ABOVE-GROUND/ONGROUND POOL. See “Swimming pool.”
ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY. The individual official, board, department or agency established and authorized by a state, county, city or other political subdivision created by law to administer and enforce the provisions of the swimming pool code as adopted or amended.
APPROVED. Accepted or acceptable under an applicable specification stated or cited in this code, or accepted as suitable for the proposed use under procedures and power of the administrative authority.
APPROVED SAFETY COVER. A manually or power-applied safety pool cover that meets all of the performance standards of the ASTM International in compliance with ASTM F 1346.
APPROVED TESTING AGENCY. An organization primarily established for the purpose of testing to approved standards and approved by the administrative authority.
BACKWASH PIPING. See “Filter waste discharge piping.”
BARRIER. A fence, dwelling wall or nondwelling wall or any combination thereof which completely surrounds the swimming pool and obstructs access to the swimming pool, especially access from the residence or from the yard outside the barrier.
BODY FEED. Filter aid fed into a diatomite-type filter throughout the filtering cycle.
CARTRIDGE FILTER. A filter using cartridge-type filter elements.
CHEMICAL PIPING. Piping which conveys concentrated chemical solutions from a feeding apparatus to the circulation piping.
CIRCULATION PIPING SYSTEM. Piping between the pool structure and the mechanical equipment. Usually includes suction piping, face piping and return piping.
COMBINATION VALVE. A multipart valve intended to perform more than one function.
DESIGN HEAD. Total head requirement of the circulation system at the design rate of flow.
DIATOMITE (DIATOMACEOUS EARTH). A type of filter aid.
DIATOMITE-TYPE FILTER. A filter designed to be used with filter aid.
DIRECT ACCESS FROM THE HOME. Means any opening which discharges into the “perimeter” of the pool or any opening in an exterior dwelling wall, or interior wall (for indoor pools) which faces the pool.
EXIT ALARM. A device that makes audible, continuous alarm sounds when any door or window which permits access from the residence to any pool that is without an intervening enclosure is opened or left ajar.
FACE PIPING. Piping, with all valves and fittings, which is used to connect the filter system together as a unit.
FILTER. Any apparatus by which water is clarified.
FILTER AID. A nonpermanent type of filter medium or aid such as diatomite, alum, etc.
FILTER CARTRIDGE. A disposable or renewable filter element which generally employs no filter aid.
FILTER ELEMENT. That part of a filter which retains the filter medium.
FILTER MEDIUM. Fine material which entraps the suspended particles and removes them from the water.
FILTER RATE. Average rate of flow per square foot of filter area.
FILTER ROCK. Specially graded rock and gravel used to support filter sand.
FILTER SAND. A specially graded type of permanent filter medium.
FILTER SEPTUM. That part of the filter element in a diatomite-type filter upon which a cake of diatomite or other nonpermanent filter aid may be deposited.
FILTER WASTE DISCHARGE PIPING. Piping that conducts waste water from a filter to a drainage system. Connection to drainage system is made through an air gap or other approved methods.
FRESH WATER. Those waters having a specific conductivity less than a solution containing 6,000 ppm of sodium chloride.
HIGH-RATE SAND FILTER. A sand filter designed for flows in excess of 5 gpm per square feet.
HOT TUB. See “Swimming pool.”
INGROUND POOL. See “Swimming pool.”
INLET FITTING. Fitting or fixture through which circulated water enters the pool.
MAIN SUCTION OUTLET. Outlet at the deep portion of the pool through which the main flow of water leaves the pool when being drained or circulated.
MEDICALLY FRAIL ELDERLY PERSON. Means any person who is at least 65 years of age and has a medical problem that affects balance, vision, or judgment, including but not limited to a heart condition, diabetes, or Alzheimer’s disease or any related disorder.
MESH SAFETY BARRIER. A combination of materials, including fabric, posts, and other hardware to form a barrier around a swimming pool.
POOL. See “Swimming pool.”
POOL DEPTHS. The distance between the floor of pool and the maximum operating water level.
POOL PERIMETER. A pool perimeter is defined by the limits of the pool deck, its surrounding area including yard area on same property, and any dwelling or nondwelling wall or any combination thereof which completely surrounds the pool.
POOL PLUMBING. All chemical, circulation, filter waste discharge piping, deck drainage and water filling system.
PORTABLE POOL. A prefabricated pool which may be erected at the point of intended use and which may be subsequently disassembled and reerected at a new location. Generally installed on the surface of the ground and without excavation.
PRECOAT. In a diatomite-type filter, the initial coating or filter aid placed on the filter septum at the start of the filter cycle.
RAPID SAND FILTER. A filter designed to be used with sand as the filter medium and for flows not to exceed 5 gpm per square foot.
