Buildings and structures, and parts thereof, shall be constructed to safely support all loads, including dead loads, live loads, roof loads, flood loads, snow loads, wind loads and seismic loads as prescribed by this code. The construction of buildings and structures in accordance with the provisions of this code shall result in a system that provides a complete load path that meets the requirements for the transfer of loads from their point of origin through the load-resisting elements to the foundation. Buildings and structures constructed as prescribed by this code are deemed to comply with the requirements of this section.
Exception: Buildings and structures located within the High Velocity Hurricane Zone shall comply with Sections R302 to R327, inclusive and the provisions of Chapter 44, Sections R301.2.5 and R406. In addition, buildings and structures located in flood hazard areas established in Table R301.2(1) shall comply with Sections R301.2.4, R301.2.5 and R322.
As an alternative to the requirements in Section R301.1, the following standards are permitted subject to the limitations of this code and the limitations therein. Where engineered design is used in conjunction with these standards, the design shall comply with the Florida Building Code, Building.
- AF&PA Wood Frame Construction Manual (WFCM).
- AISI Standard for Cold-Formed Steel Framing— Prescriptive Method for One- and Two-Family Dwellings (AISI S230).
- ICC Standard on the Design and Construction of Log Structures (ICC 400).
Buildings shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of this code as limited by the provisions of this section. Additional criteria shall be set forth in Table R301.2(1).
Figure R301.2(4)A Ultimate Design Wind Speed. Reserved.
Figure R301.2(4)B Regions Where Wind Design is Required. Reserved.
CLIMATIC AND GEOGRAPHIC DESIGN CRITERIA
|SUBJECT TO DAMAGE FROM||WINTER|
|NA||See Fig. R301.2(4)||NA||Negligible||NA||Very Heavy||NA||NA||NA|
For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.
- Weathering may require a higher strength concrete or grade of masonry than necessary to satisfy the structural requirements of this code. The weathering column shall be filled in with the weathering index, “negligible,” “moderate” or “severe” for concrete as determined from Figure R301.2(3). The grade of masonry units shall be determined from ASTM C34, C55, C62, C73, C90, C129, C145, C216 or C652.
- Termite infestation per Figure R301.2(6) is “very heavy.”
- Wind speed shall be from the basic wind speed map [Figure R301.2(4)]. Wind exposure category shall be determined on a site-specific basis in accordance with Section R301.2.1.4.
- The outdoor design dry-bulb temperature shall be selected from the columns of 971/2-percent values for winter from Appendix D of the Florida Building Code, Plumbing. Deviations from the Appendix D temperatures shall be permitted to reflect local climates or local weather experience as determined by the building official.
- The applicable governing body shall, by local floodplain management ordinance, specify (a) the date of the jurisdiction’s entry into the National Flood Insurance Program (date of adoption of the first code or ordinance for management of flood hazard areas), (b) the date(s) of the Flood Insurance Study and (c) the panel numbers and dates of the currently effective FIRMs and FBFMs or other flood hazard map adopted by the authority having jurisdiction, as amended.
|ULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED, VULT (mph)|
|Roof 0 to 7 degrees||1||10||10.0||-13.0||10.0||-14.0||10.0||-15.0||10.0||-18.0||10.0||-21.0||9.9||-24.0||11.2||-27.0||12.6||-31.0||14.2||-35.0|
|Roof > 7 to 27 degrees||1||10||10.0||-11.0||10.0||-13.0||10.0||-14.0||10.5||-16.0||12.2||-19.0||14.0||-22.0||15.9||-25.0||17.9||-28.0||20.2||-32.0|
|Roof > 27 to 45 degrees||1||10||11.9||-13.0||13.1||-14.0||14.2||-15.0||16.7||-18.0||19.4||-21.0||22.2||-24.0||25.3||-27.0||28.5||-31.0||32.0||-35.0|
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
- The effective wind area shall be equal to the span length multiplied by an effective width. This width shall be permitted to be not less than one-third the span length. For cladding fasteners, the effective wind area shall not be greater than the area that is tributary to an individual fastener.
- For effective areas between those given, the load shall be interpolated or the load associated with the lower effective area shall be used.
- Table values shall be adjusted for height and exposure by multiplying by the adjustment coefficient in Table R301.2(3).
- See Figure R301.2(7) for location of zones.
- Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting toward and away from the building surfaces.
- Table values have been multiplied by 0.6 to convert component and cladding pressures to ASD.
HEIGHT AND EXPOSURE ADJUSTMENT COEFFICIENTS FOR TABLE R301.2(2)
|MEAN ROOF HEIGHT||EXPOSURE|
NOMINAL (ASD) GARAGE DOOR WIND LOADS FOR A BUILDING WITH A MEAN ROOF HEIGHT OF 30 FEET LOCATED IN EXPOSURE B (PSF) 1,2,3,4,5
|Door Size||ULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED (Vult) DETERMINED IN ACCORDANCE WITH SECTION R301.2.1 (MPH-3 SECOND GUST)|
|100 mph||110 mph||120 mph||130 mph||140 mph||150 mph||160 mph||170 mph||180 mph||190 mph||200 mph|
|78 mph||85 mph||93 mph||101 mph||108 mph||116 mph||124 mph||132 mph||139 mph||147 mph||155 mph|
|Nominal Design Wind Speed (Vasd) converted from Vult per Section R301.2.1.3|
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 1.609 km/h, 1 psf = 47.88 N/m2.
- For door sizes or wind speeds between those given above the load may be interpolated, otherwise use the load associated with the lower door size.
- Table values shall be adjusted for height and exposure by multiplying by the adjustment coefficient in Table R301.2(3).
- Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting toward and away from the building surfaces.
- Negative pressures assume door has 2 feet of width in building's end zone.
- Table values include the 0.6 load reduction factor.
The prescriptive provisions of this code for wood construction, cold-formed steel light-frame construction, and masonry construction shall not apply to the design of buildings where the ultimate design wind speed, Vult, from Figure R301.2(4) equals or exceeds 115 miles per hour (51 m/s). The prescriptive provisions of this code include the sizing and attachment requirements specified in Sections R502, R503, R505, R602, R603, R606, R802 and R804.
- For concrete construction, the wind provisions of this code shall apply in accordance with the limitations of Sections R401, R402, R404 and R608.
- For structural insulated panels, the wind provisions of this code shall apply in accordance with the limitations of Section R610.
- Roof sheathing shall be installed in accordance with Section R803.
In regions where the ultimate design wind speed, Vult, from Figure R301.2(4) equals or exceeds 115 miles per hour (51 m/s), the design of buildings for wind loads shall be in accordance with one or more of the following methods:
- AF&PA Wood Frame Construction Manual (WFCM).
- ICC Standard for Residential Construction in High-Wind Regions (ICC 600).
- ASCE Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE 7).
- AISI Standard for Cold-Formed Steel Framing— Prescriptive Method For One- and Two-Family Dwellings (AISI S230).
- Florida Building Code, Building; or
- The MAF Guide to Concrete Masonry Residential Construction in High Wind Areas shall be permitted for applicable concrete masonry buildings for a basic wind speed of 130 mph (58 m/s) or less in Exposure B and 110 mph (49 m/s) or less in Exposure C in accordance with Figure R301.2(4) as converted in accordance with R301.2.1.3.
The elements of design not addressed by the methods in Items 1 through 6 shall be in accordance with the provisions of this code.
Sunrooms shall comply with AAMA/NPEA/NSA 2100. For the purpose of applying the criteria of AAMA/NPEA/NSA 2100 based on the intended use, sunrooms shall be identified as one of the following categories by the permit applicant, design professional or the property owner or owner’s agent in the construction documents. Component and cladding pressures shall be used for the design of elements that do not qualify as main windforce-resisting systems. Main windforce-resisting system pressures shall be used for the design of elements assigned to provide support and stability for the overall sunroom.
- Category I: A thermally isolated sunroom with walls that are open or enclosed with insect screening or 0.5 mm (20 mil) maximum thickness plastic film. The space is nonhabitable and unconditioned.
- Category II: A thermally isolated sunroom with enclosed walls. The openings are enclosed with translucent or transparent plastic or glass. The space is nonhabitable and unconditioned.
- Category III: A thermally isolated sunroom with enclosed walls. The openings are enclosed with translucent or transparent plastic or glass. The sunroom fenestration complies with additional requirements for air infiltration resistance and water penetration resistance. The space is nonhabitable and unconditioned.
- Category IV: A thermally isolated sunroom with enclosed walls. The sunroom is designed to be heated or cooled by a separate temperature control or system and is thermally isolated from the primary structure. The sunroom fenestration complies with additional requirements for water penetration resistance, air infiltration resistance and thermal performance. The space is nonhabitable and conditioned.
- Category V: A sunroom with enclosed walls. The sunroom is designed to be heated or cooled and is open to the main structure. The sunroom fenestration complies with additional requirements for water penetration resistance, air infiltration resistance and thermal performance. The space is habitable and conditioned.
