Copyright

Preface

Effective Use of the International Building Code

Legislation

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 Use and Occupancy Classification

Chapter 4 Special Detailed Requirements Based on Use and Occupancy

Chapter 5 General Building Heights and Areas

Chapter 6 Types of Construction

Chapter 7 Fire and Smoke Protection Features

Chapter 8 Interior Finishes

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Accessibility

Chapter 12 Interior Environment

Chapter 13 Energy Efficiency

Chapter 14 Exterior Walls

Chapter 15 Roof Assemblies and Rooftop Structures

Chapter 16 Structural Design

Chapter 17 Special Inspections and Tests

Chapter 18 Soils and Foundations

Chapter 19 Concrete

Chapter 20 Aluminum

Chapter 21 Masonry

Chapter 22 Steel

Chapter 23 Wood

Chapter 24 Glass and Glazing

Chapter 25 Gypsum Board, Gypsum Panel Products and Plaster

Chapter 26 Plastic

Chapter 27 Electrical

Chapter 28 Mechanical Systems

Chapter 29 Plumbing Systems

Chapter 30 Elevators and Conveying Systems

Chapter 31 Special Construction

Chapter 32 Encroachments Into the Public Right-Of-Way

Chapter 33 Safeguards During Construction

Chapter 34 Reserved

Chapter 35 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Employee Qualifications

Appendix B Board of Appeals

Appendix C GROUP U—AGRICULTURAL BUILDINGS

Appendix D Fire Districts

Appendix E Supplementary Accessibility Requirements

Appendix F Rodentproofing

Appendix G Flood-Resistant Construction

Appendix H Signs

Appendix I Patio Covers

Appendix J Grading

Appendix K Administrative Provisions

Appendix L Earthquake Recording Instrumentation

Appendix M Tsunami-Generated Flood Hazard

The provisions of this chapter shall control the classification of all buildings and structures as to use and occupancy.
Structures or portions of structures shall be classified with respect to occupancy in one or more of the groups listed in this section. A room or space that is intended to be occupied at different times for different purposes shall comply with all of the requirements that are applicable to each of the purposes for which the room or space will be occupied. Structures with multiple occupancies or uses shall comply with Section 508. Where a structure is proposed for a purpose that is not specifically provided for in this code, such structure shall be classified in the group that the occupancy most nearly resembles, according to the fire safety and relative hazard involved.

1. Assembly (see Section 303): Groups A-1, A-2, A-3, A-4 and A-5.

2. Business (see Section 304): Group B.

3. Educational (see Section 305): Group E.

4. Factory and Industrial (see Section 306): Groups F-1 and F-2.

5. High Hazard (see Section 307): Groups H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5.

6. Institutional (see Section 308): Groups I-1, I-2, I-3 and I-4.

7. Mercantile (see Section 309): Group M.

8. Residential (see Section 310): Groups R-1, R-2, R-3 and R-4.

9. Storage (see Section 311): Groups S-1 and S-2.

10. Utility and Miscellaneous (see Section 312): Group U.
Assembly Group A occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for the gathering of persons for purposes such as civic, social or religious functions; recreation, food or drink consumption or awaiting transportation.
A building or tenant space used for assembly purposes with an occupant load of less than 50 persons shall be classified as a Group B occupancy.
The following rooms and spaces shall not be classified as Assembly occupancies:

1. A room or space used for assembly purposes with an occupant load of less than 50 persons and accessory to another occupancy shall be classified as a Group B occupancy or as part of that occupancy.

2. A room or space used for assembly purposes that is less than 750 square feet (70 m2) in area and accessory to another occupancy shall be classified as a Group B occupancy or as part of that occupancy.
A room or space used for assembly purposes that is associated with a Group E occupancy is not considered a separate occupancy.
Accessory religious educational rooms and religious auditoriums with occupant loads of less than 100 per room or space are not considered separate occupancies.
Group A-1 occupancy includes assembly uses, usually with fixed seating, intended for the production and viewing of the performing arts or motion pictures including, but not limited to:

Motion picture theaters

Symphony and concert halls

Television and radio studios admitting an audience

Theaters
Group A-2 occupancy includes assembly uses intended for food and/or drink consumption including, but not limited to:

Banquet halls

Casinos (gaming areas)

Nightclubs

Restaurants, cafeterias and similar dining facilities (including associated commercial kitchens)

Taverns and bars
Group A-3 occupancy includes assembly uses intended for worship, recreation or amusement and other assembly uses not classified elsewhere in Group A including, but not limited to:

Amusement arcades

Art galleries

Bowling alleys

Community halls

Courtrooms

Dance halls (not including food or drink consumption) Exhibition halls

Funeral parlors

Gymnasiums (without spectator seating)

