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The purpose of this standard shall be to provide a reasonable degree of protection for life and property from fire through standardization of design, installation, and testing requirements for sprinkler systems, including private fire service mains, based on sound engineering principles, test data, and field experience.
This standard shall also apply to "combined service mains" used to carry water for both fire service and other uses as well as to mains for fire service use only.
Unless otherwise specified, the provisions of this standard shall not apply to facilities, equipment, structures, or installations that existed or were approved for construction or installation prior to the effective date of the standard. Where specified, the provisions of this standard shall be retroactive.
Technical documentation shall be submitted to the authority having jurisdiction to demonstrate equivalency.
Metric units of measurement in this standard shall be in accordance with the modernized metric system known as the International System of Units (SI).
Two units (liter and bar), outside of but recognized by SI, are commonly used in international fire protection.
These units with conversion factors shall be used as listed in Table 18.104.22.168.
Table 22.214.171.124 Conversion Factors
|Name of Unit||Unit Symbol||Conversion Factor|
|liter||L||1 gal = 3.785 L|
|millimeter per minute||mm/min||1 gpm/ft2 = 40.746 mm/min = 40.746 (L/min)/m2|
|cubic decimeter||dm3||1 gal = 3.785 dm3|
|pascal||Pa||1 psi = 6894.757 Pa|
|bar||bar||1 psi = 0.0689 bar|
|bar||bar||1 bar = 105 Pa|
|Note: For additional conversions and information, see ASTM SI10, Standard for Use of the International System of Units (SI): The Modem Metric System.|
If a value for measurement as given in this standard is followed by an equivalent value in other units, the first stated shall be regarded as the requirement.
The standard abbreviations in Table 1.6.2 shall be used on the hydraulic calculation form discussed in Chapter 23.
Table 1.6.2 Hydraulic Symbols
|Symbol or Abbreviation||Item|
|p||Pressure in psi|
|gpm||U.S. gallons per minute|
|q||Flow increment in gpm to be added at a specific location|
|Q||Summation of flow in gpm at a specific location|
|Pt||Total pressure in psi at a point in a pipe|
|Pf||Pressure loss due to friction between points indicated in location column|
|Pe||Pressure due to elevation difference between indicated points. This can be a plus value or a minus value. If minus, the (—) shall be used; if plus, no sign is needed.|
|Pv||Velocity pressure in psi at a point in a pipe|
|Pn||Normal pressure in psi at a point in a pipe|
|T||Tee-flow turned 90 degrees|
|BV||Butterfly (wafer) check valve|
|Del V||Deluge valve|
|DPV||Dry pipe valve|
|CV||Swing check valve|
|WCV||Butterfly (wafer) check valve|
|psi||Pounds per square inch|
|v||Velocity of water in pipe in feet per second|
|C-factor||Friction loss coefficient|
Some dimensions used in this standard are exact and some are not. Nominal dimension are often used, such as the dimensions used for pipe sizes. The metric equivalent shown in this standard might not be an exact conversion to the SI unit, but the nominal metric equivalent is typically used or a reasonably equivalent value or approximate conversion is used. It shall be acceptable to use the exact conversion or the conversions stated in the standard, even though they might not be exact.