ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

NFPA 101, 2018

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
Rehabilitation work on existing buildings shall be classified as one of the following work categories:
  1. Repair
  2. Renovation
  3. Modification
  4. Reconstruction
  5. Change of use or occupancy classification
  6. Addition
Any building undergoing repair, renovation, modification, or reconstruction (see 43.2.2.1.1 through 43.2.2.1.4) shall comply with both of the following:
  1. Requirements of the applicable existing occupancy chapters (see Chapters 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, 24, 26, 29, 31, 33, 37, 39, 40, and 42)
  2. Requirements of the applicable section of this chapter (see Sections 43.3, 43.4, 43.5, and 43.6)
Any building undergoing change of use or change of occupancy classification (see 43.2.2.1.5 and 43.2.2.1.6) shall comply with the requirements of Section 43.7.
Any building undergoing addition (see 43.2.2.1.7) shall comply with the requirements of Section 43.8.
Historic buildings undergoing rehabilitation shall comply with the requirements of Section 43.10.
Nothing in this chapter shall be interpreted as excluding the use of the performance-based option of Chapter 5.
Work of more than one rehabilitation work category shall be permitted to be part of a single work project.
Where a project includes one category of rehabilitation work in one building area and another category of rehabilitation work in a separate area of the building, each project area shall comply with the requirements of the respective category of rehabilitation work.
Where a project consisting of modification and reconstruction is performed in the same work area, or in contiguous work areas, the project shall comply with the requirements applicable to reconstruction, unless otherwise specified in 43.1.3.4.
Where the reconstruction work area is less than 10 percent of the modification work area, the two shall be considered as independent work areas, and the respective requirements shall apply.
Repairs, renovations, modifications, reconstruction, changes of use or occupancy classification, and additions shall conform to the specific requirements for each category in other sections of this chapter.
This chapter shall not prevent the use of any alternative material, alternative design, or alternative method of construction not specifically prescribed herein, provided that the alternative has been deemed to be equivalent and its use authorized by the authority having jurisdiction in accordance with Section 1.4.
Where compliance with this chapter, or with any provision required by this chapter, is technically infeasible or would impose undue hardship because of structural, construction, or dimensional difficulties, the authority having jurisdiction shall be authorized to accept alternative materials, design features, or operational features.
Elements, components, and systems of existing buildings with features that exceed the requirements of this Code for new construction, and not otherwise required as part of previously documented, approved, alternative arrangements, shall not be prevented by this chapter from being modified, provided that such elements, components, and systems remain in compliance with the applicable Code provisions for new construction.
Work mandated by any accessibility, property, housing, or fire code; mandated by the existing building requirements of this Code, or mandated by any licensing rule or ordinance, adopted pursuant to law, shall conform only to the requirements of that code, rule, or ordinance and shall not be required to conform to this chapter, unless the code requiring such work so provides.
The words and terms used in Chapter 43 shall be defined as detailed in 43.2.2, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise.
The nature and extent of rehabilitation work undertaken in an existing building.
The patching, restoration, or painting of materials, elements, equipment, or fixtures for the purpose of maintaining such materials, elements, equipment, or fixtures in good or sound condition.
The replacement in kind, strengthening, or upgrading of building elements, materials, equipment, or fixtures, that does not result in a reconfiguration of the building spaces within.
The reconfiguration of any space; the addition, relocation, or elimination of any door or window; the addition or elimination of load-bearing elements; the reconfiguration or extension of any system; or the installation of any additional equipment.
The reconfiguration of a space that affects an exit or a corridor shared by more than one occupant space; or the reconfiguration of a space such that the rehabilitation work area is not permitted to be occupied because existing means of egress and fire protection systems, or their equivalent, are not in place or continuously maintained.
A change in the purpose or level of activity within a structure that involves a change in application of the requirements of the Code.
The change in the occupancy classification of a structure or portion of a structure.
An increase in the building area, aggregate floor area, building height, or number of stories of a structure.
Any plumbing, heating, electrical, ventilating, air-conditioning, refrigerating, and fire protection equipment; and elevators, dumbwaiters, escalators, boilers, pressure vessels, or other mechanical facilities or installations related to building services.
