ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Residential Code 2018 (IRC 2018)

Part I — Administrative

Part II — Definitions

Part III — Building Planning and Construction

Part IV — Energy Conservation

Part V — Mechanical

Part VI — Fuel Gas

Part VII — Plumbing

Part VIII — Electrical

Part IX — Referenced Standards

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
Potable water shall be supplied to plumbing fixtures and plumbing appliances except where treated rainwater, treated gray water or municipal reclaimed water is supplied to water closets, urinals and trap primers. The requirements of this section shall not be construed to require signage for water closets and urinals.
Where nonpotable water systems are installed, the piping conveying the nonpotable water shall be identified either by color marking, metal tags or tape in accordance with Sections P2901.2.1 through P2901.2.2.3.

Nonpotable water outlets such as hose connections, open-ended pipes and faucets shall be identified with signage that reads as follows: "Nonpotable water is utilized for [application name]. CAUTION: NONPOTABLE WATER. DO NOT DRINK." The words shall be legibly and indelibly printed on a tag or sign constructed of corrosion-resistant water-proof material or shall be indelibly printed on the fixture. The letters of the words shall be not less than 0.5 inches (12.7 mm) in height and in colors in contrast to the background on which they are applied. In addition to the required wordage, the pictograph shown in Figure P2901.2.1 shall appear on the required signage.

FIGURE P2901.2.1

PICTOGRAPH—DO NOT DRINK

Nonpotable distribution piping shall be purple in color and shall be embossed or integrally stamped or marked with the words: "CAUTION: NONPOTABLE WATER— DO NOT DRINK" or the piping shall be installed with a purple identification tape or wrap. Pipe identification shall include the contents of the piping system and an arrow indicating the direction of flow. Hazardous piping systems shall contain information addressing the nature of the hazard. Pipe identification shall be repeated at intervals not exceeding 25 feet (7620 mm) and at each point where the piping passes through a wall, floor or roof. Lettering shall be readily observable within the room or space where the piping is located.
The color of the pipe identification shall be discernable and consistent throughout the building. The color purple shall be used to identify reclaimed, rain and gray water distribution systems.

The size of the background color field and lettering shall comply with Table P2901.2.2.2.

TABLE P2901.2.2.2

SIZE OF PIPE IDENTIFICATION

PIPE DIAMETER
(inches)
LENGTH OF BACKGROUND COLOR FIELD
(inches)
SIZE OF LETTERS
(inches)
3/4 to 11/4 8 0.5
11/2 to 2 8 0.75
21/2 to 6 12 1.25
8 to 10 2 2.5
over 10 32 3.5

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

Where used, identification tape shall be not less than 3 inches (76 mm) wide and have white or black lettering on a purple field stating "CAUTION: NONPOTABLE WATER—DO NOT DRINK." Identification tape shall be installed on top of nonpotable rainwater distribution pipes and fastened not greater than every 10 feet (3048 mm) to each pipe length, and run continuously the entire length of the pipe.
A potable water supply system shall be designed and installed as to prevent contamination from nonpotable liquids, solids or gases being introduced into the potable water supply. Connections shall not be made to a potable water supply in a manner that could contaminate the water supply or provide a cross-connection between the supply and a source of contamination except where approved backflow prevention assemblies, backflow prevention devices or other means or methods are installed to protect the potable water supply. Cross-connections between an individual water supply and a potable public water supply shall be prohibited.
The supply lines and fittings for every plumbing fixture shall be installed so as to prevent backflow. Plumbing fixture fittings shall provide backflow protection in accordance with ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1.

A means of protection against backflow shall be provided in accordance with Sections P2902.3.1 through P2902.3.6. Backflow prevention applications shall conform to Table P2902.3, except as specifically stated in Sections P2902.4 through P2902.5.5.

TABLE P2902.3

APPLICATION FOR BACKFLOW PREVENTERS

DEVICE DEGREE OF HAZARDa APPLICATIONb APPLICABLE
STANDARDS
Backflow Prevention Assemblies
Double check backflow prevention assembly and
double check fire protection backflow
prevention assembly
Low hazard Backpressure or backsiphonage
Sizes 3/8" — 16"
ASSE 1015, AWWA C510,
CSA B64.5, CSA B64.5.1
Double-check detector fire protection backflow
prevention assemblies
Low hazard Backpressure or backsiphonage
Sizes 2" — 16"
ASSE 1048
Pressure vacuum breaker assembly High or low hazard Backsiphonage only Sizes 1/2" — 2" ASSE 1020, CSA B64.1.2
Reduced pressure principle backflow prevention
assembly and reduced pressure principle fire
protection backflow prevention assembly
High or low hazard Backpressure or backsiphonage
Sizes 3/8" — 16"
ASSE 1013, AWWA C511,
CSA B64.4, CSA B64.4.1
Reduced pressure detector fire protection
backflow prevention assemblies
High or low hazard Backsiphonage or backpressure
(Fire sprinkler systems)
ASSE 1047
Spill-resistant vacuum breaker High or low hazard Backsiphonage only Sizes 1/4" — 2" ASSE 1056, CSA B64.1.3
Backflow Preventer Plumbing Devices
Antisiphon-type fill valves for gravity water closet
flush tanks
High hazard Backsiphonage only ASSE 1002, CSA B125.3
Backflow preventer with intermediate
atmospheric vents
Low hazard Backpressure or backsiphonage
Sizes 1/4" — 3/8"
ASSE 1012, CSA B64.3
Dual-check-valve-type backflow preventers Low hazard Backpressure or backsiphonage
Sizes 1/4" — 1"
ASSE 1024, CSA B64.6
Hose-connection backflow preventer High or low hazard Low head backpressure, rated
working pressure backpressure or
backsiphonage Sizes 1/2" — 1"
ASSE 1052, CSA B64.2.1.1
Hose-connection vacuum breaker High or low hazard Low head backpressure or
backsiphonage Sizes 1/2", 3/4", 1"
ASSE 1011, CSA B64.2,
B64.2.1
Laboratory faucet backflow preventer High or low hazard Low head backpressure and ASSE 1035, CSA B64.7
Pipe-applied atmospheric-type vacuum breaker High or low hazard Backsiphonage only Sizes 1/4" — 4" ASSE 1001, CSA B64.1.1
Vacuum breaker wall hydrants, frost-resistant,
automatic-draining type
High or low hazard Low head backpressure or
backsiphonage Sizes 3/4" — 1"
ASSE 1019, CSA B64.2.2
Other Means Or Methods
Air gap High or low hazard Backsiphonage only ASME A112.1.2
Air gap fittings for use with plumbing fixtures,
appliances and appurtenances
High or low hazard Backsiphonage or backpressure ASME A112.1.3

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

Air gaps shall comply with ASME A112.1.2 and air gap fittings shall comply with ASME A112.1.3. An air gap shall be measured vertically from the lowest end of a water outlet to the flood level rim of the fixture or receptor into which the water outlets discharges to the floor. The required air gap shall be not less than twice the diameter of the effective opening of the outlet and not less than the values specified in Table P2902.3.1.

