The definitions contained in this chapter shall apply to the terms used in this standard. Where terms are not defined in this chapter or within another chapter, they shall be defined using their ordinarily accepted meanings within the context in which they are used. Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 11th edition, shall be the source for the ordinarily accepted meaning.
Equipment, materials, or services included in a list published by an organization that is acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction and concerned with evaluation of products or services, that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of services, and whose listing states that either the equipment, material, or service meets appropriate designated standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.
An NFPA Standard, the main text of which contains only mandatory provisions using the word "shall" to indicate requirements and that is in a form generally suitable for mandatory reference by another standard or code or for adoption into law. Nonmandatory provisions are not to be considered a part of the requirements of a standard and shall be located in an appendix, annex, footnote, informational note, or other means as permitted in the NFPA Manuals of Style. When used in a generic sense, such as in the phrase "standards development process" or "standards development activities," the term "standards" includes all NFPA Standards, including Codes, Standards, Recommended Practices, and Guides.
A space completely enclosed by walls and a ceiling. Each wall in the compartment is permitted to have openings to an adjoining space if the openings have a minimum lintel depth of 8 in. (200 mm) from the ceiling and the total width of the openings in each wall does not exceed 8 ft (2.4 m). A single opening of 36 in. (900 mm) or less in width without a lintel is permitted when there are no other openings to adjoining spaces.
One or more rooms arranged for the use of one or more individuals living together, as in a single housekeeping unit normally having cooking, living, sanitary, and sleeping facilities that include, but are not limited to, hotel rooms, dormitory rooms, apartments, condominiums, sleeping rooms in nursing homes, and similar living units.
A calculated sprinkler system in which pipe sizes are selected on a pressure loss basis to provide a prescribed water density, in gallons per minute per square foot (mm/min), or a prescribed minimum discharge pressure or flow per sprinkler, distributed with a reasonable degree of uniformity over a specified area.
Refers to a building construction material not complying with the definition of noncombustible material that, in the form in which it is used, has a potential heat value not exceeding 3500 Btu/lb (8100 kJ/kg), where tested in accordance with NFPA 259, and includes either of the following: (1) materials having a structural base of noncombustible material, with a surfacing not exceeding a thickness of 1/8 in. (3.2 mm) that has a flame spread index not greater than 50; or (2) materials, in the form and thickness used, having neither a flame spread index greater than 25 nor evidence of continued progressive combustion, and of such composition that surfaces that would be exposed by cutting through the material on any plane would have neither a flame spread index greater than 25 nor evidence of continued progressive combustion, when tested in accordance with ASTM E84, StandardTest Method of Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials, or ANSI/UL 723, StandardTest Method of Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials.
A material that, in the form in which it is used and under the conditions anticipated, will not ignite, burn, support combustion, or release flammable vapors, when subjected to fire or heat; materials that are reported as passing ASTM E136, StandardTest Method for Behavior of Materials in a Vertical Tube Furnace at 750°C, shall be considered noncombustible materials.
As used in this standard, shop in the term shop-welded means either (1) a sprinkler contractor's or fabricator's premise or (2) an area specifically designed or authorized for welding, such as a detached outside location, maintenance shop, or other area (either temporary or permanent) of noncombustible or fire-resistive construction free of combustible and flammable contents and suitably segregated from adjacent areas.
A system that consists of an integrated network of piping designed in accordance with fire protection engineering standards that includes a water supply source, a water control valve, a waterflow alarm, and a drain. The portion of the sprinkler system above ground is a network of specifically sized or hydraulically designed piping installed in a building, structure, or area, generally overhead, and to which sprinklers are attached in a systematic pattern. The system is commonly activated by heat from a fire and discharges water over the fire area.
A material that limits the average temperature rise of the unexposed surface to not more than 250°F (121°C) above ambient for a specified fire exposure duration using the standard time-temperature curve of ASTM E119, StandardTest Methods for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials.