Any column, girder, beam, joist, truss, rafter, wall, floor, or roof sheathing that supports any vertical load in addition to its own weight, or any lateral load.
That portion of a building affected by any renovation, modification, or reconstruction work as initially intended by the owner, and indicated as such in the permit, but excluding other portions of the building where incidental work entailed by the intended work must be performed, and excluding portions of the building where work not initially intended by the owner is specifically required.
A change to a building that has little likelihood of being accomplished because the existing structural conditions require the removal or alteration of a load-bearing member that is an essential part of the structural frame, or because other existing physical or site constraints prohibit modification or addition of elements, spaces, or features that are in full and strict compliance with applicable requirements.
A repair, as defined in 43.2.2.1.1, in other than historic buildings shall comply with the requirements of Section 43.3.
Repairs in historic buildings shall comply with the requirements of one of the following:
  1. Section 43.3
  2. Section 43.3, as modified by Section 43.10
The work shall be done using like materials or materials permitted by other sections of this Code.
The work shall not make the building less conforming with the other sections of this Code, or with any previously approved alternative arrangements, than it was before the repair was undertaken.
A renovation, as defined in 43.2.2.1.2, in other than historic buildings shall comply with the requirements of Section 43.4.
Renovations in historic buildings shall comply with the requirements of one of the following:
  1. Section 43.4
  2. Section 43.4, as modified by Section 43.10
All new work shall comply with the requirements of this Code applicable to existing buildings.
The work shall not make the building less conforming with other sections of this Code, or with any previous approved alternative arrangements, than it was before the renovation was undertaken, unless otherwise specified in 43.4.1.5.
Minor reductions in the clear opening dimensions of replacement doors and windows that result from the use of different materials shall be permitted, unless such reductions are prohibited.
The capacity of means of egress, determined in accordance with Section 7.3, shall be sufficient for the occupant load thereof, unless one of the following conditions exists:
  1. The authority having jurisdiction shall be permitted to establish the occupant load as the number of persons for which existing means of egress is adequate, provided that measures are established to prevent occupancy by a greater number of persons.
  2. *The egress capacity shall have been previously approved as being adequate.
New interior finish materials shall meet the requirements for new construction.
The reconfiguration or extension of any system, or the installation of any additional equipment, shall comply with Section 43.5.
A modification, as defined in 43.2.2.1.3, in other than historic buildings shall comply with both of the following:
  1. Section 43.5
  2. Section 43.4
Modifications in historic buildings shall comply with the requirements of one of the following:
  1. 43.5.1.1(1) and (2)
  2. 43.5.1.1(1) and (2), as modified by Section 43.10
Newly constructed elements, components, and systems shall comply with the requirements of other sections of this Code applicable to new construction.
The modification of an entire building or an entire occupancy within a building shall be considered as a reconstruction and shall comply with the requirements of Section 43.6 for the applicable occupancy, unless otherwise specified in 43.5.2.2.
Modification work that is exclusively electrical, plumbing, mechanical, fire protection system, or structural work shall not be considered a reconstruction, regardless of its extent.
Where the total area of all the rehabilitation work areas included in a modification exceeds 50 percent of the area of the building, the work shall be considered as a reconstruction and shall comply with the requirements of Section 43.6 for the applicable occupancy, unless otherwise specified in 43.5.2.4.
Rehabilitation work areas in which the modification work is exclusively plumbing, mechanical, fire protection system, or electrical work shall not be included in the computation of total area of all rehabilitation work areas.
A reconstruction, as defined in 43.2.2.1.4, in other than historic buildings shall comply with all of the following:
  1. Section 43.6
  2. Section 43.5, except that any stairway replacing an existing stairway shall be permitted to comply with 7.2.2.2.1.1(3)
  3. Section 43.4
Reconstruction work in historic buildings shall comply with the requirements of one of the following:
  1. 43.6.1.1(1), (2), and (3)
  2. 43.6.1.1(1), (2), and (3), as modified by Section 43.10
Wherever the term rehabilitation work area is used in Section 43.6, it shall include only the area affected by reconstruction work and areas covered by 43.5.2.
