CODES

ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Residential Code 2015 (IRC 2015)

Copyright

Preface

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 Building Planning

Chapter 4 Foundations

Chapter 5 Floors

Chapter 6 Wall Construction

Chapter 7 Wall Covering

Chapter 8 Roof-Ceiling Construction

Chapter 9 Roof Assemblies

Chapter 10 Chimneys and Fireplaces

Chapter 11 [Re] Energy Efficiency

Chapter 12 Mechanical Administration

Chapter 13 General Mechanical System Requirements

Chapter 14 Heating and Cooling Equipment and Appliances

Chapter 15 Exhaust Systems

Chapter 16 Duct Systems

Chapter 17 Combustion Air

Chapter 18 Chimneys and Vents

Chapter 19 Special Appliances, Equipment and Systems

Chapter 20 Boilers and Water Heaters

Chapter 21 Hydronic Piping

Chapter 22 Special Piping and Storage Systems

Chapter 23 Solar Thermal Energy Systems

Chapter 24 Fuel Gas

Chapter 25 Plumbing Administration

Chapter 26 General Plumbing Requirements

Chapter 27 Plumbing Fixtures

Chapter 28 Water Heaters

Chapter 29 Water Supply and Distribution

Chapter 30 Sanitary Drainage

Chapter 31 Vents

Chapter 32 Traps

Chapter 33 Storm Drainage

Chapter 34 General Requirements

Chapter 35 Electrical Definitions

Chapter 36 Services

Chapter 37 Branch Circuit and Feeder Requirements

Chapter 38 Wiring Methods

Chapter 39 Power and Lighting Distribution

Chapter 40 Devices and Luminaires

Chapter 41 Appliance Installation

Chapter 42 Swimming Pools [Electrical Provisions]

Chapter 43 Class 2 Remote-Control, Signaling and Power-Limited Circuits

Chapter 44 High-Velocity Hurricane Zones

Chapter 45 Private Swimming Pools

Chapter 46 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Sizing and Capacities of Gas Piping

Appendix B Sizing of Venting Systems Serving Appliances Equipped With Draft Hoods, Category I Appliances, and Appliances Listed for Use With Type B Vents

Appendix C Exit Terminals of Mechanical Draft and Direct-Vent Venting Systems

Appendix D Recommended Procedure for Safety Inspection of an Existing Appliance Installation

Appendix E Florida Standard for Mitigation of Radon in Existing Buildings Effective: June 1, 1994

Appendix F Florida Standard for Passive Radon-Resistant New Residential Building Construction

Appendix G Piping Standards for Various Applications

Appendix H Patio Covers

Appendix I Private Sewage Disposal

Appendix J Existing Buildings and Structures

Appendix K Sound Transmission

Appendix L Permit Fees

Appendix M Home Day Care—r-3 Occupancy

Appendix N Venting Methods

Appendix O Automatic Vehicular Gates

Appendix P Sizing of Water Piping System

Appendix Q Reserved

Appendix R Light Straw-Clay Construction

Appendix S Strawbale Construction

Appendix T Recommended Procedure for Worst-Case Testing of Atmospheric Venting Systems Under N1102.4 or N1105 Conditions ≤ 5ach 50

Appendix U Solar-Ready Provisions—detached One- And Two-Family Dwellings, Multiple Single- Family Dwellings (Townhouses)

The provisions of this chapter shall control the design and construction of walls and partitions for buildings.

Exception: Buildings and structures located within the High-Velocity Hurricane Zone shall comply with the provisions of Chapter 44.

Wall construction shall be capable of accommodating all loads imposed in accordance with Section R301 and of transmitting the resulting loads to the supporting structural elements.

Compressible floor-covering materials that compress more than 1/32 inch (0.8 mm) when subjected to 50 pounds (23 kg) applied over 1 inch square (645 mm) of material and are greater than 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) in thickness in the uncompressed state shall not extend beneath walls, partitions or columns, which are fastened to the floor.

Wood and wood-based products used for load-supporting purposes shall conform to the applicable provisions of this section.
Sawn lumber shall be identified by a grade mark of an accredited lumber grading or inspection agency and have design values certified by an accreditation body that complies with DOC PS 20. In lieu of a grade mark, a certification of inspection issued by a lumber grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this section shall be accepted.
Approved end-jointed lumber identified by a grade mark conforming to Section R602.1 shall be permitted to be used interchangeably with solid-sawn members of the same species and grade. End-jointed lumber used in an assembly required elsewhere in this code to have a fire-resistance rating shall have the designation “Heat Resistant Adhesive” or “HRA” included in its grade mark.
Glued-laminated timbers shall be manufactured and identified as required in ANSI/AITC A190.1 and ASTM D3737.
Structural log members shall comply with the provisions of ICC 400.
Structural capacities for structural composite lumber shall be established and monitored in accordance with ASTM D5456.
Cross-laminated timber shall be manufactured and identified as required by ANSI/APA PRG 320.
Engineered wood rim boards shall conform to ANSI/APA PRR 410 or shall be evaluated in accordance with ASTM D7672. Structural capacities shall be in accordance with either ANSI/APA PRR 410 or established in accordance with ASTM D7672. Rim boards conforming to ANSI/APA PRR 410 shall be marked in accordance with that standard.
Wood structural panel sheathing shall conform to DOC PS 1, DOC PS 2 or, when manufactured in Canada, CSA O437 or CSA O325. Panels shall be identified for grade, bond classification, and performance category by a grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved agency.
Particleboard shall conform to ANSI A208.1. Particleboard shall be identified by the grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved agency.
Fiberboard shall conform to ASTM C208. Fiberboard sheathing, where used structurally, shall be identified by an approved agency as conforming to ASTM C208.

Studs shall be a minimum No. 3, standard or stud grade lumber.

Exception: Bearing studs not supporting floors and nonbearing studs shall be permitted to be utility grade lumber, provided the studs are spaced in accordance with Table R602.3(5).

Exterior walls of wood-frame construction shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and Figures R602.3(1) and R602.3(2), or in accordance with AWC NDS. Components of exterior walls shall be fastened in accordance with Tables R602.3(1) through R602.3(4). Wall sheathing shall be fastened directly to framing members and, where placed on the exterior side of an exterior wall, shall be capable of resisting the wind pressures listed in Table R301.2(2) adjusted for height and exposure using Table R301.2(3) and shall conform to the requirements of Table R602.3(3). Wall sheathing used only for exterior wall covering purposes shall comply with Section R703.

Studs shall be continuous from support at the sole plate to a support at the top plate to resist loads perpendicular to the wall. The support shall be a foundation or floor, ceiling or roof diaphragm or shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

Exception: Jack studs, trimmer studs and cripple studs at openings in walls that comply with Tables R602.7(1) and R602.7(2).

TABLE R602.3(1)

FASTENING SCHEDULE

ITEMDESCRIPTION OF BUILDING ELEMENTSNUMBER AND TYPE
OF FASTENERa, b, c
SPACING AND LOCATION
Roof
1Blocking between ceiling joists or rafters to top plate4-8d box (21/2" × 0.113") or
3-8d common (21/2" × 0.131"); or
3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
3-3" × 0.131" nails
Toe nail
2Ceiling joists to top plate4-8d box (21/2" × 0.113"); or
3-8d common (21/2" × 0.131"); or
3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
3-3" × 0.131" nails
Per joist, toe nail
3Ceiling joist not attached to parallel rafter, laps over
partitions [see Sections R802.3.1, R802.3.2 and Table R802.5.1(9)]
4-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
3-16d common (31/2" × 0.162"); or
4-3" × 0.131" nails
Face nail
4Ceiling joist attached to parallel rafter (heel joint)
[see Sections R802.3.1 and R802.3.2 and Table R802.5.1(9)]
Table R802.5.1(9)Face nail
5Collar tie to rafter, face nail or 11/4" × 20 ga. ridge strap to
rafter
4-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
3-10d common (3" × 0.148"); or
4-3" × 0.131" nails
Face nail each rafter
6Rafter or roof truss to plate3-16d box nails (31/2" × 0.135"); or
3-10d common nails (3" × 0.148"); or
4-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
4-3" × 0.131" nails
2 toe nails on one side and 1 toe nail
on opposite side of each rafter or trussi
7Roof rafters to ridge, valley or hip rafters or roof rafter
to minimum 2" ridge beam
4-16d (31/2" × 0.135"); or
3-10d common (31/2" × 0.148"); or
4-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
4-3" × 0.131" nails
Toe nail
3-16d box 31/2" × 0.135"); or
2-16d common (31/2" × 0.162"); or
3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
3-3" × 0.131" nails
End nail
Wall
8Stud to stud (not at braced wall panels)16d common (31/2" × 0.162")24" o.c. face nail
10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
3" × 0.131" nails
16" o.c. face nail
9Stud to stud and abutting studs at intersecting wall corners 16d box (31/2" × 0.135"); or
3" × 0.131" nails
12" o.c. face nail
16d common (31/2" × 0.162")16" o.c. face nail
10Built-up header (2" to 2" header with 1/2" spacer)16d common (31/2" × 0.162")16" o.c. each edge face nail
16d box (31/2" × 0.135")12" o.c. each edge face nail
11Continuous header to stud5-8d box (21/2" × 0.113"); or
4-8d common (21/2" × 0.131"); or
4-10d box (3" × 0.128")
Toe nail
12Top plate to top plate16d common (31/2" × 0.162")16" o.c. face nail
10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
3" × 0.131" nails
12" o.c. face nail
13Double top plate splice for SDCs A-D2 with seismic braced
wall line spacing < 25’
8-16d common (31/2" × 0.162"); or
12-16d box (31/2" × 0.135"); or
12-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
12-3" × 0.131" nails
Face nail on each side of end joint
(minimum 24" lap splice length each
side of end joint)
Double top plate splice SDCs D0, D1, or D2; and braced
wall
line spacing ≥ 25’
12-16d (31/2" × 0.135")
14Bottom plate to joist, rim joist, band joist or
blocking (not at braced wall panels)
16d common (31/2" × 0.162")16" o.c. face nail
16d box (31/2" × 0.135"); or
3" × 0.131" nails
12" o.c. face nail
15Bottom plate to joist, rim joist, band joist or
blocking (at braced wall panel)
3-16d box (31/2" × 0.135"); or
2-16d common (31/2" × 0.162"); or
4-3" × 0.131" nails
3 each 16" o.c. face nail
2 each 16" o.c. face nail
4 each 16" o.c. face nail
16Top or bottom plate to stud4-8d box (21/2" × 0.113"); or
3-16d box (31/2" × 0.135"); or
4-8d common (21/2" × 0.131"); or
4-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
4-3" × 0.131" nails
Toe nail
3-16d box (31/2" × 0.135"); or
2-16d common (31/2" × 0.162"); or
3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
3-3" × 0.131" nails
End nail
17Top plates, laps at corners and intersections3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
2-16d common (31/2" × 0.162"); or
3-3" × 0.131" nails
Face nail
181" brace to each stud and plate3-8d box (21/2" × 0.113"); or
2-8d common (21/2" × 0.131"); or
2-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
2 staples 13/4"
Face nail
191" × 6" sheathing to each bearing3-8d box (21/2" × 0.113"); or
2-8d common (21/2" × 0.131"); or
2-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
2 staples, 1" crown, 16 ga., 13/4" long
Face nail
201" × 8" and wider sheathing to each bearing3-8d box (21/2" × 0.113"); or
3-8d common (21/2" × 0.131"); or
3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
3 staples, 1" crown, 16 ga., 13/4" long
Face nail
Wider than 1" × 8"
4-8d box (21/2" × 0.113"); or
3-8d common (21/2" × 0.131"); or
3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
4 staples, 1" crown, 16 ga., 13/4" long
Floor
21Joist to sill, top plate or girder4-8d box (21/2" × 0.113"); or
3-8d common (21/2" × 0.131"); or
3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
3-3" × 0.131" nails
Toe nail
22Rim joist, band joist or blocking to sill or top
plate (roof applications also)
8d box (21/2" × 0.113")4" o.c. toe nail
8d common (21/2" × 0.131"); or
10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
3" × 0.131" nails
6" o.c. toe nail
231" × 6" subfloor or less to each joist3-8d box (21/2" × 0.113"); or
2-8d common (21/2" × 0.131"); or
3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
2 staples, 1" crown, 16 ga., 13/4" long
Face nail
242" subfloor to joist or girder3-16d box (31/2" × 0.135"); or
2-16d common (31/2" × 0.162")
Blind and face nail
252" planks (plank & beam—floor & roof)3-16d box (31/2" × 0.135"); or
2-16d common (31/2" × 0.162")
At each bearing, face nail
26Band or rim joist to joist3-16d common (31/2" × 0.162")
4-10 box (3" × 0.128"), or
4-3" × 0.131" nails; or
4-3" × 14 ga. staples, 7/16" crown
End nail
27Built-up girders and beams, 2-inch lumber
layers
20d common (4" × 0.192"); orNail each layer as follows: 32" o.c.
at top and bottom and staggered.
10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
3" × 0.131" nails
24" o.c. face nail at top and bottom
staggered on opposite sides
And:
2-20d common (4" × 0.192"); or
3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
3-3" × 0.131" nails
Face nail at ends and at each splice
28Ledger strip supporting joists or rafters4-16d box (31/2" × 0.135"); or
3-16d common (31/2" × 0.162"); or
4-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
4-3" × 0.131" nails
At each joist or rafter, face nail
29Bridging to joist
2-10d (3" × 0.128")
Each end, toe nail
ITEMDESCRIPTION
OF BUILDING ELEMENTS
NUMBER AND
TYPE OF FASTENERa, b, c
SPACING OF FASTENERS
Edges
(inches)h
Intermediate
supportsc, e
(inches)
Wood structural panels, subfloor, roof and interior wall sheathing to framing and particleboard wall sheathing to framing
[see Table R602.3(3) for wood structural panel exterior wall sheathing to wall framing]
303/8" – 1/2"6d common (2" × 0.113") nail (subfloor, wall)i
8d common (21/2" × 0.131") nail (roof)
612f
3119/32" – 1"8d common nail (21/2" × 0.131")612f
3211/8" – 11/4"10d common (3" × 0.148") nail; or
8d (21/2" × 0.131") deformed nail
612
Other wall sheathingg
331/2" structural cellulosic fiberboard
sheathing
11/2" galvanized roofing nail, 7/16" head diameter, or 1" crown staple 16 ga., 11/4" long36
3425/32" structural cellulosic
fiberboard sheathing
13/4" galvanized roofing nail, 7/16" head diameter, or 1" crown staple 16 ga., 11/4" long36
351/2" gypsum sheathingd11/2" galvanized roofing nail; staple galvanized,
11/2" long; 11/4" screws, Type W or S
77
365/8" gypsum sheathingd13/4" galvanized roofing nail; staple galvanized,
15/8" long; 15/8" screws, Type W or S
77
Wood structural panels, combination subfloor underlayment to framing
373/4" and less6d deformed (2" × 0.120") nail; or
8d common (21/2" × 0.131") nail
612
387/8" – 1"8d common (21/2" × 0.131") nail; or
8d deformed (21/2" × 0.120") nail
612
3911/8" – 11/4"10d common (3" × 0.148") nail; or
8d deformed (21/2" × 0.120") nail
612

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s; 1 ksi = 6.895 MPa.