A wet pipe system using automatic sprinklers that contains a liquid solution to prevent freezing of the system, intended to discharge the solution upon sprinkler operation, followed immediately by water from a water supply.
A mixture of an antifreeze material with water that is prepared and factory-mixed by the manufacturer with a quality control procedure in place that ensures that the antifreeze solution remains homogeneous and that the concentration is as specified.
A wet pipe sprinkler system having non-fire protection connections to automatic sprinkler systems in a closed-loop piping arrangement for the purpose of utilizing sprinkler piping to conduct water for heating or cooling, where water is not removed or used from the system but only circulated through the piping system.
A sprinkler system employing automatic sprinklers attached to a piping system containing air under pressure with a supplemental detection system installed in the same areas as the sprinklers. Operation of the detection system actuates tripping devices that open dry pipe valves simultaneously and without loss of air pressure in the system. The detection system also serves as an automatic fire alarm system.
A sprinkler system employing open sprinklers or nozzles that are attached to a piping system that is connected to a water supply through a valve that is opened by the operation of a detection system installed in the same areas as the sprinklers or the nozzles. When this valve opens, water flows into the piping system and discharges from all sprinklers or nozzles attached thereto.
A sprinkler system employing automatic sprinklers that are attached to a piping system containing air or nitrogen under pressure, the release of which (as from the opening of a sprinkler) permits the water pressure to open a valve known as a dry pipe valve, and the water then flows into the piping system and out the opened sprinklers.
A sprinkler system in which the pipe sizing is selected from a schedule that is determined by the occupancy classification and in which a given number of sprinklers are allowed to be supplied from specific sizes of pipe.
A sprinkler system employing automatic sprinklers that are attached to a piping system that contains air that might or might not be under pressure, with a supplemental detection system installed in the same areas as the sprinklers.
A sprinkler system employing automatic sprinklers attached to a piping system containing water and connected to a water supply so that water discharges immediately from sprinklers opened by heat from a fire.
A listed coupling or fitting that allows axial displacement, rotation, and at least 1 degree of angular movement of the pipe without inducing harm on the pipe. For pipe diameters of 8 in. (200 mm) and larger, the angular movement shall be permitted to be less than 1 degree but not less than 0.5 degree.
The aboveground horizontal or vertical pipe between the water supply and the mains (cross or feed) that contains a control valve (either directly or within its supply pipe), a pressure gauge, a main drain, and a waterflow alarm device.
An attachment to the sprinkler system that detects a predetermined water flow and is connected to a fire alarm system to initiate an alarm condition or is used to mechanically or electrically initiate a fire pump or local audible or visual alarm.
The following are characteristics of a sprinkler that define its ability to control or extinguish a fire. (1) Thermal sensitivity. A measure of the rapidity with which the thermal element operates as installed in a specific sprinkler or sprinkler assembly. One measure of thermal sensitivity is the response time index (RTI) as measured under standardized test conditions. (a) Sprinklers defined as fast response have a thermal element with an RTI of 50 (meters-seconds)1/2 or less. (b) Sprinklers defined as standard response have a thermal element with an RTI of 80 (meters-seconds)1/2 or more. (2) Temperature rating. (3) K-factor (see Chapter 6). (4) Installation orientation(see 3.6.2). (5) Water distribution characteristics (i.e., application rate, wall wetting). (6) Special service conditions(see 3.6.3).
A sprinkler having special deflectors that are designed to discharge most of the water away from the nearby wall in a pattern resembling one-quarter of a sphere, with a small portion of the discharge directed at the wall behind the sprinkler.
A standard spray sprinkler or thermostatic fixed-temperature release device used as a detector to pneumatically or hydraulically release the main valve, controlling the flow of water into a fire protection system.
A type of fast-response sprinkler having a thermal element with an RTI of 50 (meters-seconds)1/2 or less that has been specifically investigated for its ability to enhance survivability in the room of fire origin, and that is listed for use in the protection of dwelling units.
Panel construction and other construction where beams, trusses, or other members impede heat flow or water distribution in a manner that materially affects the ability of sprinklers to control or suppress a fire.