- Screen enclosure frames designed in accordance with the screen removal alternates of this section, shall be designed using signed and sealed site-specific engineering and shall be designed in accordance with the wind load provisions of the Florida Building Code, Building, Section 1609.1.1,
- Designs that consider these screen alternates shall comply with Florida Building Code, Building, Section 2002.4 and Table 2002.4, using the 110 mph column as modified by Table 2002.4A with all screen panels in place.
- Designs using strength design or load and resistance factor design in accordance with the Florida Building Code, Building, Section 1605.2 or allowable stress design methods of the Florida Building Code, Building, Section 1605.3.1 shall be permitted.
- The design shall be by rational analysis or by 3D Finite Element Analysis. Either method will be acceptable.
- Where screen enclosures are designed in accordance with the screen removal alternates of this section, removable screen may consist of removable panels, retractable panels, or by designating specific screen panels in the design in which the screen is to be removed by cutting the screen. Removable panels shall be removed; retractable panels shall be placed in the retracted position without increasing the load on the affected area. Screen designated in the design to be cut shall be completely cut when wind speeds are forecast to exceed 75 mph.
- Where screen enclosures designed in accordance with the screen removal alternates of this section serve as the barrier required by Section R4501.17.1, the required minimum height of the barrier shall be maintained when screen panels are retracted, removed, moved to the open position, or cut.
- Where screen enclosures are designed in accordance with the screen removal alternates of this section, retractable screen panels, removable screen panels, and screen panels identified to be cut shall be clearly identified on adjacent structural members with highly visible permanent labels, at each panel, or by other means approved by the local building department.
- Where screen enclosures are designed in accordance with the screen removal alternates of this section, the retraction of screen panels, removal of screen panels, or cutting of screen panels shall not require the use of ladders or scaffolding.
- Engineering documents submitted with building permit applications shall identify the panels to be removed, retracted, opened, or cut.
- Where screen enclosures are designed in accordance with the screen removal alternates of this section based on removing screen panels by cutting the screen, the contractor shall provide replacement screen for a one-time replacement of all screen and spline designated by the design to be cut.
- Where screen enclosures are designed in accordance with the screen removal alternates of this section, the contractor shall provide written notice to the owner and the local building code enforcement department that the owner must retract, remove, or cut a panel or panels of the screen enclosure in accordance with the project engineering design or the manufacturer’s instructions when wind speeds are expected to exceed 75 mph.
Exterior glazed openings in buildings located in windborne debris regions shall be protected from windborne debris. Glazed opening protection for windborne debris shall meet the requirements of the Large Missile Test of ASTM E1996 and ASTM E1886 as modified in Section 301.2.1.2.1, TAS 201, 202 and 203, or AAMA 506, as applicable. Garage door glazed opening protection for windborne debris shall meet the requirements of an approved impact-resisting standard or ANSI/DASMA 115.
- Opening in sunrooms, balconies or enclosed porches constructed under existing roofs or decks are not required to be protected provided the spaces are separated from the building interior by a wall and all openings in the separating wall are protected in accordance with this section. Such space shall be permitted to be designed as either partially enclosed or enclosed structures.
- Storage sheds that are not designed for human habitation and that have a floor area of 720 square feet (67 m2) or less are not required to comply with the mandatory wind-borne debris impact standard of this code.
Exception: Wood structural panels with a thickness of not less than 7/16 inch (11 mm) and a span between lines of fasteners of 44 inches (1118 mm) shall be permitted for opening protection in buildings with a mean roof height of 33 feet or less in locations where Vult is 180 mph or less. Panels shall be precut to overlap the wall such that they extend a minimum of 2 inches (50.8 mm) beyond the lines of fasteners and attached to the framing surrounding the opening containing the product with the glazed opening. Panels shall be predrilled as required for the attachment method and secured with corrosion-resistant attachment hardware permanently installed on the building.
- Attachments shall be designed to resist the component and cladding loads determined in accordance with either Table R301.2(2) or ASCE 7, with the permanent corrosion-resistant attachment hardware provided and anchors permanently installed on the building.
- For wood frame construction, fasteners shall be located on the wall such that they are embedded into the wall framing members, nominally a minimum of 1 inch (25.4 mm) from the edge of the opening and 2 inches (50.8 mm) inward from the panel edge. Permanently installed anchors used for buildings with wood frame wall construction shall have the threaded portion that will be embedded into the wall framing based on 1/4-inch (6.35 mm) lag-screws and shall be long enough to penetrate through the exterior wall covering with sufficient embedment length to provide an allowable minimum 300 pounds ASD design withdrawal capacity. For concrete or masonry wall construction, fasteners shall be located on the wall a minimum of 1.5 inches (37.9 mm) from the edge of the opening and 2 inches (50.8 mm) inward of the panel edge. Permanently installed anchors in concrete or masonry wall construction shall have an allowable minimum 300 pounds ASD design withdrawal capacity.
- For concrete or masonry wall construction, fasteners shall be located on the wall a minimum of 1.5 inches (37.9 mm) from the edge of the opening and 2 inches (50.8 mm) inward of the panel edge. Permanently installed anchors in Concrete or masonry wall construction shall have an allowable minimum 300 pounds ASD design withdrawal capacity and an allowable minimum 525 pounds ASD design shear capacity with a 1.5 inch edge distance. Hex nuts, washered wing-nuts, or bolts used to attach the wood structural panels to the anchors shall be minimum 1/4-inch hardware and shall be installed with or have integral washers with a minimum 1-inch outside diameter.
- Vibration-resistant alternative attachments designed to resist the component and cladding loads determined in accordance with provisions of Table R301.2(2) or ASCE 7 shall be permitted.
Table R301.2.1.2 Windborne Debris Protection Fastening Schedule for Wood Structural Panels. Reserved.
The text of Section 2.2 of ASTM E1996 shall be substituted as follows:
2.2 ASCE Standard:
ASCE 7-10 American Society of Civil Engineers Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures
The text of Section 6.2.2 of ASTM E1996 shall be substituted as follows:
6.2.2 Unless otherwise specified, select the wind zone based on the ultimate design wind speed, Vult, as follows:
188.8.131.52 Wind Zone 1–130 mph ≤ ultimate design wind speed, Vult < 140 mph.
184.108.40.206 Wind Zone 2–140 mph ≤ ultimate design wind speed, Vult < 150 mph at greater than 1 mile (1.6 km) from the coastline. The coastline shall be measured from the mean high water mark.
220.127.116.11 Wind Zone 3–150 mph (58 m/s) ≤ ultimate design wind speed, Vult ≤ 170 mph (76 m/s), or 140 mph (54 m/s) ≤ ultimate design wind speed, Vult ≤ 170 mph (76 m/s) and within 1 mile (1.6 km) of the coastline. The coastline shall be measured from the mean high water mark.
18.104.22.168 Wind Zone 4–ultimate design wind speed, Vult > 170 mph (76 m/s).
Where referenced documents are based on nominal design wind speeds and do not provide the means for conversion between ultimate design wind speeds and nominal design wind speeds, the ultimate design wind speeds, Vult, of Figure R301.2(4) shall be converted to nominal design wind speeds, Vasd, using Table R301.2.1.3.
WIND SPEED CONVERSIONSa
For SI: 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.
- Linear interpolation is permitted.
For each wind direction considered, an exposure category that adequately reflects the characteristics of ground surface irregularities shall be determined for the site at which the building or structure is to be constructed. For a site located in the transition zone between categories, the category resulting in the largest wind forces shall apply. Account shall be taken of variations in ground surface roughness that arise from natural topography and vegetation as well as from constructed features. For a site where multiple detached one- and two-family dwellings, townhouses or other structures are to be constructed as part of a subdivision or master-planned community, or are otherwise designated as a developed area by the authority having jurisdiction, the exposure category for an individual structure shall be based upon the site conditions that will exist at the time when all adjacent structures on the site have been constructed, provided that their construction is expected to begin within one year of the start of construction for the structure for which the exposure category is determined.
Exception: An intermediate exposure between the exposure categories defined is permitted in a transition zone provided that it is determined by a rational analysis method.
A ground surface roughness within each 45-degree (0.79 rad) sector shall be determined for a distance upwind of the site as defined in Section R301.2.1.4.3 from the categories defined below, for the purpose of assigning an exposure category as defined in Section R301.2.1.4.3.
- Surface Roughness B. Urban and suburban areas, wooded areas or other terrain with numerous closely spaced obstructions having the size of single-family dwellings or larger.
- Surface Roughness C. Open terrain with scattered obstructions having heights generally less than 30 feet (9144 mm). This category includes flat open country and grasslands. This Surface Roughness shall also apply to any building located within Surface Roughness B-type terrain where the building is within 100 feet (30.5 m) horizontally in any direction of open areas of Surface Roughness C- or D-type terrain that extends more than 600 feet (182.9 m) and width greater than 150 feet (45.7 m) in the upwind direction.
- Surface Roughness D. Flat, unobstructed areas and water surfaces. This category includes smooth mud flats, salt flats and unbroken ice.