RECEPTOR. An approved plumbing fixture or device of such material, shape and capacity as to adequately receive the discharge from indirect waste piping, so constructed and located as to be readily cleaned.
RESIDENTIAL. Means situated on the premises of a detached one-family or two-family dwelling or a one-family townhouse not more than three stories high.
RETURN PIPING. That portion of the circulation piping which extends from the outlet side of the filters to the pool.
SALINE WATER. Those waters having a specific conductivity in excess of a solution containing 6,000 ppm of sodium chloride.
SEPARATION TANK. A device used to clarify filter rinse or waste water. Sometimes called a reclamation tank.
SKIM FILTER. A surface skimmer combined with a vacuum diatomite filter.
SPA, NONPORTABLE. See “Swimming pool.”
SPA, PORTABLE. Nonpermanent structure intended for recreational bathing, in which all controls and water heating and water circulating equipment are an integral part of the product and which is cord-connected and not permanently electrically wired.
SUCTION PIPING. That portion of the circulation piping located between the pool structure and the inlet side of the pump and usually includes main outlet piping, skimmer piping, vacuum piping and surge tank piping.
SURFACE SKIMMER. A device generally located in the pool wall which skims the pool surface by drawing pool water over a self-adjusting weir.
SWIMMING POOL, PRIVATE. Any structure, located in a residential area, that is intended for swimming or recreational bathing and contains water over 24 inches (610 mm) deep including but not limited to inground, above-ground, and onground swimming pools, hot tubs, and nonportable spas.
SWIMMING POOL, INDOOR. A swimming pool which is totally contained within a structure and surrounded on all four sides by walls of said structure.
SWIMMING POOL, OUTDOOR. Any swimming pool which is not an indoor pool.
SWIMMING POOL, PUBLIC. A water-tight structure of concrete, masonry, fiberglass, stainless steel or plastic which is located either indoors or outdoors, used for bathing or swimming by humans, and filled with a filtered and disinfected water supply, together with buildings, appurtenances and equipment used in connection therewith. A public swimming pool or public pool shall mean a conventional pool, spatype pool, wading pool, special purpose pool or water recreation attraction, to which admission may be gained with or without payment of a fee and includes, pools operated by or serving camps, churches, cities, counties, day care centers, group home facilities for eight or more clients, health spas, institutions, parks, state agencies, schools, subdivisions; or the cooperative living-type projects of five or more living units, such as apartments, boarding houses, hotels, mobile home parks, motels, recreational vehicle parks and townhouses.
SWIMMING POOL, RESIDENTIAL. See “Swimming pool, private.”
TURNOVER TIME. The time in hours required for the circulation system to filter and recirculate a volume of water equal to the pool volume.
VACUUM FITTING. A fitting in the pool which is used as a convenient outlet for connecting the underwater suction cleaning equipment.
VACUUM PIPING. The piping from the suction side of a pump connected to a vacuum fitting located at the pool and below the water level.
WASTE PIPING. See “Filter waste discharge piping.”
WIDTH AND/OR LENGTH. Actual water dimension taken from wall to wall at the maximum operating water level.
YOUNG CHILD. Means any person under the age of six years.
For any items not specifically covered in these requirements, the administrative authority is hereby authorized to require that all equipment, materials, methods of construction and design features shall be proven to function adequately, effectively and without excessive maintenance and operational difficulties.R4501.4.2.1. Flood hazard areas.
Pools installed in flood hazard areas established in Section R322 shall comply with Section R322.2.4 (A Zones) or R3220.127.116.11 in coastal high-hazard areas (V Zones).
Every swimming pool shall be equipped complete with approved mechanical equipment consisting of filter, pump, piping valves and component parts.
Pool piping shall be designed so the water velocity will not exceed 10 feet per second (3048 mm/s) for pressure piping and 8 feet per second (2438 mm/s) for suction piping, except that the water velocity shall not exceed 8 feet per second (2438 mm/s) in copper tubing. Main suction outlet velocity must comply with ANSI/APSP 7.
All piping materials shall be installed in strict accordance with the manufacturer’s installation standards.
Pumps shall have design capacity at the following heads:
1. Pressure diatomaceous earth — At least 60 feet (18 288 mm).
2. Vacuum diatomaceous earth — 20-inch (508 mm) vacuum on the suction side and 40-foot (12 192 mm) total head.
3. Rapid sand — At least 45 feet (13 716 mm).
4. High rate sand — At least 60-feet (18 288 mm).
All pool piping shall be tested and proved tight to the satisfaction of the administrative authority, under a static water or air pressure test of not less than 35 pounds per square inch (psi) (241 kPa) for 15 minutes.
Exception: Circulating pumps need not be tested as required in this section.