Construction where beams, trusses, or other members do not impede heat flow or water distribution in a manner that materially affects the ability of sprinklers to control or suppress a fire. Unobstructed construction has horizontal structural members that are not solid, where the openings are at least 70 percent of the cross-section area and the depth of the member does not exceed the least dimension of the openings, or all construction types, with the exception of panel construction, where the spacing of structural members exceeds 71/2 ft (2.3 m) on center.
A lining or coating material that when applied to piping or appurtenances has the property of reducing or slowing the deterioration of the object's surface or properties when exposed to its environment. [24, 2016]
A connection through which the fire department can pump supplemental water into the sprinkler system, standpipe, or other water-based fire protection systems, furnishing water for fire extinguishment to supplement existing water supplies. [24, 2016]
An enclosure located over or adjacent to a hydrant or other water supply designed to contain the necessary hose nozzles, hose wrenches, gaskets, and spanners to be used in fire fighting in conjunction with and to provide aid to the local fire department. [24, 2013]
Private fire service main, as used in this standard, is that pipe and its appurtenances on private property (1) between a source of water and the base of the system riser for water-based fire protection systems, (2) between a source of water and inlets to foam-making systems, (3) between a source of water and the base elbow of private hydrants or monitor nozzles, and (4) used as fire pump suction and discharge piping, (5) beginning at the inlet side of the check valve on a gravity or pressure tank. [24, 2013]
A test performed by the flow and measurement of water from one hydrant and the static and residual pressures from an adjacent hydrant for the purpose of determining the available water supply at that location. [24, 2013]
A test of a closed piping system and its attached appurtenances consisting of subjecting the piping to an increased internal pressure for a specified period of duration to verify system integrity and leak rates. [24, 2013]
For the purposes of carton records storage, a storage aid consisting of either open metal grating or solid horizontal barriers supported from a rack storage system that is utilized as a walkway for access to storage at elevated levels. Catwalks are accessed using stairs and are not separate floors of a building.
Storage on solid shelves not exceeding 36 in. (900 mm) in total depth, arranged as part of a compact storage module, with no more than 30 in. (750 mm) between shelves vertically and with no internal vertical flue spaces other than those between individual shelving sections.
A type of shelving unit consisting of compact storage whereby the units move to allow for storage to be pushed together creating a storage unit with no flues or minimal spaces between units. Aisles are created by moving the shelving unit. Compact storage modules can be manual or electric in operation.
A method of packaging that either consists of a plastic sheet completely enclosing the sides and top of a pallet load containing a combustible commodity, a combustible package, or a group of combustible commodities or combustible packages, or consists of combustible commodities individually wrapped in plastic sheeting and stored exposed in a pallet load.
Those plastics not in packaging or coverings that absorb water or otherwise appreciably retard the burning hazard of the commodity. (Paper wrapped or encapsulated, or both, should be considered exposed.)
Those plastics that fall out of their containers during a fire, fill flue spaces, and create a smothering effect on the fire. Examples include powder, pellets, flakes, or random-packed small objects [e.g., razor blade dispensers, 1 oz to 2 oz (28 g to 57 g) bottles].
Storage that does not exceed 12 ft (3.66 m) in height, is incidental to another occupancy use group, does not constitute more than 10 percent of the building area or 4000 ft2 (372 m2) of the sprinklered area, whichever is greater, does not exceed 1000 ft2 (93 m2) in one pile or area, and is separated from other storage areas by at least 25 ft (7.62 m).
Storage in five-sided wood, metal, or cardboard boxes with open face on the aisles in which boxes are self-supporting or supported by a structure so designed that little or no horizontal or vertical space exists around boxes.
Two solid or perforated shelves up to 30 in. (750 mm) in depth each, not exceeding a total depth of 60 in. (1.5 m), separated by a longitudinal vertical barrier such as plywood, particleboard, sheet metal, or equivalent, with a maximum 0.25 in. (6 mm) diameter penetrations and no longitudinal flue space and a maximum storage height of 15 ft (4.6 m).