An exposure category shall be determined in accordance with the following:
- Exposure B. For buildings with a mean roof height of less than or equal to 30 feet (9144 mm), Exposure B shall apply where the ground surface roughness, as defined by Surface Roughness B, prevails in the upwind direction for a distance of at least 1,500 feet (457 m). For buildings with a mean roof height greater than 30 feet (9144 mm), Exposure B shall apply where Surface Roughness B prevails in the upwind direction for a distance of at least 2,600 feet (792 m) or 20 times the height of the building, whichever is greater.
- Exposure C. Exposure C shall apply for all cases where Exposures B or D do not apply.
- Exposure D. Exposure D shall apply where the ground surface roughness, as defined by Surface Roughness D, prevails in the upwind direction for a distance of at least 5,000 feet (1524 m) or 20 times the height of the building, whichever is greater. Exposure D shall also apply where the ground surface roughness immediately upwind of the site is B or C, and the site is within a distance of 600 feet (183 m) or 20 times the building height, whichever is greater, from an Exposure D condition as defined in the previous sentence.
In areas designated in Table R301.2(1) as having local historical data documenting structural damage to buildings caused by wind speed-up at isolated hills, ridges and escarpments that are abrupt changes from the general topography of the area, topographic wind effects shall be considered in the design of the building in accordance with Section R301.2.1.5.1 or in accordance with the provisions of ASCE 7. See Figure R301.2.1.5.1(1) for topographic features for wind speed-up effect.
- The average slope of the top half of the hill, ridge or escarpment is 10 percent or greater.
- The hill, ridge or escarpment is 60 feet (18 288 mm) or greater in height for Exposure B, 30 feet (9144 mm) or greater in height for Exposure C, and 15 feet (4572 mm) or greater in height for Exposure D.
- The hill, ridge or escarpment is isolated or unobstructed by other topographic features of similar height in the upwind direction for a distance measured from its high point of 100 times its height or 2 miles (3.2 km), whichever is less. See Figure R301.2.1.5.1(3) for upwind obstruction.
- The hill, ridge or escarpment protrudes by a factor of two or more above the height of other upwind topographic features located in any quadrant within a radius of 2 miles (3.2 km) measured from its high point.
As an alternative to the ASCE 7 topographic wind provisions, the provisions of Section R301.2.1.5.1 shall be permitted to be used to design for wind speed-up effects, where required by Section R301.2.1.5.
Structures located on the top half of isolated hills, ridges or escarpments meeting the conditions of Section R301.2.1.5 shall be designed for an increased basic wind speed as determined by Table R301.2.1.5.1. On the high side of an escarpment, the increased basic wind speed shall extend horizontally downwind from the edge of the escarpment 1.5 times the horizontal length of the upwind slope (1.5L) or 6 times the height of the escarpment (6H), whichever is greater. See Figure R301.2.1.5.1(2) for where wind speed increase is applied.
ULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED MODIFICATION FOR TOPOGRAPHIC WIND EFFECTa, b
WIND SPEED FROM
|AVERAGE SLOPE OF THE TOP HALF OF HILL, RIDGE OR ESCARPMENT (percent)|
|Required ultimate design wind speed-up, modified for topographic wind speed-up (mph)|
For SI: 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
- Table applies to a feature height of 500 feet or less and dwellings sited a distance equal or greater than half the feature height.
The seismic design categories and corresponding short-period design spectral response accelerations, SDS shown in Figure R301.2(2) are based on soil Site Class D, as defined in Section 1613.3.2 of the Florida Building Code, Building. If soil conditions are other than Site Class D, the short-period design spectral response accelerations, SDS, for a site can be determined in accordance with Section 1613.3 of the Florida Building Code, Building. The value of SDS determined in accordance with Section 1613.3 of the Florida Building Code, Building is permitted to be used to set the seismic design category in accordance with Table R301.2.2.1.1, and to interpolate between values in Tables R602.10.3(3), R603.9.2(1) and other seismic design requirements of this code.
- A more detailed evaluation of the seismic design category is made in accordance with the provisions and maps of the Florida Building Code, Building. Buildings located in Seismic Design Category E in accordance with Table R301.2.2.1.1, but located in Seismic Design Category D in accordance with the Florida Building Code, Building, shall be permitted to be designed using the Seismic Design Category D2 requirements of this code.
Average dead loads shall not exceed 15 pounds per square foot (720 Pa) for the combined roof and ceiling assemblies (on a horizontal projection) or 10 pounds per square foot (480 Pa) for floor assemblies, except as further limited by Section R301.2.2. Dead loads for walls above grade shall not exceed:
- Fifteen pounds per square foot (720 Pa) for exterior light-frame wood walls.
- Fourteen pounds per square foot (670 Pa) for exterior light-frame cold-formed steel walls.
- Ten pounds per square foot (480 Pa) for interior light-frame wood walls.
- Five pounds per square foot (240 Pa) for interior light-frame cold-formed steel walls.
- Eighty pounds per square foot (3830 Pa) for 8-inch-thick (203 mm) masonry walls.
- Eighty-five pounds per square foot (4070 Pa) for 6-inch-thick (152 mm) concrete walls.
- Ten pounds per square foot (480 Pa) for SIP walls.
- Roof and ceiling dead loads not exceeding 25 pounds per square foot (1190 Pa) shall be permitted provided that the wall bracing amounts in Section R602.10.3 are increased in accordance with Table R602.10.3(4).
- Light-frame walls with stone or masonry veneer shall be permitted in accordance with the provisions of Sections R702.1 and R703.
- Fireplaces and chimneys shall be permitted in accordance with Chapter 10.
The seismic provisions of this code shall not be used for irregular structures located in Seismic Design Categories C, D0, D1 and D2. Irregular portions of structures shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice to the extent the irregular features affect the performance of the remaining structural system. Where the forces associated with the irregularity are resisted by a structural system designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice, design of the remainder of the building shall be permitted using the provisions of this code. A building or portion of a building shall be considered to be irregular where one or more of the following conditions occur:
- Floor joists are nominal 2 inches by 10 inches (51 mm by 254 mm) or larger and spaced not more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center.
- The ratio of the back span to the cantilever is not less than 2 to 1.
- Floor joists at ends of braced wall panels are doubled.
- For wood-frame construction, a continuous rim joist is connected to ends of cantilever joists. When spliced, the rim joists shall be spliced using a galvanized metal tie not less than 0.058 inch (1.5 mm) (16 gage) and 11/2 inches (38 mm) wide fastened with six 16d nails on each side of the splice or a block of the same size as the rim joist of sufficient length to fit securely between the joist space at which the splice occurs fastened with eight 16d nails on each side of the splice; and
- Gravity loads carried at the end of cantilevered joists are limited to uniform wall and roof loads and the reactions from headers having a span of 8 feet (2438 mm) or less.
- The building width, loading condition and framing member species limitations of Table R602.7(1) shall apply; and
- Not less than one 2 × 12 or two 2 × 10 for an opening not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) wide; or
- Not less than two 2 × 12 or three 2 × 10 for an opening not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) in width; or
- Not less than three 2 × 12 or four 2 × 10 for an opening not more than 8 feet (2438 mm) in width; and
- The entire length of the braced wall panel does not occur over an opening in the wall below.
- Where an opening in a floor or roof exceeds the lesser of 12 feet (3658 mm) or 50 percent of the least floor or roof dimension.
- Where shear walls and braced wall lines do not occur in two perpendicular directions.
The wind and seismic provisions of this code shall apply to buildings with story heights not exceeding the following:
- For wood wall framing, the story height shall not exceed 11 feet 7 inches (3531 mm) and the laterally unsupported bearing wall stud height permitted by Table R602.3(5).
- For cold-formed steel wall framing, the story height shall be not more than 11 feet 7 inches (3531 mm) and the unsupported bearing wall stud height shall be not more than 10 feet (3048 mm).
- For insulating concrete form walls, the maximum story height shall not exceed 11 feet 7 inches (3531 mm) and the maximum unsupported wall height per story as permitted by Section R608 tables shall not exceed 10 feet (3048 mm).
- For structural insulated panel (SIP) walls, the story height shall be not greater than 11 feet 7 inches (3531 mm) and the bearing wall height per story as permitted by Section R610 tables shall not exceed 10 feet (3048 mm).
Individual walls or wall studs shall be permitted to exceed these limits as permitted by Chapter 6 provisions, provided that story heights are not exceeded. An engineered design shall be provided for the wall or wall framing members where the limits of Chapter 6 are exceeded. Where the story height limits of this section are exceeded, the design of the building, or the noncompliant portions thereof, to resist wind and seismic loads shall be in accordance with the Florida Building Code, Building.
The minimum uniformly distributed live load shall be as provided in Table R301.5.
MINIMUM UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LIVE LOADS (in pounds per square foot)
|Uninhabitable attics without storageb||10|
|Uninhabitable attics with limited storageb, g||20|
|Habitable attics and attics served with fixed stairs||30|
|Balconies (exterior) and deckse||40|
|Guards and handrailsd||200h|
|Guard in-fill componentsf||50h|
|Passenger vehicle garagesa||50a|
|Rooms other than sleeping rooms||40|
For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 square inch = 645 mm2, 1 pound = 4.45 N.
- Elevated garage floors shall be capable of supporting a 2,000-pound load applied over a 20-square-inch area.