Indoor swimming pools (without spectator seating) Indoor tennis courts (without spectator seating)

Lecture halls

Libraries

Museums

Places of religious worship

Pool and billiard parlors

Waiting areas in transportation terminals
Group A-4 occupancy includes assembly uses intended for viewing of indoor sporting events and activities with spectator seating including, but not limited to:

Arenas

Skating rinks

Swimming pools

Tennis courts
Group A-5 occupancy includes assembly uses intended for participation in or viewing outdoor activities including, but not limited to:

Amusement park structures

Bleachers

Grandstands

Stadiums
Business Group B occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for office, professional or service-type transactions, including storage of records and accounts. Business occupancies shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Airport traffic control towers

Ambulatory care facilities

Animal hospitals, kennels and pounds

Banks

Barber and beauty shops

Car wash

Civic administration

Clinic, outpatient

Dry cleaning and laundries: pick-up and delivery stations and self-service

Educational occupancies for students above the 12th grade

Electronic data processing

Food processing establishments and commercial kitchens not associated with restaurants, cafeterias and similar dining facilities not more than 2,500 square feet (232 m2) in area.

Laboratories: testing and research

Motor vehicle showrooms

Post offices

Print shops

Professional services (architects, attorneys, dentists, physicians, engineers, etc.)

Radio and television stations

Telephone exchanges

Training and skill development not in a school or academic program (this shall include, but not be limited to, tutoring centers, martial arts studios, gymnastics and similar uses regardless of the ages served, and where not classified as a Group A occupancy).
The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

AMBULATORY CARE FACILITY.

CLINIC, OUTPATIENT.
Educational Group E occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, by six or more persons at any one time for educational purposes through the 12th grade.
Religious educational rooms and religious auditoriums, which are accessory to places of religious worship in accordance with Section 303.1.4 and have occupant loads of less than 100 per room or space, shall be classified as Group A-3 occupancies.
This group includes buildings and structures or portions thereof occupied by more than five children older than 21/2 years of age who receive educational, supervision or personal care services for fewer than 24 hours per day.
Rooms and spaces within places of religious worship providing such day care during religious functions shall be classified as part of the primary occupancy.
A facility having five or fewer children receiving such day care shall be classified as part of the primary occupancy.
A facility such as the above within a dwelling unit and having five or fewer children receiving such day care shall be classified as a Group R-3 occupancy or shall comply with the International Residential Code.
Factory Industrial Group F occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for assembling, disassembling, fabricating, finishing, manufacturing, packaging, repair or processing operations that are not classified as a Group H hazardous or Group S storage occupancy.
Factory industrial uses that are not classified as Factory Industrial F-2 Low Hazard shall be classified as F-1 Moderate Hazard and shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Aircraft (manufacturing, not to include repair) Appliances

Athletic equipment

Automobiles and other motor vehicles

Bakeries

Beverages: over 16-percent alcohol content

Bicycles

Boats

Brooms or brushes

Business machines

Cameras and photo equipment

Canvas or similar fabric

Carpets and rugs (includes cleaning) Clothing

Construction and agricultural machinery

Disinfectants

Dry cleaning and dyeing

Electric generation plants

Electronics

Engines (including rebuilding)

Food processing establishments and commercial kitchens not associated with restaurants, cafeterias and similar dining facilities more than 2,500 square feet (232 m2) in area.

Furniture

Hemp products

Jute products

Laundries

Leather products

Machinery

Metals

Millwork (sash and door)

Motion pictures and television filming (without spectators)

Musical instruments

Optical goods

Paper mills or products

Photographic film

Plastic products

Printing or publishing

Recreational vehicles

Refuse incineration

Shoes

Soaps and detergents

Textiles

Tobacco

Trailers

Upholstering

Wood; distillation

Woodworking (cabinet)
Factory industrial uses that involve the fabrication or manufacturing of noncombustible materials that during finishing, packing or processing do not involve a significant fire hazard shall be classified as F-2 occupancies and shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Beverages: up to and including 16-percent alcohol content

Brick and masonry Ceramic products

Foundries

Glass products

Gypsum

Ice

Metal products (fabrication and assembly)
High-hazard Group H occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, that involves the manufacturing, processing, generation or storage of materials that constitute a physical or health hazard in quantities in excess of those allowed in control areas complying with Section 414, based on the maximum allowable quantity limits for control areas set forth in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2). Hazardous occupancies are classified in Groups H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5 and shall be in accordance with this section, the requirements of Section 415 and the International Fire Code. Hazardous materials stored, or used on top of roofs or canopies, shall be classified as outdoor storage or use and shall comply with the International Fire Code.

