Conductors other than service conductors shall not be installed in the same service raceway or service cable.
- Grounding conductors and bonding jumpers.
- Load management control conductors having overcurrent protection.
The minimum load for ungrounded service conductors and service devices that serve 100 percent of the dwelling unit load shall be computed in accordance with Table E3602.2. Ungrounded service conductors and service devices that serve less than 100 percent of the dwelling unit load shall be computed as required for feeders in accordance with Chapter 37.
MINIMUM SERVICE LOAD CALCULATION
|LOADS AND PROCEDURE|
|3 volt-amperes per square foot of floor area for general lighting and general use receptacle outlets.|
|1,500 volt-amperes multiplied by total number of 20-ampere-rated small appliance and laundry circuits.|
|The nameplate volt-ampere rating of all fastened-in-place, permanently connected or dedicated circuit-supplied appliances such as ranges, ovens, cooking units, clothes dryers not connected to the laundry branch circuit and water heaters.|
|Apply the following demand factors to the above subtotal:|
|The minimum subtotal for the loads above shall be 100 percent of the first 10,000 volt-amperes of the sum of the above loads plus 40 percent of any portion of the sum that is in excess of 10,000 voltamperes.|
|Plus the largest of the following:|
|One-hundred percent of the nameplate rating(s) of the air-conditioning and cooling equipment.|
|One hundred percent of the nameplate rating(s) of the heat pump where a heat pump is used without any supplemental electric heating.|
|One-hundred percent of the nameplate rating of the electric thermal storage and other heating systems where the usual load is expected to be continuous at the full nameplate value. Systems qualifying under this selection shall not be figured under any other category in this table.|
|One-hundred percent of nameplate rating of the heat pump compressor and sixty-five percent of the supplemental electric heating load for central electric space-heating systems. If the heat pump compressor is prevented from operating at the same time as the supplementary heat, the compressor load does not need to be added to the supplementary heat load for the total central electric spaceheating load.|
|Sixty-five percent of nameplate rating(s) of electric space-heating units if less than four separately controlled units.|
|Forty percent of nameplate rating(s) of electric space-heating units of four or more separately controlled units.|
|The minimum total load in amperes shall be the volt-ampere sum calculated above divided by 240 volts.|
Conductors used as ungrounded service entrance conductors, service lateral conductors, and feeder conductors that serve as the main power feeder to a dwelling unit shall be those listed in Table E3603.1. The main power feeder shall be the feeder(s) between the main disconnect and the panelboard that supplies, either by branch circuits or by feeders, or both, all loads that are part of or are associated with the dwelling unit. The feeder conductors to a dwelling unit shall not be required to have an allowable ampacity greater than that of the service-entrance conductors that supply them. Ungrounded service conductors shall have a minimum size in accordance with Table E3603.1. The grounded conductor ampacity shall be not less than the maximum unbalance of the load and its size shall be not smaller than the required minimum grounding electrode conductor size specified in Table E3603.1.
SERVICE CONDUCTOR AND GROUNDING ELECTRODE CONDUCTOR SIZING
- Where protected by a ferrous metal raceway, grounding electrode conductors shall be electrically bonded to the ferrous metal raceway at both ends.
- An 8 AWG grounding electrode conductor shall be protected with rigid metal conduit, intermediate metal conduit, rigid polyvinyl chloride (Type PVC) nonmetallic conduit, rigid thermosetting resin (Type RTRC) nonmetallic conduit, electrical metallic tubing or cable armor.
- Where not protected, 6 AWG grounding electrode conductor shall closely follow a structural surface for physical protection. The supports shall be spaced not more than 24 inches on center and shall be within 12 inches of any enclosure or termination.
- Where the sole grounding electrode system is a ground rod or pipe as covered in Section E3608.2, the grounding electrode conductor shall not be required to be larger than 6 AWG copper or 4 AWG aluminum. Where the sole grounding electrode system is the footing steel as covered in Section E3608.1.2, the grounding electrode conductor shall not be required to be larger than 4 AWG copper conductor.
Overload protection shall be provided by an overcurrent device installed in series with each ungrounded service conductor. The overcurrent device shall have a rating or setting not higher than the allowable service or feeder rating specified in Table E3603.1. A set of fuses shall be considered all the fuses required to protect all of the ungrounded conductors of a circuit. Single pole circuit breakers, grouped in accordance with Section E3601.7, shall be considered as one protective device.