TABLE P2902.3.1

MINIMUM AIR GAPS

FIXTURE MINIMUM AIR GAP
Away from a walla
(inches)
Close to a wall
(inches)
Effective openings greater than 1 inch Two times the diameter of the Three times the diameter of the
Lavatories and other fixtures with effective opening not
greater than 1/2 inch in diameter
1 1.5
Over-rim bath fillers and other fixtures with effective
openings not greater than 1 inch in diameter
2 3
Sink, laundry trays, gooseneck back faucets and other
fixtures with effective openings not greater than 3/4 inch in diameter
1.5 2.5

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

  1. Applicable where walls or obstructions are spaced from the nearest inside edge of the spout opening a distance greater than three times the diameter of the effective opening for a single wall, or a distance greater than four times the diameter of the effective opening for two intersecting walls.
Atmospheric-type vacuum breakers shall conform to ASSE 1001 or CSA B64.1.1. Hose-connection vacuum breakers shall conform to ASSE 1011, ASSE 1019, ASSE 1035, ASSE 1052, CSA B64.2, CSA B64.2.1, CSA B64.2.1.1, CSA B64.2.2 or CSA B64.7. Both types of vacuum breakers shall be installed with the outlet continuously open to the atmosphere. The critical level of the atmospheric vacuum breaker shall be set at not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the highest elevation of downstream piping and the flood level rim of the fixture or device.
Backflow preventers with intermediate atmospheric vents shall conform to ASSE 1012 or CSA B64.3. These devices shall be permitted to be installed where subject to continuous pressure conditions. These devices shall be prohibited as a means of protection where any hazardous chemical additives are introduced downstream of the device. The relief opening shall discharge by air gap and shall be prevented from being submerged.
Pressure vacuum breaker assemblies shall conform to ASSE 1020 or CSA B64.1.2. Spill-resistant vacuum breaker assemblies shall comply with ASSE 1056. These assemblies are designed for installation under continuous pressure conditions where the critical level is installed at the required height. The critical level of a pressure vacuum breaker and a spill-resistant vacuum breaker assembly shall be set at not less than 12 inches (304 mm) above the highest elevation of downstream piping and the flood level rim of the fixture or device. Pressure vacuum breaker assemblies shall not be installed in locations where spillage could cause damage to the structure.
Reduced pressure principle backflow prevention assemblies and reduced pressure principle fire protection backflow prevention assemblies shall conform to ASSE 1013, AWWA C511, CSA B64.4 or CSA B64.4.1. Reduced pressure detector fire protection backflow prevention assemblies shall conform to ASSE 1047. These devices shall be permitted to be installed where subject to continuous pressure conditions. The relief opening shall discharge by air gap and shall be prevented from being submerged.
Double check backflow prevention assemblies shall conform to ASSE 1015, CSA B64.5, CSA B64.5.1 or AWWA C510. Double check detector fire protection backflow prevention assemblies shall conform to ASSE 1048. These assemblies shall be capable of operating under continuous pressure conditions.
Dual check backflow preventers shall conform with ASSE 1024 or CSA B64.6.
Potable water openings and outlets shall be protected by an air gap, a reduced pressure principle backflow prevention assembly, an atmospheric vent, an atmospheric-type vacuum breaker, a pressure-type vacuum breaker assembly or a hose connection backflow preventer.
Flush tanks shall be equipped with an antisiphon fill valve conforming to ASSE 1002 or CSA B125.3. The critical level of the fill valve shall be located not less than 1 inch (25 mm) above the top of the flush tank overflow pipe.
Approved deck-mounted or equipment-mounted vacuum breakers and faucets with integral atmospheric vacuum breakers or spill—resistant vacuum breaker assemblies shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and the requirements for labeling. The critical level of the breakers and assemblies shall be located at not less than 1 inch (25 mm) above the flood level rim.

Sillcocks, hose bibbs, wall hydrants and other openings with a hose connection shall be protected by an atmospheric-type or pressure-type vacuum breaker, a pressure vacuum breaker assembly or a permanently attached hose connection vacuum breaker.

Exceptions:

  1. This section shall not apply to water heater and boiler drain valves that are provided with hose connection threads and that are intended only for tank or vessel draining.
  2. This section shall not apply to water supply valves intended for connection of clothes washing machines where backflow prevention is otherwise provided or is integral with the machine.
Connections to the potable water shall conform to Sections P2902.5.1 through P2902.5.5.
Where chemicals will not be introduced into a boiler, the potable water supply to the boiler shall be protected from the boiler by a backflow preventer with an intermediate atmospheric vent complying with ASSE 1012 or CSA B64.3. Where chemicals will be introduced into a boiler, the potable water supply to the boiler shall be protected from the boiler by an air gap or a reduced pressure principle backflow prevention assembly complying with ASSE 1013, CSA B64.4 or AWWA C511.
Heat exchangers using an essentially toxic transfer fluid shall be separated from the potable water by double-wall construction. An air gap open to the atmosphere shall be provided between the two walls. Single-wall construction heat exchangers shall be used only where an essentially nontoxic transfer fluid is utilized.
The potable water supply to lawn irrigation systems shall be protected against backflow by an atmospheric vacuum breaker, a pressure vacuum breaker assembly or a reduced pressure principle backflow prevention assembly. Valves shall not be installed downstream from an atmospheric vacuum breaker. Where chemicals are introduced into the system, the potable water supply shall be protected against backflow by a reduced pressure principle backflow prevention assembly.

The potable water supply to automatic fire sprinkler systems shall be protected against backflow by a double check backflow prevention assembly, a double check fire protection backflow prevention assembly, a reduced pressure principle backflow prevention assembly or a reduced pressure principle fire protection backflow prevention assembly.

Exception: Where systems are installed as a portion of the water distribution system in accordance with the requirements of this code and are not provided with a fire department connection, backflow protection for the water supply system shall not be required.

Where systems contain chemical additives or antifreeze, or where systems are connected to a nonpotable secondary water supply, the potable water supply shall be protected against backflow by a reduced pressure principle backflow prevention assembly or a reduced pressure principle fire protection backflow prevention assembly. Where chemical additives or antifreeze is added to only a portion of an automatic fire sprinkler or standpipe system, the reduced pressure principle fire protection backflow preventer shall be permitted to be located so as to isolate that portion of the system.
Where a solar thermal system heats potable water to supply a potable hot water distribution or any other type of heating system, the solar thermal system shall be in accordance with Section P2902.5.5.1, P2902.5.5.2 or P2902.5.5.3 as applicable.
Water supplies of any type shall not be connected to the solar heating loop of an indirect solar thermal hot water heating system. This requirement shall not prohibit the presence of inlets or outlets on the solar heating loop for the purposes of servicing the fluid in the solar heating loop.
Where a solar thermal system directly heats potable water for a potable water distribution system, the pipe, fittings, valves and other components that are in contact with the potable water in the system shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 29.
Where a solar thermal system directly heats water for a system other than a potable water distribution system, a potable water supply connected to such system shall be protected by a backflow preventer with an intermediate atmospheric vent complying with ASSE 1012. Where a solar thermal system directly heats chemically treated water for a system other than a potable water distribution system, a potable water supply connected to such system shall be protected by a reduced pressure principle backflow prevention assembly complying with ASSE 1013.
Outdoor enclosures for backflow prevention devices shall comply with ASSE 1060.
Backflow preventers shall not be located in areas subject to freezing except where they can be removed by means of unions, or are protected by heat, insulation or both.
The termination of the piping from the relief port or air gap fitting of the backflow preventer shall discharge to an approved indirect waste receptor or to the outdoors where it will not cause damage or create a nuisance.

The water service and water distribution systems shall be designed and pipe sizes shall be selected such that under conditions of peak demand, the capacities at the point of outlet discharge shall not be less than shown in Table P2903.1.

TABLE P2903.1

REQUIRED CAPACITIES AT POINT OF OUTLET DISCHARGE

FIXTURE SUPPLY
OUTLET SERVING
FLOW RATE (gpm) FLOW PRESSURE (psi)
Bathtub, balanced-pressure, thermostatic or combination
balanced-pressure/thermostatic mixing valve
4 20
Bidet, thermostatic mixing valve 2 20
Dishwasher 2.75 8
Laundry tray 4 8
Lavatory 0.8 8
Shower, balanced-pressure, thermostatic or combination
balanced-pressure/thermostatic mixing valve
2.5a 20
Sillcock, hose bibb 5 8
Sink 1.75 8
Water closet, flushometer tank 1.6 20
Water closet, tank, close coupled 3 20
Water closet, tank, one-piece 6 20

For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m.

  1. Where the shower mixing valve manufacturer indicates a lower flow rating for the mixing valve, the lower value shall be applied.

The maximum water consumption flow rates and quantities for plumbing fixtures and fixture fittings shall be in accordance with Table P2903.2.

TABLE P2903.2

MAXIMUM FLOW RATES AND CONSUMPTION FOR PLUMBING FIXTURES AND FIXTURE FITTINGSb

PLUMBING FIXTURE MAXIMUM FLOW RATE
OR QUANTITY
Lavatory faucet 2.2 gpm at 60 psi
Shower heada 2.5 gpm at 80 psi
Sink faucet 2.2 gpm at 60 psi
Water closet 1.6 gallons per flushing cycle

For SI: 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.