Outdoor swimming pools shall be provided with a barrier complying with Sections R4501.17.1.1 through R4501.17.1.14.R4501.17.1.1
The top of the barrier shall be at least 48 inches (1219 mm) above grade, measured on the side of the barrier which faces away from the swimming pool. The maximum vertical clearance between grade and the bottom of the barrier shall be 2 inches (51 mm) measured on the side of the barrier which faces away from the swimming pool. Where the top of the pool structure is above grade, the barrier may be at ground level or mounted on top of the pool structure. Where the barrier is mounted on top of the pool structure, the maximum vertical clearance between the top of the pool structure and the bottom of the barrier shall be 4 inches (102 mm). R4501.17.1.2
The barrier may not have any gaps, openings, indentations, protrusions, or structural components that could allow a young child to crawl under, squeeze through, or climb over the barrier as herein described below. One end of a removable child barrier shall not be removable without the aid of tools. Openings in any barrier shall not allow passage of a 4-inch-diameter (102 mm) sphere. R4501.17.1.3
Solid barriers which do not have openings shall not contain indentations or protrusions except for normal construction tolerances and tooled masonry joints. R4501.17.1.4
Where the barrier is composed of horizontal and vertical members and the distance between the tops of the horizontal members is less than 45 inches (1143 mm), the horizontal members shall be located on the swimming pool side of the fence. Spacing between vertical members shall not exceed 1 3/4 inches (44 mm) in width. Where there are decorative cutouts within vertical members, spacing within the cutouts shall not exceed 1 3/4 inches (44 mm) in width. R4501.17.1.5
Where the barrier is composed of horizontal and vertical members and the distance between the tops of the horizontal members is 45 inches (1143 mm) or more, spacing between vertical members shall not exceed 4 inches (102 mm). Where there are decorative cutouts within vertical members, spacing within the cutouts shall not exceed 1 3/4 inches (44 mm) in width. R4501.17.1.6
Maximum mesh size for chain link fences shall be a 2 1/4 inch square (57 mm) unless the fence is provided with slats fastened at the top or bottom which reduce the openings to no more than 1 3/4 inches (44 mm). R4501.17.1.7
Where the barrier is composed of diagonal members, the maximum opening formed by the diagonal members shall be no more than 1 3/4 inches (44 mm). R4501.17.1.8
Access gates, when provided, shall be self-closing and shall comply with the requirements of Sections R4501.17.1.1 through R4501.17.1.7 and shall be equipped with a self-latching locking device located on the pool side of the gate. Where the device release is located no less than 54 inches (1372 mm) from the bottom of the gate, the device release mechanism may be located on either side of the gate and so placed that it cannot be reached by a young child over the top or through any opening or gap from the outside. Gates that provide access to the swimming pool must open outward away from the pool. The gates and barrier shall have no opening greater than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) within 18 inches (457 mm) of the release mechanism. R4501.17.1.9
Where a wall of a dwelling serves as part of the barrier, one of the following shall apply:
1. All doors and windows providing direct access from the home to the pool shall be equipped with an exit alarm complying with UL 2017 that has a minimum sound pressure rating of 85 dBA at 10 feet (3048 mm). Any deactivation switch shall be located at least 54 inches (1372 mm) above the threshold of the access. Separate alarms are not required for each door or window if sensors wired to a central alarm sound when contact is broken at any opening.
a. Screened or protected windows having a bottom sill height of 48 inches (1219 mm) or more measured from the interior finished floor at the pool access level.
b. Windows facing the pool on floor above the first story.
c. Screened or protected pass-through kitchen windows 42 inches (1067 mm) or higher with a counter beneath.
2. All doors providing direct access from the home to the pool must be equipped with a self-closing, self-latching device with positive mechanical latching/locking installed a minimum of 54 inches (1372 mm) above the threshold, which is approved by the authority having jurisdiction.R4501.17.1.10
Where an above-ground pool structure is used as a barrier or where the barrier is mounted on top of the pool structure, and the means of access is a ladder or steps, the ladder or steps either shall be capable of being secured, locked or removed to prevent access, or the ladder or steps shall be surrounded by a barrier which meets the requirements of Sections R4501.17.1.1 through R4501.17.1.9 and Sections R4501.17.1.12 through R4501.17.1.14. When the ladder or steps are secured, locked or removed, any opening created shall not allow the passage of a 4-inch-diameter (102 mm) sphere. R4501.17.1.11
Standard screen enclosures which meet the requirements of Section R4501.17 may be utilized as part, or all, of the “barrier” and shall be considered a “nondwelling” wall. Removable child barriers shall have one end of the barrier nonremovable without the aid of tools. R4501.17.1.12
The barrier must be placed around the perimeter of the pool and must be separate from any fence, wall, or other enclosure surrounding the yard unless the fence, wall, or other enclosure or portion thereof is situated on the perimeter of the pool, is being used as part of the barrier, and meets the barrier requirements of this section. R4501.17.1.13
Removable child barriers must be placed sufficiently away from the water’s edge to prevent a young child or medically frail elderly person who may manage to penetrate the barrier from immediately falling into the water. Sufficiently away from the water’s edge shall mean no less than 20 inches (508 mm) from the barrier to the water’s edge. Dwelling or nondwelling walls including screen enclosures, when used as part or all of the “barrier” and meeting the other barrier requirements, may be as close to the water’s edge as permitted by this code. R4501.17.1.14
A wall of a dwelling may serve as part of the barrier if it does not contain any door or window that opens to provide direct access from the home to the swimming pool. R4501.17.1.14.1 Adjacent waterways.