- Uninhabitable attics without storage are those where the clear height between joists and rafters is not more than 42 inches, or where there are not two or more adjacent trusses with web configurations capable of accommodating an assumed rectangle 42 inches in height by 24 inches in width, or greater, within the plane of the trusses. This live load need not be assumed to act concurrently with any other live load requirements.
- Individual stair treads shall be designed for the uniformly distributed live load or a 300-pound concentrated load acting over an area of 4 square inches, whichever produces the greater stresses.
- A single concentrated load applied in any direction at any point along the top.
- See Section R507.1 for decks attached to exterior walls.
- Guard in-fill components (all those except the handrail), balusters and panel fillers shall be designed to withstand a horizontally applied normal load of 50 pounds on an area equal to 1 square foot. This load need not be assumed to act concurrently with any other live load requirement.
- The attic area is accessible from an opening not less than 20 inches in width by 30 inches in length that is located where the clear height in the attic is not less than 30 inches.
- The slopes of the joists or truss bottom chords are not greater than 2 inches vertical to 12 units horizontal.
- Required insulation depth is less than the joist or truss bottom chord member depth.
- Glazing used in handrail assemblies and guards shall be designed with a safety factor of 4. The safety factor shall be applied to each of the concentrated loads applied to the top of the rail, and to the load on the in-fill components. These loads shall be determined independent of one another, and loads are assumed not to occur with any other live load.
The roof shall be designed for the live load indicated in Table R301.6 or the snow load indicated in Table R301.2(1), whichever is greater.
MINIMUM ROOF LIVE LOADS IN POUNDS-FORCE PER SQUARE FOOT OF HORIZONTAL PROJECTION
|ROOF SLOPE||TRIBUTARY LOADED AREA IN|
SQUARE FEET FOR ANY
|0 to 200||201 to 600||Over 600|
|Flat or rise less than 4 inches per foot (1:3)||20||16||12|
|Rise 4 inches per foot (1:3) to less than 12 inches per foot (1:1)||16||14||12|
|Rise 12 inches per foot (1:1) and greater||12||12||12|
For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 inch per foot = 83.3 mm/m.
ALLOWABLE DEFLECTION OF STRUCTURAL MEMBERSb, c
|Rafters having slopes greater than 3:12 with |
finished ceiling not attached to rafters
|Interior walls and partitions||H/180|
|Ceilings with brittle finishes (including plaster |
|Ceilings with flexible finishes (including gypsum |
|All other structural members||L/240|
|Exterior walls—wind loadsa with plaster or|
|Exterior walls—wind loadsa with other brittle finishes||H/240|
|Exterior walls—wind loadsa with flexible finishes||H/120d|
|Lintels supporting masonry veneer wallse||L/600|
Note: L = span length, H = span height.
- For the purpose of the determining deflection limits herein, the wind load shall be permitted to be taken as 0.7 times the component and cladding (ASD) loads obtained from Table R301.2(2).
- For cantilever members, L shall be taken as twice the length of the cantilever.
- For aluminum structural members or panels used in roofs or walls of sunroom additions or patio covers, not supporting edge of glass or sandwich panels, the total load deflection shall not exceed L/60. For continuous aluminum structural members supporting edge of glass, the total load deflection shall not exceed L/175 for each glass lite or L/60 for the entire length of the member, whichever is more stringent. For sandwich panels used in roofs or walls of sunroom additions or patio covers, the total load deflection shall not exceed L/120.
- Deflection for exterior walls with interior gypsum board finish shall be limited to an allowable deflection of H/180.
- Refer to Section R703.8.2.
- Walls, projections, openings or penetrations in walls perpendicular to the line used to determine the fire separation distance.
- Walls of dwellings and accessory structures located on the same lot.
- Detached tool sheds and storage sheds, playhouses and similar structures exempted from permits are not required to provide wall protection based on location on the lot. Projections beyond the exterior wall shall not extend over the lot line.
- Detached garages accessory to a dwelling located within 2 feet (610 mm) of a lot line are permitted to have roof eave projections not exceeding 4 inches (102 mm).
- Foundation vents installed in compliance with this code are permitted.
- Screen enclosure walls of insect screening with a maximum of 25-percent solid flexible finishes.
- For zero lot line developments where permitted by local regulations, openings and roof overhang projections shall be permitted on the exterior wall of a building located on a zero lot line when the building exterior wall is separated from an adjacent building exterior wall by a distance of 6 feet or more, and the roof overhang projection is separated from an adjacent building projection by a distance of 4 feet or more, with 1-hour fire-resistive construction on the underside of the overhang required, unless the separation between projections is 6 feet or more.
Table R302.1(1) Exterior Walls. Reserved.
|EXTERIOR WALL ELEMENT||MINIMUM|
|Walls||Fire-resistance rated||1 hour—tested in accordance with ASTM E119 |
or UL 263 with exposure from the outside or
calculated per Florida Building Code, Building
|Not fire-resistance rated||0 hours||3 feeta|
|Projections||Not allowed||N/A||< 2 feet|
|Fire-resistance rated||1 hour on the undersideb, c||2 feeta|
|Not fire-resistance rated||0 hours||3 feet|
|Openings in walls||Not allowed||N/A||< 3 feet|
|Unlimited||0 hours||3 feeta|
|Penetrations||All||Comply with Section R302.4||< 3 feet|
|None required||3 feeta|
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
N/A = Not Applicable.
- For residential subdivisions where all dwellings are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section P2904, the fire separation distance for nonrated exterior walls and rated projections shall be permitted to be reduced to 0 feet, and unlimited unprotected openings and penetrations shall be permitted, where the adjoining lot provides an open setback yard that is 6 feet or more in width on the opposite side of the property line.
- The roof eave fire-resistance rating shall be permitted to be reduced to 0 hours on the underside of the eave if fireblocking is provided from the wall top plate to the underside of the roof sheathing.
- The roof eave fire-resistance rating shall be permitted to be reduced to 0 hours on the underside of the eave provided that gable vent openings are not installed.
Each townhouse shall be considered a separate building and shall be separated by separate fireresistance rated exterior wall assemblies meeting the requirements of zero clearance from property lines of Section R302.1 for exterior walls.
Exception: A common 2-hour fire-resistance-rated wall assembly tested in accordance with ASTM E119, UL 263, or in accordance with the Florida Building Code, Building Section 722 is permitted for townhouses if such walls do not contain plumbing or mechanical equipment, ducts or vents in the cavity of the common wall unless such materials and methods of penetration comply with Section R302.4. The wall shall be rated for fire exposure from both sides and shall extend to and be tight against exterior walls and the underside of the roof sheathing. Electrical installations shall be installed in accordance with Chapters 34 through 43. Penetrations of electrical outlet boxes shall be in accordance with Section R302.4.
- Where roof surfaces adjacent to the wall or walls are at the same elevation, the parapet shall extend not less than 30 inches (762 mm) above the roof surfaces.
- A parapet is not required where roof surfaces adjacent to the wall or walls are at different elevations and the higher roof is more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the lower roof. The common wall construction from the lower roof to the underside of the higher roof deck shall have not less than a 1-hour fire-resistance rating. The wall shall be rated for exposure from both sides.
Each individual townhouse shall be structurally independent.
Dwelling units in two-family dwellings shall be separated from each other by wall and floor assemblies having not less than a 1-hour fire-resistance rating where tested in accordance with ASTM E119 or UL 263. Fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling and wall assemblies shall extend to and be tight against the exterior wall, and wall assemblies shall extend from the foundation to the underside of the roof sheathing.
- A fire-resistance rating of 1/2 hour shall be permitted in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with NFPA 13.
- Wall assemblies need not extend through attic spaces where the ceiling is protected by not less than 5/8-inch (15.9 mm) Type X gypsum board, an attic draft stop constructed as specified in Section R302.12.1 is provided above and along the wall assembly separating the dwellings and the structural framing supporting the ceiling is protected by not less than 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board or equivalent.
- Screen enclosure walls of insect screening with a maximum of 25-percent solid flexible finishes.
Exception: Where the penetrating items are steel, ferrous or copper pipes, tubes or conduits, the annular space shall be protected as follows:
- 1.1. The nominal diameter of the penetrating item is not more than 6 inches (152 mm).
- 1.2. The area of the opening through the wall does not exceed 144 square inches (92 900 mm2).
- The material used to fill the annular space shall prevent the passage of flame and hot gases sufficient to ignite cotton waste where subjected to ASTM E119 or UL 263 time temperature fire conditions under a positive pressure differential of not less than 0.01 inch of water (3 Pa) at the location of the penetration for the time period equivalent to the fire-resistance rating of the construction penetrated.
Membrane penetrations shall comply with Section R302.4.1. Where walls are required to have a fire-resistance rating, recessed fixtures shall be installed so that the required fire-resistance rating will not be reduced.
- 1.1. By a horizontal distance of not less than 24 inches (610 mm) where the wall or partition is constructed with individual noncommunicating stud cavities.
- 1.2. By a horizontal distance of not less than the depth of the wall cavity where the wall cavity is filled with cellulose loose-fill, rockwool or slag mineral wool insulation.