  1. A handheld shower spray shall be considered a shower head.
  2. Consumption tolerances shall be determined from referenced standards.
Where the water pressure supplied by the public water main or an individual water supply system is insufficient to provide for the minimum pressures and quantities for the plumbing fixtures in the building, the pressure shall be increased by means of an elevated water tank, a hydropneumatic pressure booster system or a water pressure booster pump.
The static water pressure shall be not greater than 80 psi (551 kPa). Where the main pressure exceeds 80 psi (551 kPa), an approved pressure-reducing valve conforming to ASSE 1003 or CSA B356 shall be installed on the domestic water branch main or riser at the connection to the water service pipe.
A means for controlling increased pressure caused by thermal expansion shall be installed where required in accordance with Sections P2903.4.1 and P2903.4.2.
For water service system sizes up to and including 2 inches (51 mm), a device for controlling pressure shall be installed where, because of thermal expansion, the pressure on the downstream side of a pressure-reducing valve exceeds the pressure-reducing valve setting.
Where a backflow prevention device, check valve or other device is installed on a water supply system using storage water heating equipment such that thermal expansion causes an increase in pressure, a device for controlling pressure shall be installed.
The flow velocity of the water distribution system shall be controlled to reduce the possibility of water hammer. A water-hammer arrestor shall be installed where quick-closing valves are utilized. Water-hammer arrestors shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Water-hammer arrestors shall conform to ASSE 1010.

Supply loads in the building water distribution system shall be determined by total load on the pipe being sized, in terms of water supply fixture units (w.s.f.u.), as shown in Table P2903.6, and gallon per minute (gpm) flow rates [see Table P2903.6(1)]. For fixtures not listed, choose a w.s.f.u. value of a fixture with similar flow characteristics.

TABLE P2903.6

WATER-SUPPLY FIXTURE-UNIT VALUES FOR VARIOUS PLUMBING FIXTURES AND FIXTURE GROUPS

TYPE OF FIXTURES OR GROUP OF FIXTURES WATER-SUPPLY FIXTURE-UNIT VALUE (w.s.f.u.)
Hot Cold Combined
Bathtub (with/without overhead shower head) 1.0 1.0 1.4
Clothes washer 1.0 1.0 1.4
Dishwasher 1.4 1.4
Full-bath group with bathtub (with/without shower head) or shower stall 1.5 2.7 3.6
Half-bath group (water closet and lavatory) 0.5 2.5 2.6
Hose bibb (sillcock)a 2.5 2.5
Kitchen group (dishwasher and sink with or without food-waste disposer) 1.9 1.0 2.5
Kitchen sink 1.0 1.0 1.4
Laundry group (clothes washer standpipe and laundry tub) 1.8 1.8 2.5
Laundry tub 1.0 1.0 1.4
Lavatory 0.5 0.5 0.7
Shower stall 1.0 1.0 1.4
Water closet (tank type) 2.2 2.2

For SI: 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m.

  1. The fixture unit value 2.5 assumes a flow demand of 2.5 gpm, such as for an individual lawn sprinkler device. If a hose bibb or sill cock will be required to furnish a greater flow, the equivalent fixture-unit value may be obtained from this table or Table P2903.6(1).

TABLE P2903.6(1)

CONVERSIONS FROM WATER SUPPLY FIXTURE UNIT TO GALLON PER MINUTE FLOW RATES

SUPPLY SYSTEMS PREDOMINANTLY FOR FLUSH TANKS SUPPLY SYSTEMS PREDOMINANTLY FOR FLUSHOMETER VALVES
Load Demand Load Demand
(Water supply fixture units) (Gallons per minute) (Cubic feet per
minute)
(Water supply fixture
units)
(Gallons per minute) (Cubic feet per minute)
1 3.0 0.04104
2 5.0 0.0684
3 6.5 0.86892
4 8.0 1.06944
5 9.4 1.256592 5 15.0 2.0052
6 10.7 1.430376 6 17.4 2.326032
7 11.8 1.577424 7 19.8 2.646364
8 12.8 1.711104 8 22.2 2.967696
9 13.7 1.831416 9 24.6 3.288528
10 14.6 1.951728 10 27.0 3.60936
11 15.4 2.058672 11 27.8 3.716304
12 16.0 2.13888 12 28.6 3.823248
13 16.5 2.20572 13 29.4 3.930192
14 17.0 2.27256 14 30.2 4.037136
15 17.5 2.3394 15 31.0 4.14408
16 18.0 2.90624 16 31.8 4.241024
17 18.4 2.459712 17 32.6 4.357968
18 18.8 2.513184 18 33.4 4.464912
19 19.2 2.566656 19 34.2 4.571856
20 19.6 2.620128 20 35.0 4.6788
25 21.5 2.87412 25 38.0 5.07984
30 23.3 3.114744 30 42.0 5.61356
35 24.9 3.328632 35 44.0 5.88192
40 26.3 3.515784 40 46.0 6.14928
45 27.7 3.702936 45 48.0 6.41664
50 29.1 3.890088 50 50.0 6.684

For SI: 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 1 cubic foot per minute = 0.4719 L/s.

The size of the water service pipe shall be not less than 3/4 inch (19 mm) diameter. The size of water service mains, branch mains and risers shall be determined from the water supply demand [gpm (L/m)], available water pressure [psi (kPa)] and friction loss caused by the water meter and developed length of pipe [feet (m)], including equivalent length of fittings. The size of each water distribution system shall be determined according to design methods conforming to acceptable engineering practice, such as those methods in Appendix P and shall be approved by the code official.
Hot water and cold water manifolds installed with parallel-connected individual distribution lines and cold water manifolds installed with gridded distribution lines to each fixture or fixture fitting shall be designed in accordance with Sections P2903.8.1 through P2903.8.5. Gridded systems for hot water distribution systems shall be prohibited.

Manifolds shall be sized in accordance with Table P2903.8.1. Total gallons per minute is the demand for all outlets.

TABLE P2903.8.1

MANIFOLD SIZING

PLASTIC METALLIC
Nominal Size ID
(inches)
Maximuma
gpm
Nominal Size ID
(inches)
Maximuma
gpm
3/4 17 3/4 11
1 29 1 20
11/4 46 11/4 31
11/2 66 11/2 44

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 1 foot per second = 0.3048 m/s.

Note: See Table P2903.6(1) for w.s.f.u and Table 2903.6(1) for gallon-per-minute (gpm) flow rates.

  1. Based on velocity limitation: plastic-12 fps; metal-8 fps.
Where the developed length of the distribution line is 60 feet (18 288 mm) or less, and the available pressure at the meter is not less than 40 pounds per square inch (276 kPa), the size of individual distribution lines shall be not less than 3/8 inch (10 mm) diameter. Certain fixtures such as one-piece water closets and whirlpool bathtubs shall require a larger size where specified by the manufacturer. If a water heater is fed from the end of a cold water manifold, the manifold shall be one size larger than the water heater feed.
Plastic piping bundles shall be secured in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and supported in accordance with Section P2605. Bundles that have a change in direction equal to or greater than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) shall be protected from chafing at the point of contact with framing members by sleeving or wrapping.
Fixture valves, when installed, shall be located either at the fixture or at the manifold. Valves installed at the manifold shall be labeled indicating the fixture served.
A readily accessible air bleed shall be installed in hose bibb supplies at the manifold or at the hose bibb exit point.
Valves shall be installed in accordance with Sections P2903.9.1 through P2903.9.5.
Each dwelling unit shall be provided with an accessible main shutoff valve near the entrance of the water service. The valve shall be of a full-open type having nominal restriction to flow, with provision for drainage such as a bleed orifice or installation of a separate drain valve. Additionally, the water service shall be valved at the curb or lot line in accordance with local requirements.
A readily accessible full-open valve shall be installed in the cold-water supply pipe to each water heater at or near the water heater.
Shutoff valves shall be required on each fixture supply pipe to each plumbing appliance and to each plumbing fixture other than bathtubs and showers. Valves serving individual plumbing fixtures, plumbing appliances, risers and branches shall be accessible.