TABLE 307.1(1) MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A PHYSICAL HAZARDa, j, m, n, p

MATERIAL CLASS GROUP WHEN
THE MAXIMUM
ALLOWABLE
QUANTITY IS
EXCEEDED
STORAGEb USE-CLOSED SYSTEMSb USE-OPEN SYSTEMSb
Solid
pounds
(cubic feet)
Liquid
gallons
(pounds)
Gas cubic
feet at NTP
Solid
pounds
(cubic feet)
Liquid
gallons
(pounds)
Gas cubic
feet at NTP
Solid
pounds
(cubic feet)
Liquid
gallons
(pounds)
Combustible dust NA H-2 See
Note q
NA NA See
Note q
NA NA See
Note q
NA
Combustible fiberq Loose
Baledo
H-3 (100)
(1,000)
NA NA (100)
(1,000)
NA NA (20)
(200)
NA
Combustible liquidc, i II
IIIA
IIIB
H-2 or H-3
H-2 or H-3
NA
NA 120d, e
330d, e
13,200e, f
NA NA 120d
330d
13,200f
NA NA 30d
80d
3,300f
Consumer fireworks 1.4G H-3 125e, l NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Cryogenic flammable NA H-2 NA 45d NA NA 45d NA NA 10d
Cryogenic inert NA NA NA NA NL NA NA NL NA NA
Cryogenic oxidizing NA H-3 NA 45d NA NA 45d NA NA 10d
Explosives Division 1.1
Division 1.2
Division 1.3
Division 1.4
Division 1.4G
Division 1.5
Division 1.6
H-1
H-1
H-1 or H-2
H-3
H-3
H-1
H-1
1e, g
1e, g
5e, g
50e, g
125d, e, l
1e, g
1e, g
(1)e, g
(1)e, g
(5)e, g
(50)e, g
NA
(1)e, g
NA
NA 0.25g
0.25g
1g
50g
NA
0.25g
NA
(0.25)g
(0.25)g
(1)g
(50)g
NA
(0.25)g
NA
NA 0.25g
0.25g
1g
NA
NA
0.25g
NA
(0.25)g
(0.25)g
(1)g
NA
NA
(0.25)g
NA
Flammable gas Gaseous
Liquefied
H-2 NA NA
(150)d, e
1,000d, e
NA
NA NA
(150)d, e
1,000d, e
NA
NA NA
Flammable liquidc IA
IB and IC
H-2
or H-3
NA 30d, e
120d, e
NA NA 30d
120d
NA NA 10d
30d
Flammable liquid,
combination
(IA, IB, IC)
NA H-2
or H-3
NA 120d, e, h NA NA 120d, h NA NA 30d, h


(continued)

TABLE 307.1(1)‒continued MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A PHYSICAL HAZARDa, j, m,n, p

MATERIAL CLASS GROUP WHEN
THE MAXIMUM
ALLOWABLE
QUANTITY IS
EXCEEDED
STORAGEb USE-CLOSED SYSTEMSb USE-OPEN SYSTEMSb
Solid
pounds
(cubic feet)
Liquid
gallons
(pounds)
Gas cubic
feet at NTP
Solid
pounds
(cubic feet)
Liquid
gallons
(pounds)
Gas cubic
feet at NTP
Solid
pounds
(cubic feet)
Liquid
gallons
(pounds)
Flammable solid NA H-3 125d, e NA NA 125d NA NA 25d NA
Inert gas Gaseous
Liquefied
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NL
NL
NA
NA
NA
NA
NL
NL
NA
NA
NA
NA
Organic peroxide UD
I
II
III
IV
V
H-1
H-2
H-3
H-3
NA
NA
1e, g
5d, e
50d, e
125d, e
NL
NL
(1)e, g
(5)d, e
(50)d, e
(125)d, e
NL
NL
NA 0.25g
1d
50d
125d
NL
NL
(0.25)g
(1)d
(50)d
(125)d
NL
NL
NA 0.25g
1d
10d
25d
NL
NL
(0.25)g
(1)d
(10)d
(25)d
NL
NL
Oxidizer 4
3k
2
1
H-1
H-2 or H-3
H-3
NA
1g
10d, e
250d, e
4,000e, f
(1)e, g
(10)d, e
(250)d, e
(4,000)e, f
NA 0.25g
2d
250d
4,000f
(0.25)g
(2)d
(250)d
(4,000)f
NA 0.25g
2d
50d
1,000f
(0.25)g
(2)d
(50)d
(1,000)f
Oxidizing gas Gaseous
Liquefied
H-3 NA NA
(150)d, e
1,500d, e
NA
NA NA
(150)d, e
1,500d, e
NA
NA NA
Pyrophoric NA H-2 4e, g (4)e, g 50e, g 1g (1)g 10e, g 0 0
Unstable (reactive) 4
3
2
1
H-1
H-1 or H-2
H-3
NA
1e, g
5d, e
50d, e
NL
(1)e, g
(5)d, e
(50)d, e
NL
10e, g
50d, e
750d, e
NL
0.25g
1d
50d
NL
(0.25)g
(1)d
(50)d
NL
2e, g
10d, e
750d, e
NL
0.25g
1d
10d
NL
(0.25)g
(1)d
(10)d
NL
Water reactive 3
2
1
H-2
H-3
NA
5d, e
50d, e
NL
(5)d, e
(50)d, e
NL
NA 5d
50d
NL
(5)d
(50)d
NL
NA 1d
10d
NL
(1)d
(10)d
NL