Permanent natural or permanent man-made features such as bulkheads, canals, lakes, navigable waterways, etc., adjacent to a public or private swimming pool or spa may be permitted as a barrier when approved by the authority having jurisdiction. When evaluating such barrier features, the authority may perform on-site inspections and review evidence such as surveys, aerial photographs, water management agency standards and specifications, and any other similar documentation to verify, at a minimum, the following:
1. The barrier feature is not subject to natural changes, deviations, or alterations and is capable of providing an equivalent level of protection as that provided by the code.
2. The barrier feature clearly impedes, prohibits or restricts access to the swimming pool or spa.R4501.17.1.15
A mesh safety barrier meeting the requirements of Section R4501.17 and the following minimum requirements shall be considered a barrier as defined in this section:
1. Individual component vertical support posts shall be capable of resisting a minimum of 52 pounds (229 N) of horizontal force prior to breakage when measured at a 36-inch (914 mm) height above grade. Vertical posts of the child mesh safety barrier shall extend a minimum of 3 inches (76 mm) below deck level and shall be spaced no greater than 36 inches (914 mm) apart.
2. The mesh utilized in the barrier shall have a minimum tensile strength according to ASTM D 5034 of 100 pounds per foot (149 kg/m), and a minimum ball burst strength according to ASTM D 3787 of 150 pounds per foot (223 kg/m). The mesh shall not be capable of deformation such that a 1/4 -inch (6.4 mm) round object could pass through the mesh.
3. When using a molding strip to attach the mesh to the vertical posts, this strip shall contain, at a minimum, #8 by 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) screws with a minimum of two screws at the top and two at the bottom with the remaining screws spaced a maximum of 6 inches (152 mm) apart on center.
4. Patio deck sleeves (vertical post receptacles) placed inside the patio surface shall be of a nonconductive material.
5. A latching device shall attach each barrier section at a height no lower than 45 inches (11 613 mm) above grade. Common latching devices that include, but are not limited to, devices that provide the security equal to or greater than that of a hook-and-eye-type latch incorporating a spring actuated retaining lever (commonly referred to as a safety gate hook).
6. The bottom of the child mesh safety barrier shall not be more than 1 inch (25 mm) above the deck or installed surface (grade).
All pools whether public or private shall be provided with a ladder or steps in the shallow end where water depth exceeds 24 inches (610 mm). In private pools where water depth exceeds 5 feet (1524 mm), there shall be ladders, stairs or underwater benches/swimouts in the deep end. Where manufactured diving equipment is to be used, benches or swimouts shall be recessed or located in a corner.
Final electrical and barrier code inspection shall be completed prior to filling the pool with water.
Rapid sand filters (flow up to 5 gpm per square foot) shall be constructed in accordance with approved standards. Where high rate sand filters (flow in excess of 5 gpm per square foot) are used, they shall be of an approved type. The circulation system and backwash piping shall be adequate for proper backwashing of said filter and shall provide backwash flow rates of at least 12 gpm per square foot for rapid sand filters or 15 gpm per square foot for high rate sand filters. R4501.20.1.2 Instructions.
Every filter system shall be provided with written operating instructions. R4501.20.1.3 Filter system equipment.
On pressure-type filters, a means shall be provided to permit the release of internal pressure. A filter incorporating an automatic internal air release as its principal means of air release shall have lids which provide a slow and safe release of pressure as part of its design. A separation tank used in conjunction with a filter tank shall have as part of its design a manual means of air release or a lid which provides a slow and safe release of pressure as it is opened.
Diatomite-type filters shall be designed for operation under either pressure or vacuum. The design capacity for both pressure and vacuum filters shall not exceed 2 gpm per square foot of effective filter area. R4501.20.2.2 Filter aid.
Provision shall be made to introduce filter aid into the filter in such a way as to evenly precoat the filter septum.
In areas of anticipated water table, an approved hydrostatic relief device shall be installed.