Valves shall be compatible with the type of piping material installed in the system. Valves shall conform to one of the standards listed in Table P2903.9.4 or shall be approved. Valves intended to supply drinking water shall meet the requirements of NSF 61.

TABLE P2903.9.4

VALVES

MATERIAL STANDARD
Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) plastic ASME A112.4.14, ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1,
ASTM F1970, CSA B125.3, MSS SP-122
Copper or copper alloy ASME A112.4.14, ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1,
ASME B16.34, CSA B125.3, MSS SP-67, MSS SP-80, MSS SP-110,
MSS SP-139
Gray and ductile iron ASTM A126, AWWA C500, AWWA C504, AWWA C507,
MSS SP-42, MSS SP-67, MSS SP-70, MSS SP-71, MSS SP-72,
MSS SP-78
Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plastic ASME A112.4.14, ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1, CSA B125.3,
NSF 359
Polypropylene (PP) plastic ASME A112.4.14, ASTM F2389
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic ASME A112.4.14, ASTM F1970, MSS SP-122

Potable water outlets and combination stop-and-waste valves shall not be installed underground or below grade. Freezeproof yard hydrants that drain the riser into the ground are considered to be stop-and-waste valves.

Exception: Installation of freezeproof yard hydrants that drain the riser into the ground shall be permitted if the potable water supply to such hydrants is protected upstream of the hydrants in accordance with Section P2902 and the hydrants are permanently identified as nonpotable outlets by approved signage that reads as follows: "Caution, Nonpotable Water. Do Not Drink."

Hose bibbs subject to freezing, including the "frostproof" type, shall be equipped with an accessible stop-and-waste-type valve inside the building so that they can be controlled and drained during cold periods.

Exception: Frostproof hose bibbs installed such that the stem extends through the building insulation into an open heated or semiconditioned space need not be separately valved (see Figure P2903.10).

FIGURE P2903.10

TYPICAL FROSTPROOF HOSE BIBB INSTALLATION NOT REQUIRING SEPARATE VALUE

Drain water heat recovery units shall be in accordance with Section R403.5.4 of the Florida Building Code, Energy Conservation.
The design and installation of residential fire sprinkler systems shall be in accordance with NFPA 13D or Section P2904, which shall be considered equivalent to NFPA 13D. Partial residential sprinkler systems shall be permitted to be installed only in buildings not required to be equipped with a residential sprinkler system. Section P2904 shall apply to stand-alone and multipurpose wet-pipe sprinkler systems that do not include the use of antifreeze. A multipurpose fire sprinkler system shall provide domestic water to both fire sprinklers and plumbing fixtures. A stand-alone sprinkler system shall be separate and independent from the water distribution system. A backflow preventer shall not be required to separate a stand-alone sprinkler system from the water distribution system.

Sprinklers shall be installed to protect all areas of a dwelling unit.

Exceptions:

  1. Attics, crawl spaces and normally unoccupied concealed spaces that do not contain fuel-fired appliances do not require sprinklers. In attics, crawl spaces and normally unoccupied concealed spaces that contain fuel-fired equipment, a sprinkler shall be installed above the equipment; however, sprinklers shall not be required in the remainder of the space.
  2. Clothes closets, linen closets and pantries not exceeding 24 square feet (2.2 m2) in area, with the smallest dimension not greater than 3 feet (915 mm) and having wall and ceiling surfaces of gypsum board.
  3. Bathrooms not more than 55 square feet (5.1 m2) in area.
  4. Garages; carports; exterior porches; unheated entry areas, such as mud rooms, that are adjacent to an exterior door; and similar areas.
Sprinklers shall be new listed residential sprinklers and shall be installed in accordance with the sprinkler manufacturer's instructions.
Except as provided for in Section P2904.2.2, sprinklers shall have a temperature rating of not less than 135°F (57°C) and not more than 170°F (77°C). Sprinklers shall be separated from heat sources as required by the sprinkler manufacturer's installation instructions.

Sprinklers shall have an intermediate temperature rating not less than 175°F (79°C) and not more than 225°F (107°C) where installed in the following locations:

  1. Directly under skylights, where the sprinkler is exposed to direct sunlight.
  2. In attics.
  3. In concealed spaces located directly beneath a roof.
  4. Within the distance to a heat source as specified in Table P2904.2.2.

TABLE P2904.2.2

LOCATIONS WHERE INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURE SPRINKLERS ARE REQUIRED

HEAT SOURCE RANGE OF DISTANCE FROM HEAT SOURCE WITHIN WHICH
INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURE SPRINKLERS ARE REQUIREDa, b (inches)
Fireplace, side of open or recessed fireplace 12 to 36
Fireplace, front of recessed fireplace 36 to 60
Coal and wood burning stove 12 to 42
Kitchen range top 9 to 18
Oven 9 to 18
Vent connector or chimney connector 9 to 18
Heating duct, not insulated 9 to 18
Hot water pipe, not insulated 6 to 12
Side of ceiling or wall warm air register 12 to 24
Front of wall mounted warm air register 18 to 36
Water heater, furnace or boiler 3 to 6
Luminaire up to 250 watts 3 to 6
Luminaire 250 watts up to 499 watts 6 to 12

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

  1. Sprinklers shall not be located at distances less than the minimum table distance unless the sprinkler listing allows a lesser distance.
  2. Distances shall be measured in a straight line from the nearest edge of the heat source to the nearest edge of the sprinkler.
Piping shall be protected from freezing as required by Section P2603.5. Where sprinklers are required in areas that are subject to freezing, dry-sidewall or dry-pendent sprinklers extending from a nonfreezing area into a freezing area shall be installed.
Sprinkler coverage requirements and sprinkler obstruction requirements shall be in accordance with Sections P2904.2.4.1 and P2904.2.4.2.
The area of coverage of a single sprinkler shall not exceed 400 square feet (37 m2) and shall be based on the sprinkler listing and the sprinkler manufacturer's installation instructions.

Sprinkler discharge shall not be blocked by obstructions unless additional sprinklers are installed to protect the obstructed area. Additional sprinklers shall not be required where the sprinkler separation from obstructions complies with either the minimum distance indicated in Figure P2904.2.4.2 or the minimum distances specified in the sprinkler manufacturer's instructions where the manufacturer's instructions permit a lesser distance.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE P2904.2.4.2

MINIMUM ALLOWABLE DISTANCE BETWEEN SPRINKLER AND OBSTRUCTION

Pendent sprinklers within 3 feet (915 mm) of the center of a ceiling fan, surface-mounted ceiling luminaire or similar object shall be considered to be obstructed, and additional sprinklers shall be installed.
Sidewall sprinklers within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the center of a ceiling fan, surface-mounted ceiling luminaire or similar object shall be considered to be obstructed, and additional sprinklers shall be installed.
The solvent cementing of threaded adapter fittings shall be completed and threaded adapters for sprinklers shall be verified as being clear of excess cement prior to the installation of sprinklers on systems assembled with solvent cement.
Painting, caulking or modifying of sprinklers shall be prohibited. Sprinklers that have been painted, caulked, modified or damaged shall be replaced with new sprinklers.

Sprinkler piping shall be supported in accordance with requirements for cold water distribution piping. Sprinkler piping shall comply with the requirements for cold water distribution piping. For multipurpose piping systems, the sprinkler piping shall connect to and be a part of the cold water distribution piping system.

Exception: For plastic piping, it shall be permissible to follow the manufacturer's installation instructions.

Nonmetallic pipe and tubing, such as CPVC, PEX, and PE-RT shall be listed for use in residential fire sprinkler systems.

Nonmetallic pipe and tubing systems shall be protected from exposure to the living space by a layer of not less than 3/8-inch-thick (9.5 mm) gypsum wallboard, 1/2-inch-thick (13 mm) plywood, or other material having a 15-minute fire rating.