For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.028 m3, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
NL = Not Limited; NA = Not Applicable; UD = Unclassified Detonable.
a. For use of control areas, see Section 414.2.
b. The aggregate quantity in use and storage shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage.
c. The quantities of alcoholic beverages in retail and wholesale sales occupancies shall not be limited provided the liquids are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons. In retail and wholesale sales occupancies, the quantities of medicines, foodstuffs or consumer products, and cosmetics containing not more than 50 percent by volume of water-miscible liquids with the remainder of the solutions not being flammable, shall not be limited, provided that such materials are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons.
d. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where Note e also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
e. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, day boxes, gas cabinets, gas rooms or exhausted enclosures or in listed safety cans in accordance with Section 5003.9.10 of the International Fire Code. Where Note d also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
f. Quantities shall not be limited in a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
g. Allowed only in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
h. Containing not more than the maximum allowable quantity per control area of Class IA, IB or IC flammable liquids.
i. The maximum allowable quantity shall not apply to fuel oil storage complying with Section 603.3.2 of the International Fire Code.
j. Quantities in parenthesis indicate quantity units in parenthesis at the head of each column.
k. A maximum quantity of 200 pounds of solid or 20 gallons of liquid Class 3 oxidizers is allowed when such materials are necessary for maintenance purposes, operation or sanitation of equipment when the storage containers and the manner of storage are approved.
l. Net weight of the pyrotechnic composition of the fireworks. Where the net weight of the pyrotechnic composition of the fireworks is not known, 25 percent of the gross weight of the fireworks, including packaging, shall be used.
m.For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 5003.1.2 of the International Fire Code.
n. For storage and display quantities in Group M and storage quantities in Group S occupancies complying with Section 414.2.5, see Tables 414.2.5(1) and 414.2.5(2).
o. Densely packed baled cotton that complies with the packing requirements of ISO 8115 shall not be included in this material class.
p. The following shall not be included in determining the maximum allowable quantities:
1. Liquid or gaseous fuel in fuel tanks on vehicles.
2. Liquid or gaseous fuel in fuel tanks on motorized equipment operated in accordance with the International Fire Code.
3. Gaseous fuels in piping systems and fixed appliances regulated by the International Fuel Gas Code.
4. Liquid fuels in piping systems and fixed appliances regulated by the International Mechanical Code.
5. Alcohol-based hand rubs classified as Class I or II liquids in dispensers that are installed in accordance with Sections 5705.5 and 5705.5.1 of the International Fire Code. The location of the alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) dispensers shall be provided in the construction documents.
q. Where manufactured, generated or used in such a manner that the concentration and conditions create a fire or explosion hazard based on information prepared in accordance with Section 414.1.3.


[F] TABLE 307.1(2) MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POSING A HEALTH HAZARDa, c, f, h, i

MATERIAL STORAGEb USE-CLOSED SYSTEMSb USE-OPEN SYSTEMSb
Solid
poundsd, e
Liquid gallons
(pounds)d, e
Gas cubic feet at NTP
(pounds)d
Solid
poundsd
Liquid gallons
(pounds)d
Gas cubic feet at NTP
(pounds)d
Solid
poundsd
Liquid gallons
(pounds)d
Corrosives 5,000 500 Gaseous 810e
Liquefied (150)
5,000 500 Gaseous 810e
Liquefied (150)
1,000 100
Highly
Toxic
10 (10) Gaseous 20g
Liquefied (4)g
10 (10) Gaseous 20g
Liquefied (4)g
3 (3)
Toxic 500 (500) Gaseous 810e
Liquefied (150)e
500 (500) Gaseous 810e
Liquefied (150)e
125 (125)