  1. Nails are smooth-common, box or deformed shanks except where otherwise stated. Nails used for framing and sheathing connections shall have minimum average bending yield strengths as shown: 80 ksi for shank diameter of 0.192 inch (20d common nail), 90 ksi for shank diameters larger than 0.142 inch but not larger than 0.177 inch, and 100 ksi for shank diameters of 0.142 inch or less.
  2. Staples are 16 gage wire and have a minimum 7/16-inch on diameter crown width.
  3. Nails shall be spaced at not more than 6 inches on center at all supports where spans are 48 inches or greater.
  4. Four-foot by 8-foot or 4-foot by 9-foot panels shall be applied vertically.
  5. Spacing of fasteners not included in this table shall be based on Table R602.3(2).
  6. Where the ultimate design wind speed is 130 mph or less, nails for attaching wood structural panel roof sheathing to gable end wall framing shall be spaced 6 inches on center. Where the ultimate design wind speed is greater than 130 mph, nails for attaching panel roof sheathing to intermediate supports shall be spaced 6 inches on center for minimum 48-inch distance from ridges, eaves and gable end walls; and 4 inches on center to gable end wall framing.
  7. Gypsum sheathing shall conform to ASTM C1396 and shall be installed in accordance with GA 253. Fiberboard sheathing shall conform to ASTM C208.
  8. Spacing of fasteners on floor sheathing panel edges applies to panel edges supported by framing members and required blocking and at floor perimeters only. Spacing of fasteners on roof sheathing panel edges applies to panel edges supported by framing members and required blocking. Blocking of roof or floor sheathing panel edges perpendicular to the framing members need not be provided except as required by other provisions of this code. Floor perimeter shall be supported by framing members or solid blocking.
  9. Where a rafter is fastened to an adjacent parallel ceiling joist in accordance with this schedule, provide two toe nails on one side of the rafter and toe nails from the ceiling joist to top plate in accordance with this schedule. The toe nail on the opposite side of the rafter shall not be required.

TABLE R602.3(2)

ALTERNATE ATTACHMENTS TO TABLE R602.3(1)

NOMINAL MATERIAL THICKNESS
(inches)
DESCRIPTIONa, b OF FASTENER AND LENGTH
(inches)
SPACINGc OF FASTENERS
Edges
(inches)
Intermediate supports
(inches)
Wood structural panels subfloor, roofg and wall sheathing to framing and particleboard wall sheathing to framingf
Up to 1/2Staple 15 ga. 13/448
0.097 - 0.099 Nail 21/436
Staple 16 ga. 13/436
19/32 and 5/80.113 Nail 236
Staple 15 and 16 ga. 248
0.097 - 0.099 Nail 21/448
23/32 and 3/4Staple 14 ga. 248
Staple 15 ga. 13/436
0.097 - 0.099 Nail 21/448
Staple 16 ga. 248
1Staple 14 ga. 21/448
0.113 Nail 21/436
Staple 15 ga. 21/448
0.097 - 0.099 Nail 21/248
NOMINAL MATERIAL THICKNESS
(inches)
DESCRIPTIONa, b OF FASTENER AND LENGTH
(inches)
SPACINGc OF FASTENERS
Edges
(inches)
Body of paneld
(inches)
Floor underlayment; plywood-hardboard-particleboardf-fiber-cementh
Fiber-cement
1/43d, corrosion-resistant, ring shank nails
(finished flooring other than tile)
36
Staple 18 ga., 7/8 long, 1/4 crown
(finished flooring other than tile)
36
11/4 long × .121 shank × .375 head diameter corrosion-resistant
(galvanized or stainless steel) roofing nails (for tile finish)
88
11/4 long, No. 8 × .375 head diameter, ribbed wafer-head screws
(for tile finish)
88
Plywood
1/4 and 5/1611/4 ring or screw shank nail-minimum
121/2 ga. (0.099″) shank diameter
36
Staple 18 ga., 7/8, 3/16 crown width25
11/32, 3/8, 15/32, and 1/211/4 ring or screw shank nail-minimum
121/2 ga. (0.099″) shank diameter
68e
19/32, 5/8, 23/32 and 3/411/2 ring or screw shank nail-minimum
121/2 ga. (0.099″) shank diameter
68
Staple 16 ga. 11/268
Hardboardf
0.20011/2 long ring-grooved underlayment nail66
4d cement-coated sinker nail66
Staple 18 ga., 7/8 long (plastic coated)36
Particleboard
1/44d ring-grooved underlayment nail36
Staple 18 ga., 7/8 long, 3/16 crown36
3/86d ring-grooved underlayment nail610
Staple 16 ga., 11/8 long, 3/8 crown36
1/2, 5/86d ring-grooved underlayment nail610
Staple 16 ga., 15/8 long, 3/8 crown36

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

  1. Nail is a general description and shall be permitted to be T-head, modified round head or round head.
  2. Staples shall have a minimum crown width of 7/16-inch on diameter except as noted.
  3. Nails or staples shall be spaced at not more than 6 inches on center at all supports where spans are 48 inches or greater. Nails or staples shall be spaced at not more than 12 inches on center at intermediate supports for floors.
  4. Fasteners shall be placed in a grid pattern throughout the body of the panel.
  5. For 5-ply panels, intermediate nails shall be spaced not more than 12 inches on center each way.
  6. Hardboard underlayment shall conform to CPA/ANSI A135.4
  7. Specified alternate attachments for roof sheathing shall be permitted where the ultimate design wind speed is less than 130 mph. Fasteners attaching wood structural panel roof sheathing to gable end wall framing shall be installed using the spacing listed for panel edges.
  8. Fiber-cement underlayment shall conform to ASTM C1288 or ISO 8336, Category C.

TABLE R602.3(3)

REQUIREMENTS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL WALL SHEATHING USED TO RESIST WIND PRESSURESa, b, c

MINIMUM NAILMINIMUM WOOD
STRUCTURAL
PANEL SPAN
RATING
MINIMUM
NOMINAL
PANEL
THICKNESS
(inches)
MAXIMUM WALL
STUD SPACING
(inches)
PANEL NAIL SPACINGULTIMATE DESIGN
WIND SPEED Vult
(mph)
SizePenetration
(inches)
Edges
(inches o.c.)
Field
(inches o.c.)
Wind exposure category
BCD
6d Common
(2.0″ × 0.113″)
1.524/03/816612140115110
8d Common
(2.5″ × 0.131″)
1.7524/167/1616612170140135
24612140115110

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

  1. Panel strength axis parallel or perpendicular to supports. Three-ply plywood sheathing with studs spaced more than 16 inches on center shall be applied with panel strength axis perpendicular to supports.
  2. Table is based on wind pressures acting toward and away from building surfaces in accordance with Section R301.2. Lateral bracing requirements shall be in accordance with Section R602.10.
  3. Wood structural panels with span ratings of Wall-16 or Wall-24 shall be permitted as an alternate to panels with a 24/0 span rating. Plywood siding rated 16 o.c. or 24 o.c. shall be permitted as an alternate to panels with a 24/16 span rating. Wall-16 and Plywood siding 16 o.c. shall be used with studs spaced not more than 16 inches on center.

TABLE R602.3(4)

ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR PARTICLEBOARD WALL SHEATHINGa

THICKNESS
(inch)
GRADESTUD SPACING
(inches)
When siding is nailed to studsWhen siding is nailed to sheathing
3/8M-1 Exterior glue16
1/2M-2 Exterior glue1616

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

  1. Wall sheathing not exposed to the weather. If the panels are applied horizontally, the end joints of the panel shall be offset so that four panel corners will not meet. All panel edges must be supported. Leave a 1/16-inch gap between panels and nail not less than 3/8 inch from panel edges.

TABLE R602.3(5)

SIZE, HEIGHT AND SPACING OF WOOD STUDSa

STUD SIZE
(inches)
BEARING WALLSNONBEARING WALLS
Laterally
unsupported
stud heighta
(feet)
Maximum spacing
when supporting a
roof-ceiling assembly
assembly, only
(inches)
Maximum spacing
when supporting one
floor, plus a roof-
ceiling assembly or a
assembly (inches)
Maximum spacing
when supporting two
floors, plus a roof-
ceiling assembly or a
assembly (inches)
Maximum spacing
when supporting
one floor heighta
(inches)
Laterally
unsupported
stud heighta
(feet)
Maximum
spacing
(inches)
2 × 3b1016
2 × 41024c16c241424
3 × 410242416241424
2 × 5102424241624
2 × 610242416242024

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

  1. Listed heights are distances between points of lateral support placed perpendicular to the plane of the wall. Bearing walls shall be sheathed on not less than one side or bridging shall be installed not greater than 4 feet apart measured vertically from either end of the stud. Increases in unsupported height are permitted where in compliance with Exception 2 of Section R602.3.1 or designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
  2. Shall not be used in exterior walls.
  3. A habitable attic assembly supported by 2 × 4 studs is limited to a roof span of 32 feet. Where the roof span exceeds 32 feet, the wall studs shall be increased to 2 × 6 or the studs shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.3(1)

TYPICAL WALL, FLOOR AND ROOF FRAMING

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.3(2)

FRAMING DETAILS

The size, height and spacing of studs shall be in accordance with Table R602.3.(5).

Exceptions:

  1. Utility grade studs shall not be spaced more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center, shall not support more than a roof and ceiling, and shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm) in height for exterior walls and load-bearing walls or 10 feet (3048 mm) for interior nonload-bearing walls.
  2. Where snow loads are less than or equal to 25 pounds per square foot (1.2 kPa), and the ultimate design wind speed is less than or equal to 130 mph (58.1 m/s), 2-inch by 6-inch (38 mm by 14 mm) studs supporting a roof load with not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) of tributary length shall have a maximum height of 18 feet (5486 mm) where spaced at 16 inches (406 mm) on center, or 20 feet (6096 mm) where spaced at 12 inches (304.8 mm) on center. Studs shall be minimum No. 2 grade lumber.

Wood stud walls shall be capped with a double top plate installed to provide overlapping at corners and intersections with bearing partitions. End joints in top plates shall be offset not less than 24 inches (610 mm). Joints in plates need not occur over studs. Plates shall be not less than 2-inches (51 mm) nominal thickness and have a width not less than the width of the studs.

Exception: A single top plate used as an alternative to a double top plate shall comply with the following:

  1. The single top plate shall be tied at corners, intersecting walls, and at in-line splices in straight wall lines in accordance with Table R602.3.2.
  2. The rafters or joists shall be centered over the studs with a tolerance of not more than 1 inch (25 mm).
  3. Omission of the top plate is permitted over headers where the headers are adequately tied to adjacent wall sections in accordance with Table R602.3.2.

TABLE R602.3.2

SINGLE TOP-PLATE SPLICE CONNECTION DETAILS

CONDITIONTOP-PLATE SPLICE LOCATION
Corners and intersecting wallsButt joints in straight walls
Splice plate sizeMinimum nails
each side of joint
Splice plate sizeMinimum nails
each side of joint
Structures in SDC A-C; and in SDC
D0, D1 and D2 with braced wall line
spacing less than 25 feet
3″ × 6″ × 0.036″
galvanized steel plate
or equivalent
(6) 8d box
(21/2″ × 0.113″) nails
3' × 12″ × 0.036″
galvanized steel plate
or equivalent
(12) 8d box
(21/2″ × 0.113″) nails
Structures in SDC D0, D1 and D2, with
braced wall line spacing greater than
or equal to 25 feet
3″ × 8″ by 0.036″
galvanized steel plate
or equivalent
(9) 8d box
(21/2″ × 0.113″) nails
3' × 16″ × 0.036″
galvanized steel plate
or equivalent
(18) 8dbox
(21/2″ × 0.113″) nails

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

Where joists, trusses or rafters are spaced more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center and the bearing studs below are spaced 24 inches (610 mm) on center, such members shall bear within 5 inches (127 mm) of the studs beneath.

Exceptions:

  1. The top plates are two 2-inch by 6-inch (38 mm by 140 mm) or two 3-inch by 4-inch (64 mm by 89 mm) members.
  2. A third top plate is installed.
  3. Solid blocking equal in size to the studs is installed to reinforce the double top plate.
Studs shall have full bearing on a nominal 2-by (51 mm) or larger plate or sill having a width not less than to the width of the studs.

Braced wall panels located at exterior walls that support roof rafters or trusses (including stories below top story) shall have the framing members connected in accordance with one of the following:

  1. Fastening in accordance with Table R602.3(1) where:

    1. 1.1. The ultimate design wind speed does not exceed 115 mph (51 m/s), the wind exposure category is B, the roof pitch is 5:12 or greater, and the roof span is 32 feet (9754 mm) or less.
    2. 1.2. The net uplift value at the top of a wall does not exceed 100 plf (146 N/mm). The net uplift value shall be determined in accordance with Section R802.11 and shall be permitted to be reduced by 60 plf (86 N/mm) for each full wall above.
  2. Where the net uplift value at the top of a wall exceeds 100 plf (146 N/mm), installing approved uplift framing connectors to provide a continuous load path from the top of the wall to the foundation or to a point where the uplift force is 100 plf (146 N/mm) or less. The net uplift value shall be as determined in Item 1.2.
  3. Wall sheathing and fasteners designed to resist combined uplift and shear forces in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
Interior load-bearing walls shall be constructed, framed and fireblocked as specified for exterior walls.
Interior nonbearing walls shall be permitted to be constructed with 2-inch by 3- inch (51 mm by 76 mm) studs spaced 24 inches (610 mm) on center or, where not part of a braced wall line, 2-inch by 4- inch (51 mm by 102 mm) flat studs spaced at 16 inches (406 mm) on center. Interior nonbearing walls shall be capped with not less than a single top plate. Interior nonbearing walls shall be fireblocked in accordance with Section R602.8.

Drilling and notching of studs shall be in accordance with the following:

  1. Notching. Any stud in an exterior wall or bearing partition shall be permitted to be cut or notched to a depth not exceeding 25 percent of its width. Studs in nonbearing partitions shall be permitted to be notched to a depth not to exceed 40 percent of a single stud width.
  2. Drilling. Any stud shall be permitted to be bored or drilled, provided that the diameter of the resulting hole is not more than 60 percent of the stud width, the edge of the hole is not more than 5/8 inch (16 mm) to the edge of the stud, and the hole is not located in the same section as a cut or notch. Studs located in exterior walls or bearing partitions drilled over 40 percent and up to 60 percent shall be doubled with not more than two successive doubled studs bored. See Figures R602.6(1) and R602.6(2).