Exceptions:

  1. Pipe protection shall not be required in areas that do not require protection with sprinklers as specified in Section P2904.1.1.
  2. Pipe protection shall not be required where exposed piping is permitted by the pipe listing.
With the exception of shutoff valves for the entire water distribution system, valves shall not be installed in any location where the valve would isolate piping serving one or more sprinklers.
Piping beyond the service valve located at the beginning of the water distribution system shall not serve more than one dwelling.
A means to drain the sprinkler system shall be provided on the system side of the water distribution shutoff valve.
The flow for sizing the sprinkler piping system shall be based on the flow rating of each sprinkler in accordance with Section P2904.4.1 and the calculation in accordance with Section P2904.4.2.

The minimum required flow for each sprinkler shall be determined using the sprinkler manufacturer's published data for the specific sprinkler model based on all of the following:

  1. The area of coverage.
  2. The ceiling configuration.
  3. The temperature rating.
  4. Any additional conditions specified by the sprinkler manufacturer.

The design flow rate for the system shall be based on the following:

  1. The design flow rate for a room having only one sprinkler shall be the flow rate required for that sprinkler, as determined by Section P2904.4.1.
  2. The design flow rate for a room having two or more sprinklers a shall be determined by identifying the sprinkler in that room with the highest required flow rate, based on Section P2904.4.1, and multiplying that flow rate by 2.
  3. Where the sprinkler manufacturer specifies different criteria for ceiling configurations that are not smooth, flat and horizontal, the required flow rate for that room shall comply with the sprinkler manufacturer's instructions.
  4. The design flow rate for the sprinkler system shall be the flow required by the room with the largest flow rate, based on Items 1, 2 and 3.
  5. For the purpose of this section, it shall be permissible to reduce the design flow rate for a room by subdividing the space into two or more rooms, where each room is evaluated separately with respect to the required design flow rate. Each room shall be bounded by walls and a ceiling. Openings in walls shall have a lintel not less than 8 inches (203 mm) in depth and each lintel shall form a solid barrier between the ceiling and the top of the opening.
The water supply shall provide not less than the required design flow rate for sprinklers in accordance with Section P2904.4.2 at a pressure not less than that used to comply with Section P2904.6.
Where a dwelling unit water supply is from a tank system, a private well system or a combination of these, the available water supply shall be based on the minimum pressure control setting for the pump.

The water supply shall have the capacity to provide the required design flow rate for sprinklers for a period of time as follows:

  1. Seven minutes for dwelling units one story in height and less than 2,000 square feet (186 m2) in area.
  2. Ten minutes for dwelling units two or more stories in height or equal to or greater than 2,000 square feet (186 m2) in area.

Where a well system, a water supply tank system or a combination thereof is used, any combination of well capacity and tank storage shall be permitted to meet the capacity requirement.

The piping to sprinklers shall be sized for the flow required by Section P2904.4.2. The flow required to supply the plumbing fixtures shall not be required to be added to the sprinkler design flow.
Piping supplying sprinklers shall be sized using the prescriptive method in Section P2904.6.2 or by hydraulic calculation in accordance with NFPA 13D. The minimum pipe size from the water supply source to any sprinkler shall be 3/4 inch (19 mm) nominal. Threaded adapter fittings at the point where sprinklers are attached to the piping shall be not less than 1/2 inch (13 mm) nominal.

Pipe shall be sized by determining the available pressure to offset friction loss in piping and identifying a piping material, diameter and length using the equation in Section P2904.6.2.1 and the procedure in Section P2904.6.2.2.

TABLE P2904.6.2(1)

WATER SERVICE PRESSURE LOSS (PLsvc)a, b

FLOW RATEc
(gpm)
3/4-INCH WATER SERVICE PRESSURE LOSS
(psi)
1-INCH WATER SERVICE PRESSURE LOSS
(psi)
11/4 -INCH WATER SERVICE PRESSURE
LOSS (psi)
Length of water service pipe (feet) Length of water service pipe (feet) Length of water service pipe (feet)
40 or
less
41 to 75 76 to 100 101 to 150 40 or
less
41 to 75 76 to 100 101 to 150 40 or
less
41 to 75 76 to 100 101 to 150
8 5.1 8.7 11.8 17.4 1.5 2.5 3.4 5.1 0.6 1.0 1.3 1.9
10 7.7 13.1 17.8 26.3 2.3 3.8 5.2 7.7 0.8 1.4 2.0 2.9
12 10.8 18.4 24.9 NP 3.2 5.4 7.3 10.7 1.2 2.0 2.7 4.0
14 14.4 24.5 NP NP 4.2 7.1 9.6 14.3 1.6 2.7 3.6 5.4
16 18.4 NP NP NP 5.4 9.1 12.4 18.3 2.0 3.4 4.7 6.9
18 22.9 NP NP NP 6.7 11.4 15.4 22.7 2.5 4.3 5.8 8.6
20 27.8 NP NP NP 8.1 13.8 18.7 27.6 3.1 5.2 7.0 10.4
22 NP NP NP NP 9.7 16.5 22.3 NP 3.7 6.2 8.4 12.4
24 NP NP NP NP 11.4 19.3 26.2 NP 4.3 7.3 9.9 14.6
26 NP NP NP NP 13.2 22.4 NP NP 5.0 8.5 11.4 16.9
28 NP NP NP NP 15.1 25.7 NP NP 5.7 9.7 13.1 19.4
30 NP NP NP NP 17.2 NP NP NP 6.5 11.0 14.9 22.0
32 NP NP NP NP 19.4 NP NP NP 7.3 12.4 16.8 24.8
34 NP NP NP NP 21.7 NP NP NP 8.2 13.9 18.8 NP
36 NP NP NP NP 24.1 NP NP NP 9.1 15.4 20.9 NP

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 0.063 L/s, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.

NP = Not permitted. Pressure loss exceeds reasonable limits.

  1. Values are applicable for underground piping materials listed in Table P2905.4 and are based on an SDR of 11 and a Hazen Williams C Factor of 150.
  2. Values include the following length allowances for fittings: 25% length increase for actual lengths up to 100 feet and 15% length increase for actual lengths over 100 feet.
  3. Flow rate from Section P2904.4.2. Add 5 gpm to the flow rate required by Section P2904.4.2 where the water-service pipe supplies more than one dwelling.

TABLE P2904.6.2(2)

MINIMUM WATER METER PRESSURE LOSS (PLm)a

FLOW RATE
(gallons per minute, gpm)b
5/8-INCH METER PRESSURE LOSS
(pounds per square inch, psi)
3/4-INCH METER PRESSURE LESS
(pounds per square inch, psi)
1-INCH METER PRESSURE LOSS
(pounds per square inch, psi)
8 2 1 1
10 3 1 1
12 4 1 1
14 5 2 1
16 7 3 1
18 9 4 1
20 11 4 2
22 NP 5 2
24 NP 5 2
26 NP 6 2
28 NP 6 2
30 NP 7 2
32 NP 7 3
34 NP 8 3
36 NP 8 3

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon per minute = 0.063 L/s.

NP—Not permitted unless the actual water meter pressure loss is known.

  1. Table P2904.6.2(2) establishes conservative values for water meter pressure loss or installations where the water meter loss is unknown. Where the actual water meter pressure loss is known, Pm shall be the actual loss.
  2. Flow rate from Section P2904.4.2. Add 5 gpm to the flow rate required by Section P2904.4.2 where the water-service pipe supplies more than one dwelling.

TABLE P2904.6.2(3)

ELEVATION LOSS (PLe)

ELEVATION (feet) PRESSURE LOSS (psi)
5 2.2
10 4.4
15 6.5
20 8.7
25 10.9
30 13
35 15.2
40 17.4

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.