Other rehabilitation work areas affected exclusively by renovation or modification work shall not be included in the rehabilitation work area required to comply with Section 43.6.
The means of egress shall comply with the requirements applicable to the existing occupancy [see 43.1.2.1(1)], as modified by 43.6.2.
Means of egress in rehabilitation work areas shall be provided with illumination, emergency lighting, and marking of means of egress in accordance with the requirements of other sections of this Code applicable to new construction for the occupancy.
Where the reconstruction rehabilitation work area on any floor exceeds 50 percent of that floor area, means of egress throughout the floor shall be provided with illumination, emergency lighting, and marking of means of egress in accordance with the requirements of other sections of this Code applicable to new construction for the occupancy, unless otherwise specified in 43.6.2.2.4.
In a building with rehabilitation work areas involving more than 50 percent of the aggregate floor area within the building, the means of egress within the rehabilitation work area and the means of egress, including the exit and exit discharge paths, serving the rehabilitation work area shall be provided with illumination, emergency lighting, and marking of means of egress in accordance with the requirements of other sections of this Code applicable to new construction for the occupancy, unless otherwise specified in 43.6.2.2.4.
Means of egress within a tenant space that is entirely outside the rehabilitation work area shall be permitted to comply with the requirements for illumination, emergency lighting, and marking of means of egress applicable to the existing occupancy in lieu of the requirements for illumination and emergency lighting applicable to new construction required by 43.6.2.2.2 and 43.6.2.2.3.
In small residential board and care occupancies and one- and two-family dwellings where the rehabilitation work area is in any attached dwelling unit, walls separating the dwelling units, where such walls are not continuous from the foundation to the underside of the roof sheathing, shall be constructed to provide a continuous fire separation using construction materials that are consistent with the existing wall or that comply with the requirements for new buildings of the occupancy involved.
The following shall apply to work required by 43.6.3.1:
  1. It shall be performed on the side of the wall of the dwelling unit that is part of the rehabilitation work area.
  2. It shall not be required to be continuous through concealed floor spaces.
In a building with rehabilitation work areas involving over 50 percent of the aggregate building area, automatic sprinkler systems shall be provided on the highest floor containing a rehabilitation work area and on all floors below in accordance with the requirements of other sections of this Code applicable to new construction for the occupancy.
On any story with rehabilitation work areas involving over 50 percent of the area of the story, a sprinkler system shall be provided throughout the story in accordance with the requirements of other sections of this Code applicable to new construction for the occupancy.
Where sprinklers are installed in an elevator hoistway or elevator machine room as part of the rehabilitation work, the elevators shall comply with the fire fighters' emergency operations requirements of ASME A17.1/CSA B44, Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators.
Any rehabilitation work areas in a building that is required to be provided with a standpipe system by other sections of this Code shall be provided with standpipes up to and including the highest rehabilitation work area floor.
The standpipes required by 43.6.4.4 shall be located and installed in accordance with NFPA 14 unless otherwise provided in 43.6.4.6 and 43.6.4.7.
No pump shall be required, provided that the following criteria are met:
  1. The standpipes are capable of accepting delivery by fire department apparatus of a minimum of 250 gpm at 65 psi (945 L/min at 4.5 bar) to the topmost floor in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system or a minimum of 500 gpm at 65 psi (1890 L/min at 4.5 bar) to the topmost floor in other buildings.
  2. Where the standpipe terminates below the topmost floor, the standpipe is designed to meet the flow/pressure requirements of 43.6.4.6(1) for possible future extension of the standpipe.
In other than high-rise buildings, the required interconnection of the standpipes for a wet system shall be permitted at the lowest level of the rehabilitation work area.
In lodging or rooming houses, hotels and dormitories, and apartment buildings, individual sleeping rooms, guest rooms, and dwelling units within any rehabilitation work area shall be provided with smoke alarms complying with the requirements of other sections of this Code applicable to new construction for the occupancy.
Where the rehabilitation work area is located in residential board and care occupancies or one- and two-family dwelling units, smoke alarms complying with the requirements of other sections of this Code applicable to new construction for the occupancy shall be provided.