    Exception: Use of approved stud shoes is permitted where they are installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

Note: Condition for exterior and bearing walls.

FIGURE R602.6(1)

NOTCHING AND BORED HOLE LIMITATIONS FOR EXTERIOR WALLS AND BEARING WALLS

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R602.6(2)

NOTCHING AND BORED HOLE LIMITATIONS FOR INTERIOR NONBEARING WALLS

When piping or ductwork is placed in or partly in an exterior wall or interior load-bearing wall, necessitating cutting, drilling or notching of the top plate by more than 50 percent of its width, a galvanized metal tie not less than 0.054 inch thick (1.37 mm) (16 ga) and 11/2 inches (38 mm) wide shall be fastened across and to the plate at each side of the opening with not less than eight 10d (0.148 inch diameter) nails having a minimum length of 11/2 inches (38 mm) at each side or equivalent. The metal tie must extend a minimum of 6 inches past the opening. See Figure R602.6.1.

Exception: When the entire side of the wall with the notch or cut is covered by wood structural panel sheathing.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R602.6.1

TOP PLATE FRAMING TO ACCOMMODATE PIPING

For header spans, see Tables R602.7(1), R602.7(2) and R602.7(3).

TABLE R602.7(1)

GIRDER SPANSa AND HEADER SPANSa FOR EXTERIOR BEARING WALLS (Maximum spans for Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pine and spruce-pine-firb and required number of jack studs)

GIRDERS AND
HEADERS
SUPPORTING
SIZEGROUND SNOW LOAD (psf)e
305070
Building widthc (feet)
202836202836202836
SpanNJdSpanNJdSpanNJdSpanNJdSpanNJdSpanNJdSpanNJdSpanNJdSpanNJd
Roof and ceiling
1-2 × 84-613-1013-513-913-212-102
1-2 × 105-814-1114-414-914-113-72
1-2 × 126-1115-1125-325-924-823-82
2-2 × 43-613-212-1013-212-912-612-1012-612-31
2-2 × 65-514-814-214-814-113-824-213-823-32
2-2 × 86-1015-1125-425-1125-224-725-424-724-12
2-2 × 108-527-326-627-326-325-726-625-725-02
2-2 × 129-928-527-628-527-326-627-626-625-103
3-2 × 88-417-516-817-516-525-926-815-925-22
3-2 × 1010-619-128-229-127-1027-028-227-026-42
3-2 × 1212-2210-729-5210-729-228-229-528-227-42
4-2 × 89-218-417-818-417-516-817-816-815-112
4-2 × 1011-8110-619-5210-619-128-229-528-227-32
4-2 × 1214-1112-2210-11212-2210-729-5210-1129-528-52
Roof, ceiling and
one center-
bearing floor
1-2 × 83-1113-513-013-713-022-82
1-2 × 105-024-423-1024-623-1123-42
1-2 × 125-1024-924-225-524-223-42
2-2 × 43-112-912-512-912-512-212-712-312-01
2-2 × 64-614-013-724-113-723-323-923-322-112
2-2 × 85-925-024-625-224-624-124-924-223-92
2-2 × 107-026-225-626-425-625-025-925-124-73
2-2 × 128-127-126-527-426-525-936-825-1035-33
3-2 × 87-216-325-826-525-825-125-1125-224-82
3-2 × 108-927-826-1127-1126-1126-327-326-425-82
3-2 × 1210-228-1128-029-228-027-328-527-426-72
4-2 × 88-117-316-717-516-615-1126-1016-025-52
4-2 × 1010-118-1028-029-128-027-228-427-426-72
4-2 × 1211-9210-329-3210-729-328-429-828-627-72
Roof, ceiling
and one clear-
span floor
1-2 × 83-613-012-813-512-1112-72
1-2 × 104-613-1013-314-413-913-12
1-2 × 125-614-223-325-423-1123-12
2-2 × 42-812-412-112-712-312-012-512-111-101
2-2 × 63-1113-523-023-1023-423-023-623-122-92
2-2 × 85-024-423-1024-1024-223-924-623-1123-62
2-2 × 106-125-324-825-1125-124-735-624-924-33
2-2 × 127-126-135-536-1025-1135-436-425-635-03
3-2 × 86-325-524-1026-125-324-825-724-1124-52
3-2 × 107-726-725-1127-526-525-926-1026-025-42
3-2 × 128-1027-826-1028-727-526-827-1126-1126-32
4-2 × 87-216-325-727-016-125-526-615-825-12
4-2 × 108-927-726-1028-727-526-727-1126-1126-22
4-2 × 1210-228-1027-1129-1128-727-829-228-027-22
Roof, ceiling
and two center-
bearing floors
2-2 × 42-712-312-012-612-211-1112-412-011-91
2-2 × 63-923-322-1123-823-222-1023-523-022-82
2-2 × 84-924-223-924-724-023-824-423-923-52
2-2 × 105-925-124-735-824-1124-535-324-734-23
2-2 × 126-825-1035-336-625-935-236-135-434-103
3-2 × 85-1125-224-825-925-124-725-524-924-32
3-2 × 107-326-425-827-126-225-726-725-925-32
3-2 × 128-527-426-728-227-226-537-826-926-13
4-2 × 86-1016-025-526-815-1025-326-325-624-112
4-2 × 108-427-426-728-227-226-527-726-826-02
4-2 × 129-828-627-829-528-327-528-1027-927-02
Roof, ceiling,
and two clear-
span floors
2-2 × 42-111-811-622-011-811-522-011-811-52
2-2 × 63-122-822-423-022-722-322-1122-722-32
2-2 × 83-1023-423-033-1023-422-1133-923-322-113
2-2 × 104-924-133-834-824-033-734-734-033-63
2-2 × 125-634-934-335-534-834-235-434-734-14
3-2 × 84-1024-223-924-924-123-824-824-123-82
3-2 × 105-1125-124-735-1025-024-635-924-1124-53
3-2 × 126-1025-1135-436-925-1035-336-825-935-23
4-2 × 85-724-1024-425-624-924-325-524-824-22
4-2 × 106-1025-1125-326-925-1025-226-725-925-12
4-2 × 127-1126-1026-237-926-926-037-826-825-113

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.

  1. Spans are given in feet and inches.
  2. No. 1 or better grade lumber shall be used for southern pine. Other tabulated values assume #2 grade lumber.
  3. Building width is measured perpendicular to the ridge. For widths between those shown, spans are permitted to be interpolated.
  4. NJ = Number of jack studs required to support each end. Where the number of required jack studs equals one, the header is permitted to be supported by an approved framing anchor attached to the full-height wall stud and to the header.
  5. Use 30 psf ground snow load for cases in which ground snow load is less than 30 psf and the roof live load is equal to or less than 20 psf.

TABLE R602.7(2)

GIRDER SPANSa AND HEADER SPANSa FOR INTERIOR BEARING WALLS (Maximum spans for Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pine and spruce-pine-firb and required number of jack studs)

HEADERS AND
GIRDERS
SUPPORTING
SIZEBUILDING Widthc (feet)
202836
SpanNJdSpanNJdSpanNJd
One floor only2-2 × 43-112-812-51
2-2 × 64-613-1113-61
2-2 × 85-915-024-52
2-2 × 107-026-125-52
2-2 × 128-127-026-32
3-2 × 87-216-315-72
3-2 × 108-917-726-92
3-2 × 1210-228-1027-102
4-2 × 89-017-816-91
4-2 × 1010-118-917-102
4-2 × 1211-9110-229-12
Two floors2-2 × 42-211-1011-71
2-2 × 63-222-922-52
2-2 × 84-123-623-22
2-2 × 104-1124-323-103
2-2 × 125-925-034-53
3-2 × 85-124-523-112
3-2 × 106-225-424-102
3-2 × 127-226-325-73
4-2 × 86-115-324-82
4-2 × 107-226-225-62
4-2 × 128-427-226-52

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

  1. Spans are given in feet and inches.
  2. No. 1 or better grade lumber shall be used for southern pine. Other tabulated values assume #2 grade lumber.
  3. Building width is measured perpendicular to the ridge. For widths between those shown, spans are permitted to be interpolated.
  4. NJ = Number of jack studs required to support each end. Where the number of required jack studs equals one, the header is permitted to be supported by an approved framing anchor attached to the full-height wall stud and to the header.

TABLE R602.7(3)

GIRDER AND HEADER SPANSa FOR OPEN PORCHES (Maximum span for Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pine and spruce-pine-firb)

SIZESUPPORTING ROOFSUPPORTING FLOOR
GROUND SNOW LOAD (psf)
305070
DEPTH OF PORCHc (feet)
814814814814
2-2 × 67-65-86-24-85-44-06-44-9
2-2 × 810-17-78-36-27-15-48-56-4
2-2 × 1012-49-410-17-78-96-710-47-9
2-2 × 1214-410-1011-88-1010-17-811-119-0

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.

  1. Spans are given in feet and inches.
  2. Tabulated values assume #2 grade grade lumber, wet service and incising for refractory species. Use 30 psf ground snow load for cases in which ground snow load is less than 30 psf and the roof live load is equal to or less than 20 psf.
  3. Porch depth is measured horizontally from building face to centerline of the header. For depths between those shown, spans are permitted to be interpolated.

Single headers shall be framed with a single flat 2-inch-nominal (51 mm) member or wall plate not less in width than the wall studs on the top and bottom of the header in accordance with Figures R602.7.1(1) and R602.7.1(2) and face nailed to the top and bottom of the header with 10d box nails (3 inches × 0.128 inches) spaced 12 inches on center.

FIGURE R602.7.1(1)

SINGLE MEMBER HEADER IN EXTERIOR BEARING WALL

FIGURE R602.7.1(2)

ALTERNATIVE SINGLE MEMBER HEADER WITHOUT CRIPPLE

Rim board header size, material and span shall be in accordance with Table R602.7(1). Rim board headers shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R602.7.2 and shall be supported at each end by full-height studs. The number of full-height studs at each end shall be not less than the number of studs displaced by half of the header span based on the maximum stud spacing in accordance with Table R602.3(5). Rim board headers supporting concentrated loads shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

For SI: 25.4 mm = 1 inch.

FIGURE R602.7.2

RIM BOARD HEADER CONSTRUCTION

Wood structural panel box headers shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R602.7.3 and Table R602.7.3.

TABLE R602.7.3

MAXIMUM SPANS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL BOX HEADERSa

HEADER CONSTRUCTIONb
HEADER DEPTH
(inches)
HOUSE DEPTH (feet)
242628 3032
Wood structural panel–one side9
15
4
5
4
5
3
4
3
3
3
Wood structural panel–both sides
9
15
7
8
5
8
5
7
4
7
3
6

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

  1. Spans are based on single story with clear-span trussed roof or two story with floor and roof supported by interior-bearing walls.
  2. See Figure R602.7.3 for construction details.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

NOTES:

  1. The top and bottom plates shall be continuous at header location.
  2. Jack studs shall be used for spans over 4 feet.
  3. Cripple spacing shall be the same as for studs.
  4. Wood structural panel faces shall be single pieces of 15/32-inch-thick Exposure 1 (exterior glue) or thicker, installed on the interior or exterior or both sides of the header.
  5. Wood structural panel faces shall be nailed to framing and cripples with 8d common or galvanized box nails spaced 3 inches on center, staggering alternate nails 1/2 inch. Galvanized nails shall be hot-dipped or tumbled.

FIGURE R602.7.3

TYPICAL WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL BOX HEADER CONSTRUCTION

Load-bearing headers are not required in interior or exterior nonbearing walls. A single flat 2-inch by 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) member shall be permitted to be used as a header in interior or exterior nonbearing walls for openings up to 8 feet (2438 mm) in width if the vertical distance to the parallel nailing surface above is not more than 24 inches (610 mm). For such nonbearing headers, cripples or blocking are not required above the header.

Headers shall be supported on each end with one or more jack studs or with approved framing anchors in accordance with Table R602.7(1) or R602.7(2). The full-height stud adjacent to each end of the header shall be end nailed to each end of the header with four-16d nails (3.5 inches × 0.135 inches). The minimum number of full-height studs at each end of a header shall be in accordance with Table R602.7.5.

TABLE R602.7.5

MINIMUM NUMBER OF FULL-HEIGHT STUDS AT EACH END OF HEADERS IN EXTERIOR WALLS

HEADER SPAN
(feet)
MAXIMUM STUD SPACING (inches)
[per Table R602.3(5)]
1624
≤3'11
4'21
8'32
12'53
16'64
Fireblocking shall be provided in accordance with Section R302.11.

Foundation cripple walls shall be framed of studs not smaller than the studding above. When exceeding 4 feet (1219 mm) in height, such walls shall be framed of studs having the size required for an additional story.

Cripple walls with a stud height less than 14 inches (356 mm) shall be continuously sheathed on one side with wood structural panels fastened to both the top and bottom plates in accordance with Table R602.3(1), or the cripple walls shall be constructed of solid blocking.

Cripple walls shall be supported on continuous foundations.

Buildings shall be braced in accordance with this section or, when applicable, Section R602.12. Where a building, or portion thereof, does not comply with one or more of the bracing requirements in this section, those portions shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Section R301.1.
For the purpose of determining the amount and location of bracing required in each story level of a building, braced wall lines shall be designated as straight lines in the building plan placed in accordance with this section.

The length of a braced wall line shall be the distance between its ends. The end of a braced wall line shall be the intersection with a perpendicular braced wall line, an angled braced wall line as permitted in Section R602.10.1.4 or an exterior wall as shown in Figure R602.10.1.1.

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.1.1

BRACED WALL LINES

Exterior walls parallel to a braced wall line shall be offset not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) from the designated braced wall line location as shown in Figure R602.10.1.1. Interior walls used as bracing shall be offset not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) from a braced wall line through the interior of the building as shown in Figure R602.10.1.1.

The spacing between parallel braced wall lines shall be in accordance with Table R602.10.1.3. Intermediate braced wall lines through the interior of the building shall be permitted.

TABLE R602.10.1.3

BRACED WALL LINE SPACING

APPLICATIONCONDITIONBUILDING TYPEBRACED WALL LINE SPACING CRITERIA
Maximum SpacingException to Maximum Spacing
Wind bracingUltimate design
wind speed 100 mph
to < 140 mph
Detached,60 feetNone
Seismic bracingSDC A – CDetachedUse wind bracing
SDC A – BTownhouseUse wind bracing
SDCCTownhouse35 feetUp to 50 feet when length of required bracing per
Table R602.10.3(3) is adjusted in accordance with
SDC D0, D1, D2Detached,
and two-story only
25 feetUp to 35 feet to allow for a single room not to exceed
900 square feet. Spacing of all other braced wall lines
shall not exceed 25 feet.
SDC D0, D1, D2Detached,25 feetUp to 35 feet when length of required bracing per
Table R602.10.3(3) is adjusted in accordance with

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

Any portion of a wall along a braced wall line shall be permitted to angle out of plane for a maximum diagonal length of 8 feet (2438 mm). Where the angled wall occurs at a corner, the length of the braced wall line shall be measured from the projected corner as shown in Figure R602.10.1.4. Where the diagonal length is greater than 8 feet (2438 mm), it shall be considered a separate braced wall line and shall be braced in accordance with Section R602.10.1.