For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.028 m3, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
a. For use of control areas, see Section 414.2.
b. The aggregate quantity in use and storage shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage.
c. In retail and wholesale sales occupancies, the quantities of medicines, foodstuffs or consumer products, and cosmetics containing not more than 50 percent by volume of water-miscible liquids and with the remainder of the solutions not being flammable, shall not be limited, provided that such materials are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons.
d. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where Note e also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
e. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent where stored in approved storage cabinets, gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures as specified in the International Fire Code. Where Note d also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
f. For storage and display quantities in Group M and storage quantities in Group S occupancies complying with Section 414.2.5, see Tables 414.2.5(1) and 414.2.5(2).
g. Allowed only where stored in approved exhausted gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures as specified in the International Fire Code.
h. Quantities in parenthesis indicate quantity units in parenthesis at the head of each column.
i. For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 5003.1.2 of the International Fire Code.
An occupancy that stores, uses or handles hazardous materials as described in one or more of the following items shall not be classified as Group H, but shall be classified as the occupancy that it most nearly resembles.

1. Buildings and structures occupied for the application of flammable finishes, provided that such buildings or areas conform to the requirements of Section 416 and the International Fire Code.

2. Wholesale and retail sales and storage of flammable and combustible liquids in mercantile occupancies conforming to the International Fire Code.

3. Closed piping system containing flammable or combustible liquids or gases utilized for the operation of machinery or equipment.

4. Cleaning establishments that utilize combustible liquid solvents having a flash point of 140°F (60°C) or higher in closed systems employing equipment listed by an approved testing agency, provided that this occupancy is separated from all other areas of the building by 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or 1-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.

5. Cleaning establishments that utilize a liquid solvent having a flash point at or above 200°F (93°C).

6. Liquor stores and distributors without bulk storage.

7. Refrigeration systems.

8. The storage or utilization of materials for agricultural purposes on the premises.

9. Stationary batteries utilized for facility emergency power, uninterruptable power supply or telecommunication facilities, provided that the batteries are provided with safety venting caps and ventilation is provided in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

10. Corrosive personal or household products in their original packaging used in retail display.

11. Commonly used corrosive building materials.

12. Buildings and structures occupied for aerosol storage shall be classified as Group S-1, provided that such buildings conform to the requirements of the International Fire Code.

13. Display and storage of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials in quantities not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area in Group M or S occupancies complying with Section 414.2.5.

14. The storage of black powder, smokeless propellant and small arms primers in Groups M and R-3 and special industrial explosive devices in Groups B, F, M and S, provided such storage conforms to the quantity limits and requirements prescribed in the International Fire Code.
Hazardous materials in any quantity shall conform to the requirements of this code, including Section 414, and the International Fire Code.
The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

AEROSOL

Level 1 aerosol products.

Level 2 aerosol products.

Level 3 aerosol products.

AEROSOL CONTAINER.

BALED COTTON.

BALED COTTON, DENSELY PACKED.

BARRICADE.

Artificial barricade.

Natural barricade.

BOILING POINT.

CLOSED SYSTEM.

COMBUSTIBLE DUST.

COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS.

COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID.

Class II.

Class IIIA.

Class IIIB.

COMPRESSED GAS.

CONTROL AREA.

CORROSIVE.

CRYOGENIC FLUID.

DAY BOX.

DEFLAGRATION.

DETONATION.

DISPENSING.

EXPLOSION.

EXPLOSIVE.

High explosive.

Low explosive.

Mass-detonating explosives.

UN/DOTn Class 1 explosives.

Division 1.1.

Division 1.2.

Division 1.3.

Division 1.4.

Division 1.5.

Division 1.6.

FIREWORKS.

Fireworks, 1.3G.

Fireworks, 1.4G.

FLAMMABLE GAS.

FLAMMABLE LIQUEFIED GAS.

FLAMMABLE LIQUID.

Class IA.

Class IB.

Class IC.

FLAMMABLE MATERIAL.

FLAMMABLE SOLID.

FLASH POINT.

HANDLING.

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS.

HEALTH HAZARD.

HIGHLY TOXIC.

INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS.

INERT GAS.

OPEN SYSTEM.

OPERATING BUILDING.

ORGANIC PEROXIDE.

Class I.

Class II.

Class III.

Class IV.

Class V.

Unclassified detonable.

OXIDIZER.

Class 4.

Class 3.

Class 2.

Class 1.

OXIDIZING GAS.

PHYSICAL HAZARD.

PYROPHORIC.

PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION.

TOXIC.

UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIAL.

Class 4.

Class 3.