Open conductors and multiconductor cables without an overall outer jacket shall have a clearance of not less than 3 feet (914 mm) from the sides of doors, porches, decks, stairs, ladders, fire escapes and balconies, and from the sides and bottom of windows that open. See Figure E3604.1.
CLEARANCES FROM BUILDING OPENINGS
Conductors shall have a vertical clearance of not less than 8 feet (2438 mm) above the roof surface. The vertical clearance above the roof level shall be maintained for a distance of not less than 3 feet (914 mm) in all directions from the edge of the roof. See Figure E3604.2.1.
- Conductors above a roof surface subject to pedestrian traffic shall have a vertical clearance from the roof surface in accordance with Section E3604.2.2.
- Where the roof has a slope of 4 inches (102 mm) in 12 inches (305 mm), or greater, the minimum clearance shall be 3 feet (914 mm).
- The minimum clearance above only the overhanging portion of the roof shall not be less than 18 inches (457 mm) where not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) of overhead service conductor length passes over 4 feet (1219 mm) or less of roof surface measured horizontally and such conductors are terminated at a through-the-roof raceway or approved support.
- The requirement for maintaining the vertical clearance for a distance of 3 feet (914 mm) from the edge of the roof shall not apply to the final conductor span where the service drop is attached to the side of a building.
- Where the voltage between conductors does not exceed 300 and the roof area is guarded or isolated, a reduction in clearance to 3 feet (914 mm) shall be permitted.
CLEARANCES FROM ROOFS
Overhead service conductors shall have the following minimum clearances from final grade:
- For conductors supported on and cabled together with a grounded bare messenger wire, the minimum vertical clearance shall be 10 feet (3048 mm) at the electric service entrance to buildings, at the lowest point of the drip loop of the building electric entrance, and above areas or sidewalks accessed by pedestrians only. Such clearance shall be measured from final grade or other accessible surfaces.
- Twelve feet (3658 mm)—over residential property and driveways.
- Eighteen feet (5486 mm)—over public streets, alleys, roads or parking areas subject to truck traffic.
Service-entrance conductors entering or on the exterior of buildings or other structures shall be insulated in accordance with Section E3406.5.
1. A copper grounded conductor shall not be required to be insulated where it is:
1.1. In a raceway or part of a service cable assembly,
1.2. Directly buried in soil of suitable condition, or
1.3. Part of a cable assembly listed for direct burial without regard to soil conditions.
2. An aluminum or copper-clad aluminum grounded conductor shall not be required to be insulated where part of a cable or where identified for direct burial or utilization in underground raceways.
Insulated conductors and cables used where exposed to direct rays of the sun shall comply with one of the following:
- The conductors and cables shall be listed, or listed and marked, as being sunlight resistant.
- The conductors and cables are covered with insulating material, such as tape or sleeving, that is listed, or listed and marked, as being sunlight resistant.
Service heads, and goosenecks in service-entrance cables, shall be located above the point of attachment of the service-drop or overhead service conductors to the building or other structure.
Buildings or structures supplied by feeder(s) or branch circuit(s) shall have a grounding electrode or grounding electrode system installed in accordance with Section E3608. The grounding electrode conductor(s) shall be connected in a manner specified in Section E3607.3.1 or, for existing premises wiring systems only, Section E3607.3.2. Where there is no existing grounding electrode, the grounding electrode(s) required in Section E3608 shall be installed.
For installations made in compliance with previous editions of this code that permitted such connection and where an equipment grounding conductor is not run with the supply conductors to the building or structure, there are no continuous metallic paths bonded to the grounding system in both buildings or structures involved, and ground-fault protection of equipment has not been installed on the supply side of the feeder(s), the grounded conductor run with the supply to the buildings or structure shall be connected to the building or structure disconnecting means and to the grounding electrode(s) and shall be used for grounding or bonding of equipment, structures, or frames required to be grounded or bonded. Where used for grounding in accordance with this provision, the grounded conductor shall be not smaller than the larger of:
All electrodes specified in Sections E3608.1.1, E3608.1.2, E3608.1.3, E3608.1.4 E3608.1.5 and E3608.1.6 that are present at each building or structure served shall be bonded together to form the grounding electrode system. Where none of these electrodes are present, one or more of the electrodes specified in Sections E3608.1.3, E3608.1.4, E3608.1.5 and E3608.1.6 shall be installed and used.