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.1.4

ANGLED WALLS

Braced wall panels shall be full-height sections of wall that shall not have vertical or horizontal offsets. Braced wall panels shall be constructed and placed along a braced wall line in accordance with this section and the bracing methods specified in Section R602.10.4.
The bracing lengths in Table R602.10.3(1) apply only when uplift loads are resisted in accordance with Section R602.3.5.

A braced wall panel shall begin within 10 feet (3810 mm) from each end of a braced wall line as determined in Section R602.10.1.1. The distance between adjacent edges of braced wall panels along a braced wall line shall be not greater than 20 feet (6096 mm) as shown in Figure R602.10.2.2.

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.2.2

LOCATION OF BRACED WALL PANELS

Braced wall panels shall be located at each end of a braced wall line.

Exception: Braced wall panels constructed of Method WSP or BV-WSP and continuous sheathing methods as specified in Section R602.10.4 shall be permitted to begin not more than 10 feet (3048 mm) from each end of a braced wall line provided each end complies with one of the following:

  1. A minimum 24-inch-wide (610 mm) panel for Methods WSP, CS-WSP, CS-G and CS-PF is applied to each side of the building corner as shown in End Condition 4 of Figure R602.10.7.
  2. The end of each braced wall panel closest to the end of the braced wall line shall have an 1,800 lb (8 kN) hold-down device fastened to the stud at the edge of the braced wall panel closest to the corner and to the foundation or framing below as shown in End Condition 5 of Figure R602.10.7.
Braced wall lines with a length of 16 feet (4877 mm) or less shall have not less than two braced wall panels of any length or one braced wall panel equal to 48 inches (1219 mm) or more. Braced wall lines greater than 16 feet (4877 mm) shall have not less than two braced wall panels.

The required length of bracing along each braced wall line shall be determined as follows:

  1. All buildings in Seismic Design Categories A and B shall use Table R602.10.3(1) and the applicable adjustment factors in Table R602.10.3(2).
  2. Detached buildings in Seismic Design Category C shall use Table R602.10.3(1) and the applicable adjustment factors in Table R602.10.3(2).
  3. Townhouses in Seismic Design Category C shall use the greater value determined from Table R602.10.3(1) or R602.10.3(3) and the applicable adjustment factors in Table R602.10.3(2) or R602.10.3(4), respectively.
  4. All buildings in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 shall use the greater value determined from Table R602.10.3(1) or R602.10.3(3) and the applicable adjustment factors in Table R602.10.3(2) or R602.10.3(4), respectively.

Only braced wall panels parallel to the braced wall line shall contribute toward the required length of bracing of that braced wall line. Braced wall panels along an angled wall meeting the minimum length requirements of Tables R602.10.5 and R602.10.5.2 shall be permitted to contribute its projected length toward the minimum required length of bracing for the braced wall line as shown in Figure R602.10.1.4. Any braced wall panel on an angled wall at the end of a braced wall line shall contribute its projected length for only one of the braced wall lines at the projected corner.

Exception: The length of wall bracing for dwellings in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 with stone or masonry veneer installed in accordance with Section R703.8 and exceeding the first-story height shall be in accordance with Section R602.10.6.5.

TABLE R602.10.3(1)

BRACING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON WIND SPEED

• EXPOSURE CATEGORY B
• 30-FOOT MEAN ROOF HEIGHT
• 10-FOOT WALL HEIGHT
MINIMUM TOTAL LENGTH (FEET) OF BRACED WALL PANELS
REQUIRED ALONG EACH BRACED WALL LINEa
Ultimate
Design Wind
Speed
(mph)
Story LocationBraced Wall Line
Spacingc
(feet)
Method LIBbMethod GBMethods
DWB, WSP, SFB,
PBS, PCP, HPS,
BV-WSP, ABW, PFH,
PFC, CS-SFB
Methods
CS-WSP, CS-G,
CS-PF
≤ 110103.53.52.01.5
206.06.03.53.0
308.58.55.04.5
4011.511.56.55.5
5014.014.08.07.0
6016.516.59.58.0
106.56.53.53.0
2011.511.56.55.5
3016.516.59.58.0
4021.521.512.510.5
5026.526.515.513.0
6031.531.518.015.5
10NP9.55.54.5
20NP17.010.08.5
30NP24.514.012.0
40NP32.018.515.5
50NP39.522.519.0
60NP46.526.523.0
≤ 115103.53.52.02.0
206.56.53.53.5
309.59.55.54.5
4012.512.57.06.0
5015.015.09.07.5
6018.018.010.59.0
107.07.04.03.5
2012.512.57.56.5
3018.018.010.59.0
4023.523.513.511.5
5029.029.016.514.0
6034.534.520.017.0
10NP10.06.05.0
20NP18.511.09.0
30NP27.015.513.0
40NP35.020.017.0
50NP43.024.521.0
60NP51.029.025.0
≤ 120104.04.02.52.0
207.07.04.03.5
3010.510.56.05.0
4013.513.58.06.5
5016.516.59.58.0
6019.519.511.59.5
107.57.54.53.5
2014.014.08.07.0
3020.020.011.59.5
4025.525.515.012.5
5031.531.518.015.5
6037.537.521.518.5
10NP11.06.55.5
20NP20.511.510.0
30NP29.017.014.5
40NP38.022.018.5
50NP47.027.023.0
60NP55.532.027.0
≤ 130104.54.52.52.5
208.58.55.04.0
3012.012.07.06.0
4015.515.59.07.5
5019.519.511.09.5
6023.023.013.011.0
108.58.55.04.5
2016.016.09.58.0
3023.023.013.511.5
4030.030.017.515.0
5037.037.021.518.0
6044.044.025.021.5
10NP13.07.56.5
20NP24.013.511.5
30NP34.519.517.0
40NP44.525.522.0
50NP55.031.526.5
60NP65.037.531.5
< 140105.55.53.02.5
2010.010.05.55.0
3014.014.08.07.0
4018.018.010.59.0
5022.522.513.011.0
6026.526.515.013.0
1010.010.06.05.0
2018.518.511.09.0
3027.027.015.513.0
4035.035.020.017.0
5043.043.024.521.0
6051.051.029.025.0
10NP15.08.57.5
20NP27.516.013.5
30NP39.523.019.5
40NP51.529.525.0
50NP63.536.531.0
60NP75.543.036.5

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

  1. Linear interpolation shall be permitted.
  2. Method LIB shall have gypsum board fastened to not less than one side with nails or screws in accordance with Table R602.3(1) for exterior sheathing or Table R702.3.5 for interior gypsum board. Spacing of fasteners at panel edges shall not exceed 8 inches.
  3. Where a braced wall line has parallel braced wall lines on one or both sides of differing dimensions, the average dimension shall be permitted to be used for braced wall line spacing.

TABLE R602.10.3(2)

WIND ADJUSTMENT FACTORS TO THE REQUIRED LENGTH OF WALL BRACING

ITEM
NUMBER
ADJUSTMENT BASED ONSTORY/SUPPORTINGCONDITIONADJUSTMENT
FACTORa, b
[multiply length from
Table R602.10.3(1) by
this factor]
APPLICABLE METHODS
1Exposure categoryOne-story
structure
B1.00All methods
C1.20
D1.50
Two-story
structure
B1.00
C1.30
D1.60
Three-story
structure
B1.00
C1.40
D1.70
2Roof eave-to-ridge
height
Roof only≤ 5 feet0.70
10 feet1.00
15 feet1.30
20 feet1.60
Roof + 1 floor≤ 5 feet0.85
10 feet1.00
15 feet1.15
20 feet1.30
Roof + 2 floors≤ 5 feet0.90
10 feet1.00
15 feet1.10
20 feetNot permitted
3Wall height
adjustment
Any story8 feet0.90
9 feet0.95
10 feet1.00
11 feet1.05
12 feet1.10
4Number of braced
wall lines (per plan
direction)c
Any story21.00
31.30
41.45
≥ 51.60
5Additional 800-pound
hold-down device
Top story onlyFastened to the end
studs of each braced
wall panel and to the
foundation or framing
below
0.80DWB, WSP, SFB,
PBS, PCP, HPS
6Interior gypsum board
finish (or equivalent)
Any storyOmitted from inside face1.40DWB, WSP, SFB,
PBS, PCP, HPS, CS-
WSP, CS-G, CS-SFB
7Gypsum board
fastening
Any story4 inches o.c. at panel
edges, including top
and bottom plates, and
all horizontal joints
blocked
0.7GB

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.48 N.

  1. Linear interpolation shall be permitted.
  2. The total adjustment factor is the product of all applicable adjustment factors.
  3. The adjustment factor is permitted to be 1.0 when determining bracing amounts for intermediate braced wall lines provided the bracing amounts on adjacent braced wall lines are based on a spacing and number that neglects the intermediate braced wall line.

TABLE R602.10.3(3)

BRACING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY

• SOIL CLASS Db
• WALL HEIGHT = 10 FEET
• 10 PSF FLOOR DEAD LOAD
• 15 PSF ROOF/CEILING DEAD LOAD
BRACED WALL LINE SPACING ≤ 25 FEET
MINIMUM TOTAL LENGTH (FEET) OF BRACED WALL PANELS
REQUIRED ALONG EACH BRACED WALL LINEa
Seismic Design
Category
Story LocationBraced Wall Line
Length
(feet)c
Method LIBdMethod GBMethods
DWB, SFB, PBS,
PCP, HPS,
CS-SFBe
Method
WSP
Methods
CS-WSP,
CS-G
C
(townhouses only)
102.52.52.51.61.4
205.05.05.03.22.7
307.57.57.54.84.1
4010.010.010.06.45.4
5012.512.512.58.06.8
10NP4.54.53.02.6
20NP9.09.06.05.1
30NP13.513.59.07.7
40NP18.018.012.010.2
50NP22.522.515.012.8
10NP6.06.04.53.8
20NP12.012.09.07.7
30NP18.018.013.511.5
40NP24.024.018.015.3
50NP30.030.022.519.1
D010NP2.82.81.81.6
20NP5.55.53.63.1
30NP8.38.35.44.6
40NP11.011.07.26.1
50NP13.813.89.07.7
10NP5.35.33.83.2
20NP10.510.57.56.4
30NP15.815.811.39.6
40NP21.021.015.012.8
50NP26.326.318.816.0
10NP7.37.35.34.5
20NP14.514.510.59.0
30NP21.821.815.813.4
40NP29.029.021.017.9
50NP36.336.326.322.3
D110NP3.03.02.01.7
20NP6.06.04.03.4
30NP9.09.06.05.1
40NP12.012.08.06.8
50NP15.015.010.08.5
10NP6.06.04.53.8
20NP12.012.09.07.7
30NP18.018.013.511.5
40NP24.024.018.015.3
50NP30.030.022.519.1
10NP8.58.56.05.1
20NP17.017.012.010.2
30NP25.525.518.015.3
40NP34.034.024.020.4
50NP42.542.530.025.5
D210NP4.04.02.52.1
20NP8.08.05.04.3
30NP12.012.07.56.4
40NP16.016.010.08.5
50NP20.020.012.510.6
10NP7.57.55.54.7
20NP15.015.011.09.4
30NP22.522.516.514.0
40NP30.030.022.018.7
50NP37.537.527.523.4
10NPNPNPNPNP
20NPNPNPNPNP
30NPNPNPNPNP
40NPNPNPNPNP
50NPNPNPNPNP
Cripple wall below
one- or two-story dwelling
10NPNPNP7.56.4
20NPNPNP15.012.8
30NPNPNP22.519.1
40NPNPNP30.025.5
50NPNPNP37.531.9

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.

  1. Linear interpolation shall be permitted.
  2. Wall bracing lengths are based on a soil site class “D.” Interpolation of bracing length between the Sds values associated with the seismic design categories shall be permitted when a site-specific Sds value is determined in accordance with Section 1613.3 of the Florida Building Code, Building.
  3. Where the braced wall line length is greater than 50 feet, braced wall lines shall be permitted to be divided into shorter segments having lengths of 50 feet or less, and the amount of bracing within each segment shall be in accordance with this table.
  4. Method LIB shall have gypsum board fastened to not less than one side with nails or screws in accordance with Table R602.3(1) for exterior sheathing or Table R702.3.5 for interior gypsum board. Spacing of fasteners at panel edges shall not exceed 8 inches.
  5. Method CS-SFB does not apply in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2.

TABLE R602.10.3(4)

SEISMIC ADJUSTMENT FACTORS TO THE REQUIRED LENGTH OF WALL BRACING

ITEM
NUMBER
ADJUSTMENT
BASED ON:
STORYCONDITIONADJUSTMENT
FACTORa, b
[Multiply length
from
Table R602.10.3(3) by this
factor]
APPLICABLE
METHODS
1Story height
(Section 301.3)
Any story≤ 10 feet1.0All methods
> 10 feet and ≤ 12 feet1.2
2Braced wall line
spacing, townhouses
in SDC C
Any story≤ 35 feet1.0
> 35 feet and ≤ 50 feet1.43
3Braced wall line
spacing, in
SDC D0, D1, D2c
Any story> 25 feet and ≤ 30 feet1.2
> 30 feet and ≤ 35 feet1.4
4Wall dead loadAny story> 8 psf and < 15 psf1.0
< 8 psf0.85
5Roof/ceiling dead load
for wall supporting
1-, 2- or 3-story building≤ 15 psf1.0
2- or 3-story building> 15 psf and ≤ 25 psf1.1
1-story building> 15 psf and ≤ 25 psf1.2
6Walls with stone or
masonry veneer,
SDC Cd, e
1.0All methods
1.5
1.5
7Walls with stone or
masonry veneer,
detached one- and
two-family dwellings
in SDC D0 – D2d, f
Any storySee Table R602.10.6.5BV-WSP
8
Interior gypsum board
finish (or equivalent)
Any storyOmitted from
inside face of braced
wall panels
1.5
DWB, WSP,
SFB, PBS, PCP,
HPS,
CS-WSP, CS-G,
CS-SFB

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.

  1. Linear interpolation shall be permitted.
  2. The total length of bracing required for a given wall line is the product of all applicable adjustment factors.
  3. The length-to-width ratio for the floor/roof diaphragm shall not exceed 3:1. The top plate lap splice nailing shall be in accordance with Table R602.3(1), Item 13.
  4. Applies to stone or masonry veneer exceeding the first story height.
  5. The adjustment factor for stone or masonry veneer shall be applied to all exterior braced wall lines and all braced wall lines on the interior of the building, backing or perpendicular to and laterally supported veneered walls.
  6. See Section R602.10.6.5 for requirements where stone or masonry veneer does not exceed the first-story height.