- 1.3. By solid fire blocking in accordance with Section R302.11.
- 1.4. By protecting both boxes with listed putty pads.
- 1.5. By other listed materials and methods.
- The annular space created by the penetration of a fire sprinkler provided that it is covered by a metal escutcheon plate.
The garage shall be separated as required by Table R302.6. Openings in garage walls shall comply with Section R302.5. Attachment of gypsum board shall comply with Table R702.3.5. The wall separation provisions of Table R302.6 shall not apply to garage walls that are perpendicular to the adjacent dwelling unit wall.
|From the residence and attics||Not less than 1/2-inch gypsum board or equivalent applied to the garage side|
|From habitable rooms above the garage||Not less than 5/8-inch Type X gypsum board or equivalent|
|Structure(s) supporting floor/ceiling assemblies used for separation required by this section||Not less than 1/2-inch gypsum board or equivalent|
|Garages located less than 3 feet from a dwelling unit on the same lot||Not less than 1/2-inch gypsum board or equivalent applied to the interior side of exterior walls that are within this area|
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
Exception: Flame spread index requirements for finishes shall not apply to trim defined as picture molds, chair rails, baseboards and handrails; to doors and windows or their frames; or to materials that are less than 1/28 inch (0.91 mm) in thickness cemented to the surface of walls or ceilings if these materials exhibit flame spread index values not greater than those of paper of this thickness cemented to a noncombustible backing.
As an alternative to having a flame spread index of not greater than 200 and a smoke-developed index of not greater than 450 where tested in accordance with ASTM E84 or UL 723, wall and ceiling finishes shall be permitted to be tested in accordance with NFPA 286. Materials tested in accordance with NFPA 286 shall meet the following criteria:
The interior finish shall comply with the following:
- During the 40 kW exposure, flames shall not spread to the ceiling.
- The flame shall not spread to the outer extremity of the sample on any wall or ceiling.
- Flashover, as defined in NFPA 286, shall not occur.
- The peak heat release rate throughout the test shall not exceed 800 kW.
- The total smoke released throughout the test shall not exceed 1,000 m2.
Insulation materials, including facings, such as vapor retarders and vapor-permeable membranes installed within floor-ceiling assemblies, roof-ceiling assemblies, wall assemblies, crawl spaces and attics shall have a flame spread index not to exceed 25 with an accompanying smoke-developed index not to exceed 450 where tested in accordance with ASTM E84 or UL 723.
- Where such materials are installed in concealed spaces, the flame spread index and smoke-developed index limitations do not apply to the facings, provided that the facing is installed in substantial contact with the unexposed surface of the ceiling, floor or wall finish.
- Cellulose fiber loose-fill insulation, that is not spray applied, complying with the requirements of Section R302.10.3, shall not be required to meet a flame spread index requirement but shall be required to meet a smoke-developed index of not more than 450 where tested in accordance with CAN/ULC S102.2.
- Foam plastic insulation shall comply with Section R316.
Loose-fill insulation materials that cannot be mounted in the ASTM E84 or UL 723 apparatus without a screen or artificial supports shall comply with the flame spread and smoke-developed limits of Section R302.10.1 where tested in accordance with CAN/ULC S102.2.
Exception: Cellulosic fiber loose-fill insulation shall not be required to be tested in accordance with CAN/ULC S102.2, provided such insulation complies with the requirements of Sections R302.10.1 and R302.10.3.
In combustible construction, fireblocking shall be provided to cut off both vertical and horizontal concealed draft openings and to form an effective fire barrier between stories, and between a top story and the roof space.
Fireblocking shall be provided in wood-framed construction in the following locations:
- 1.1. Vertically at the ceiling and floor levels.
- 1.2. Horizontally at intervals not exceeding 10 feet (3048 mm).
- At interconnections between concealed vertical and horizontal spaces such as occur at soffits, drop ceilings and cove ceilings.
- In concealed spaces between stair stringers at the top and bottom of the run. Enclosed spaces under stairs shall comply with Section R302.7.
- At openings around vents, pipes, ducts, cables and wires at ceiling and floor level, with an approved material to resist the free passage of flame and products of combustion. The material filling this annular space shall not be required to meet the ASTM E136 requirements.
- For the fireblocking of chimneys and fireplaces, see Section R1003.19.
- Fireblocking of cornices of a two-family dwelling is required at the line of dwelling unit separation.
- Two-inch (51 mm) nominal lumber.
- Two thicknesses of 1-inch (25.4 mm) nominal lumber with broken lap joints.
- One thickness of 23/32-inch (18.3 mm) wood structural panels with joints backed by 23/32-inch (18.3 mm) wood structural panels.
- One thickness of 3/4-inch (19.1 mm) particleboard with joints backed by 3/4-inch (19.1 mm) particleboard.
- One-half-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board.
- One-quarter-inch (6.4 mm) cement-based millboard.
- Batts or blankets of mineral wool or glass fiber or other approved materials installed in such a manner as to be securely retained in place.
- Cellulose insulation installed as tested in accordance with ASTM E119 or UL 263, for the specific application.
In combustible construction where there is usable space both above and below the concealed space of a floor-ceiling assembly, draftstops shall be installed so that the area of the concealed space does not exceed 1,000 square feet (92.9 m2). Draftstopping shall divide the concealed space into approximately equal areas. Where the assembly is enclosed by a floor membrane above and a ceiling membrane below, draftstopping shall be provided in floor-ceiling assemblies under the following circumstances:
- Ceiling is suspended under the floor framing.
- Floor framing is constructed of truss-type open-web or perforated members.
Floor assemblies that are not required elsewhere in this code to be fire-resistance rated, shall be provided with a 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum wallboard membrane, 5/8-inch (16 mm) wood structural panel membrane, or equivalent on the underside of the floor framing member. Penetrations or openings for ducts, vents, electrical outlets, lighting, devices, luminaires, wires, speakers, drainage, piping and similar openings or penetrations shall be permitted.
- Floor assemblies located directly over a space protected by an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section P2904, NFPA 13D, or other approved equivalent sprinkler system.
- Floor assemblies located directly over a crawl space not intended for storage or fuel-fired appliances.
- Wood floor assemblies using dimension lumber or structural composite lumber equal to or greater than 2-inch by 10-inch (50.8 mm by 254 mm) nominal dimension, or other approved floor assemblies demonstrating equivalent fire performance.
Combustible insulation shall be separated not less than 3 inches (76 mm) from recessed luminaires, fan motors and other heat-producing devices.
Exception: Where heat-producing devices are listed for lesser clearances, combustible insulation complying with the listing requirements shall be separated in accordance with the conditions stipulated in the listing.
Recessed luminaires installed in the building thermal envelope shall meet the requirements of the Florida Building Code, Energy Conservation.
Habitable rooms shall have an aggregate glazing area of not less than 8 percent of the floor area of such rooms. Natural ventilation shall be through windows, skylights, doors, louvers or other approved openings to the outdoor air. Such openings shall be provided with ready access or shall otherwise be readily controllable by the building occupants. The openable area to the outdoors shall be not less than 4 percent of the floor area being ventilated.
- The glazed areas need not be openable where the opening is not required by Section R310 and a whole-house mechanical ventilation system is installed in accordance with Section M1507.
- The glazed areas need not be installed in rooms where Exception 1 is satisfied and artificial light is provided that is capable of producing an average illumination of 6 footcandles (65 lux) over the area of the room at a height of 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor level.
- Use of sunroom and patio covers, as defined in Section R202, shall be permitted for natural ventilation if in excess of 40 percent of the exterior sunroom walls are open, or are enclosed only by insect screening.
For the purpose of determining light and ventilation requirements, any room shall be considered to be a portion of an adjoining room where not less than one-half of the area of the common wall is open and unobstructed and provides an opening of not less than one-tenth of the floor area of the interior room and not less than 25 square feet (2.3 m2).
Exception: Openings required for light or ventilation shall be permitted to open into a sunroom with thermal isolation or a patio cover, provided that there is an openable area between the adjoining room and the sunroom or patio cover of not less than one-tenth of the floor area of the interior room and not less than 20 square feet (2 m2). The minimum openable area to the outdoors shall be based upon the total floor area being ventilated.
Exception: The glazed areas shall not be required where artificial light and a local exhaust system are provided. The minimum local exhaust rates shall be determined in accordance with Section M1507. Exhaust air from the space shall be exhausted directly to the outdoors.
Mechanical and gravity outdoor air intake openings shall be located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from any hazardous or noxious contaminant, such as vents, chimneys, plumbing vents, streets, alleys, parking lots and loading docks.
- The 10-foot (3048 mm) separation is not required where the intake opening is located 3 feet (914 mm) or greater below the contaminant source.
- Vents and chimneys serving fuel-burning appliances shall be terminated in accordance with the applicable provisions of Chapters 18 and 24.
- Clothes dryer exhaust ducts shall be terminated in accordance with Section M1502.3.
Interior stairways shall be provided with an artificial light source to illuminate the landings and treads. The light source shall be capable of illuminating treads and landings to levels of not less than 1 footcandle (11 lux) as measured at the center of treads and landings. There shall be a wall switch at each floor level to control the light source where the stairway has six or more risers.