A metal underground water pipe that is in direct contact with the earth for 10 feet (3048 mm) or more, including any well casing effectively bonded to the pipe and that is electrically continuous, or made electrically continuous by bonding around insulating joints or insulating pipe to the points of connection of the grounding electrode conductor and the bonding conductors, shall be considered as a grounding electrode (see Section E3608.1). Interior metal water piping located more than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the entrance to the building shall not be used as part of the grounding electrode system or as a conductor to interconnect electrodes that are part of the grounding electrode system.E3608.1.1.1 Interior metal water piping.
Interior metal water piping located more than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the entrance to the building shall not be used as a conductor to interconnect electrodes that are part of the grounding electrode system. E3608.1.1.2 Installation.
Continuity of the grounding path or the bonding connection to interior piping shall not rely on water meters, filtering devices and similar equipment. A metal underground water pipe shall be supplemented by an additional electrode of a type specified in Sections E3608.1.2 through E3608.1.6. The supplemental electrode shall be bonded to the grounding electrode conductor, the grounded service-entrance conductor, a nonflexible grounded service raceway, any grounded service enclosure or to the equipment grounding conductor provided in accordance with Section E3607.3.1. Where the supplemental electrode is a rod, pipe or plate electrode in accordance with Section E3608.1.4 or E3608.1.5, it shall comply with Section E3608.4.
A concrete-encased electrode consisting of at least 20 feet (6096 mm) of either of the following shall be considered as a grounding electrode:
- One or more bare or zinc galvanized or other electrically conductive coated steel reinforcing bars or rods not less than 1/2 inch (13 mm) in diameter, installed in one continuous 20-foot (6096 mm) length, or if in multiple pieces connected together by the usual steel tie wires, exothermic welding, welding, or other effective means to create a 20-foot (6096 mm) or greater length.
- A bare copper conductor not smaller than 4 AWG.
Rod and pipe electrodes not less than 8 feet (2438 mm) in length and consisting of the following materials shall be considered as a grounding electrode:
- Grounding electrodes of pipe or conduit shall not be smaller than trade size 3/4 (metric designator 21) and, where of iron or steel, shall have the outer surface galvanized or otherwise metal-coated for corrosion protection.
- Rod-type grounding electrodes of stainless steel and copper or zinc-coated steel shall be at least 5/8 inch (15.9 mm) in diameter unless listed.
The rod and pipe electrodes shall be installed such that at least 8 feet (2438 mm) of length is in contact with the soil. They shall be driven to a depth of not less than 8 feet (2438 mm) except that, where rock bottom is encountered, electrodes shall be driven at an oblique angle not to exceed 45 degrees (0.79 rad) from the vertical or shall be buried in a trench that is at least 30 inches (762 mm) deep. The upper end of the electrodes shall be flush with or below ground level except where the aboveground end and the grounding electrode conductor attachment are protected against physical damage.
A single rod, pipe, or plate electrode shall be supplemented by an additional electrode of a type specified in Sections E3608.1.2 through E3608.1.6. The supplemental electrode shall be bonded to one of the following:
- A rod, pipe, or plate electrode.
- A grounding electrode conductor.
- A grounded service-entrance conductor.
- A nonflexible grounded service raceway.
- A grounded service enclosure.
Where multiple rod, pipe, or plate electrodes are installed to meet the requirements of this section, they shall not be less than 6 feet (1829 mm) apart.
The noncurrent-carrying metal parts of the following equipment shall be effectively bonded together:
- Raceways or service cable armor or sheath that enclose, contain, or support service conductors.
- Service enclosures containing service conductors, including meter fittings, and boxes, interposed in the service raceway or armor.
An intersystem bonding termination for connecting intersystem bonding conductors required for other systems shall be provided external to enclosures at the service equipment or metering equipment enclosure and at the disconnecting means for any additional buildings or structures. The intersystem bonding termination shall comply with all of the following:
- It shall be accessible for connection and inspection.
- It shall consist of a set of terminals with the capacity for connection of not less than three intersystem bonding conductors.
- It shall not interfere with opening of the enclosure for a service, building or structure disconnecting means, or metering equipment.
- Where located at the service equipment, it shall be securely mounted and electrically connected to an enclosure for the service equipment, to the meter enclosure, or to an exposed nonflexible metallic service raceway, or shall be mounted at one of these enclosures and connected to the enclosure or to the grounding electrode conductor with a 6 AWG or larger copper conductor.
