residential Code in accordance with Section 101.2 of the International Building Code. A facility such as above, housing at least six and not more than 16 persons, shall be classified as Group R-4.

[B] Group I-2. This occupancy shall include buildings and structures used for medical, surgical, psychiatric, nursing or custodial care for persons who are not capable of self-preservation. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Child care facilities
Detoxification facilities
Hospitals
Mental hospitals
Nursing homes

Group I-3. This occupancy shall include buildings and structures which are inhabited by more than five persons who are under restraint or security. An I-3 facility is occupied by persons who are generally incapable of self-preservation due to security measures not under the occupants’ control. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Correctional centers
Detention centers
Jails
Prerelease centers
Prisons
Reformatories

Buildings of Group I-3 shall be classified as one of the occupancy conditions indicated below:

Condition 1. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is allowed from sleeping areas and other spaces where access or occupancy is permitted, to the exterior via means of egress without restraint. A Condition 1 facility is permitted to be constructed as Group R.

Condition 2. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is allowed from sleeping areas and any other occupied smoke compartment to one or more other smoke compartments. Egress to the exterior is impeded by locked exits.

Condition 3. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is allowed within individual smoke compartments, such as within a residential unit comprised of individual sleeping units and group activity spaces, where egress is impeded by remote-controlled release of means of egress from such smoke compartment to another smoke compartment.

Condition 4. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is restricted from an occupied space. Remote-controlled release is provided to permit movement from sleeping units, activity spaces and other occupied areas within the smoke compartment to other smoke compartments.

Condition 5. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is restricted from an occupied space. Staff-controlled manual release is provided to permit movement from sleeping units, activity spaces and other occupied areas within the smoke compartment to other smoke compartments.

[B] Group I-4, day care facilities. This group shall include buildings and structures occupied by persons of any age who receive custodial care for less than 24 hours by individuals other than parents or guardians, relatives by blood, marriage, or adoption, and in a place other than the home of the person cared for. A facility such as the above with five or fewer persons shall be classified as Group R-3 or shall comply with the International Residential Code in accordance with Section 101.2 of the International Building Code. Places of worship during religious functions are not included.

Adult care facility. A facility that provides accommodations for less than 24 hours for more than five unrelated adults and provides supervision and personal care services shall be classified as Group I-4.

Exception: Where the occupants are capable of responding to an emergency situation without physical assistance from the staff, the facility shall be classified as Group R-3.

Child care facility. Child care facilities that provide supervision and personal care on less than a 24-hour basis for more than five children 21/2 years of age or less shall be classified as Group I-4.

Exception: A child day care facility that provides care for more than five but no more than 100 children 21/2 years or less of age, where the rooms in which the children are cared for are located on a level of exit discharge serving such rooms and each of these child care rooms has an exit door directly to the exterior, shall be classified as Group E.

[B] Mercantile Group M. Mercantile Group M occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure or a portion thereof, for the display and sale of merchandise, and involves stocks of goods, wares or merchandise incidental to such purposes and accessible to the public. Mercantile occupancies shall include, but not be limited to, the following.

Department stores
Drug stores
Markets
Motor fuel-dispensing facilities
Retail or wholesale stores
Sales rooms

Residential Group R. Residential Group R includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for sleeping purposes when not classified as an Institutional Group I or when not regulated by the International Residential Code in accordance with Section 101.2 of the International Building Code. Residential occupancies shall include the following:

R-1 Residential occupancies containing sleeping units where the occupants are primarily transient in nature, including:

Boarding houses (transient)
Hotels (transient)
Motels (transient)

Congregate living facilities (transient) with 10 or fewer occupants are permitted to comply with the construction requirements for Group R-3.

R-2 Residential occupancies containing sleeping units or more than two dwelling units where the occupants are primarily permanent in nature, including:

Apartment houses
Boarding houses (nontransient)
Convents
Dormitories
Fraternities and sororities
Hotels (nontransient)
Live/work units
Monasteries
Motels (nontransient)
Vacation timeshare properties

Congregate living facilities with 16 or fewer occupants are permitted to comply with the construction requirements for Group R-3.

R-3 Residential occupancies where the occupants are primarily permanent in nature and not classified as Group R-1, R-2, R-4 or I, including:

Buildings that do not contain more than two dwelling units.
Adult care facilities that provide accommodations for five or fewer persons of any age for less than 24 hours.
Child care facilities that provide accommodations for five or fewer persons of any age for less than 24 hours.
Congregate living facilities with 16 or fewer persons.