In high-rise buildings, where the rehabilitation work area is one entire floor, or where the rehabilitation work area is 20 percent or more of the occupied floor area of the building, all floors shall be accessible by at least one elevator.
A change of use that does not involve a change of occupancy classification shall comply with the requirements applicable to the new use in accordance with the applicable existing occupancy chapter, unless the change of use creates a hazardous contents area as addressed in 43.7.1.2.
A change of use that does not involve a change of occupancy classification but that creates a hazardous area shall comply with one of the following:
  1. The change of use shall comply with the requirements applicable to the new use in accordance with the applicable occupancy chapter for new construction.
  2. For existing health care occupancies protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 9.7.1.1(1), where a change in use of a room or space not exceeding 250 ft2 (23.2 m2) results in a room or space that is described by 19.3.2.1.5(7), the requirements for new construction shall not apply, provided that the enclosure meets the requirements of 19.3.2.1.2 and 19.3.2.1.3.
Any repair, renovation, modification, or reconstruction work undertaken in connection with a change of use that does not involve a change of occupancy classification shall comply with the requirements of Sections 43.3, 43.4, 43.5, and 43.6, respectively.
Where the occupancy classification of an existing building or portion of an existing building is changed, in other than historic buildings, the building shall meet the requirements of 43.7.2.1 or 43.7.2.3.
Where a change of occupancy classification creates other than an assembly occupancy, and the change occurs within the same hazard classification category or to an occupancy classification of a lesser hazard classification category (i.e., a higher hazard category number), as addressed by Table 43.7.3, the building shall meet both of the following:
  1. Requirements of the applicable existing occupancy chapters for the occupancy created by the change (see Chapters 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, 24, 26, 29, 31, 33, 37, 39, 40, and 42)
  2. *Requirements for automatic sprinkler and detection, alarm, and communications systems and requirements for hazardous areas applicable to new construction for the occupancy created by the change (see Chapters 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 36, 38, 40, and 42)
Where a change of occupancy classification creates an assembly occupancy, and the change occurs within the same hazard classification category or to an occupancy classification of a lesser hazard classification category (i.e., a higher number), as addressed by 43.7.3, the building shall meet both of the following:
  1. Requirements of Chapter 13 for existing assembly occupancies
  2. Requirements for automatic sprinkler and detection, alarm, and communications systems, requirements for hazardous areas, and requirements for main entrance/ exit of Chapter 12 for new assembly occupancies
Where a change of occupancy classification occurs to an occupancy classification of a higher hazard classification category (i.e., a lower hazard category number), as addressed by Table 43.7.3, the building shall comply with the requirements of the occupancy chapters applicable to new construction for the occupancy created by the change. (See Chapters 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 36, 38, 40, and 42.)
In historic buildings where a change of occupancy classification occurs within the same hazard classification category or to an occupancy classification in a lesser hazard classification category (i.e., a higher hazard category number), as addressed by Table 43.7.3, the building shall meet the requirements of one of the following:
  1. 43.7.2.1 or 43.7.2.2, as applicable
  2. 43.7.2.1 or 43.7.2.2, as applicable, as modified by Section 43.10
In historic buildings where a change of occupancy classification occurs to an occupancy classification in a higher hazard classification category (i.e., a lower hazard category number), as addressed by Table 43.7.3, the building shall meet the requirements of one of the following:
  1. 43.7.2.3
  2. 43.7.2.3, as modified by Section 43.10
The relative degree of hazard between different occupancy classifications shall be as set forth in the hazard category classifications of Table 43.7.3.

Table 43.7.3 Hazard Categories and Classifications

Hazard Category Occupancy Classification
1 (highest hazard) Industrial or storage occupancies with high hazard contents
2 Health care, detention and correctional, residential board and care
3 Assembly, educational, day care, ambulatory health care, residential, mercantile, business, general and special-purpose industrial, ordinary hazard storage
4 (lowest hazard) Industrial or storage occupancies with low hazard contents
Where an addition, as defined in 43.2.2.1.7, is made to a building, both of the following criteria shall be met:
  1. The addition shall comply with other sections of this Code applicable to new construction for the occupancy.
  2. The existing portion of the building shall comply with the requirements of this Code applicable to existing buildings for the occupancy.