TABLE P2904.6.2(4)

ALLOWABLE PIPE LENGTH FOR 3/4-INCH TYPE M COPPER WATER TUBING

SPRINKLER
FLOW RATEa
(gpm)
WATER
DISTRIBUTION
SIZE (inch)
AVAILABLE PRESSURE—Pt (psi)
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Allowable length of pipe from service valve to farthest sprinkler (feet)
8 3/4 217 289 361 434 506 578 650 723 795 867
9 3/4 174 232 291 349 407 465 523 581 639 697
10 3/4 143 191 239 287 335 383 430 478 526 574
11 3/4 120 160 200 241 281 321 361 401 441 481
12 3/4 102 137 171 205 239 273 307 341 375 410
13 3/4 88 118 147 177 206 235 265 294 324 353
14 3/4 77 103 128 154 180 205 231 257 282 308
15 3/4 68 90 113 136 158 181 203 226 248 271
16 3/4 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 241
17 3/4 54 72 90 108 125 143 161 179 197 215
18 3/4 48 64 81 97 113 129 145 161 177 193
19 3/4 44 58 73 88 102 117 131 146 160 175
20 3/4 40 53 66 80 93 106 119 133 146 159
21 3/4 36 48 61 73 85 97 109 121 133 145
22 3/4 33 44 56 67 78 89 100 111 122 133
23 3/4 31 41 51 61 72 82 92 102 113 123
24 3/4 28 38 47 57 66 76 85 95 104 114
25 3/4 26 35 44 53 61 70 79 88 97 105
26 3/4 24 33 41 49 57 65 73 82 90 98
27 3/4 23 30 38 46 53 61 69 76 84 91
28 3/4 21 28 36 43 50 57 64 71 78 85
29 3/4 20 27 33 40 47 53 60 67 73 80
30 3/4 19 25 31 38 44 50 56 63 69 75
31 3/4 18 24 29 35 41 47 53 59 65 71
32 3/4 17 22 28 33 39 44 50 56 61 67
33 3/4 16 21 26 32 37 42 47 53 58 63
34 3/4 NP 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
35 3/4 NP 19 24 28 33 38 42 47 52 57
36 3/4 NP 18 22 27 31 36 40 45 49 54
37 3/4 NP 17 21 26 30 34 38 43 47 51
38 3/4 NP 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 45 49
39 3/4 NP 15 19 23 27 31 35 39 42 46
40 3/4 NP NP 18 22 26 29 33 37 40 44

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon per minute = 0.963 L/s.

NP—Not permitted.

  1. Flow rate from Section P2904.4.2.

TABLE P2904.6.2(5)

ALLOWABLE PIPE LENGTH FOR 1-INCH TYPE M COPPER WATER TUBING

SPRINKLER
FLOW RATEa
(gpm)
WATER
DISTRIBUTION
SIZE (inch)
AVAILABLE PRESSURE—Pt (psi)
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Allowable length of pipe from service valve to farthest sprinkler (feet)
8 1 806 1075 1343 1612 1881 2149 2418 2687 2955 3224
9 1 648 864 1080 1296 1512 1728 1945 2161 2377 2593
10 1 533 711 889 1067 1245 1422 1600 1778 1956 2134
11 1 447 586 745 894 1043 1192 1341 1491 1640 1789
12 1 381 508 634 761 888 1015 1142 1269 1396 1523
13 1 328 438 547 657 766 875 985 1094 1204 1313
14 1 286 382 477 572 668 763 859 954 1049 1145
15 1 252 336 420 504 588 672 756 840 924 1008
16 1 224 298 373 447 522 596 671 745 820 894
17 1 200 266 333 400 466 533 600 666 733 799
18 1 180 240 300 360 420 479 539 599 659 719
19 1 163 217 271 325 380 434 488 542 597 651
20 1 148 197 247 296 345 395 444 493 543 592
21 1 135 180 225 270 315 360 406 451 496 541
22 1 124 165 207 248 289 331 372 413 455 496
23 1 114 152 190 228 267 305 343 381 419 457
24 1 106 141 176 211 246 282 317 352 387 422
25 1 98 131 163 196 228 261 294 326 359 392
26 1 91 121 152 182 212 243 273 304 334 364
27 1 85 113 142 170 198 226 255 283 311 340
28 1 79 106 132 159 185 212 238 265 291 318
29 1 74 99 124 149 174 198 223 248 273 298
30 1 70 93 116 140 163 186 210 233 256 280
31 1 66 88 110 132 153 175 197 219 241 263
32 1 62 83 103 124 145 165 186 207 227 248
33 1 59 78 98 117 137 156 176 195 215 234
34 1 55 74 92 111 129 148 166 185 203 222
35 1 53 70 88 105 123 140 158 175 193 210
36 1 50 66 83 100 116 133 150 166 183 199
37 1 47 63 79 95 111 126 142 158 174 190
38 1 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 181
39 1 43 57 72 86 100 115 129 143 158 172
40 1 41 55 68 82 96 109 123 137 150 164

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon per minute = 0.963 L/s.

  1. Flow rate from Section P2904.4.2.

TABLE P2904.6.2(6)

ALLOWABLE PIPE LENGTH FOR 3/4-INCH CPVC PIPE

SPRINKLER
FLOW RATEa
(gpm)
WATER
DISTRIBUTION
SIZE (inch)
AVAILABLE PRESSURE—Pt (psi)
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Allowable length of pipe from service valve to farthest sprinkler (feet)
8 3/4 348 465 581 697 813 929 1045 1161 1278 1394
9 3/4 280 374 467 560 654 747 841 934 1027 1121
10 3/4 231 307 384 461 538 615 692 769 845 922
11 3/4 193 258 322 387 451 515 580 644 709 773
12 3/4 165 219 274 329 384 439 494 549 603 658
13 3/4 142 189 237 284 331 378 426 473 520 568
14 3/4 124 165 206 247 289 330 371 412 454 495
15 3/4 109 145 182 218 254 290 327 363 399 436
16 3/4 97 129 161 193 226 258 290 322 354 387
17 3/4 86 115 144 173 202 230 259 288 317 346
18 3/4 78 104 130 155 181 207 233 259 285 311
19 3/4 70 94 117 141 164 188 211 234 258 281
20 3/4 64 85 107 128 149 171 192 213 235 256
21 3/4 58 78 97 117 136 156 175 195 214 234
22 3/4 54 71 89 107 125 143 161 179 197 214
23 3/4 49 66 82 99 115 132 148 165 181 198
24 3/4 46 61 76 91 107 122 137 152 167 183
25 3/4 42 56 71 85 99 113 127 141 155 169
26 3/4 39 52 66 79 92 105 118 131 144 157
27 3/4 37 49 61 73 86 98 110 122 135 147
28 3/4 34 46 57 69 80 92 103 114 126 137
29 3/4 32 43 54 64 75 86 96 107 118 129
30 3/4 30 40 50 60 70 81 91 101 111 121
31 3/4 28 38 47 57 66 76 85 95 104 114
32 3/4 27 36 45 54 63 71 80 89 98 107
33 3/4 25 34 42 51 59 68 76 84 93 101
34 3/4 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 88 96
35 3/4 23 30 38 45 53 61 68 76 83 91
36 3/4 22 29 36 43 50 57 65 72 79 86
37 3/4 20 27 34 41 48 55 61 68 75 82
38 3/4 20 26 33 39 46 52 59 65 72 78
39 3/4 19 25 31 37 43 50 56 62 68 74
40 3/4 18 24 30 35 41 47 53 59 65 71

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon per minute = 0.963 L/s.