Intermittent and continuously sheathed braced wall panels shall be constructed in accordance with this section and the methods listed in Table R602.10.4.

TABLE R602.10.4

BRACING METHODS

METHODS, MATERIALMINIMUM THICKNESSFIGURECONNECTION CRITERIAa
FastenersSpacing
Intermittent Bracing MethodLIB
Let-in-bracing
1 × 4 wood or
approved metal straps
at 45° to 60° angles for
maximum 16″
stud spacing
Wood: 2-8d common nails
or
3-8d (21/2″ long x 0.113″ dia.) nails
Wood: per stud and
top and bottom plates
Metal strap: per manufacturerMetal:
per manufacturer
DWB
Diagonal
wood boards
3/4″(1″ nominal) for
maximum 24″
stud spacing
2-8d (21/2″ long × 0.113″ dia.) nails
or
2 - 13/4″ long staples
Per stud
WSP
Wood
structural panel
3/8Exterior sheathing per6″ edges 12″ field
Interior sheathing perVaries by fastener
BV-WSPe
Wood structural
panels with stone
or masonry veneer
(See
7/16See Figure R602.10.6.58d common (21/2″ × 0.131) nails4″ at panel edges
12″ at intermediate
supports 4″ at braced
wall panel end posts
SFB
Structural
fiberboard
sheathing
1/2″ or 25/32″ for
maximum 16″
stud spacing
11/2″ long × 0.12″ dia. (for 1/2″ thick
sheathing) 13/4″ long × 0.12″ dia.
(for 25/32″ thick sheathing)
galvanized roofing nails or 8d common (21/2″ long × 0.131" dia.) nails
3″ edges 6″ field
GB1/2Nails or screws per Table R602.3(1) for
exterior locations
For all braced wall
panel locations: 7″
edges (including top
and bottom plates) 7″
field
Nails or screws per Table R702.3.5 for
interior locations
PBS
Particleboard
sheathing
3/8″ or 1/2″ for
maximum 16″
stud spacing
For 3/8″, 6d common
(2″ long × 0.113″ dia.) nails
For 1/2″, 8d common
(21/2″ long × 0.131″ dia.) nails
3″ edges 6″ field
PCP
Portland
See Section R703.6 for
maximum 16″
stud spacing
11/2″ long, 11 gage, 7/16″ dia. head nails
or
7/8″ long, 16 gage staples
6″ o.c. on all framing
members
HPS
Hardboard
panel siding
7/16″ for maximum 16″
stud spacing
0.092″ dia., 0.225″ dia. head nails with
length to accommodate 11/2
penetration into studs
4″ edges 8″ field
ABW
Alternate
braced wall
3/8See Section R602.10.6.1See
Intermittent Bracing MethodsPFH
Portal frame with
hold-downs
3/8See Section R602.10.6.2See Section R602.10.6.2
PFG
Portal frame at garage
7/16See Section R602.10.6.3See Section R602.10.6.3
Continuous Sheathing MethodsCS-WSP
Continuously sheathed
3/8Exterior sheathing per6″ edges 12″ field
Interior sheathing perVaries by fastener
CS-Gb, c
Continuously sheathed
adjacent to garage
openings
3/8See Method CS-WSPSee Method CS-WSP
CS-PF
Continuously sheathed
portal frame
7/16See Section R602.10.6.4See Section R602.10.6.4
CS-SFBd
Continuously sheathed
structural fiberboard
1/2″ or 25/32″ for
maximum 16″
stud spacing
11/2″ long × 0.12″ dia.
(for 1/2″ thick sheathing)
13/4″ long × 0.12″ dia.
(for 25/32″ thick sheathing)
galvanized roofing nails or
8d common
(21/2" long × 0.131" dia.) nails
3″ edges 6″ field

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 degree = 0.0175 rad, 1 pound per square foot = 47.8 N/m2, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

  1. Adhesive attachment of wall sheathing, including Method GB, shall not be permitted in Seismic Design Categories C, D0, D1 and D2.
  2. Applies to panels next to garage door opening where supporting gable end wall or roof load only. Shall only be used on one wall of the garage. In Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2, roof covering dead load shall not exceed 3 psf.
  3. Garage openings adjacent to a Method CS-G panel shall be provided with a header in accordance with Table R602.7(1). A full-height clear opening shall not be permitted adjacent to a Method CS-G panel.
  4. Method CS-SFB does not apply in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2.
  5. Method applies to detached one- and two-family dwellings in Seismic Design Categories D0 through D2 only.

Mixing of bracing methods shall be permitted as follows:

  1. Mixing intermittent bracing and continuous sheathing methods from story to story shall be permitted.
  2. Mixing intermittent bracing methods from braced wall line to braced wall line within a story shall be permitted. In regions within Seismic Design Categories A, B and C where the ultimate design wind speed is less than or equal to 130 mph (58m/s), mixing of intermittent bracing and continuous sheathing methods from braced wall line to braced wall line within a story shall be permitted.
  3. Mixing intermittent bracing methods along a braced wall line shall be permitted in Seismic Design Categories A and B, and detached dwellings in Seismic Design Category C, provided the length of required bracing in accordance with Table R602.10.3(1) or R602.10.3(3) is the highest value of all intermittent bracing methods used.
  4. Mixing of continuous sheathing methods CS-WSP, CS-G and CS-PF along a braced wall line shall be permitted. Intermittent methods ABW, PFH and PFG shall be permitted to be used along a braced wall line with continuous sheathed methods
  5. In Seismic Design Categories A and B, and for detached one- and two-family dwellings in Seismic Design Category C, mixing of intermittent bracing methods along the interior portion of a braced wall line with continuous sheathing methods CS-WSP, CS-G and CS-PF along the exterior portion of the same braced wall line shall be permitted. The length of required bracing shall be the highest value of all intermittent bracing methods used in accordance with Table R602.10.3(1) or R602.10.3(3) as adjusted by Tables R602.10.3(2) and R602.10.3(4), respectively. The requirements of Section R602.10.7 shall apply to each end of the continuously sheathed portion of the braced wall line.
Continuous sheathing methods require structural panel sheathing to be used on all sheathable surfaces on one side of a braced wall line including areas above and below openings and gable end walls and shall meet the requirements of Section R602.10.7.

Braced wall panels shall have gypsum wall board installed on the side of the wall opposite the bracing material. Gypsum wall board shall be not less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) in thickness and be fastened with nails or screws in accordance with Table R602.3(1) for exterior sheathing or Table R702.3.5 for interior gypsum wall board. Spacing of fasteners at panel edges for gypsum wall board opposite Method LIB bracing shall not exceed 8 inches (203 mm). Interior finish material shall not be glued in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2.

Exceptions:

  1. Interior finish material is not required opposite wall panels that are braced in accordance with Methods GB, BV-WSP, ABW, PFH, PFG and CS-PF, unless otherwise required by Section R302.6.
  2. An approved interior finish material with an in-plane shear resistance equivalent to gypsum board shall be permitted to be substituted, unless otherwise required by Section R302.6.
  3. Except for Method LIB, gypsum wall board is permitted to be omitted provided the required length of bracing in Tables R602.10.3(1) and R602.10.3(3) is multiplied by the appropriate adjustment factor in Tables R602.10.3(2) and R602.10.3(4), respectively, unless otherwise required by Section R302.6.

The minimum length of a braced wall panel shall comply with Table R602.10.5. For Methods CS-WSP and CS-SFB, the minimum panel length shall be based on the adjacent clear opening height in accordance with Table R602.10.5 and Figure R602.10.5. Where a panel has an opening on either side of differing heights, the taller opening height shall be used to determine the panel length.

TABLE R602.10.5

MINIMUM LENGTH OF BRACED WALL PANELS

METHODMINIMUM LENGTHa
(inches)
CONTRIBUTING LENGTH
(inches)
Wall Height
8 feet9 feet10 feet11 feet12 feet
DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP, HPS, BV-WSP4848485358Actualb
GB4848485358Double sided = Actual
Single sided = 0.5 × Actual
LIB556269NPNPActualb
ABWSDC A, B and C, ultimate
design wind speed < 140 mph
283234384248
SDC D0, D1 and D2, ultimate
design wind speed < 140 mph
323234NPNP
PFHSupporting roof only16161618c20c48
Supporting one story and roof24242427c29c48
PFG24273033d36d1.5 × Actualb
CS-G2427303336Actualb
CS-PFSDC A, B and C16182022e24e1.5 × Actualb
SDC D0, D1 and D216182022e24eActualb
CS-WSP, CS-SFBAdjacent clear opening height
(inches)
≤ 642427303336Actualb
682627303336
722727303336
763029303336
803230303336
843532323336
883835333336
924337353536
964841383636
10044403838
10449434039
10854464341
112504543
116554845
120605248
1245651
1286154
1326658
13662
14066
14472
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

NP = Not Permitted.

  1. Linear interpolation shall be permitted.
  2. Use the actual length where it is greater than or equal to the minimum length.
  3. Maximum header height for PFH is 10 feet in accordance with Figure R602.10.6.2, but wall height shall be permitted to be increased to 12 feet with pony wall.
  4. Maximum opening height for PFG is 10 feet in accordance with Figure R602.10.6.3, but wall height shall be permitted to be increased to 12 feet with pony wall.
  5. Maximum opening height for CS-PF is 10 feet in accordance with Figure R602.10.6.4, but wall height shall be permitted to be increased to 12 feet with pony wall.

FIGURE R602.10.5

BRACED WALL PANELS WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHING

For purposes of computing the required length of bracing in Tables R602.10.3(1) and R602.10.3(3), the contributing length of each braced wall panel shall be as specified in Table R602.10.5.

For Methods DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP and HPS in Seismic Design Categories A, B and C, panels between 36 inches and 48 inches (914 mm and 1219 mm)) in length shall be considered a braced wall panel and shall be permitted to partially contribute toward the required length of bracing in Tables R602.10.3(1) and R602.10.3(3), and the contributing length shall be determined from Table R602.10.5.2.

TABLE R602.10.5.2

PARTIAL CREDIT FOR BRACED WALL PANELS LESS THAN 48 INCHES IN ACTUAL LENGTH

ACTUAL LENGTH OF BRACED WALL PANEL
(inches)
CONTRIBUTING LENGTH OF BRACED WALL PANEL
(inches)a
8-foot Wall Height9-foot Wall Height
484848
423636
3627N/A
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

N/A = Not Applicable.

  1. Linear interpolation shall be permitted.
Methods ABW, PFH, PFG, CS-PF and BV-WSP shall be constructed as specified in Sections R602.10.6.1 through R602.10.6.5.

Method ABW braced wall panels shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R602.10.6.1. The hold-down force shall be in accordance with Table R602.10.6.1.

TABLE R602.10.6.1

MINIMUM HOLD-DOWN FORCES FOR METHOD ABW BRACED WALL PANELS

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY AND WIND SPEEDSUPPORTING/STORYHOLD-DOWN FORCE (pounds)
Height of Braced Wall Panel
8 feet9 feet 10 feet 11 feet 12 feet
SDC A, B and C
Ultimate design wind speed < 140 mph
One story1,8001,8001,8002,0002,200
First of two stories3,0003,0003,0003,3003,600
SDC D0, D1 and D2
Ultimate design wind speed <140 mph
One story1,8001,8001,800NPNP
First of two stories3,0003,0003,000NPNP

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.45 N, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

NP = Not Permitted.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.6.1

METHOD ABW—ALTERNATE BRACED WALL PANEL

Method PFH braced wall panels shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R602.10.6.2.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.6.2

METHOD PFH—PORTAL FRAME WITH HOLD-DOWNS

Where supporting a roof or one story and a roof, a Method PFG braced wall panel constructed in accordance with Figure R602.10.6.3 shall be permitted on either side of garage door openings.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.6.3

METHOD PFG—PORTAL FRAME AT GARAGE DOOR OPENINGS IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES A, B AND C

Continuously sheathed portal frame braced wall panels shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R602.10.6.4 and Table R602.10.6.4. The number of continuously sheathed portal frame panels in a single braced wall line shall not exceed four.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.6.4

METHOD CS-PF—CONTINUOUSLY SHEATHED PORTAL FRAME PANEL CONSTRUCTION

TABLE R602.10.6.4

TENSION STRAP CAPACITY FOR RESISTING WIND PRESSURES PERPENDICULAR TO METHODS PFH, PFG AND CS-PF BRACED WALL PANELS

MINIMUM WALL STUD
FRAMING NOMINAL SIZE AND
MAXIMUM PONY
WALL HEIGHT
(feet)
MAXIMUM
TOTAL WALL
HEIGHT
(feet)
MAXIMUM
OPENING
WIDTH
(feet)
TENSION STRAP CAPACITY REQUIRED (pounds)a, b
Ultimate Design Wind Speed Vult (mph)
110115130110115130
Exposure BExposure C
2 × 4 No. 2 Grade010181,0001,0001,0001,0001,0001,050
11091,0001,0001,0001,0001,0001,750
161,0001,0252,0502,0752,5003,950
181,0001,2752,3752,4002,850DR
21091,0001,0001,4751,5001,8753,125
161,7752,1753,5253,5504,125DR
182,0752,5003,9503,975DRDR
21291,1501,5002,6502,6753,175DR
162,8753,375DRDRDRDR
183,4253,975DRDRDRDR
41292,2752,750DRDRDRDR
123,2253,775DRDRDRDR
2 × 6 Stud Grade21291,0001,0001,7001,7002,0253,050
161,8252,1503,2253,2253,675DR
182,2002,5503,7253,750DRDR
41291,4501,7502,7002,7253,125DR
162,0502,400DRDRDRDR
183,3503,800DRDRDRDR

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

  1. DR = Design Required.
  2. Straps shall be installed in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations.

Where stone and masonry veneer are installed in accordance with Section R703.8, wall bracing on exterior braced wall lines and braced wall lines on the interior of the building, backing or perpendicular to and laterally supporting veneered walls shall comply with this section.

Where dwellings in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 have stone or masonry veneer installed in accordance with Section R703.8, and the veneer does not exceed the first-story height, wall bracing shall be in accordance with Section R602.10.3.

Where detached one- or two-family dwellings in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 have stone or masonry veneer installed in accordance with Section R703.8, and the veneer exceeds the first-story height, wall bracing at exterior braced wall lines and braced wall lines on the interior of the building shall be constructed using Method BV-WSP in accordance with this section and Figure R602.10.6.5. Cripple walls shall not be permitted, and required interior braced wall lines shall be supported on continuous foundations.