- Where located at the disconnecting means for a building or structure, it shall be securely mounted and electrically connected to the metallic enclosure for the building or structure disconnecting means, or shall be mounted at the disconnecting means and connected to the metallic enclosure or to the grounding electrode conductor with a 6 AWG or larger copper conductor.
- It shall be listed as grounding and bonding equipment.
bonded to the service equipment enclosure, the grounded conductor at the service, the grounding electrode conductor where of sufficient size, or to the one or more grounding electrodes used. The bonding conductor(s) or jumper(s) shall be sized in accordance with Table E3908.12 using the rating of the circuit capable of energizing the piping. The equipment grounding conductor for the circuit that is capable of energizing the piping shall be permitted to serve as the bonding means. The points of attachment of the bonding jumper(s) shall be accessible.
The grounding electrode conductor shall be installed in one continuous length without splices or joints and shall run to any convenient grounding electrode available in the grounding electrode system where the other electrode(s), if any, are connected by bonding jumpers in accordance with Section E3608.2, or to one or more grounding electrode(s) individually. The grounding electrode conductor shall be sized for the largest grounding electrode conductor required among all of the electrodes connected to it.
Where exposed, a grounding electrode conductor or its enclosure shall be securely fastened to the surface on which it is carried. Grounding electrode conductors shall be permitted to be installed on or through framing members. A 4 AWG or larger conductor shall be protected where exposed to physical damage. A 6 AWG grounding conductor that is free from exposure to physical damage shall be permitted to be run along the surface of the building construction without metal covering or protection where it is and securely fastened to the construction; otherwise, it shall be in rigid metal conduit, intermediate metal conduit, rigid polyvinyl chloride (PVC), nonmetallic conduit, reinforced thermosetting resin (RTRC) nonmetallic conduit, electrical metallic tubing or cable armor. Grounding electrode conductors smaller than 6 AWG shall be in rigid metal conduit, intermediate metal conduit, rigid polyvinyl chloride (PVC) nonmetallic conduit, reinforced thermoseting resin (RTRC) nonmetallic conduit, electrical metallic tubing or cable armor.
Bare aluminum or copper-clad aluminum grounding electrode conductors shall not be used where in direct contact with masonry or the earth or where subject to corrosive conditions. Where used outside, aluminum or copper-clad aluminum grounding electrode conductors shall not be installed within 18 inches (457 mm) of the earth.
Ferrous metal enclosures for grounding electrode conductors shall be electrically continuous from the point of attachment to cabinets or equipment to the grounding electrode, and shall be securely fastened to the ground clamp or fitting. Nonferrous metal enclosures shall not be required to be electrically continuous. Ferrous metal enclosures that are not physically continuous from cabinet or equipment to the grounding electrode shall be made electrically continuous by bonding each end to the grounding electrode conductor. Bonding methods in compliance with Section E3609.4 for installations at service equipment locations and with E3609.4.2(B)(2) through E3609.4.4 for other than service equipment locations shall apply at each end and to all intervening ferrous raceways, boxes, and enclosures between the cabinets or equipment and the grounding electrode. The bonding jumper for a grounding electrode conductor raceway shall be the same size or larger than the required enclosed grounding electrode conductor.
Where a raceway is used as protection for a grounding conductor, the installation shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 38.
The grounding or bonding conductor shall be connected to the grounding electrode by exothermic welding, listed lugs, listed pressure connectors, listed clamps or other listed means. Connections depending on solder shall not be used. Ground clamps shall be listed for the materials of the grounding electrode and the grounding electrode conductor and, where used on pipe, rod or other buried electrodes, shall also be listed for direct soil burial or concrete encasement. Not more than one conductor shall be connected to the grounding electrode by a single clamp or fitting unless the clamp or fitting is listed for multiple conductors. One of the methods indicated in the following items shall be used:
- A pipe fitting, pipe plug or other approved device screwed into a pipe or pipe fitting.
- A listed bolted clamp of cast bronze or brass, or plain or malleable iron.
- For indoor communications purposes only, a listed sheet metal strap-type ground clamp having a rigid metal base that seats on the electrode and having a strap of such material and dimensions that it is not likely to stretch during or after installation.
- Other equally substantial approved means.
Where grounding electrode conductors and bonding jumpers are connected to interior metal water piping as a means to extend the grounding electrode conductor connection to an electrode(s), such piping shall be located not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the point of entry into the building.
Where interior metal water piping is used as a conductor to interconnect electrodes that are part of the grounding electrode system, such piping shall be located not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the point of entry into the building.