Class 2.

Class 1.

WATER-REACTIVE MATERIAL.

Class 3.

Class 2.

Class 1.
Buildings and structures containing materials that pose a detonation hazard shall be classified as Group H-1. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Detonable pyrophoric materials

Explosives:

Division 1.1

Division 1.2

Division 1.3

Division 1.4

Division 1.5

Division 1.6

Organic peroxides, unclassified detonable

Oxidizers, Class 4

Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 3 detonable and Class 4
The following occupancies containing explosive materials shall be classified as follows:

1. Division 1.3 explosive materials that are used and maintained in a form where either confinement or configuration will not elevate the hazard from a mass fire to mass explosion hazard shall be allowed in H-2 occupancies.

2. Articles, including articles packaged for shipment, that are not regulated as a Division 1.4 explosive under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives regulations, or unpackaged articles used in process operations that do not propagate a detonation or deflagration between articles shall be allowed in H-3 occupancies.
Buildings and structures containing materials that pose a deflagration hazard or a hazard from accelerated burning shall be classified as Group H-2. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Class I, II or IIIA flammable or combustible liquids that are used or stored in normally open containers or systems, or in closed containers or systems pressurized at more than 15 pounds per square inch gauge (103.4 kPa).

Combustible dusts where manufactured, generated or used in such a manner that the concentration and conditions create a fire or explosion hazard based on information prepared in accordance with Section 414.1.3.

Cryogenic fluids, flammable.

Flammable gases.

Organic peroxides, Class I.

Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally open containers or systems, or in closed containers or systems pressurized at more than 15 pounds per square inch gauge (103 kPa).

Pyrophoric liquids, solids and gases, nondetonable.

Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 3, nondetonable.

Water-reactive materials, Class 3.
Buildings and structures containing materials that readily support combustion or that pose a physical hazard shall be classified as Group H-3. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Class I, II or IIIA flammable or combustible liquids that are used or stored in normally closed containers or systems pressurized at 15 pounds per square inch gauge (103.4 kPa) or less.

Combustible fibers, other than densely packed baled cotton, where manufactured, generated or used in such a manner that the concentration and conditions create a fire or explosion hazard based on information prepared in accordance with Section 414.1.3.

Consumer fireworks, 1.4G (Class C, Common)

Cryogenic fluids, oxidizing

Flammable solids

Organic peroxides, Class II and III

Oxidizers, Class 2

Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally closed containers or systems pressurized at 15 pounds per square inch gauge (103 kPa) or less

Oxidizing gases

Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 2

Water-reactive materials, Class 2
Buildings and structures containing materials that are health hazards shall be classified as Group H-4. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Corrosives

Highly toxic materials

Toxic materials
Semiconductor fabrication facilities and comparable research and development areas in which hazardous production materials (HPM) are used and the aggregate quantity of materials is in excess of those listed in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2) shall be classified as Group H-5. Such facilities and areas shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Section 415.11.
Buildings and structures containing a material or materials representing hazards that are classified in one or more of Groups H-1, H-2, H-3 and H-4 shall conform to the code requirements for each of the occupancies so classified.
Institutional Group I occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, in which care or supervision is provided to persons who are or are not capable of self-preservation without physical assistance or in which persons are detained for penal or correctional purposes or in which the liberty of the occupants is restricted. Institutional occupancies shall be classified as Group I-1, I-2, I-3 or I-4.
The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

24-HOUR BASIS.

CUSTODIAL CARE.

DETOXIFICATION FACILITIES.

FOSTER CARE FACILITIES.

HOSPITALS AND PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITALS.

INCAPABLE OF SELF-PRESERVATION.

MEDICAL CARE.

NURSING HOMES.
Institutional Group I-1 occupancy shall include buildings, structures or portions thereof for more than 16 persons, excluding staff, who reside on a 24-hour basis in a supervised environment and receive custodial care. Buildings of Group I-1 shall be classified as one of the occupancy conditions specified in Section 308.3.1 or 308.3.2. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Alcohol and drug centers

Assisted living facilities

Congregate care facilities

Group homes

Halfway houses

Residential board and care facilities

Social rehabilitation facilities
This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which all persons receiving custodial care who, without any assistance, are capable of responding to an emergency situation to complete building evacuation.
This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which there are any persons receiving custodial care who require limited verbal or physical assistance while responding to an emergency situation to complete building evacuation.
A facility housing not fewer than six and not more than 16 persons receiving custodial care shall be classified as Group R-4.
A facility with five or fewer persons receiving custodial care shall be classified as Group R-3 or shall comply with the International Residential Code provided an automatic sprinkler system is installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 or Section P2904 of the International Residential Code.
Institutional Group I-2 occupancy shall include buildings and structures used for medical care on a 24-hour basis for more than five persons who are incapable of self-preservation. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Foster care facilities