Townhouses in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 with stone or masonry veneer exceeding the first-story height shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

TABLE R602.10.6.5

METHOD BV-WSP WALL BRACING REQUIREMENTS

SEISMIC DESIGN
CATEGORY
STORYBRACED WALL LINE LENGTH (FEET)SINGLE-STORY
HOLD-DOWN
FORCE
(pounds)a
CUMULATIVE
HOLD-DOWN
FORCE
(pounds)b
1020304050
Minimum Total Length (feet) of Braced Wall Panels
Required Along each Braced Wall Line
D04.07.010.514.017.5N/A
4.07.010.514.017.51900
4.59.013.518.022.535005400
6.012.018.024.030.035008900
D14.59.013.518.022.52100
4.59.013.518.022.537005800
6.012.018.024.030.037009500
D25.511.016.522.027.52300
5.511.016.522.027.539006200
NPNPNPNPNPN/AN/A
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.479 kPa, 1 pound-force = 4.448 N.

NP = Not Permitted.

N/A = Not Applicable.

  1. Hold-down force is minimum allowable stress design load for connector providing uplift tie from wall framing at end of braced wall panel at the noted story to wall framing at end of braced wall panel at the story below, or to foundation or foundation wall. Use single-story hold-down force where edges of braced wall panels do not align; a continuous load path to the foundation shall be maintained.
  2. Where hold-down connectors from stories above align with stories below, use cumulative hold-down force to size middle- and bottom-story hold-down connectors.

Note: Hold downs should be strap ties, tension ties, or other approved hold-down devices and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

FIGURE R602.10.6.5

METHOD BV-WSP—WALL BRACING FOR DWELLINGS WITH STONE AND MASONRY VENEER IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES D0, D1 and D2

The length of bracing along each braced wall line shall be the greater of that required by the ultimate design wind speed and braced wall line spacing in accordance with Table R602.10.3(1) as adjusted by the factors in Table R602.10.3(2) or the seismic design category and braced wall line length in accordance with Table R602.10.6.5. Angled walls shall be permitted to be counted in accordance with Section R602.10.1.4, and braced wall panel location shall be in accordance with Section R602.10.2.2. Spacing between braced wall lines shall be in accordance with Table R602.10.1.3. The seismic adjustment factors in Table R602.10.3(4) shall not be applied to the length of bracing determined using Table R602.10.6.5, except that the bracing amount increase for braced wall line spacing greater than 25 feet (7620 mm) in accordance with Table R602.10.1.3 shall be required. The minimum total length of bracing in a braced wall line, after all adjustments have been taken, shall not be less than 48 inches (1219 mm) total.

Each end of a braced wall line with continuous sheathing shall have one of the conditions shown in Figure R602.10.7.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.45 N.

FIGURE R602.10.7

END CONDITIONS FOR BRACED WALL LINES WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHING

Braced wall panels shall be connected to floor framing or foundations as follows:

  1. Where joists are perpendicular to a braced wall panel above or below, a rim joist, band joist or blocking shall be provided along the entire length of the braced wall panel in accordance with Figure R602.10.8(1). Fastening of top and bottom wall plates to framing, rim joist, band joist and/or blocking shall be in accordance with Table R602.3(1).
  2. Where joists are parallel to a braced wall panel above or below, a rim joist, end joist or other parallel framing member shall be provided directly above and below the braced wall panel in accordance with Figure R602.10.8(2). Where a parallel framing member cannot be located directly above and below the panel, full-depth blocking at 16-inch (406 mm) spacing shall be provided between the parallel framing members to each side of the braced wall panel in accordance with Figure R602.10.8(2). Fastening of blocking and wall plates shall be in accordance with Table R602.3(1) and Figure R602.10.8(2).
  3. Connections of braced wall panels to concrete or masonry shall be in accordance with Section R403.1.6.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.8(1)

BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION WHEN PERPENDICULAR TO FLOOR/CEILING FRAMING

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.8(2)

BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION WHEN PARALLEL TO FLOOR/CEILING FRAMING

Braced wall panels shall be fastened to required foundations in accordance with Section R602.11.1, and top plate lap splices shall be face-nailed with not less than eight 16d nails on each side of the splice.

Top plates of exterior braced wall panels shall be attached to rafters or roof trusses above in accordance with Table R602.3(1) and this section. Where required by this section, blocking between rafters or roof trusses shall be attached to top plates of braced wall panels and to rafters and roof trusses in accordance with Table R602.3(1). A continuous band, rim or header joist or roof truss parallel to the braced wall panels shall be permitted to replace the blocking required by this section. Blocking shall not be required over openings in continuously sheathed braced wall lines. In addition to the requirements of this section, lateral support shall be provided for rafters and ceiling joists in accordance with Section R802.8 and for trusses in accordance with Section R802.10.3. Roof ventilation shall be provided in accordance with Section R806.1.

  1. For Seismic Design Categories A, B and C where the distance from the top of the braced wall panel to the top of the rafters or roof trusses above is 91/4 inches (235 mm) or less, blocking between rafters or roof trusses shall not be required. Where the distance from the top of the braced wall panel to the top of the rafters or roof trusses above is between 91/4 inches (235 mm) and 151/4 inches (387 mm), blocking between rafters or roof trusses shall be provided above the braced wall panel in accordance with Figure R602.10.8.2(1).

    Exception: Where the outside edge of truss vertical web members aligns with the outside face of the wall studs below, wood structural panel sheathing extending above the top plate as shown in Figure R602.10.8.2(3) shall be permitted to be fastened to each truss web with three-8d nails (21/2 inches × 0.131 inch) and blocking between the trusses shall not be required.

  2. For Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2, where the distance from the top of the braced wall panel to the top of the rafters or roof trusses is 151/4 inches (387 mm) or less, blocking between rafters or roof trusses shall be provided above the braced wall panel in accordance with Figure R602.10.8.2(1).
  3. Where the distance from the top of the braced wall panel to the top of rafters or roof trusses exceeds 151/4 inches (387 mm), the top plates of the braced wall panel shall be connected to perpendicular rafters or roof trusses above in accordance with one or more of the following methods:

    1. 3.1. Soffit blocking panels constructed in accordance with Figure R602.10.8.2(2).
    2. 3.2. Vertical blocking panels constructed in accordance with Figure R602.10.8.2(3).
    3. 3.3. Blocking panels provided by the roof truss manufacturer and designed in accordance with Section R802.
    4. 3.4. Blocking, blocking panels or other methods of lateral load transfer designed in accordance with the AWC WFCM or accepted engineering practice.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.8.2(1)

BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION TO PERPENDICULAR RAFTERS

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

  1. Methods of bracing shall be as described in Section R602.10.4.

FIGURE R602.10.8.2(2)

BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION OPTION TO PERPENDICULAR RAFTERS OR ROOF TRUSSES

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot =304.8 mm

  1. Methods of bracing shall be as described in Section R602.10.4.

FIGURE R602.10.8.2(3)

BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION OPTION TO PERPENDICULAR RAFTERS OR ROOF TRUSSES

Braced wall panel support shall be provided as follows:

  1. Cantilevered floor joists complying with Section R502.3.3 shall be permitted to support braced wall panels.
  2. Raised floor system post or pier foundations supporting braced wall panels shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
  3. Masonry stem walls with a length of 48 inches (1219 mm) or less supporting braced wall panels shall be reinforced in accordance with Figure R602.10.9. Masonry stem walls with a length greater than 48 inches (1219 mm) supporting braced wall panels shall be constructed in accordance with Section R403.1 Methods ABW and PFH shall not be permitted to attach to masonry stem walls.
  4. Concrete stem walls with a length of 48 inches (1219 mm) or less, greater than 12 inches (305 mm) tall and less than 6 inches (152 mm) thick shall have reinforcement sized and located in accordance with Figure R602.10.9.

NOTE: GROUT BOND BEAMS AND ALL CELLS THAT CONTAIN REBAR, THREADED RODS AND ANCHOR BOLTS.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.9

MASONRY STEM WALLS SUPPORTING BRACED WALL PANELS

In Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2, braced wall panel footings shall be as specified in Section R403.1.2.

Vertical joints of panel sheathing shall occur over, and be fastened to, common studs. Horizontal joints in braced wall panels shall occur over, and be fastened to, common blocking of a minimum 11/2 inch (38 mm) thickness.

Exceptions:

  1. Vertical joints of panel sheathing shall be permitted to occur over double studs, where adjoining panel edges are attached to separate studs with the required panel edge fastening schedule, and the adjacent studs are attached together with two rows of 10d box nails [3 inches by 0.128 inch (76.2 mm by 3.25 mm)] at 10 inches o.c. (254 mm).
  2. Blocking at horizontal joints shall not be required in wall segments that are not counted as braced wall panels.
  3. Where the bracing length provided is not less than twice the minimum length required by Tables R602.10.3(1) and R602.10.3(3), blocking at horizontal joints shall not be required in braced wall panels constructed using Methods WSP, SFB, GB, PBS or HPS.
  4. Where Method GB panels are installed horizontally, blocking of horizontal joints is not required.
Cripple walls shall be constructed in accordance with Section R602.9 and braced in accordance with this section. Cripple walls shall be braced with the length and method of bracing used for the wall above in accordance with Tables R602.10.3(1) and R602.10.3(3), and the applicable adjustment factors in Table R602.10.3(2) or R602.10.3(4), respectively, except that the length of cripple wall bracing shall be multiplied by a factor of 1.15. Where gypsum wall board is not used on the inside of the cripple wall bracing, the length adjustments for the elimination of the gypsum wallboard, or equivalent, shall be applied as directed in Tables R602.10.3(2) and R602.10.3(4) to the length of cripple wall bracing required. This adjustment shall be taken in addition to the 1.15 increase.

In addition to the requirements in Section R602.10.11, the distance between adjacent edges of braced wall panels for cripple walls along a braced wall line shall be 14 feet (4267 mm) maximum.

Where braced wall lines at interior walls are not supported on a continuous foundation below, the adjacent parallel cripple walls, where provided, shall be braced with Method WSP or Method CS-WSP in accordance with Section R602.10.4. The length of bracing required in accordance with Table R602.10.3(3) for the cripple walls shall be multiplied by 1.5. Where the cripple walls do not have sufficient length to provide the required bracing, the spacing of panel edge fasteners shall be reduced to 4 inches (102 mm) on center and the required bracing length adjusted by 0.7. If the required length can still not be provided, the cripple wall shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

In Seismic Design Category D2, cripple walls shall be braced in accordance with Tables R602.10.3(3) and R602.10.3(4).
Where all cripple wall segments along a braced wall line do not exceed 48 inches (1219 mm) in height, the cripple walls shall be permitted to be redesignated as a first-story wall for purposes of determining wall bracing requirements. Where any cripple wall segment in a braced wall line exceeds 48 inches (1219 mm) in height, the entire cripple wall shall be counted as an additional story. If the cripple walls are redesignated, the stories above the redesignated story shall be counted as the second and third stories, respectively.
Braced wall line sills shall be anchored to concrete or masonry foundations in accordance with Sections R403.1.6 and R602.11.1.
Plate washers, not less than 0.229 inch by 3 inches by 3 inches (5.8 mm by 76 mm by 76 mm) in size, shall be provided between the foundation sill plate and the nut except where approved anchor straps are used. The hole in the plate washer is permitted to be diagonally slotted with a width of up to 3/16 inch (5 mm) larger than the bolt diameter and a slot length not to exceed 13/4 inches (44 mm), provided a standard cut washer is placed between the plate washer and the nut.

In all buildings located in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 or D2, where the height of a required braced wall line that extends from foundation to floor above varies more than 4 feet (1219 mm), the braced wall line shall be constructed in accordance with the following:

  1. Where the lowest floor framing rests directly on a sill bolted to a foundation not less than 8 feet (2440 mm) in length along a line of bracing, the line shall be considered as braced. The double plate of the cripple stud wall beyond the segment of footing that extends to the lowest framed floor shall be spliced by extending the upper top plate not less than 4 feet (1219 mm) along the foundation. Anchor bolts shall be located not more than 1 foot and 3 feet (305 and 914 mm) from the step in the foundation. See Figure R602.11.2.
  2. Where cripple walls occur between the top of the foundation and the lowest floor framing, the bracing requirements of Sections R602.10.11, R602.10.11.1 and R602.10.11.2 shall apply.
  3. Where only the bottom of the foundation is stepped and the lowest floor framing rests directly on a sill bolted to the foundations, the requirements of Sections R403.1.6 and R602.11.1 shall apply.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

Note: Where footing Section “A” is less than 8 feet long in a 25-foot-long wall, install bracing at cripple stud wall.

FIGURE R602.11.2

STEPPED FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION

Buildings meeting all of the conditions listed below shall be permitted to be braced in accordance with this section as an alternate to the requirements of Section R602.10. The entire building shall be braced in accordance with this section; the use of other bracing provisions of Section R602.10, except as specified herein, shall not be permitted.

  1. There shall be not more than three stories above the top of a concrete or masonry foundation or basement wall. Permanent wood foundations shall not be permitted.
  2. Floors shall not cantilever more than 24 inches (607 mm) beyond the foundation or bearing wall below.
  3. Wall height shall not be greater than 10 feet (3048 mm).
  4. The building shall have a roof eave-to-ridge height of 15 feet (4572 mm) or less.
  5. Exterior walls shall have gypsum board with a minimum thickness of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) installed on the interior side fastened in accordance with Table R702.3.5.
  6. The structure shall be located where the ultimate design wind speed is less than or equal to 130 mph (58 m/s), and the exposure category is B or C.
  7. The structure shall be located in Seismic Design Category A, B or C for detached one- and two-family dwellings or Seismic Design Category A or B for townhouses.
  8. Cripple walls shall not be permitted in three-story buildings.

The bracing required for each building shall be determined by circumscribing a rectangle around the entire building on each floor as shown in Figure R602.12.1. The rectangle shall surround all enclosed offsets and projections such as sunrooms and attached garages. Open structures, such as carports and decks, shall be permitted to be excluded. The rectangle shall not have a side greater than 60 feet (18 288 mm), and the ratio between the long side and short side shall be not greater than 3:1.

FIGURE R602.12.1

RECTANGLE CIRCUMSCRIBING AN ENCLOSED BUILDING

The following sheathing materials installed on the exterior side of exterior walls shall be used to construct a bracing unit as defined in Section R602.12.3. Mixing materials is prohibited.

  1. Wood structural panels with a minimum thickness of 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) fastened in accordance with Table R602.3(3).
  2. Structural fiberboard sheathing with a minimum thickness of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) fastened in accordance with Table R602.3(1).

A bracing unit shall be a full-height sheathed segment of the exterior wall without openings or vertical or horizontal offsets and a minimum length as specified herein. Interior walls shall not contribute toward the amount of required bracing. Mixing of Items 1 and 2 is prohibited on the same story.

  1. Where all framed portions of all exterior walls are sheathed in accordance with Section R602.12.2, including wall areas between bracing units, above and below openings and on gable end walls, the minimum length of a bracing unit shall be 3 feet (914 mm).
  2. Where the exterior walls are braced with sheathing panels in accordance with Section R602.12.2 and areas between bracing units are covered with other materials, the minimum length of a bracing unit shall be 4 feet (1219 mm).
Segments of wall compliant with Section R602.12.3 and longer than the minimum bracing unit length shall be considered as multiple bracing units. The number of bracing units shall be determined by dividing the wall segment length by the minimum bracing unit length. Full-height sheathed segments of wall narrower than the minimum bracing unit length shall not contribute toward a bracing unit except as specified in Section R602.12.6.