An addition shall not create or extend any nonconformity with regard to fire safety or the means of egress in the existing building for which the addition is constructed.
Any repair, renovation, alteration, or reconstruction work within an existing building to which an addition is being made shall comply with the requirements of Sections 43.3, 43.4, 43.5, and 43.6.
No addition shall increase the height of an existing building beyond that permitted under the applicable provisions for new building construction.
In other than one- and two-family dwellings, existing compartment areas without an approved separation from the addition shall be protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system where the combined areas would be required to be sprinklered by the provisions applicable to new construction for the occupancy.
Where an addition is made to a one- or two-family dwelling or a small residential board and care occupancy, interconnected smoke alarms, powered by the electrical system, meeting the requirements of the other sections of this Code shall be installed and maintained in the addition.
Historic buildings undergoing rehabilitation shall comply with the requirements of one of the following:
  1. Section 43.10
  2. Sections 43.3, 43.4, 43.5, 43.6, and 43.7, as they relate, respectively, to repair, renovation, modification, reconstruction, and change of use or occupancy classification
  3. NFPA 914, Code for Fire Protection of Historic Structures
A historic building undergoing modification, reconstruction, or change of occupancy classification in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 43 shall be investigated and evaluated as follows:
  1. A written report shall be prepared for such a building and filed with the authority having jurisdiction by a registered design professional.
  2. If the subject matter of the report does not require an evaluation by a registered design professional, the authority having jurisdiction shall be permitted to allow the report to be prepared by a licensed building contractor, electrician, plumber, or mechanical contractor responsible for the work.
  3. The licensed person preparing the report shall be knowledgeable in historic preservation, or the report shall be coauthored by a preservation professional.
  4. The report shall identify each required safety feature in compliance with Chapter 43 and where compliance with other chapters of this Code would be damaging to the contributing historic features.
  5. The report shall describe each feature not in compliance with this Code and demonstrate how the intent of this Code is met in providing an equivalent level of safety.
  6. The local preservation official shall be permitted to review and comment on the written report or shall be permitted to request review comments on the report from the historic preservation officer.
  7. Unless it is determined by the authority having jurisdiction that a report is required to protect the health and safety of the public, the submission of a report shall not be required for a building that is being rehabilitated for the personal use of the owner or a member of the owner's immediate family and is not intended for any use or occupancy by the public.
Repairs to any portion of a historic building shall be permitted to be made with original or like materials and original methods of construction, except as otherwise provided in Section 43.10.
Historic buildings undergoing repair, renovation, modification, or reconstruction shall comply with the applicable requirements of Sections 43.3, 43.4, 43.5, and 43.6, except as specifically permitted in 43.10.4.
Replacements shall meet the following criteria:
  1. Replacement of existing or missing features using original or like materials shall be permitted.
  2. Partial replacement for repairs that match the original in configuration, height, and size shall be permitted.
  3. Replacements shall not be required to meet the requirements of this Code that specify material standards, details of installation and connection, joints, or penetrations; or continuity of any element, component, or system in the building.
Existing door openings, window openings intended for emergency egress, and corridor and stairway widths narrower than those required for nonhistoric buildings under this Code shall be permitted, provided that one of the following criteria is met:
  1. In the opinion of the authority having jurisdiction, sufficient width and height exists for a person to pass through the opening or traverse the exit, and the capacity of the egress system is adequate for the occupant load.
  2. Other operational controls to limit the number of occupants are approved by the authority having jurisdiction.
Where approved by the authority having jurisdiction, existing front doors shall not be required to swing in the direction of egress travel, provided that other approved exits have sufficient egress capacity to serve the total occupant load.
In fully sprinklered buildings of hotel and dormitory occupancies, apartment occupancies, and residential board and care occupancies, existing transoms in corridors and other fire resistance-rated walls shall be permitted to remain in use, provided that the transoms are fixed in the closed position.
Existing interior wall and ceiling finishes, in other than exits, shall be permitted to remain in place where it is demonstrated that such finishes are the historic finish.