Adult care and child care facilities that are within a single-family home are permitted to comply with the International Residential Code.

R-4 Residential occupancies shall include buildings arranged for occupancy as residential care/assisted living facilities including more than five but not more than 16 occupants, excluding staff.

Group R-4 occupancies shall meet the requirements for construction as defined for Group R-3, except as otherwise provided for in this code or shall comply with the International Residential Code, provided the building is protected by an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.2.8.

[B] Storage Group S. Storage Group S occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for storage that is not classified as a hazardous occupancy.

Moderate-hazard storage, Group S-1. Buildings occupied for storage uses that are not classified as Group S-2, including, but not limited to, storage of the following:

Aerosols, Levels 2 and 3
Aircraft hangar (storage and repair)
Bags: cloth, burlap and paper
Bamboos and rattan
Baskets
Belting: canvas and leather
Books and paper in rolls or packs
Boots and shoes
Buttons, including cloth covered, pearl or bone
Cardboard and cardboard boxes
Clothing, woolen wearing apparel
Cordage
Dry boat storage (indoor)
Furniture
Furs
Glues, mucilage, pastes and size
Grains
Horns and combs, other than celluloid
Leather
Linoleum
Lumber
Motor vehicle repair garages complying with the maximum allowable quantities of hazardous materials listed in Table 2703.1.1(1) (see Section 406.6 of the International Building Code)
Photo engravings
Resilient flooring
Silks
Soaps
Sugar
Tires, bulk storage of
Tobacco, cigars, cigarettes and snuff
Upholstery and mattresses
Wax candles

Low-hazard storage, Group S-2. Includes, among others, buildings used for the storage of noncombustible materials such as products on wood pallets or in paper cartons with or without single thickness divisions; or in paper wrappings. Such products are permitted to have a negligible amount of plastic trim, such as knobs, handles or film wrapping. Storage uses shall include, but not be limited to, storage of the following:

Asbestos
Beverages up to and including 16-percent alcohol in metal, glass or ceramic containers
Cement in bags
Chalk and crayons
Dairy products in nonwaxed coated paper containers
Dry cell batteries
Electrical coils
Electrical motors
Empty cans
Food products
Foods in noncombustible containers
Fresh fruits and vegetables in nonplastic trays or containers
Frozen foods
Glass
Glass bottles, empty or filled with noncombustible liquids
Gypsum board
Inert pigments
Ivory
Meats
Metal cabinets
Metal desks with plastic tops and trim
Metal parts
Metals
Mirrors
Oil-filled and other types of distribution transformers
Parking garages, open or enclosed
Porcelain and pottery
Stoves
Talc and soapstones
Washers and dryers

[B] Miscellaneous Group U. Buildings and structures of an accessory character and miscellaneous structures not classified in any specific occupancy shall be constructed, equipped and maintained to conform to the requirements of this code commensurate with the fire and life hazard incidental to their occupancy. Group U shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Agricultural buildings
Aircraft hangar, accessory to a one- or two-family
residence (see Section 412.3 of the International Building Code)
Barns
Carports
Fences more than 6 feet (1829 mm) high
Grain silos, accessory to a residential occupancy
Greenhouses
Livestock shelters
Private garages
Retaining walls
Sheds
Stables
Tanks
Towers

[B] OCCUPANT LOAD. See Section 1002.1.

OPEN BURNING. See Section 302.1.

[B] OPEN MALL. See “Covered mall building.”

[B] OPEN MALL BUILDING. See “Covered mall building.”

[B] OPEN PARKING GARAGE. A structure or portion of a structure with the openings as described in Section 406.3.3.1 of the International Building Code on two or more sides that is used for the parking or storage of private motor vehicles as described in Section 406.3.4 of the International Building Code.

OPEN SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous material involving a vessel or system that is continuously open to the atmosphere during normal operations and where vapors are liberated, or the product is exposed to the atmosphere during normal operations. Examples of open systems for solids and liquids include dispensing from or into open beakers or containers, dip tank and plating tank operations.

OPERATING BUILDING. See Section 3302.1.

OPERATING LINE. See Section 3302.1.

OPERATING PRESSURE. The pressure at which a system operates.

ORGANIC COATING. See Section 2002.1.

ORGANIC PEROXIDE. See Section 3902.1.

Class I. See Section 3902.1.

Class II. See Section 3902.1.

Class III. See Section 3902.1.

Class IV. See Section 3902.1.

Class V. See Section 3902.1.

Unclassified detonable. See Section 3902.1.

OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA. See Section 2702.1.