- Required glazed openings that face into a roofed porch where the porch abuts a street, yard or court and the longer side of the porch is not less than 65 percent unobstructed and the ceiling height is not less than 7 feet (2134 mm).
- Eave projections shall not be considered as obstructing the clear open space of a yard or court.
- Required glazed openings that face into the area under a deck, balcony, bay or floor cantilever where a clear vertical space not less than 36 inches (914 mm) in height is provided.
Habitable rooms shall have a floor area of not less than 70 square feet (6.5 m2).
Habitable rooms shall be not less than 7 feet (2134 mm) in any horizontal dimension.
Habitable space, hallways and portions of basements containing these spaces shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet (2134 mm). Bathrooms, toilet rooms and laundry rooms shall have a ceiling height of not less than 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm).
- For rooms with sloped ceilings, the required floor area of the room shall have a ceiling height of not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) and not less than 50 percent of the required floor area shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet (2134 mm).
- The ceiling height above bathroom and toilet room fixtures shall be such that the fixture is capable of being used for its intended purpose. A shower or tub equipped with a showerhead shall have a ceiling height of not less than 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm) above an area of not less than 30 inches (762 mm) by 30 inches (762 mm) at the showerhead.
- Beams, girders, ducts or other obstructions in basements containing habitable space shall be permitted to project to within 6 feet 4 inches (1931 mm) of the finished floor.
Except as indicated in Section R308.1.1 each pane of glazing installed in hazardous locations as defined in Section R308.4 shall be provided with a manufacturer’s designation specifying who applied the designation, designating the type of glass and the safety glazing standard with which it complies, which is visible in the final installation. The designation shall be acid etched, sandblasted, ceramic-fired, laser etched, embossed, or be of a type that once applied cannot be removed without being destroyed. A label shall be permitted in lieu of the manufacturer’s designation.
- For other than tempered glass, manufacturer’s designations are not required provided that the building official approves the use of a certificate, affidavit or other evidence confirming compliance with this code.
- Tempered spandrel glass is permitted to be identified by the manufacturer with a removable paper designation.
Where required by other sections of the code, glazing shall be tested in accordance with CPSC 16 CFR 1201. Glazing shall comply with the test criteria for Category II unless otherwise indicated in Table R308.3.1(1).
Exception: Glazing not in doors or enclosures for hot tubs, whirlpools, saunas, steam rooms, bathtubs and showers shall be permitted to be tested in accordance with ANSI Z97.1. Glazing shall comply with the test criteria for Class A unless indicated in Table R308.3.1(2).
MINIMUM CATEGORY CLASSIFICATION OF GLAZING USING CPSC 16 CFR 1201
AREA OF ONE SIDEOF ONE LITE
REGULATED BYSECTION 308.4.5
DOORS PATIO TYPE(Category Class)
|9 square feet or less||I||I||NR||I||II||II|
|More than 9 square feet||II||II||II||II||II||II|
For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
NR means “No Requirement.”
MINIMUM CATEGORY CLASSIFICATION OF GLAZING USING ANSI Z97.1
|EXPOSED SURFACE AREA|
OF ONE SIDE OF ONE LITE
|GLAZED PANELS REGULATED BY|
|GLAZED PANELS REGULATED BY|
|DOORS AND ENCLOSURES REGULATED|
BY SECTION R308.4.5a
|9 square feet or less||No requirement||B||A|
|More than 9 square feet||A||A||A|
For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
- Use is permitted only by the exception to Section R308.3.1.
Glazing in an individual fixed or operable panel adjacent to a door shall be considered to be a hazardous location where the bottom exposed edge of the glazing is less than 60 inches (1524 mm) above the floor or walking surface and it meets either of the following conditions:
- Where the glazing is within 24 inches (610 mm) of either side of the door in the plane of the door in a closed position.
- Where the glazing is on a wall perpendicular to the plane of the door in a closed position and within 24 inches (610 mm) of the hinge side of an in-swinging door.
- Decorative glazing.
- Where there is an intervening wall or other permanent barrier between the door and the glazing.
- Where access through the door is to a closet or storage area 3 feet (914 mm) or less in depth. Glazing in this application shall comply with Section R308.4.3.
- Glazing that is adjacent to the fixed panel of patio doors.
Glazing in an individual fixed or operable panel that meets all of the following conditions shall be considered to be a hazardous location:
- The exposed area of an individual pane is larger than 9 square feet (0.836 m2),
- The bottom edge of the glazing is less than 18 inches (457 mm) above the floor,
- The top edge of the glazing is more than 36 inches (914 mm) above the floor; and
- Decorative glazing.
- Where a horizontal rail is installed on the accessible side(s) of the glazing 34 to 38 inches (864 to 965 mm) above the walking surface. The rail shall be capable of with standing a horizontal load of 50 pounds per linear foot (730 N/m) without contacting the glass and have a cross-sectional height of not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm).
- Outboard panes in insulating glass units and other multiple glazed panels where the bottom edge of the glass is 25 feet (7620 mm) or more above grade, a roof, walking surfaces or other horizontal [within 45 degrees (0.79 rad) of horizontal] surface adjacent to the glass exterior.
Glazing in walls, enclosures or fences containing or facing hot tubs, spas, whirlpools, saunas, steam rooms, bathtubs, showers and indoor or outdoor swimming pools where the bottom exposed edge of the glazing is less than 60 inches (1524 mm) measured vertically above any standing or walking surface shall be considered to be a hazardous location. This shall apply to single glazing and each pane in multiple glazing.
Exception: Glazing that is more than 60 inches (1524 mm), measured horizontally and in a straight line, from the water’s edge of a bathtub, hot tub, spa, whirlpool or swimming pool or from the edge of a shower, sauna or steam room.
Glazing where the bottom exposed edge of the glazing is less than 36 inches (914 mm) above the plane of the adjacent walking surface of stairways, landings between flights of stairs and ramps shall be considered to be a hazardous location.
- Where a rail is installed on the accessible side(s) of the glazing 34 to 38 inches (864 to 965 mm) above the walking surface. The rail shall be capable of withstanding a horizontal load of 50 pounds per linear foot (730 N/m) without contacting the glass and have a cross-sectional height of not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm).
- Glazing 36 inches (914 mm) or more measured horizontally from the walking surface.
Glazing adjacent to the landing at the bottom of a stairway where the glazing is less than 36 inches (914 mm) above the landing and within a 60-inch (1524 mm) horizontal arc less than 180 degrees from the bottom tread nosing shall be considered to be a hazardous location.
The following types of glazing shall be permitted to be used:
- Laminated glass with not less than a 0.015-inch (0.38 mm) polyvinyl butyral interlayer for glass panes 16 square feet (1.5 m2) or less in area located such that the highest point of the glass is not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) above a walking surface or other accessible area; for higher or larger sizes, the interlayer thickness shall be not less than 0.030 inch (0.76 mm).
- Fully tempered glass.
- Heat-strengthened glass.
- Wired glass.
- Approved rigid plastics.
Screens shall not be required where fully tempered glass is used as single glazing or the inboard pane in multiple glazing and either of the following conditions are met:
- Glass area 16 square feet (1.49 m2) or less. Highest point of glass not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) above a walking surface or other accessible area, nominal glass thickness not more than 3/16 inch (4.8 mm), and (for multiple glazing only) the other pane or panes fully tempered, laminated or wired glass.
- Glass area greater than 16 square feet (1.49 m2). Glass sloped 30 degrees (0.52 rad) or less from vertical, and highest point of glass not more than 10 feet (3048 mm) above a walking surface or other accessible area.
Structural wind load design pressures for glass-glazed unit skylights different than the size tested in accordance with Section R308.6.9 shall be permitted to be different than the design value of the tested unit where determined in accordance with one of the following comparative analysis methods:
- Structural wind load design pressures for glassglazed unit skylights smaller than the size tested in accordance with Section R308.6.9 shall be permitted to be higher than the design value of the tested unit provided that such higher pressures are determined by accepted engineering analysis. Components of the smaller unit shall be the same as those of the tested unit. Such calculated design pressures shall be validated by an additional test of the glass-glazed unit skylight having the highest allowable design pressure.
- In accordance with WDMA I.S. 11.
Carports shall be open on not less than two sides. Carport floor surfaces shall be of approved noncombustible material. Carports not open on two or more sides shall be considered to be a garage and shall comply with the provisions of this section for garages.
Exception: Asphalt surfaces shall be permitted at ground level in carports.
- Elevated to or above the design flood elevation as determined in accordance with Section R322; or
- Located below the design flood elevation provided that the floors are at or above grade on not less than one side, are used solely for parking, building access or storage, meet the requirements of Section R322 and are otherwise constructed in accordance with this code.
Basements, habitable attics and every sleeping room shall have not less than one operable emergency escape and rescue opening. Where basements contain one or more sleeping rooms, an emergency escape and rescue opening shall be required in each sleeping room. Emergency escape and rescue openings shall open directly into a public way, or to a yard or court that opens to a public way.