  1. Flow rate from Section P2904.4.2.

TABLE P2904.6.2(7)

ALLOWABLE PIPE LENGTH FOR 1-INCH CPVC PIPE

SPRINKLER
FLOW RATEa
(gpm)
WATER
DISTRIBUTION
SIZE (inch)
AVAILABLE PRESSURE—Pt (psi)
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Allowable length of pipe from service valve to farthest sprinkler (feet)
8 1 1049 1398 1748 2098 2447 2797 3146 3496 3845 4195
9 1 843 1125 1406 1687 1968 2249 2530 2811 3093 3374
10 1 694 925 1157 1388 1619 1851 2082 2314 2545 2776
11 1 582 776 970 1164 1358 1552 1746 1940 2133 2327
12 1 495 660 826 991 1156 1321 1486 1651 1816 1981
13 1 427 570 712 854 997 1139 1281 1424 1566 1709
14 1 372 497 621 745 869 993 1117 1241 1366 1490
15 1 328 437 546 656 765 874 983 1093 1202 1311
16 1 291 388 485 582 679 776 873 970 1067 1164
17 1 260 347 433 520 607 693 780 867 954 1040
18 1 234 312 390 468 546 624 702 780 858 936
19 1 212 282 353 423 494 565 635 706 776 847
20 1 193 257 321 385 449 513 578 642 706 770
21 1 176 235 293 352 410 469 528 586 645 704
22 1 161 215 269 323 377 430 484 538 592 646
23 1 149 198 248 297 347 396 446 496 545 595
24 1 137 183 229 275 321 366 412 458 504 550
25 1 127 170 212 255 297 340 382 425 467 510
26 1 118 158 197 237 276 316 355 395 434 474
27 1 111 147 184 221 258 295 332 368 405 442
28 1 103 138 172 207 241 275 310 344 379 413
29 1 97 129 161 194 226 258 290 323 355 387
30 1 91 121 152 182 212 242 273 303 333 364
31 1 86 114 143 171 200 228 257 285 314 342
32 1 81 108 134 161 188 215 242 269 296 323
33 1 76 102 127 152 178 203 229 254 280 305
34 1 72 96 120 144 168 192 216 240 265 289
35 1 68 91 114 137 160 182 205 228 251 273
36 1 65 87 108 130 151 173 195 216 238 260
37 1 62 82 103 123 144 165 185 206 226 247
38 1 59 78 98 117 137 157 176 196 215 235
39 1 56 75 93 112 131 149 168 187 205 224
40 1 53 71 89 107 125 142 160 178 196 214

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon per minute = 0.963 L/s.

  1. Flow rate from Section P2904.4.2.

TABLE P2904.6.2(8)

ALLOWABLE PIPE LENGTH FOR 3/4-INCH PEX AND PE-RT TUBING

SPRINKLER
FLOW RATEa
(gpm)
WATER
DISTRIBUTION
SIZE (inch)
AVAILABLE PRESSURE—Pt (psi)
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Allowable length of pipe from service valve to farthest sprinkler (feet)
8 3/4 93 123 154 185 216 247 278 309 339 370
9 3/4 74 99 124 149 174 199 223 248 273 298
10 3/4 61 82 102 123 143 163 184 204 225 245
11 3/4 51 68 86 103 120 137 154 171 188 205
12 3/4 44 58 73 87 102 117 131 146 160 175
13 3/4 38 50 63 75 88 101 113 126 138 151
14 3/4 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 110 121 132
15 3/4 29 39 48 58 68 77 87 96 106 116
16 3/4 26 34 43 51 60 68 77 86 94 103
17 3/4 23 31 38 46 54 61 69 77 84 92
18 3/4 21 28 34 41 48 55 62 69 76 83
19 3/4 19 25 31 37 44 50 56 62 69 75
20 3/4 17 23 28 34 40 45 51 57 62 68
21 3/4 16 21 26 31 36 41 47 52 57 62
22 3/4 NP 19 24 28 33 38 43 47 52 57
23 3/4 NP 17 22 26 31 35 39 44 48 52
24 3/4 NP 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 49
25 3/4 NP NP 19 22 26 30 34 37 41 45
26 3/4 NP NP 17 21 24 28 31 35 38 42
27 3/4 NP NP 16 20 23 26 29 33 36 39
28 3/4 NP NP 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36
29 3/4 NP NP NP 17 20 23 26 28 31 34
30 3/4 NP NP NP 16 19 21 24 27 29 32
31 3/4 NP NP NP 15 18 20 23 25 28 30
32 3/4 NP NP NP NP 17 19 21 24 26 28
33 3/4 NP NP NP NP 16 18 20 22 25 27
34 3/4 NP NP NP NP NP 17 19 21 23 25
35 3/4 NP NP NP NP NP 16 18 20 22 24
36 3/4 NP NP NP NP NP 15 17 19 21 23
37 3/4 NP NP NP NP NP NP 16 18 20 22
38 3/4 NP NP NP NP NP NP 16 17 19 21
39 3/4 NP NP NP NP NP NP NP 16 18 20
40 3/4 NP NP NP NP NP NP NP 16 17 19

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon per minute = 0.963 L/s.

NP— Not permitted.

  1. Flow rate from Section P2904.4.2.

TABLE P2904.6.2(9)

ALLOWABLE PIPE LENGTH FOR 1-INCH PEX AND PE-RT TUBING

SPRINKLER
FLOW RATEa
(gpm)
WATER
DISTRIBUTION
SIZE (inch)
AVAILABLE PRESSURE—Pt (psi)
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Allowable length of pipe from service valve to farthest sprinkler (feet)
8 1 314 418 523 628 732 837 941 1046 1151 1255
9 1 252 336 421 505 589 673 757 841 925 1009
10 1 208 277 346 415 485 554 623 692 761 831
11 1 174 232 290 348 406 464 522 580 638 696
12 1 148 198 247 296 346 395 445 494 543 593
13 1 128 170 213 256 298 341 383 426 469 511
14 1 111 149 186 223 260 297 334 371 409 446
15 1 98 131 163 196 229 262 294 327 360 392
16 1 87 116 145 174 203 232 261 290 319 348
17 1 78 104 130 156 182 208 233 259 285 311
18 1 70 93 117 140 163 187 210 233 257 280
19 1 63 84 106 127 148 169 190 211 232 253
20 1 58 77 96 115 134 154 173 192 211 230
21 1 53 70 88 105 123 140 158 175 193 211
22 1 48 64 80 97 113 129 145 161 177 193
23 1 44 59 74 89 104 119 133 148 163 178
24 1 41 55 69 82 96 110 123 137 151 164
25 1 38 51 64 76 89 102 114 127 140 152
26 1 35 47 59 71 83 95 106 118 130 142
27 1 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 110 121 132
28 1 31 41 52 62 72 82 93 103 113 124
29 1 29 39 48 58 68 77 87 97 106 116
30 1 27 36 45 54 63 73 82 91 100 109
31 1 26 34 43 51 60 68 77 85 94 102
32 1 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 89 97
33 1 23 30 38 46 53 61 68 76 84 91
34 1 22 29 36 43 50 58 65 72 79 86
35 1 20 27 34 41 48 55 61 68 75 82
36 1 19 26 32 39 45 52 58 65 71 78
37 1 18 25 31 37 43 49 55 62 68 74
38 1 18 23 29 35 41 47 53 59 64 70
39 1 17 22 28 33 39 45 50 56 61 67
40 1 16 21 27 32 37 43 48 53 59 64

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon per minute = 0.963 L/s.

  1. Flow rate from Section P2904.4.2.

The pressure available to offset friction loss in the interior piping system (Pt) shall be determined in accordance with the Equation 29-1.


(Equation 29-1)

where:

Pt = Pressure used in applying Tables P2904.6.2(4) through P2904.6.2(9).

Psup = Pressure available from the water supply source.

PLsvc = Pressure loss in the water-service pipe.

PLm = Pressure loss in the water meter.

PLd = Pressure loss from devices other than the water meter.

PLe = Pressure loss associated with changes in elevation.

Psp = Maximum pressure required by a sprinkler.

Determination of the required size for water distribution piping shall be in accordance with the following procedure:

Step 1—Determine Psup

Obtain the static supply pressure that will be available from the water main from the water purveyor, or for an individual source, the available supply pressure shall be in accordance with Section P2904.5.1.

Step 2—Determine PLsvc

Use Table P2904.6.2(1) to determine the pressure loss in the water service pipe based on the selected size of the water service.

Step 3—Determine PLm

Use Table P2904.6.2(2) to determine the pressure loss from the water meter, based on the selected water meter size.

Step 4—Determine PLd

Determine the pressure loss from devices other than the water meter installed in the piping system supplying sprinklers, such as pressure-reducing valves, backflow preventers, water softeners or water filters. Device pressure losses shall be based on the device manufacturer's specifications. The flow rate used to determine pressure loss shall be the rate from Section P2904.4.2, except that 5 gpm (0.3 L/s) shall be added where the device is installed in a water-service pipe that supplies more than one dwelling. As an alternative to deducting pressure loss for a device, an automatic bypass valve shall be installed to divert flow around the device when a sprinkler activates.