Detoxification facilities

Hospitals

Nursing homes

Psychiatric hospitals
Buildings of Group I-2 shall be classified as one of the occupancy conditions specified in Section 308.4.1.1 or 308.4.1.2.
This occupancy condition shall include facilities that provide nursing and medical care but do not provide emergency care, surgery, obstetrics or in-patient stabilization units for psychiatric or detoxification, including but not limited to nursing homes and foster care facilities.
This occupancy condition shall include facilities that provide nursing and medical care and could provide emergency care, surgery, obstetrics or in-patient stabilization units for psychiatric or detoxification, including but not limited to hospitals.
A facility with five or fewer persons receiving medical care shall be classified as Group R-3 or shall comply with the International Residential Code provided an automatic sprinkler system is installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 or Section P2904 of the International Residential Code.
Institutional Group I-3 occupancy shall include buildings and structures that are inhabited by more than five persons who are under restraint or security. A Group I-3 facility is occupied by persons who are generally incapable of self-preservation due to security measures not under the occupants’ control. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Correctional centers

Detention centers

Jails

Prerelease centers

Prisons

Reformatories

Buildings of Group I-3 shall be classified as one of the occupancy conditions specified in Sections 308.5.1 through 308.5.5 (see Section 408.1).
This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is allowed from sleeping areas, and other spaces where access or occupancy is permitted, to the exterior via means of egress without restraint. A Condition 1 facility is permitted to be constructed as Group R.
This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is allowed from sleeping areas and any other occupied smoke compartment to one or more other smoke compartments. Egress to the exterior is impeded by locked exits.
This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is allowed within individual smoke compartments, such as within a residential unit comprised of individual sleeping units and group activity spaces, where egress is impeded by remotecontrolled release of means of egress from such a smoke compartment to another smoke compartment.
This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is restricted from an occupied space. Remote-controlled release is provided to permit movement from sleeping units, activity spaces and other occupied areas within the smoke compartment to other smoke compartments.
This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is restricted from an occupied space. Staff-controlled manual release is provided to permit movement from sleeping units, activity spaces and other occupied areas within the smoke compartment to other smoke compartments.
Institutional Group I-4 occupancy shall include buildings and structures occupied by more than five persons of any age who receive custodial care for fewer than 24 hours per day by persons other than parents or guardians, relatives by blood, marriage or adoption, and in a place other than the home of the person cared for. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Adult day care

Child day care
A child day care facility that provides care for more than five but not more than 100 children 21/ 2 years or less of age, where the rooms in which the children are cared for are located on a level of exit discharge serving such rooms and each of these child care rooms has an exit door directly to the exterior, shall be classified as Group E.
Rooms and spaces within places of religious worship providing such care during religious functions shall be classified as part of the primary occupancy.
A facility having five or fewer persons receiving custodial care shall be classified as part of the primary occupancy.
A facility such as the above within a dwelling unit and having five or fewer persons receiving custodial care shall be classified as a Group R-3 occupancy or shall comply with the International Residential Code.
Mercantile Group M occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure or a portion thereof for the display and sale of merchandise, and involves stocks of goods, wares or merchandise incidental to such purposes and accessible to the public. Mercantile occupancies shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Department stores

Drug stores Markets

Motor fuel-dispensing facilities

Retail or wholesale stores

Sales rooms
The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials stored or displayed in a single control area of a Group M occupancy shall not exceed the quantities in Table 414.2.5(1).
Residential Group R includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for sleeping purposes when not classified as an Institutional Group I or when not regulated by the International Residential Code.
The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

BOARDING HOUSE.

CONGREGATE LIVING FACILITIES.

DORMITORY.

GROUP HOME.

GUEST ROOM.

LODGING HOUSE.

PERSONAL CARE SERVICE.