- Storm shelters and basements used only to house mechanical equipment not exceeding a total floor area of 200 square feet (18.58 m2).
- The emergency escape and rescue opening shall be permitted to open into a screen enclosure, open to the atmosphere, where a screen door is provided leading away from the residence.
Emergency and escape rescue openings shall have a net clear opening of not less than 5.7 square feet (0.530 m2). The net clear opening dimensions required by this section shall be obtained by the normal operation of the emergency escape and rescue opening from the inside. The net clear height opening shall be not less than 24 inches (610 mm) and the net clear width shall be not less than 20 inches (508 mm).
The horizontal area of the window well shall be not less than 9 square feet (0.9 m2), with a horizontal projection and width of not less than 36 inches (914 mm). The area of the window well shall allow the emergency escape and rescue opening to be fully opened.
Exception: The ladder or steps required by Section R310.2.3.1 shall be permitted to encroach not more than 6 inches (152 mm) into the required dimensions of the window well.
Window wells shall be designed for proper drainage by connecting to the building’s foundation drainage system required by Section R405.1 or by an approved alternative method.
Exception: A drainage system for window wells is not required where the foundation is on well-drained-soil or sand-gravel mixture soils in accordance with the United Soil Classification System, Group I Soils, as detailed in Table R405.1.
Replacement windows installed in buildings meeting the scope of this code shall be exempt from the maximum sill height requirements of Sections R310.1 and Sections R310.2.1 and R310.2.2, provided the replacement window meets the following conditions:
- The replacement window is the manufacturer’s largest standard size window that will fit within the existing frame or existing rough opening. The replacement window is of the same operating style as the existing window or a style that provides for an equal or greater window opening area than the existing window.
- The replacement window is not part of a change of occupancy.
Bulkhead enclosures shall be designed for proper drainage by connecting to the building’s foundation drainage system required by Section R405.1 or by an approved alternative method.
Exception: A drainage system for bulkhead enclosures is not required where the foundation is on well-drained soil or sand-gravel mixture soils in accordance with the United Soil Classification System, Group I Soils, as detailed in Table R405.1.
Where dwelling additions occur that contain sleeping rooms, an emergency escape and rescue opening shall be provided in each new sleeping room. Where dwelling additions occur that have basements, an emergency escape and rescue opening shall be provided in the new basement.
- An emergency escape and rescue opening is not required in a new basement that contains a sleeping room with an emergency escape and rescue opening.
- An emergency escape and rescue opening is not required in a new basement where there is an emergency escape and rescue opening in an existing basement that is accessible from the new basement.
Not less than one egress door shall be provided for each dwelling unit. The egress door shall be side-hinged, and shall provide a clear width of not less than 32 inches (813 mm) where measured between the face of the door and the stop, with the door open 90 degrees (1.57 rad). The clear height of the door opening shall be not less than 78 inches (1981 mm) in height measured from the top of the threshold to the bottom of the stop. Other doors shall not be required to comply with these minimum dimensions. Egress doors shall be readily openable from inside the dwelling without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort.
Exception: Buildings that are 400 square feet or less and that are intended for use in conjunction with one-and two-family residences are not subject to the door height and width requirements of this code.
There shall be a landing or floor on each side of each exterior door. The width of each landing shall be not less than the door served. Every landing shall have a dimension of not less than 36 inches (914 mm) measured in the direction of travel. The slope at exterior landings shall not exceed 1/4 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2 percent).
Exception: Exterior balconies less than 60 square feet (5.6 m2) and only accessible from a door are permitted to have a landing less than 36 inches (914 mm) measured in the direction of travel.
Landings or finished floors at the required egress door shall be not more than 11/2 inches (38 mm) lower than the top of the threshold.
Exception: The landing or floor on the exterior side shall be not more than 73/4 inches (196 mm) below the top of the threshold.
Where exterior landings or floors serving the required egress door are not at grade, they shall be provided with access to grade by means of a ramp in accordance with Section R311.8 or a stairway in accordance with Section R311.7.
Stairways shall be not less than 36 inches (914 mm) in clear width at all points above the permitted handrail height and below the required headroom height. Handrails shall not project more than 41/2 inches (114 mm) on either side of the stairway and the clear width of the stairway at and below the handrail height, including treads and landings, shall be not less than 311/2 inches (787 mm) where a handrail is installed on one side and 27 inches (698 mm) where handrails are provided on both sides.
The headroom in stairways shall be not less than 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm) measured vertically from the sloped line adjoining the tread nosing or from the floor surface of the landing or platform on that portion of the stairway.
- Where the nosings of treads at the side of a flight extend under the edge of a floor opening through which the stair passes, the floor opening shall be allowed to project horizontally into the required headroom not more than 43/4 inches (121 mm).
- The headroom for spiral stairways shall be in accordance with Section R322.214.171.124.
The riser height shall be not more than 73/4 inches (196 mm). The riser shall be measured vertically between leading edges of the adjacent treads. The greatest riser height within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm). Risers shall be vertical or sloped from the underside of the nosing of the tread above at an angle not more than 30 degrees (0.51 rad) from the vertical. Open risers are permitted provided that the openings located more than 30 inches (762 mm), as measured vertically, to the floor or grade below do not permit the passage of a 4-inch-diameter (102 mm) sphere.
Winder treads shall have a tread depth of not less than 10 inches (254 mm) measured between the vertical planes of the foremost projection of adjacent treads at the intersections with the walkline. Winder treads shall have a tread depth of not less than 6 inches (152 mm) at any point within the clear width of the stair. Within any flight of stairs, the largest winder tread depth at the walkline shall not exceed the smallest winder tread by more than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm). Consistently shaped winders at the walkline shall be allowed within the same flight of stairs as rectangular treads and do not have to be within 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) of the rectangular tread depth.
The radius of curvature at the nosing shall be not greater than 9/16 inch (14 mm). A nosing projection not less than 3/4 inch (19 mm) and not more than 11/4 inches (32 mm) shall be provided on stairways with solid risers. The greatest nosing projection shall not exceed the smallest nosing projection by more than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) between two stories, including the nosing at the level of floors and landings. Beveling of nosings shall not exceed 1/2 inch (12.7 mm).
Exception: A nosing projection is not required where the tread depth is not less than 11 inches (279 mm).
There shall be a floor or landing at the top and bottom of each stairway. The width perpendicular to the direction of travel shall be not less than the width of the flight served. Landings of shapes other than square or rectangular shall be permitted provided that the depth at the walk line and the total area is not less than that of a quarter circle with a radius equal to the required landing width. Where the stairway has a straight run, the depth in the direction of travel shall be not less than 36 inches (914 mm).
- The use of a volute, turnout or starting easing shall be allowed over the lowest tread.
- Where handrail fittings or bendings are used to provide continuous transition between flights, transitions at winder treads, the transition from handrail to guard, or used at the start of a flight, the handrail height at the fittings or bendings shall be permitted to exceed 38 inches (956 mm).
Handrails for stairways shall be continuous for the full length of the flight, from a point directly above the top riser of the flight to a point directly above the lowest riser of the flight. Handrail ends shall be returned or shall terminate in newel posts or safety terminals. Handrails adjacent to a wall shall have a space of not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm) between the wall and the handrails.
- Handrails shall be permitted to be interrupted by a newel post at the turn.
- The use of a volute, turnout, starting easing or starting newel shall be allowed over the lowest tread.
Required handrails shall be of one of the following types or provide equivalent grasp-ability.
- Type I. Handrails with a circular cross section shall have an outside diameter of not less than 11/4 inches (32 mm) and not greater than 2 inches (51 mm). If the handrail is not circular, it shall have a perimeter dimension of not less than 4 inches (102 mm) and not greater than 61/4 inches (160 mm) with a cross section of dimension of not more than 21/4 inches (57 mm). Edges shall have a radius of not less than 0.01 inch (0.25 mm).
- Type II. Handrails with a perimeter greater than 61/4 inches (160 mm) shall have a graspable finger recess area on both sides of the profile. The finger recess shall begin within a distance of 3/4 inch (19 mm) measured vertically from the tallest portion of the profile and achieve a depth of not less than 5/16 inch (8 mm) within 7/8 inch (22 mm) below the widest portion of the profile. This required depth shall continue for not less than 3/8 inch (10 mm) to a level that is not less than 13/4 inches (45 mm) below the tallest portion of the profile. The width of the handrail above the recess shall be not less than 11/4 inches (32 mm) and not more than 23/4 inches (70 mm). Edges shall have a radius of not less than 0.01 inch (0.25 mm).
Ramps serving the egress door required by Section R311.2 shall have a slope of not more than 1 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8.3-percent slope). All other ramps shall have a maximum slope of 1 unit vertical in 8 units horizontal (12.5 percent).
Required guards at open-sided walking surfaces, including stairs, porches, balconies or landings, shall be not less than 36 inches (914 mm) in height as measured vertically above the adjacent walking surface or the line connecting the leading edges of the treads.
- Guards on the open sides of stairs shall have a height not less than 34 inches (864 mm) measured vertically from a line connecting the leading edges of the treads.