Instrument panels, windshields, metal and plastic gasoline tanks, heater housings, door panels, interior trim, bumper facia, wiring harnesses, sheet metal, body components, engines, driveline components, steering mechanisms, auxiliary motors, and lighting — all with or without expanded Group A plastic dunnage. This definition does not include the storage of air bags, tires, and seats on portable racks.
Standard sprinklers that are located in transverse flue spaces along the aisle or in the rack, are within 18 in. (450 mm) of the aisle face of storage, and are used to oppose vertical development of fire on the external face of storage.
Racks less than or equal to 12 ft (300 mm) in depth or single-row racks placed back to back having an aggregate depth up to 12 ft (300 mm), with aisles having an aisle width of at least 3.5 ft (1.1 m) between loads on racks.
Racks on fixed rails or guides that can be moved back and forth only in a horizontal, two-dimensional plane. A moving aisle is created as abutting racks are either loaded or unloaded, then moved across the aisle to abut other racks.
Racks without shelving or with shelving in racks that are fixed in place with shelves having a solid surface and a shelf area equal to or less than 20 ft2 (1.9 m2) or with shelves having a wire mesh, slatted surface, or other material with openings representing at least 50 percent of the shelf area including the horizontal area of rack members and where the flue spaces are maintained.
The area of the horizontal surface of a shelf in a rack defined by perimeter aisle(s) or nominal 6 in. (150 mm) flue spaces on all four sides, or by the placement of loads that block openings that would otherwise serve as the required flue spaces.
Shelving that is fixed in place, slatted, wire mesh, or other type of shelves located within racks. The area of a solid shelf is defined by perimeter aisle or flue space on all four sides or by the placement of loads that block openings that would otherwise serve as the required flue spaces. Solid shelves having an area equal to or less than 20 ft2 (1.9 m2) are defined as open racks. Shelves of wire mesh, slats, or other materials more than 50 percent open and where the flue spaces are maintained are defined as open racks.
The storage of rubber tires that is incidental to the main use of the building; storage areas do not exceed 2000 ft2 (186 m2), and on-tread storage piles, regardless of storage method, do not exceed 25 ft (7.6 m) in the direction of the wheel holes. Acceptable storage arrangements include (a) on-floor, on-side storage up to 12 ft (300 mm) high; (b) on-floor, on-tread storage up to 5 ft (1.5 m) high; (c) double-row or multirow fixed or portable rack storage on-side or on-tread up to 5 ft (1.5 m) high; (d) single-row fixed or portable rack storage on-side or on-tread up to 12 ft (300 mm) high; and (e) laced tires in racks up to 5 ft (1.5 m) in height.
A natural seed fiber wrapped and secured in industry-accepted materials, usually consisting of burlap, woven polypropylene, or sheet polyethylene, and secured with steel, synthetic or wire bands, or wire; also includes linters (lint removed from the cottonseed) and motes (residual materials from the ginning process). (See Table A.22.214.171.124.)
A continuously manned control station from which all of the fire control equipment is monitored. If this station is not the bridge, direct communication with the bridge must be provided by means other than the ship's service telephone.
An assembly that is constructed of noncombustible materials and made intact with the main structure of the vessel, such as shell, structural bulkheads, and decks; meets the requirements of a B-Class boundary; and is insulated such that, if tested in accordance with ASTM E119, StandardTest Methods for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials, for 15 minutes, the average temperature of the unexposed side does not rise more than 250°F (139°C) above the original temperature, nor does the temperature at any one point, including any joint, rise more than 405°F (225°C) above the original temperature.
A visual and audible alarm signal given at the central safety station to indicate when the system is in operation or when a condition that would impair the satisfactory operation of the system exists. Supervisory alarms must give a distinct indication for each individual system component that is monitored.
A factor based on fitting geometry and brace angle from vertical that results in an increase in tension load due to the effects of prying between the upper seismic brace attachment fitting and the structure.