Interior wall and ceiling finishes in exits, other than in one- and two-family dwellings, shall meet one of the following criteria:
  1. The material shall be Class A, Class B, or Class C in accordance with Section 10.2 of this Code.
  2. Existing materials not meeting the minimum Class C flame spread index shall be surfaced with an approved fire-retardant paint or finish.
  3. Existing materials not meeting the minimum Class C flame spread index shall be permitted to be continued in use, provided that the building is protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system.
Stairways shall be permitted to be unenclosed in a historic building where such stairways serve only one adjacent floor.
In buildings of three or fewer stories in height, exit enclosure construction shall limit the spread of smoke by the use of tight-fitting doors and solid elements; however, such elements shall not be required to have a fire rating.
Existing walls and ceilings shall be exempt from the minimum 1-hour fire resistance-rated construction requirements of other sections of this Code where the existing wall and ceiling are of wood lath and plaster construction in good condition.
Existing grand stairways shall be exempt from the handrail and guard requirements of other sections of this Code.
Existing handrails and guards on grand staircases shall be permitted to remain in use, provided that they are not structurally dangerous.
The authority having jurisdiction shall be permitted to accept alternative exit sign or directional exit sign location, provided that signs installed in compliance with other sections of this Code would have an adverse effect on the historic character and such alternative signs identify the exits and egress path.
Historic buildings that do not conform to the construction requirements specified in other chapters of this Code for the applicable occupancy or use and that, in the opinion of the authority having jurisdiction, constitute a fire safety hazard shall be protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system.
The automatic sprinkler system required by 43.10.4.11.1 shall not be used as a substitute for, or serve as an alternative to, the required number of exits from the facility.
Historic buildings undergoing a change of occupancy shall comply with the applicable provisions of Section 43.7, except as otherwise permitted by 43.10.5.
Existing door openings, window openings intended for emergency egress, and corridor and stairway widths narrower than those required for nonhistoric buildings under this Code shall be permitted, provided that one of the following criteria is met:
  1. In the opinion of the authority having jurisdiction, sufficient width and height exists for a person to pass through the opening or traverse the exit, and the capacity of the egress system is adequate for the occupant load.
  2. Other operational controls to limit the number of occupants are approved by the authority having jurisdiction.
Where approved by the authority having jurisdiction, existing front doors shall not be required to swing in the direction of egress travel, provided that other approved exits have sufficient capacity to serve the total occupant load.
In corridor walls required to be fire rated by this Code, existing transoms shall be permitted to remain in use, provided that the transoms are fixed in the closed position and one of the following criteria is met:
  1. An automatic sprinkler shall be installed on each side of the transom.
  2. Fixed wired glass set in a steel frame or other approved glazing shall be installed on one side of the transom.
Existing interior wall and ceiling finishes shall meet one of the following criteria:
  1. The material shall comply with the requirements for flame spread index of other sections of this Code applicable to the occupancy.
  2. Materials not complying with 43.10.5.5(1) shall be permitted to be surfaced with an approved fire-retardant paint or finish.
  3. Materials not complying with 43.10.5.5(1) shall be permitted to be continued in use, provided that the building is protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system, and the nonconforming materials are substantiated as being historic in character.
Existing walls and ceilings shall be exempt from the minimum 1-hour fire resistance-rated construction requirements of other sections of this Code where the existing wall and ceiling are of wood lath and plaster construction in good condition.
Existing stairs and handrails shall comply with the requirements of this Code, unless otherwise specified in 43.10.5.7.2.
The authority having jurisdiction shall be permitted to accept alternatives for grand stairways and associated handrails where the alternatives are approved as meeting the intent of this Code.
The authority having jurisdiction shall be permitted to accept alternative exit sign or directional exit sign location, provided that signs installed in compliance with other sections of this Code would have an adverse effect on the historic character and such alternative signs identify the exits and egress path.
Existing historic stairways in buildings changed to hotel and dormitory occupancies and apartment occupancies shall be permitted to be continued in use, provided that the stairway can support a 75 lb/ft2 (3600 N/m2) live load.
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