Each side of the circumscribed rectangle, as shown in Figure R602.12.1, shall have, at a minimum, the number of bracing units in accordance with Table R602.12.4 placed on the parallel exterior walls facing the side of the rectangle. Bracing units shall then be placed using the distribution requirements specified in Section R602.12.5.

TABLE R602.12.4

MINIMUM NUMBER OF BRACING UNITS ON EACH SIDE OF THE CIRCUMSCRIBED RECTANGLE

ULTIMATE
DESIGN WIND
SPEED
(mph)
STORY LEVELEAVE-TO-RIDGE
HEIGHT
(feet)
MINIMUM NUMBER OF BRACING
UNITS ON EACH LONG SIDEa, b, d
MINIMUM NUMBER OF BRACING
UNITS ON EACH SHORT SIDEa, b, d
Length of short side (feet)cLength of long side (feet)c
102030405060102030405060
11510122233122233
233456233456
234678234678
15123344123344
234567234567
245679245679
13010122334122334
234567234567
24578102457810
15233446233446
34678103467810
367101113367101113

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

  1. Interpolation shall not be permitted.
  2. Cripple walls or wood-framed basement walls in a walk-out condition shall be designated as the first story and the stories above shall be redesignated as the second and third stories, respectively, and shall be prohibited in a three-story structure.
  3. Actual lengths of the sides of the circumscribed rectangle shall be rounded to the next highest unit of 10 when using this table.
  4. For Exposure Category C, multiply bracing units by a factor of 1.20 for a one-story building, 1.30 for a two-story building and 1.40 for a three-story building.

The placement of bracing units on exterior walls shall meet all of the following requirements as shown in Figure R602.12.5.

  1. A bracing unit shall begin not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) from any wall corner.
  2. The distance between adjacent edges of bracing units shall be not greater than 20 feet (6096 mm).
  3. Segments of wall greater than 8 feet (2438 mm) in length shall have not less than one bracing unit.

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.12.5

BRACING UNIT DISTRIBUTION

The bracing methods referenced in Section R602.10 and specified in Sections R602.12.6.1 through R602.12.6.3 shall be permitted when using simplified wall bracing.
Braced wall panels constructed as Method CS-G in accordance with Tables R602.10.4 and R602.10.5 shall be permitted for one-story garages where all framed portions of all exterior walls are sheathed with wood structural panels. Each CS-G panel shall be equivalent to 0.5 of a bracing unit. Segments of wall that include a Method CS-G panel shall meet the requirements of Section R602.10.4.2.
Braced wall panels constructed as Method CS-PF in accordance with Section R602.10.6.4 shall be permitted where all framed portions of all exterior walls are sheathed with wood structural panels. Each CS-PF panel shall equal 0.75 bracing units. Not more than four CS-PF panels shall be permitted on all segments of walls parallel to each side of the circumscribed rectangle. Segments of wall that include a Method CS-PF panel shall meet the requirements of Section R602.10.4.2.
Braced wall panels constructed as Method ABW, PFH and PFG shall be permitted where bracing units are constructed using wood structural panels applied either continuously or intermittently. Each ABW and PFH panel shall equal one bracing unit and each PFG panel shall be equal to 0.75 bracing unit.
For bracing units located along the eaves, the vertical distance from the outside edge of the top wall plate to the roof sheathing above shall not exceed 9.25 inches (235 mm) at the location of a bracing unit unless lateral support is provided in accordance with Section R602.10.8.2.
Masonry stem walls with a height and length of 48 inches (1219 mm) or less supporting a bracing unit or a Method CS-G, CS-PF or PFG braced wall panel shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R602.10.9. Concrete stem walls with a length of 48 inches (1219 mm) or less, greater than 12 inches (305 mm) tall and less than 6 inches (152 mm) thick shall be reinforced sized and located in accordance with Figure R602.10.9.
Elements shall be straight and free of any defects that would significantly affect structural performance. Cold-formed steel wall framing members shall be in accordance with the requirements of this section.
The provisions of this section shall control the construction of exterior cold-formed steel wall framing and interior load-bearing cold-formed steel wall framing for buildings not more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) long perpendicular to the joist or truss span, not more than 40 feet (12 192 mm) wide parallel to the joist or truss span, and less than or equal to three stories above grade plane. Exterior walls installed in accordance with the provisions of this section shall be considered as loadbearing walls. Cold-formed steel walls constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section shall be limited to sites where the ultimate design wind speed is less than 139 miles per hour (62 m/s), Exposure Category B or C, and the ground snow load is less than or equal to 70 pounds per square foot (3.35 kPa).

Load-bearing cold-formed steel studs constructed in accordance with Section R603 shall be located in-line with joists, trusses and rafters in accordance with Figure R603.1.2 and the tolerances specified as follows:

  1. The maximum tolerance shall be 3/4 inch (19 mm) between the centerline of the horizontal framing member and the centerline of the vertical framing member.
  2. Where the centerline of the horizontal framing member and bearing stiffener is located to one side of the centerline of the vertical framing member, the maximum tolerance shall be 1/8 inch (3 mm) between the web of the horizontal framing member and the edge of the vertical framing member.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm,

FIGURE R603.1.2

IN-LINE FRAMING

Load-bearing cold-formed steel wall framing members shall be in accordance with this section.
Load-bearing cold-formed steel framing members shall be cold formed to shape from structuralquality sheet steel complying with the requirements of ASTM A1003: Structural Grades 33 Type H and 50 Type H.

Load-bearing cold-formed steel framing shall have a metallic coating complying with ASTM A1003 and one of the following:

  1. A minimum of G 60 in accordance with ASTM A653.
  2. A minimum of AZ 50 in accordance with ASTM A792.

Load-bearing cold-formed steel wall framing members shall comply with Figure R603.2.3(1) and with the dimensional and thickness requirements specified in Table R603.2.3. Additionally, C-shaped sections shall have a minimum flange width of 15/8 inches (41 mm) and a maximum flange width of 2 inches (51 mm). The minimum lip size for C-shaped sections shall be 1/2 inch (12.7 mm). Track sections shall comply with Figure R603.2.3(2) and shall have a minimum flange width of 11/4 inches (32 mm). Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used wherever 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses are specified. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used wherever 54 and 68 mil thicknesses are specified.

FIGURE R603.2.3(1)

C-SHAPED SECTION

FIGURE R603.2.3(2)

TRACK SECTION

TABLE R603.2.3

LOAD-BEARING COLD-FORMED STEEL STUD SIZES AND THICKNESSES

MEMBER
DESIGNATIONa
WEB DEPTH
(inches)
MINIMUM BASE STEEL THICKNESS
mil (inches)
350S162-t3.533 (0.0329), 43 (0.0428), 54 (0.0538)
550S162-t5.533 (0.0329), 43 (0.0428), 54 (0.0538), 68 (0.0677)

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 mil = 0.0254 mm.

  1. The member designation is defined by the first number representing the member depth in hundredths of an inch, “S” representing a stud or joist member, the second number representing the flange width in hundredths of an inch, and the letter “t” shall be a number representing the minimum base metal thickness in mils.

Load-bearing cold-formed steel framing members shall have a legible label, stencil, stamp or embossment with the following information as a minimum:

  1. Manufacturer’s identification.
  2. Minimum base steel thickness in inches (mm).
  3. Minimum coating designation.
  4. Minimum yield strength, in kips per square inch (ksi) (MPa).
Screws for steel-to-steel connections shall be installed with a minimum edge distance and center-to-center spacing of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm), shall be self-drilling tapping and shall conform to ASTM C1513. Structural sheathing shall be attached to cold-formed steel studs with minimum No. 8 self-drilling tapping screws that conform to ASTM C1513. Screws for attaching structural sheathing to cold-formed steel wall framing shall have a minimum head diameter of 0.292 inch (7.4 mm) with countersunk heads and shall be installed with a minimum edge distance of 3/8 inch (9.5 mm). Gypsum board shall be attached to cold-formed steel wall framing with minimum No. 6 screws conforming to ASTM C954 or ASTM C1513 with a bugle-head style and shall be installed in accordance with Section R702. For connections, screws shall extend through the steel a minimum of three exposed threads. Fasteners shall have rust-inhibitive coating suitable for the installation in which they are being used, or be manufactured from material not susceptible to corrosion.
Web holes, web hole reinforcing and web hole patching shall be in accordance with this section.

Web holes in wall studs and other structural members shall comply with all of the following conditions:

  1. Holes shall conform to Figure R603.2.6.1.
  2. Holes shall be permitted only along the centerline of the web of the framing member.
  3. Holes shall have a center-to-center spacing of not less than 24 inches (610 mm).
  4. Holes shall have a web hole width not greater than 0.5 times the member depth, or 11/2 inches (38 mm).
  5. Holes shall have a web hole length not exceeding 41/2 inches (114 mm).
  6. Holes shall have a minimum distance between the edge of the bearing surface and the edge of the web hole of not less than 10 inches (254 mm).

Framing members with web holes not conforming to the above requirements shall be reinforced in accordance with Section R603.2.6.2, patched in accordance with Section R603.2.6.3 or designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R603.2.6.1

WALL STUD WEB HOLES

Web holes in gable endwall studs not conforming to the requirements of Section R603.2.6.1 shall be permitted to be reinforced if the hole is located fully within the center 40 percent of the span and the depth and length of the hole does not exceed 65 percent of the flat width of the web. The reinforcing shall be a steel plate or C-shape section with a hole that does not exceed the web hole size limitations of Section R603.2.6.1 for the member being reinforced. The steel reinforcing shall be the same thickness as the receiving member and shall extend not less than 1 inch (25 mm) beyond all edges of the hole. The steel reinforcing shall be fastened to the web of the receiving member with No. 8 screws spaced not more than 1 inch (25 mm) center-to-center along the edges of the patch with minimum edge distance of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm).

Web holes in wall studs and other structural members not conforming to the requirements in Section R603.2.6.1 shall be permitted to be patched in accordance with either of the following methods:

  1. Framing members shall be replaced or designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice where web holes exceed the following size limits:

    1. 1.1. The depth of the hole, measured across the web, exceeds 70 percent of the flat width of the web.
    2. 1.2. The length of the hole measured along the web exceeds 10 inches (254 mm) or the depth of the web, whichever is greater.
  2. Web holes not exceeding the dimensional requirements in Section R603.2.6.3, Item 1, shall be patched with a solid steel plate, stud section or track section in accordance with Figure R603.2.6.3. The steel patch shall, as a minimum, be the same thickness as the receiving member and shall extend not less than1 inch (25 mm) beyond all edges of the hole. The steel patch shall be fastened to the web of the receiving member with No. 8 screws spaced not more than 1 inch (25 mm) center-to-center along the edges of the patch with a minimum edge distance of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm).

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R603.2.6.3

WALL STUD WEB HOLE PATCH

Exterior cold-formed steel framed walls and interior load-bearing cold-formed steel framed walls shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section.

Coldformed steel framed walls shall be anchored to foundations or floors in accordance with Table R603.3.1 and Figure R603.3.1(1), R603.3.1(2), R603.3.1(3) or R603.3.1(4). Anchor bolts shall be located not more than 12 inches (305 mm) from corners or the termination of bottom tracks. Anchor bolts shall extend not less than 15 inches (381 mm) into masonry or 7 inches (178 mm) into concrete. Foundation anchor straps shall be permitted, in lieu of anchor bolts, if spaced as required to provide equivalent anchorage to the required anchor bolts and installed in accordance with manufacturer’s requirements.

TABLE R603.3.1

WALL TO FOUNDATION OR FLOOR CONNECTION REQUIREMENTSa, b

FRAMING
CONDITION
ULTIMATE WIND SPEED AND EXPOSURE CATEGORY
(mph)
115 B126 B
or 110 C
< 139 B
or 115 C
126 C< 139 C
Wall bottom track to floor per
Figure R603.3.1(1)
1-No. 8 screw at
12″ o.c.
1-No. 8 screw at
12″ o.c.
1-No. 8 screw at
12″ o.c.
2-No. 8 screws at
12″ o.c.
2-No. 8 screws at
12″ o.c.
Wall bottom track to foundation per
Figure R603.3.1(2)d
1/2″ minimum
diameter anchor
bolt at 6' o.c.
1/2″ minimum
diameter anchor
bolt at 4' o.c.
1/2″ minimum
diameter anchor
bolt at 4' o.c.
1/2″ minimum
diameter anchor
bolt at 4' o.c.
1/2″ minimum
diameter anchor
bolt at 4' o.c.
Wall bottom track to wood sill per
Figure R603.3.1(3)
Steel plate spaced
at 4' o.c., with 4-
No. 8 screws and
4-10d or 6-8d
common nails
Steel plate spaced
at 3' o.c., with 4-
No. 8 screws and
4-10d or 6-8d
common nails
Steel plate spaced
at 3' o.c., with 4-
No. 8 screws and
4-10d or 6-8d
common nails
Steel plate spaced
at 2' o.c., with 4-
No. 8 screws and
4-10d or 6-8d
common nails
Steel plate spaced
at 2' o.c., with 4-
No. 8 screws and
4-10d or 6-8d
common nails
Wind uplift
connector
strength
(lbs)c, e
Stud
Spacing
(inches)
Roof Span
(feet)
1624NRNRNR124209
28NRNR62151249
32NRNR79179289
36NRNR94206329
40NR61117239374
2424NRNR69186314
28NRNR93227374
32NRNR117268434
36NR64141309494
40NR92176359562

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.45 N.

  1. Anchor bolts are to be located not more than 12 inches from corners or the termination of bottom tracks such as, at door openings or corners. Bolts are to extend not less than 15 inches into masonry or 7 inches into concrete.
  2. All screw sizes shown are minimum.
  3. NR = Uplift connector not required.
  4. Foundation anchor straps are permitted in place of anchor bolts, if spaced as required to provide equivalent anchorage to the required anchor bolts and installed in accordance with manufacturer’s requirements.
  5. See Figure R603.3.1(4) for details.

FIGURE R603.3.1(1)

WALL TO FLOOR CONNECTION

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R603.3.1(2)

WALL TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION

For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R603.3.1(3)

WALL TO WOOD SILL CONNECTION

FIGURE R603.3.1(4)

WIND UPLIFT CONNECTOR

Gable endwalls with heights greater than 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be anchored to foundations or floors in accordance with Table R603.3.1.1(1) or R603.3.1.1(2).