- Where the top of the guard serves as a handrail on the open sides of stairs, the top of the guard shall be not less than 34 inches (864 mm) and not more than 38 inches (965 mm) as measured vertically from a line connecting the leading edges of the treads.
In dwelling units, where the top of the sill of an operable window opening is located less than 24 inches (610 mm) above the finished floor and greater than 72 inches (1829 mm) above the finished grade or other surface below on the exterior of the building, the operable window shall comply with one of the following:
- Operable windows with openings that will not allow a 4-inch-diameter (102 mm) sphere to pass through the opening where the opening is in its largest opened position.
- Operable windows that are provided with window fall prevention devices that comply with ASTM F2090.
- Operable windows that are provided with window opening control devices that comply with Section R312.2.2.
Where alterations, repairs or additions requiring a permit occur, or where one or more sleeping rooms are added or created in existing dwellings, the individual dwelling unit shall be equipped with smoke alarms located as required for new dwellings.
- Work involving the exterior surfaces of dwellings, such as the replacement of roofing or siding, the addition or replacement of windows or doors, or the addition of a porch or deck, are exempt from the requirements of this section.
- Installation, alteration or repairs of plumbing or mechanical systems are exempt from the requirements of this section.
Smoke alarms shall be installed in the following locations:
- In each sleeping room.
- Outside each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms.
- On each additional story of the dwelling, including basements and habitable attics and not including crawl spaces and uninhabitable attics. In dwellings or dwelling units with split levels and without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level.
- Smoke alarms shall be installed not less than 3 feet (914 mm) horizontally from the door or opening of a bathroom that contains a bathtub or shower unless this would prevent placement of a smoke alarm required by Section R314.3.
Smoke alarms shall not be installed in the following locations unless this would prevent placement of a smoke alarm in a location required by Section R314.3.
- Ionization smoke alarms shall not be installed less than 20 feet (6096 mm) horizontally from a permanently installed cooking appliance.
- Ionization smoke alarms with an alarm-silencing switch shall not be installed less than 10 feet (3048 mm) horizontally from a permanently installed cooking appliance.
- Photoelectric smoke alarms shall not be installed less than 6 feet (1828 mm) horizontally from a permanently installed cooking appliance.
Where more than one smoke alarm is required to be installed within an individual dwelling unit in accordance with Section R314.3, the alarm devices shall be interconnected in such a manner that the actuation of one alarm will activate all of the alarms in the individual dwelling unit. Physical interconnection of smoke alarms shall not be required where listed wireless alarms are installed and all alarms sound upon activation of one alarm.
Exception: Interconnection of smoke alarms in existing areas shall not be required where alterations or repairs do not result in removal of interior wall or ceiling finishes exposing the structure, unless there is an attic, crawl space or basement available that could provide access for interconnection without the removal of interior finishes.
Smoke alarms shall receive their primary power from the building wiring where such wiring is served from a commercial source and, where primary power is interrupted, shall receive power from a battery. Wiring shall be permanent and without a disconnecting switch other than those required for overcurrent protection.
- Smoke alarms shall be permitted to be battery operated where installed in buildings without commercial power.
- One-family and two-family dwellings and townhomes undergoing a repair, or a Level 1 alteration as defined in the Florida Building Code, may use smoke alarms powered by 10-year nonremovable, nonreplaceable batteries in lieu of retrofitting such dwelling with smoke alarms powered by the dwelling’s electrical system. A battery-powered smoke alarm that is newly installed or replaces an existing battery-powered smoke alarm as a result of a Level 1 alteration must be powered by a nonremovable, nonreplaceable battery that powers the alarm for at least 10 years. The battery requirements of this section do not apply to a fire alarm, smoke detector, smoke alarm, or ancillary component that is electronically connected as a part of a centrally monitored or supervised alarm system, that uses a lowpower, radio frequency wireless communication signal; or that contains multiple sensors, such as a smoke alarm combined with a carbon monoxide alarm or other multisensor devices, and is approved and listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory.
Every separate building or an addition to an existing building for which a permit for new construction is issued and having a fossil-fuel-burning heater or appliance, a fireplace, an attached garage, or other feature, fixture, or element that emits carbon monoxide as byproduct of combustion shall have an operational carbon monoxide alarm installed within 10 feet of each room used for sleeping purposes.
The requirements of Section R315.1 shall be satisfied by providing for one of the following alarm installations:
Unless otherwise allowed in Section R316.5, foam plastic or foam plastic cores used as a component in manufactured assemblies used in building construction shall have a flame spread index of not more than 75 and shall have a smoke-developed index of not more than 450 when tested in the maximum thickness and density intended for use in accordance with ASTM E84 or UL 723. Loose-fill-type foam plastic insulation shall be tested as board stock for the flame spread index and smoke-developed index.
Exception: Foam plastic insulation more than 4 inches (102 mm) thick shall have a flame spread index of not more than 75 and a smoke-developed index of not more than 450 where tested at a thickness of not more than 4 inches (102 mm), provided that the end use is approved in accordance with Section R316.6 using the thickness and density intended for use.
- Attic access is required by Section R807.1.
- The space is entered only for purposes of repairs or maintenance.
- 3.1. 11/2-inch-thick (38 mm) mineral fiber insulation.
- 3.2. 1/4-inch-thick (6.4 mm) wood structural panels.
- 3.3. 3/8-inch (9.5 mm) particleboard.
- 3.4. 1/4-inch (6.4 mm) hardboard.
- 3.5. 3/8-inch (9.5 mm) gypsum board.
- 3.6. Corrosion-resistant steel having a base metal thickness of 0.016 inch (0.406 mm).
- 3.7. 11/2-inch-thick (38 mm) cellulose insulation; or
- 3.8. 1/4-inch (6.4 mm) fiber-cement panel, soffit or backer board.
- Crawlspace access is required by Section R408.4.
- Entry is made only for purposes of repairs or maintenance.
- 3.1. 11/2-inch-thick (38 mm) mineral fiber insulation;
- 3.2. 1/4-inch-thick (6.4 mm) wood structural panels;
- 3.3. 3/8-inch (9.5 mm) particleboard;
- 3.4. 1/4-inch (6.4 mm) hardboard;
- 3.5. 3/8-inch (9.5 mm) gypsum board; or
- 3.6. Corrosion-resistant steel having a base metal thickness of 0.016 inch (0.406 mm).
The thermal barrier specified in Section R316.4 is not required where siding backer board foam plastic insulation has a thickness of not more than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) and a potential heat of not more than 2000 Btu per square foot (22 720 kJ/m2) when tested in accordance with NFPA 259 provided that:
- The foam plastic insulation is separated from the interior of the building by not less than 2 inches (51 mm) of mineral fiber insulation;
- The foam plastic insulation is installed over existing exterior wall finish in conjunction with re-siding; or
- The foam plastic insulation has been tested in accordance with Section R316.6.
- The density is not less than 20 pounds per cubic foot (320 kg/m3).
- The thickness of the trim is not more than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) and the width is not more than 8 inches (204 mm).
- The interior trim shall not constitute more than 10 percent of the aggregate wall and ceiling area of any room or space.
- The flame spread index does not exceed 75 when tested per ASTM E84 or UL 723. The smoke-developed index is not limited.
Foam plastic shall be permitted to be spray applied to sill plates and headers or installed in the perimeter joist space without the thermal barrier specified in Section R316.4 subject to all of the following:
- The thickness of the foam plastic shall be not more than 31/4 inches (83 mm).
- The density of the foam plastic shall be in the range of 0.5 to 2.0 pounds per cubic foot (8 to 32 kg/m3).
- The foam plastic shall have a flame spread index of 25 or less and an accompanying smoke-developed index of 450 or less when tested in accordance with ASTM E84 or UL 723.
Protection of wood and wood-based products from decay shall be provided in the following locations by the use of naturally durable wood or wood that is preservative-treated in accordance with AWPA U1 for the species, product, preservative and end use. Preservatives shall be listed in Section 4 of AWPA U1.
- Wood joists or the bottom of a wood structural floor when closer than 18 inches (457 mm) or wood girders when closer than 12 inches (305 mm) to the exposed ground in crawl spaces or unexcavated area located within the periphery of the building foundation.
- Wood framing members that rest on concrete or masonry exterior foundation walls and are less than 8 inches (203 mm) from the exposed ground.
- Sills and sleepers on a concrete or masonry slab that is in direct contact with the ground unless separated from such slab by an impervious moisture barrier.
- The ends of wood girders entering exterior masonry or concrete walls having clearances of less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) on tops, sides and ends.
- Wood siding, sheathing and wall framing on the exterior of a building having a clearance of less than 6 inches (152 mm) from the ground or less than 2 inches (51 mm) measured vertically from concrete steps, porch slabs, patio slabs and similar horizontal surfaces exposed to the weather.
- Wood structural members supporting moisture-permeable floors or roofs that are exposed to the weather, such as concrete or masonry slabs, unless separated from such floors or roofs by an impervious moisture barrier.
- Wood furring strips or other wood framing members attached directly to the interior of exterior masonry walls or concrete walls below grade except where an approved vapor retarder is applied between the wall and the furring strips or framing members.