Step 5—Determine PLe

Use Table P2904.6.2(3) to determine the pressure loss associated with changes in elevation. The elevation used in applying the table shall be the difference between the elevation where the water source pressure was measured and the elevation of the highest sprinkler.

Step 6—Determine Psp

Determine the maximum pressure required by any individual sprinkler based on the flow rate from Section P2904.4.1. The required pressure is provided in the sprinkler manufacturer's published data for the specific sprinkler model based on the selected flow rate.

Step 7—Calculate Pt

Using Equation 29-1, calculate the pressure available to offset friction loss in water-distribution piping between the service valve and the sprinklers.

Step 8—Determine the maximum allowable pipe length

Use Tables P2904.6.2(4) through P2904.6.2(9) to select a material and size for water distribution piping. The piping material and size shall be acceptable if the developed length of pipe between the service valve and the most remote sprinkler does not exceed the maximum allowable length specified by the applicable table. Interpolation of Pt between the tabular values shall be permitted.

The maximum allowable length of piping in Tables P2904.6.2(4) through P2904.6.2(9) incorporates an adjustment for pipe fittings. Additional consideration of friction losses associated with pipe fittings shall not be required.

An owner's manual for the fire sprinkler system shall be provided to the owner. A sign or valve tag shall be installed at the main shutoff valve to the water distribution system stating the following: "Warning, the water system for this home supplies fire sprinklers that require certain flows and pressures to fight a fire. Devices that restrict the flow or decrease the pressure or automatically shut off the water to the fire sprinkler system, such as water softeners, filtration systems and automatic shutoff valves, shall not be added to this system without a review of the fire sprinkler system by a fire protection specialist. Do not remove this sign."
The water distribution system shall be inspected in accordance with Sections P2904.8.1 and P2904.8.2.

The following items shall be verified prior to the concealment of any sprinkler system piping:

  1. Sprinklers are installed in all areas as required by Section P2904.1.1.
  2. Where sprinkler water spray patterns are obstructed by construction features, luminaires or ceiling fans, additional sprinklers are installed as required by Section P2904.2.4.2.
  3. Sprinklers are the correct temperature rating and are installed at or beyond the required separation distances from heat sources as required by Sections P2904.2.1 and P2904.2.2.
  4. The pipe size equals or exceeds the size used in applying Tables P2904.6.2(4) through P2904.6.2(9) or, if the piping system was hydraulically calculated in accordance with Section P2904.6.1, the size used in the hydraulic calculation.
  5. The pipe length does not exceed the length permitted by Tables P2904.6.2(4) through P2904.6.2(9) or, if the piping system was hydraulically calculated in accordance with Section P2904.6.1, pipe lengths and fittings do not exceed those used in the hydraulic calculation.
  6. Nonmetallic piping that conveys water to sprinklers is listed for use with fire sprinklers.
  7. Piping is supported in accordance with the pipe manufacturer's and sprinkler manufacturer's installation instructions.
  8. The piping system is tested in accordance with Section P2503.7.

The following items shall be verified upon completion of the system:

  1. Sprinkler are not painted, damaged or otherwise hindered from operation.
  2. Where a pump is required to provide water to the system, the pump starts automatically upon system water demand.
  3. Pressure-reducing valves, water softeners, water filters or other impairments to water flow that were not part of the original design have not been installed.
  4. The sign or valve tag required by Section P2904.7 is installed and the owner's manual for the system is present.
Circulation systems and heat trace systems that are installed to bring heated water in close proximity to one or more fixtures shall meet the requirements of Section R403.5.1 of the Florida Building Code, Energy Conservation.
Demand recirculation water systems shall be in accordance with Section R403.5.2 of the Florida Building Code, Energy Conservation.
The developed length of hot water piping, from the source of hot water to the fixtures that require hot water, shall not exceed 100 feet. Water heaters and recirculating system piping shall be considered to be sources of hot water.
The installation of water service pipe, water distribution pipe, fittings, valves, appurtenances and gaskets shall be prohibited in soil and groundwater that is contaminated with solvents, fuels, organic compounds or other detrimental materials that cause permeation, corrosion, degradation or structural failure of the water service or water distribution piping material.
Where detrimental conditions are suspected by or brought to the attention of the building official, a chemical analysis of the soil and groundwater conditions shall be required to ascertain the acceptability of the water service material for the specific installation.
Where a detrimental condition exists, approved alternate materials or alternate routing shall be required.
The lead content in pipe and fittings used in the water supply system shall be not greater than 8 percent.
Pipe, pipe fittings, joints, valves, faucets and fixture fittings utilized to supply water for drinking or cooking purposes shall comply with NSF 372 and shall have a weighted average lead content of 0.25 percent lead or less.
Polyethylene pipe shall be cut square using a cutter designed for plastic pipe. Except where joined by heat fusion, pipe ends shall be chamfered to remove sharp edges. Pipe that has been kinked shall not be installed. For bends, the installed radius of pipe curvature shall be greater than 30 pipe diameters or the coil radius where bending with the coil. Coiled pipe shall not be bent beyond straight. Bends within 10 pipe diameters of any fitting or valve shall be prohibited. Joints between polyethylene plastic pipe and fittings shall comply with Section P2906.3.1 or P2906.3.2.
Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. Joint surfaces shall be heated to melting temperature and joined. The joint shall be undisturbed until cool. Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM D2657.
Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

Water service pipe shall conform to NSF 61 and shall conform to one of the standards indicated in Table P2906.4. Water service pipe or tubing, installed underground and outside of the structure, shall have a working pressure rating of not less than 160 pounds per square inch at 73°F (1103 kPa at 23°C). Where the water pressure exceeds 160 pounds per square inch (1103 kPa), piping material shall have a rated working pressure equal to or greater than the highest available pressure. Water service piping materials not third-party certified for water distribution shall terminate at or before the full open valve located at the entrance to the structure. Ductile iron water service piping shall be cement mortar lined in accordance with AWWA C104/A21.4.

TABLE P2906.4

WATER SERVICE PIPE

MATERIAL STANDARD
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipe ASTM D1527; ASTM D2282
Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) plastic pipe ASTM D2846; ASTM F441; ASTM F442; CSA B137.6
Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride/aluminum/chlorinated polyvinyl chloride
(CPVC/AL/CPVC) plastic pipe
ASTM F2855
Copper or copper-alloy pipe ASTM B42; ASTM B43; ASTM B302
Copper or copper-alloy tubing (Type K, WK, L, WL, M or WM) ASTM B75; ASTM B88; ASTM B251; ASTM B447
Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/cross-linked polyethylene
(PEX-AL-PEX) pipe
ASTM F1281; ASTM F2262; CSA B137.10
Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/high-density polyethylene
(PEX-AL-HDPE) pipe
ASTM F1986
Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plastic tubing ASTM F876; CSA B137.5
Ductile iron water pipe AWWA C115/A21.15; AWWA C151/A21.51
Galvanized steel pipe ASTM A53
Polyethylene/aluminum/polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) pipe ASTM F1282; CSA B137.9
Polyethylene (PE) plastic pipe ASTM D2104; ASTM D 2239; AWWA C901; CSA B137.1
Polyethylene (PE) plastic tubing ASTM D2737; AWWA C901; CSA B137.1
Polyethylene of raised temperature (PE-RT) plastic tubing ASTM F2769; CSA B137.18
Polypropylene (PP) plastic tubing ASTM F2389; CSA B137.11
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe ASTM D1785; ASTM D2241; ASTM D2672; CSA B137.3
Stainless steel (Type 304/304L) pipe ASTM A312; ASTM A778
Stainless steel (Type 316/316L) pipe ASTM A312; ASTM A778
Trenching, pipe installation and backfilling shall be in accordance with Section P2604. Where water service piping is located in the same trench with the building sewer, such sewer shall be constructed of materials listed in Table P3002.1(2). Where the