TRANSIENT.
Residential Group R-1 occupancies containing sleeping units where the occupants are primarily transient in nature, including:

Boarding houses (transient) with more than 10 occupants

Congregate living facilities (transient) with more than 10
occupants

Hotels (transient)

Motels (transient)
Residential Group R-2 occupancies containing sleeping units or more than two dwelling units where the occupants are primarily permanent in nature, including:

Apartment houses

Boarding houses (nontransient) with more than 16 occupants

Congregate living facilities (nontransient) with more than 16 occupants

Convents

Dormitories

Fraternities and sororities

Hotels (nontransient)

Live/work units

Monasteries

Motels (nontransient)

Vacation timeshare properties
Residential Group R-3 occupancies where the occupants are primarily permanent in nature and not classified as Group R-1, R-2, R-4 or I, including:

Buildings that do not contain more than two dwelling units

Boarding houses (nontransient) with 16 or fewer occupants

Boarding houses (transient) with 10 or fewer occupants

Care facilities that provide accommodations for five or fewer persons receiving care

Congregate living facilities (nontransient) with 16 or fewer occupants

Congregate living facilities (transient) with 10 or fewer occupants

Lodging houses with five or fewer guest rooms
Care facilities for five or fewer persons receiving care that are within a single-family dwelling are permitted to comply with the International Residential Code provided an automatic sprinkler system is installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 or Section P2904 of the International Residential Code.
Owner-occupied lodging houses with five or fewer guest rooms shall be permitted to be constructed in accordance with the International Residential Code.
Residential Group R-4 occupancy shall include buildings, structures or portions thereof for more than five but not more than 16 persons, excluding staff, who reside on a 24-hour basis in a supervised residential environment and receive custodial care. Buildings of Group R-4 shall be classified as one of the occupancy conditions specified in Section 310.6.1 or 310.6.2. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Alcohol and drug centers

Assisted living facilities

Congregate care facilities

Group homes

Halfway houses

Residential board and care facilities

Social rehabilitation facilities

Group R-4 occupancies shall meet the requirements for construction as defined for Group R-3, except as otherwise provided for in this code.
This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which all persons receiving custodial care, without any assistance, are capable of responding to an emergency situation to complete building evacuation.
This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which there are any persons receiving custodial care who require limited verbal or physical assistance while responding to an emergency situation to complete building evacuation.
Storage Group S occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for storage that is not classified as a hazardous occupancy.
A room or space used for storage purposes that is less than 100 square feet (9.3 m2) in area and accessory to another occupancy shall be classified as part of that occupancy. The aggregate area of such rooms or spaces shall not exceed the allowable area limits of Section 508.2.
Storage Group S-1 occupancies are buildings occupied for storage uses that are not classified as Group S-2, including, but not limited to, storage of the following:

Aerosols, Levels 2 and 3

Aircraft hangar (storage and repair)

Bags: cloth, burlap and paper

Bamboos and rattan

Baskets

Belting: canvas and leather

Books and paper in rolls or packs

Boots and shoes

Buttons, including cloth covered, pearl or bone

Cardboard and cardboard boxes

Clothing, woolen wearing apparel

Cordage

Dry boat storage (indoor)

Furniture

Furs

Glues, mucilage, pastes and size

Grains

Horns and combs, other than celluloid

Leather Linoleum Lumber

Motor vehicle repair garages complying with the maximum allowable quantities of hazardous materials listed in Table 307.1(1) (see Section 406.8)

Photo engravings

Resilient flooring

Silks

Soaps

Sugar

Tires, bulk storage of

Tobacco, cigars, cigarettes and snuff

Upholstery and mattresses

Wax candles
Storage Group S-2 occupancies include, among others, buildings used for the storage of noncombustible materials such as products on wood pallets or in paper cartons with or without single thickness divisions; or in paper wrappings. Such products are permitted to have a negligible amount of plastic trim, such as knobs, handles or film wrapping. Group S-2 storage uses shall include, but not be limited to, storage of the following:

Asbestos

Beverages up to and including 16-percent alcohol in metal, glass or ceramic containers

Cement in bags

Chalk and crayons

Dairy products in nonwaxed coated paper containers

Dry cell batteries

Electrical coils

Electrical motors

Empty cans

Food products

Foods in noncombustible containers

Fresh fruits and vegetables in nonplastic trays or containers

Frozen foods

Glass

Glass bottles, empty or filled with noncombustible liquids

Gypsum board

Inert pigments

Ivory

Meats

Metal cabinets

Metal desks with plastic tops and trim

Metal parts

Metals

Mirrors

Oil-filled and other types of distribution transformers

Parking garages, open or enclosed

Porcelain and pottery

Stoves

Talc and soapstones

Washers and dryers
Buildings and structures of an accessory character and miscellaneous structures not classified in any specific occupancy shall be constructed, equipped and maintained to conform to the requirements of this code commensurate with the fire and life hazard incidental to their occupancy. Group U shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Agricultural buildings

Aircraft hangars, accessory to a one- or two-family residence (see Section 412.5)

Barns

Carports

Fences more than 6 feet (1829 mm) in height

Grain silos, accessory to a residential occupancy

Greenhouses

Livestock shelters

Private garages

Retaining walls

Sheds

Stables

Tanks

Towers
Resources