[B] OUTPATIENT CLINIC. See “Clinic, outpatient.”

OVERCROWDING. A condition that exists when either there are more people in a building, structure or portion thereof than have been authorized or posted by the fire code official, or when the fire code official determines that a threat exists to the safety of the occupants due to persons sitting and/or standing in locations that may obstruct or impede the use of aisles, passages, corridors, stairways, exits or other components of the means of egress.

OWNER. A corporation, firm, partnership, association, organization and any other group acting as a unit, or a person who has legal title to any structure or premises with or without accompanying actual possession thereof, and shall include the duly authorized agent or attorney, a purchaser, devisee, fiduciary and any person having a vested or contingent interest in the premises in question.

OXIDIZER. See Section 4002.1.

Class 4. See Section 4002.1.

Class 3. See Section 4002.1.

Class 2. See Section 4002.1.

Class 1. See Section 4002.1.

OXIDIZING CRYOGENIC FLUID. See Section 4002.1.

OXIDIZING GAS. See Section 4002.1.

OZONE-GAS GENERATOR. See Section 3702.1.

[B] PANIC HARDWARE. See Section 1002.1.

PASS-THROUGH. See Section 1802.1.

[B] PENTHOUSE. An enclosed, unoccupied structure above the roof of a building, other than a tank, tower, spire, dome cupola or bulkhead.

PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LIMIT (PEL). See Section 2702.1.

[B] PERMIT. An official document or certificate issued by the authority having jurisdiction which authorizes performance of a specified activity.

[B] PERSON. An individual, heirs, executors, administrators or assigns, and also includes a firm, partnership or corporation, its or their successors or assigns, or the agent of any of the aforesaid.

[B] PERSONAL CARE SERVICE. The care of residents who do not require chronic or convalescent medical or nursing care. Personal care involves responsibility for the safety of the resident while inside the building.

PESTICIDE. See Section 2702.1.

[B] PHOTOLUMINESCENT. See Section 1002.1.

PHYSICAL HAZARD. See Section 2702.1.

PHYSIOLOGICAL WARNING THRESHOLD. See Section 3702.1.

PIER. See Section 4502.1.

PLOSOPHORIC MATERIAL. See Section 3302.1.

PLYWOOD and VENEER MILLS. See Section 1902.1.

PORTABLE OUTDOOR FIREPLACE. See Section 302.1.

POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCK. See Section 302.1.

PRESSURE VESSEL. See Section 2702.1.

PRIMARY CONTAINMENT. The first level of containment, consisting of the inside portion of that container which comes into immediate contact on its inner surface with the material being contained.

PROCESS TRANSFER. See Section 3402.1.

PROPELLANT. See Section 2802.1.

PROXIMATE AUDIENCE. See Section 3302.1.

PUBLIC TRAFFIC ROUTE (PTR). See Section 3302.1.

[B] PUBLIC WAY. See Section 1002.1.

PYROPHORIC. See Section 4102.1.

PYROTECHNIC ARTICLE. See Section 3302.1.

PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION. See Section 3302.1.

PYROTECHNIC SPECIAL EFFECT. See Section 3302.1.

PYROTECHNIC SPECIAL-EFFECT MATERIAL. See Section 3302.1.

PYROTECHNICS. See Section 3302.1.

QUANTITY-DISTANCE (Q-D). See Section 3302.1.

Inhabited building distance (IBD). See Section 3302.1.

Intermagazine distance (IMD). See Section 3302.1.

Intraline distance (ILD) or Intraplant distance (IPD). See Section 3302.1.

Minimum separation distance (D0). See Section 3302.1.

RAILWAY. See Section 3302.1.

[B] RAMP. See Section 1002.1.

RAW PRODUCT. See Section 1902.1.

READY BOX. See Section 3302.1.

RECORD DRAWINGS. See Section 902.1.

RECREATIONAL FIRE. See Section 302.1.

REDUCED FLOW VALVE. See Section 3702.1.

REFINERY. See Section 3402.1.

REFRIGERANT. See Section 602.1.

REFRIGERATION SYSTEM. See Section 602.1.

[B] REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An architect or engineer, registered or licensed to practice professional architecture or engineering, as defined by the statutory requirements of the professional registration laws of the state in which the project is to be constructed.

[B] RELIGIOUS WORSHIP, PLACE OF. A building or portion thereof intended for the performance of religious services.

REMOTE EMERGENCY SHUTOFF DEVICE. See Section 3402.1.

REMOTE SOLVENT RESERVOIR. See Section 3402.1.