TABLE R603.3.1.1(1)

GABLE ENDWALL TO FLOOR CONNECTION REQUIREMENTSa, b, c

ULTIMATE WIND
SPEED
(mph)
WALL BOTTOM TRACK TO FLOOR JOIST OR TRACK CONNECTION
Exposure
Category
Stud height, h (feet)
BC10 < h ≤ 1414 < h ≤ 1818 < h ≤ 22
1151-No. 8 screw @ 12″ o.c.1-No. 8 screw @ 12″ o.c.1-No. 8 screw @ 12″ o.c.
1261101-No. 8 screw @ 12″ o.c.1-No. 8 screw @ 12″ o.c.1-No. 8 screw @ 12″ o.c.
< 1391151-No. 8 screw @ 12″ o.c.1-No. 8 screw @ 12″ o.c.2-No. 8 screws @ 12″ o.c.
1261-No. 8 screw @ 12″ o.c.2-No. 8 screws @ 12″ o.c.1-No. 8 screw @ 8″ o.c.
< 1392-No. 8 screws @ 12″ o.c.1-No. 8 screw @ 8″ o.c.2-No. 8 screws @ 8″ o.c.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

  1. Refer to Table R603.3.1.1(2) for gable endwall bottom track to foundation connections.
  2. Where attachment is not given, special design is required.
  3. Stud height, h, is measured from wall bottom track to wall top track or brace connection height.

TABLE R603.3.1.1(2)

GABLE ENDWALL BOTTOM TRACK TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION REQUIREMENTSa, b, c

ULTIMATE WIND SPEED
(mph)
MINIMUM SPACING FOR 1/2-INCH-DIAMETER ANCHOR BOLTSd
Exposure CategoryStud height, h (feet)
BC10 < h1414 < h1818 < h22
1156'- 0″ o.c.5'- 7″ o.c.6'- 0″ o.c.
1261105'- 10″ o.c.6'- 0″ o.c.6'- 0″ o.c.
< 1391154'- 10″ o.c.5'- 6″ o.c.6'- 0″ o.c.
1264'- 1″ o.c.6'- 0″ o.c.6'- 0″ o.c.
< 1395'- 1″ o.c.6'- 0″ o.c.5'- 2″ o.c.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

  1. Refer to Table R603.3.1.1(1) for gable endwall bottom track to floor joist or track connection connections.
  2. Where attachment is not given, special design is required.
  3. Stud height, h, is measured from wall bottom track to wall top track or brace connection height.
  4. Foundation anchor straps are permitted in place of anchor bolts if spaced as required to provide equivalent anchorage to the required anchor bolts and installed in accordance with manufacturer’s requirements.

Cold-formed steel walls shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R603.3.1(1), R603.3.1(2) or R603.3.1(3), as applicable. Exterior wall stud size and thickness shall be determined in accordance with the limits set forth in Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(16). Interior load-bearing wall stud size and thickness shall be determined in accordance with the limits set forth in Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(16) based upon an ultimate design wind speed of 115 miles per hour (51 m/s), Exposure Category B, and the building width, stud spacing and snow load, as appropriate. Fastening requirements shall be in accordance with Section R603.2.5 and Table R603.3.2(1). Top and bottom tracks shall have the same minimum thickness as the wall studs.

Exterior wall studs shall be permitted to be reduced to the next thinner size, as shown in Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(16), but not less than 33 mils (0.84 mm), where both of the following conditions exist:

  1. Minimum of 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board is installed and fastened on the interior surface in accordance with Section R702.
  2. Wood structural sheathing panels of minimum 7/16-inch-thick (11.1 mm) oriented strand board or 15/32-inch-thick (12 mm) plywood are installed and fastened in accordance with Section R603.9.1 and Table R603.3.2(1) on the outside surface.

Interior load-bearing walls shall be permitted to be reduced to the next thinner size, as shown in Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(16), but not less than 33 mils (0.84 mm), where not less than 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board is installed and fastened in accordance with Section R702 on both sides of the wall. The tabulated stud thickness for load-bearing walls shall be used when the attic load is 10 pounds per square foot (480 Pa) or less. A limited attic storage load of 20 pounds per square foot (960 Pa) shall be permitted provided that the next higher snow load column is used to select the stud size from Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(16).

For two-story buildings, the tabulated stud thickness for walls supporting one floor, roof and ceiling shall be used when the second-floor live load is 30 pounds per square foot (1440 Pa). Second-floor live loads of 40 psf (1920 Pa) shall be permitted provided that the next higher snow load column is used to select the stud size from Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(11).

For three-story buildings, the tabulated stud thickness for walls supporting one or two floors, roof and ceiling shall be used when the third-floor live load is 30 pounds per square foot (1440 Pa). Third-floor live loads of 40 pounds per square foot (1920 Pa) shall be permitted provided that the next higher snow load column is used to select the stud size from Tables R603.3.2(12) through R603.3.2(16).

TABLE R603.3.2(1)

WALL FASTENING SCHEDULEa

DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING
ELEMENT
NUMBER AND SIZE OF
FASTENERSa
SPACING OF FASTENERS
Wall stud to top or bottom track2-No. 8 screwsEach end of stud, one per flange
Structural sheathing to wall studsNo. 8 screwsb6″ o.c. on edges and 12″ o.c. at intermediate
1/2gypsum board to framingNo. 6 screws12″ o.c.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

  1. All screw sizes shown are minimum.
  2. Screws for attachment of structural sheathing panels are to be bugle-head, flat-head, or similar head styles with a minimum head diameter of 0.29 inch.

TABLE R603.3.2(2)

24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa, b, c, d

ULTIMATE WIND
SPEED AND
EXPOSURE
CATEGORY
(mph)
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs9-foot Studs10-foot Studs
Ground Snow Load (psf)
Exp. BExp. C203050702030507020305070
115350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333334343
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333333333333333333333
126110350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334343434343
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333333333333343
< 139115350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333434343434343434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333333343434343
126350S16216333333333333333343434343
24434343434343434354545454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333434343434343434343
< 139350S16216333333334343434343434343
24434343435454545454545454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24334343434343434343434343

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

  1. Deflection criterion: L/240.
  2. Design load assumptions:

    • Second-floor dead load is 10 psf.
    • Second-floor live load is 30 psf.
    • Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    • Attic live load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.

TABLE R603.3.2(3)

28-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa, b, c, d

ULTIMATE WIND
SPEED AND
EXPOSURE
CATEGORY
(mph)
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs9-foot Studs10-foot Studs
Ground Snow Load (psf)
Exp. BExp. C203050702030507020305070
115350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333434333334354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
126110350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333434343434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
< 139115350S16216333333333333333333333343
24333343434343434343434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334343434343
126350S16216333333333333333343434343
24434343544343435454545454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333434343434343434343
< 139350S16216333333334343434343434343
24434343545454545454545454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24434343434343434343434343

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

  1. Deflection criterion: L/240.
  2. Design load assumptions:

    • Second-floor dead load is 10 psf.
    • Second-floor live load is 30 psf.
    • Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    • Attic live load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.

TABLE R603.3.2(4)

32-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa, b, c, d

ULTIMATE WIND
SPEED AND
EXPOSURE
CATEGORY
(mph)
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs9-foot Studs10-foot Studs
Ground Snow Load (psf)
Exp. BExp. C203050702030507020305070
115350S16216333333333333333333333343
24333343543333434333334354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
126110350S16216333333333333333333333343
24333343543333435443434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
< 139115350S16216333333433333333333333343
24333343544343435443434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334343434343
126350S16216333333433333334343434343
24434343544343435454545454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343434343434343434343
< 139350S16216333333434343434343434343
24434343545454545454545454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24434343434343434343434343

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

  1. Deflection criterion: L/240.
  2. Design load assumptions:

    • Second-floor dead load is 10 psf.
    • Second-floor live load is 30 psf.
    • Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    • Attic live load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.

TABLE R603.3.2(5)

36-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa, b, c, d

ULTIMATE
WIND SPEED
AND EXPOSURE
CATEORY
(mph)
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs9-foot Studs10-foot Studs
Ground Snow Load (psf)
Exp. BExp. C203050702030507020305070
115350S16216333333433333334333333343
24333343543333435433434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333434333334343
126110350S16216333333433333334333333343
24333343543333435443435454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333434333334343
< 139115350S16216333333433333333333333343
24333343544343434343435454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333434343434343
126350S16216333333433333334343434343
24434343544343435454545454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343434343434343434343
< 139350S16216333333434343434343434343
24434354545454545454545454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24434343544333434343434354

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,1 ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

  1. Deflection criterion: L/240.
  2. Design load assumptions:

    • Second-floor dead load is 10 psf.
    • Second-floor live load is 30 psf.
    • Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    • Attic live load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.

TABLE R603.3.2(6)

40-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa, b, c, d

ULTIMATE WIND
SPEED AND
EXPOSURE
CATEGORY
(mph)
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs9-foot Studs10-foot Studs
Ground Snow Load (psf)
Exp. BExp. C203050702030507020305070
115350S16216333333433333334333333343
24333343543333435443435454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343543333434333334354
126110350S16216333333433333334333334343
24334343543343435443435454
550S16216333333433333333333333333
24333343543333434333334354
< 139115350S16216333333433333334333334343
24334343544343435443435454
550S16216333333433333333333333343
24333343543333434343434354
126350S16216333333433333334343434343
24434354544343545454545454
550S16216333333433333333333333343
24333343544343435443434354
< 139350S16216333343434343434343434354
24434354545454545454545468
550S16216333333433333334333333343
24434343544343435443434354

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

  1. Deflection criterion: L/240.
  2. Design load assumptions:

    • Second-floor dead load is 10 psf.
    • Second-floor live load is 30 psf.
    • Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    • Attic live load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.

TABLE R603.3.2(7)

24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa, b, c, d

ULTIMATE WIND
SPEED AND
EXPOSURE
CATEGORY
(mph)
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs9-foot Studs10-foot Studs
Ground Snow Load (psf)
Exp. BExp. C203050702030507020305070
115350S16216333333333333333333333343
24333343433343434343434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
126110350S16216333333333333333333333343
24334343434343434343434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
< 139115350S16216333333433333333333334343
24434343434343434354545454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334343434343
126350S16216333333433333334343434343
24434343544343545454545454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333434343434343434343
< 139350S16216333333434343434343434343
24434343545454545454545454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24434343434343434343434343

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

  1. Deflection criterion: L/240.
  2. Design load assumptions:

    • Second-floor dead load is 10 psf.
    • Second-floor live load is 30 psf.
    • Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    • Attic live load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.

TABLE R603.3.2(8)

28-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa, b, c, d

ULTIMATE WIND
SPEED AND
EXPOSURE
CATEGORY
(mph)
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs9-foot Studs10-foot Studs
Ground Snow Load (psf)
Exp. BExp. C203050702030507020305070
115350S16216333333433333334333333343
24434343544343435443434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333434333334343
126110350S16216333333433333334333334343
24434343544343435443435454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333434333334343
< 139115350S16216333333433333334343434343
24434343544343435454545454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333434343434343
126350S16216333333433333434343434343
24434343545454545454545454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343434343434343434343
< 139350S16216333343434343434343434354
24434354545454545454545454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24434343434343434343434343

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

  1. Deflection criterion: L/240.
  2. Design load assumptions:

    • Second-floor dead load is 10 psf.
    • Second-floor live load is 30 psf.
    • Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    • Attic live load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.

TABLE R603.3.2(9)

32-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa, b, c, d

ULTIMATE WIND
SPEED AND
EXPOSURE
CATEGORY
(mph)
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs9-foot Studs10-foot Studs
Ground Snow Load (psf)
Exp. BExp. C203050702030507020305070
115350S16216333333433333334333334343
24434343544343435443435454
550S16216333333433333333333333343
24334343543333434333334343
126110350S16216333333433333334333434343
24434343544343435454545454
550S16216333333433333333333333343
24334343543333434333334343
< 139115350S16216333343433333334343434343
24434354544343545454545454
550S16216333333433333333333333343
24334343543333434343434354
126350S16216333343434343434343434343
24434354545454545454545454
550S16216333333433333333333333343
24334343544343434343434354
< 139350S16216434343434343434343435454
24545454545454545454545454
550S16216333333433333334333333343
24434343544343434343434354

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

  1. Deflection criterion: L/240.
  2. Design load assumptions:

    • Second-floor dead load is 10 psf.
    • Second-floor live load is 30 psf.
    • Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    • Attic live load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.

TABLE R603.3.2(10)

36-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa, b, c, d

ULTIMATE WIND
SPEED AND
EXPOSURE
CATEGORY
(mph)
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs9-foot Studs10-foot Studs
Ground Snow Load (psf)
Exp. BExp. C203050702030507020305070
115350S16216333343433333434333334343
24434354544343545454545454
550S16216333333433333334333333343
24434343544343435443434354
126110350S16216333343433333434343434343
24434354544343545454545454
550S16216333333433333334333333343
24434343544343435443434354
< 139115350S16216333343433333434343434354
24434354545454545454545454
550S16216333333433333334333333343
24434343544343435443434354
126350S16216333343434343434343434354
24545454545454545454545468
550S16216333333433333334333333343
24434343544343435443434354
< 139350S16216434343434343434343545454
24545454545454545454545468
550S16216333333433333334333333343
24434343544343435443434354

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

  1. Deflection criterion: L/240.
  2. Design load assumptions:

    • Second-floor dead load is 10 psf.
    • Second-floor live load is 30 psf.
    • Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    • Attic live load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.

TABLE R603.3.2(11)

40-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa, b, c, d

ULTIMATE WIND
SPEED AND
EXPOSURE
CATEGORY
(mph)
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs9-foot Studs10-foot Studs
Ground Snow Load (psf)
Exp. BExp. C203050702030507020305070
115350S16216333343433333434343434354
24434354544343545454545454
550S16216333333433333334333333343
24434354544343435443434354
126110350S16216333343433333434343434354
24434354544343545454545454
550S16216333333433333334333333343
24434354544343435443434354
< 139115350S16216333343434343434343434354
24434354545454545454545468
550S16216333343433333334333333343
24434354544343435443434354
126350S16216434343544343435443435454
24545454545454545454545468
550S16216333343433333334333334343
24434354544343435443435454
< 139350S16216434343544343435454545454
24545454685454545454545468
550S16216333343433333334333334343
24434354544343435443435454

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

  1. Deflection criterion: L/240.
  2. Design load assumptions:

    • Second-floor dead load is 10 psf.
    • Second-floor live load is 30 psf.
    • Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    • Attic live load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.

TABLE R603.3.2(12)

24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILINGa, b, c, d

ULTIMATE WIND
SPEED AND
EXPOSURE
CATEGORY
(mph)
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs9-foot Studs10-foot Studs
Ground Snow Load (psf)
Exp. BExp. C203050702030507020305070
115350S16216434343433333334343434343
24545454544343545454545454
550S16216333343433333333333333343
24434354544343434343434354
126110350S16216434343433333334343434343
24545454545454545454545454
550S16216333343433333333333333343
24434354544343434343434354
< 139115350S16216434343434343434343434343
24545454545454545454545454
550S16216333343433333333333333343
24434354544343434343434354
126350S16216434343434343434343434354
24545454545454545454545454
550S16216333343433333333333333343
24434354544343