REMOTELY LOCATED, MANUALLY ACTIVATED SHUTDOWN CONTROL. A control system that is designed to initiate shutdown of the flow of gases or liquids that is manually activated from a point located some distance from the delivery system.

REPAIR GARAGE. See Section 2202.1.

[B] RESIDENTIAL CARE/ASSISTED LIVING FACILITIES. A building or part thereof housing persons, on a 24-hour basis, who because of age, mental disability or other reasons, live in a supervised residential environment which provides personal care services. The occupants are capable of responding to an emergency situation without physical assistance from staff. This classification shall include, but not be limited to, the following: residential board and care facilities, assisted living facilities, halfway houses, group homes, congregate care facilities, social rehabilitation facilities, alcohol and drug abuse centers and convalescent facilities.

RESIN APPLICATION AREA. See Section 1502.1.

RESPONSIBLE PERSON. See Section 2602.1.

RETAIL DISPLAY AREA. See Section 2802.1.

ROLL COATING. See Section 1502.1.

RUBBISH (TRASH). Combustible and noncombustible waste materials, including residue from the burning of coal, wood, coke or other combustible material, paper, rags, cartons, tin cans, metals, mineral matter, glass crockery, dust and discarded refrigerators, and heating, cooking or incinerator-type appliances.

SAFETY CAN. See Section 2702.1.

[B] SCISSOR STAIR. See Section 1002.1.

SECONDARY CONTAINMENT. See Section 2702.1.

SEGREGATED. See Section 2702.1.

[B] SELF-CLOSING. As applied to a fire door or other opening, means equipped with an approved device that will ensure closing after having been opened.

[B] SELF-LUMINOUS. See Section 1002.1.

SELF-SERVICE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. See Section 2202.1.

SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITY. See Section 1802.1.

SERVICE CORRIDOR. See Section 1802.1.

SHELF STORAGE. See Section 2302.1.

SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. See Section 902.1.

[B] SITE. A parcel of land bounded by a lot line or a designated portion of a public right-of-way.

SITE-FABRICATED STRETCH SYSTEM. See Section 802.1.

[B] SLEEPING UNIT. See Section 902.1.

SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION. See Section 3302.1.

SMALL ARMS PRIMERS. See Section 3302.1.

SMOKE ALARM. See Section 902.1.

[B] SMOKE BARRIER. A continuous membrane, either vertical or horizontal, such as a wall, floor, or ceiling assembly, that is designed and constructed to restrict the movement of smoke.

[B] SMOKE COMPARTMENT. A space within a building enclosed by smoke barriers on all sides, including the top and bottom.

[B] SMOKE DAMPER. A listed device installed in ducts and air transfer openings designed to resist the passage of smoke. The device is installed to operate automatically, controlled by a smoke detection system, and where required, is capable of being positioned from a fire command center.

SMOKE DETECTOR. See Section 902.1.

[B] SMOKE-DEVELOPED INDEX. See Section 802.1.

[B] SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY SEATING. See Section 1002.1.

SMOKELESS PROPELLANTS. See Section 3302.1.

[B] SMOKEPROOF ENCLOSURE. An exit stairway designed and constructed so that the movement of the products of combustion produced by a fire occurring in any part of the building into the enclosure is limited.

SOLID. See Section 2702.1.

SOLID SHELVING. See Section 2302.1.

SOLVENT DISTILLATION UNIT. See Section 3402.1.

SOLVENT OR LIQUID CLASSIFICATIONS. See Section 1202.1.

Class I solvents. See Section 1202.1.

Class II solvents. See Section 1202.1.

Class IIIA solvents. See Section 1202.1.

Class IIIB solvents. See Section 1202.1.

Class IV solvents. See Section 1202.1.

SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDING. A building that is temporary, permanent or mobile that contains a device or system that conveys passengers or provides a walkway along, around or over a course in any direction as a form of amusement arranged so that the egress path is not readily apparent due to visual or audio distractions or an intentionally confounded egress path, or is not readily available because of the mode of conveyance through the building or structure.

SPECIAL INDUSTRIAL EXPLOSIVE DEVICE. See Section 3302.1.

SPRAY BOOTH. See Section 1502.1.

SPRAY ROOM. See Section 1502.1.

SPRAYING SPACE. See Section 1502.1.

[B] STAIR. See Section 1002.1.

[B] STAIRWAY. See Section 1002.1.

[B] STAIRWAY, EXTERIOR. See Section 1002.1.

[B] STAIRWAY, INTERIOR. See Section 1002.1.

[B] STAIRWAY, SPIRAL. See Section 1002.1.

STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF. See Section 902.1.

Class I system. See Section 902.1.

Class II system. See Section 902.1.

Class III system. See Section 902.1.

STANDPIPE, TYPES OF. See Section 902.1.

Automatic dry. See Section 902.1.

Automatic wet. See Section 902.1.

Manual dry. See Section 902.1.

Manual wet. See Section 902.1.

Semiautomatic dry. See Section 902.1.

STATIC PILES. See Section 1902.1.

STEEL. Hot- or cold-rolled as defined by the International Building Code.

STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. See Section 2702.1.

[B] STORY. That portion of a building included between the upper surface of a floor and the upper surface of the floor or roof next above (also see “Mezzanine” and Section 502.1 of the International Building Code). It is measured as the vertical distance from top to top of two successive tiers of beams or finished floor surfaces and, for the topmost story, from the top of the floor finish to the top of the ceiling joists or, where there is not a ceiling, to the top of the roof rafters.

[B] STORY ABOVE GRADE PLANE. Any story having its finished floor surface entirely above grade plane, or in which the finished surface of the floor next above is:

1. More than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade plane; or

2. More than 12 feet (3658 mm) above the finished ground level at any point.

[B] SUITE. See Section 1002.1.

SUPERVISING STATION. See Section 902.1.

SUPERVISORY SERVICE. See Section 902.1.

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. See Section 902.1.

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. See Section 902.1.

SYSTEM. See Section 2702.1.

TANK. A vessel containing more than 60 gallons (227 L).

TANK, ATMOSPHERIC. See Section 2702.1.

TANK, PORTABLE. See Section 2702.1.

TANK, PRIMARY. See Section 3402.1.

TANK, PROTECTED ABOVE GROUND. A tank listed in accordance with UL 2085 consisting of a primary tank provided with protection from physical damage and fire-resistive protection from a high-intensity liquid pool fire exposure. The tank may provide protection elements as a unit or may be an assembly of components, or a combination thereof.

TANK, STATIONARY. See Section 2702.1.

TANK VEHICLE. See Section 2702.1.

TENT. See Section 2402.1.

THEFT RESISTANT. See Section 3302.1.

THERMAL INSECTICIDAL FOGGING. See Section 1702.1.

TIMBER and LUMBER PRODUCTION FACILITIES. See Section 1902.1.

TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF. See Section 902.1.

TOOL. See Section 1802.1.

TORCH-APPLIED ROOF SYSTEM. See Section 2602.1.

[B] TOWNHOUSE. A single-family dwelling unit constructed in a group of three or more attached units in which each unit extends from the foundation to roof and with open space on at least two sides.

TOXIC. See Section 3702.1.

[B] TRANSIENT. Occupancy of a dwelling unit or sleeping unit for not more than 30 days.

[B] TRANSIENT AIRCRAFT. See Section 902.1.

TRANSVERSE FLUE SPACE. See Section 2302.1.

TRASH. See “Rubbish.”

TROUBLE SIGNAL. See Section 902.1.

TUBE TRAILER. See Section 3002.1.

UNAUTHORIZED DISCHARGE. See Section 2702.1.

UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIAL. See Section 4302.1.

Class 4. See Section 4302.1.

Class 3. See Section 4302.1.

Class 2. See Section 4302.1.

Class 1. See Section 4302.1.

UNWANTED FIRE. A fire not used for cooking, heating or recreational purposes or one not incidental to the normal operations of the property.

USE (MATERIAL). See Section 2702.1.

VAPOR PRESSURE. See Section 2702.1.

[B] VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process of supplying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing such air from, any space.

VESSEL. See Section 1002.1.

VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. See Section 902.1.

WATER-REACTIVE MATERIAL. See Section 4402.1.

Class 3. See Section 4402.1.

Class 2. See Section 4402.1.

Class 1. See Section 4402.1.

WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. See Section 902.1.

WHARF. See Section 4502.1.

WILDFIRE RISK AREA. Land that is covered with grass, grain, brush or forest, whether privately or publicly owned, which is so situated or is of such inaccessible location that a fire originating upon it would present an abnormally difficult job of suppression or would result in great or unusual damage through fire or such areas designated by the fire code official.

[B] WINDER. See Section 1002.1.

WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

WORKSTATION. See Section 1802.1.

[B] YARD. An open space, other than a court, unobstructed from the ground to the sky, except where specifically provided by the International Building Code, on the lot on which a building is situated.

ZONE. See Section 902.1.

ZONE, NOTIFICATION. See Section 902.1.

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