Buildings and structures, and all parts thereof, shall be constructed to safely support all loads, including dead loads, live loads, roof loads, flood loads, snow loads, wind loads and seismic loads as prescribed by this code. The construction of buildings and structures in accordance with the provisions of this code shall result in a system that provides a complete load path that meets all requirements for the transfer of all loads from their point of origin through the load-resisting elements to the foundation. Buildings and structures constructed as prescribed by this code are deemed to comply with the requirements of this section.
As an alternative to the requirements in Section R301.1 the following standards are permitted subject to the limitations of this code and the limitations therein. Where engineered design is used in conjunction with these standards, the design shall comply with the Florida Building Code, Building.
- AF&PA Wood Frame Construction Manual (WFCM).
- AISI Standard for Cold-Formed Steel Framing— Prescriptive Method for One- and Two-Family Dwellings (AISI S230).
- ICC Standard on the Design and Construction of Log Structures (ICC 400).
Buildings shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of this code as limited by the provisions of this section. Additional criteria shall be set forth in Table R301.2(1).
Figure R301.2(4)B Regions Where Wind Design is Required.
Figure R301.2(4)C Wind Borne Debris Region.
|SUBJECT TO DAMAGE FROM||WINTER
|NA||See Fig. R301.2(4)||NA||Negligible||NA||Very
- Weathering may require a higher strength concrete or grade of masonry than necessary to satisfy the structural requirements of this code. The weathering column shall be filled in with the weathering index (i.e., "negligible," "moderate" or "severe") for concrete as determined from the Weathering Probability Map [Figure R301.2(3)]. The grade of masonry units shall be determined from ASTM C 34, C 55, C 62, C 73, C 90, C 129, C 145, C 216 or C 652.
- Termite infestation per Figure R301.2(6) is "very heavy."
- Wind speed shall be from the basic wind speed map [Figure R301.2(4)]. Wind exposure category shall be determined on a site-specific basis in accordance with Section R301.2.1.4.
- The outdoor design dry-bulb temperature shall be selected from the columns of 971/2-percent values for winter from Appendix D of the Florida Building Code, Plumbing. Deviations from the Appendix D temperatures shall be permitted to reflect local climates or local weather experience as determined by the building official.
- The applicable governing body shall, by local floodplain management ordinance, specify (a) the date of the jurisdiction's entry into the National Flood Insurance Program (date of adoption of the first code or ordinance for management of flood hazard areas), (b) the date(s) of the Flood Insurance Study and (c) the panel numbers and dates of all currently effective FIRM and FBFM, or other flood hazard map adopted by the authority having jurisdiction, as amended.
|Ultimate Design Wind Speed Vult (mph)|
|Roof > 0 to 7 degrees||1||10||8.9||-21.8||9.7||-23.8||10.5||-25.9||12.4||-30.4||14.3||-35.3||16.5||-40.5||18.7||-46.1||23.7||-58.3||29.3||-72.0|
|Roof > 7 to 27 degrees||1||10||12.5||-19.9||13.7||-37.9||14.9||-23.7||17.5||-27.8||20.3||-32.3||23.3||-37.0||28.5||-42.1||33.6||-53.3||41.5||-65.9|
|Roof > 27 to 45 degrees||1||10||19.9||-21.8||21.8||-27.6||23.7||-25.9||27.8||-30.4||32.3||-35.3||37.0||-40.5||42.1||-46.1||53.3||-58.3||65.9||-72.0|
- The effective wind area shall be equal to the span length multiplied by an effective width. This width shall be permitted to be not be less than one-third the span length. For cladding fasteners, the effective wind area shall not be greater than the area that is tributary to an individual fastener.
- For effective areas between those given above, the load may be interpolated; otherwise, use the load associated with the lower effective area.
- Table values shall be adjusted for height and exposure by multiplying by the adjustment coefficient in Table R301.2(3).
- See Figure R301.2(7) for location of zones.
- Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting toward and away from the building surfaces.
- Positive design wind pressures shall not be less than +16 psf and negative design wind pressures shall not be less than -16 psf.
- For allowable stress design and for testing as specified in Section R301.2.1.6, component and cladding loads are permitted to be multiplied by 0.6.
|MEAN ROOF HEIGHT||EXPOSURE|
| Roof Angle
|ULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED (Vult) DETERMINED IN ACCORDANCE WITH SECTION R301.2.1 (MPH - 3 SECOND GUST)|
|100 mph||110 mph||120 mph||130 mph||140 mph||150 mph||160 mph||170 mph||180 mph||190 mph||200 mph|
|78 mph||85 mph||93 mph||101 mph||108 mph||116 mph||124 mph||132 mph||139 mph||147 mph||155 mph|
|Nominal Design Wind Speed (Vasd) converted from Vult per Section R301.2.1.3|
- For effective areas or wind speeds between those given above the load may be interpolated, otherwise use the load associated with the lower effective area.
- Table values shall be adjusted for height and exposure by multiplying by the adjustment coefficient in Table R301.2(3).
- Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting toward and away from the building surfaces.
- Negative pressures assume door has 2 feet of width in building's end zone.
- Table values include the 0.6 load reduction factor.
- For concrete construction, the wind provisions of this code shall apply in accordance with the limitations of Sections R404 and R611.
- For structural insulated panels, the wind provisions of this code shall apply in accordance with the limitations of Section R613.
- AF&PA Wood Frame Construction Manual (WFCM); or
- ICC Standard for Residential Construction in High-Wind Regions (ICC 600); or
- ASCE Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE 7); or
- AISI Standard for Cold-Formed Steel Framing—Prescriptive Method For One- and Two-Family Dwellings (AISI S230); or
- 5. Florida Building Code, Building.
- Concrete masonry construction shall be designed in accordance with the provisions of this code or in accordance with TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5 and TMS 602/ACI 530.1/ASCE 6; or
- The MAF Guide to Concrete Masonry Residential Construction in High Wind Areas shall be permitted for applicable concrete masonry buildings for a basic wind speed of 130 mph (58 m/s) or less in Exposure B and 110 mph (49 m/s) or less in Exposure C in accordance with Figure R301.2(4) as converted in accordance with Section R301.2.1.3.
Sunrooms shall comply with AAMA/NPEA/NSA 2100 as modified below.
AAMA 2100, Section 5.2.1 Wind Loads: Modify Section 5.2.1 as follows:
5.2.1 Wind Loads: Basic wind speed (Vasd) in miles per hour (mph) shall be determined in accordance with Section R301.2.1. Sunrooms including exposed structures, components, cladding, and roof covering shall be designed to resist the wind loads as established in Section R301.2.1.
For the purpose of applying the criteria of the AAMA/NPEA/NSA 2100, sunrooms shall be categorized in one of the following categories by the permit applicant, design professional or the property owner where the sunroom is being constructed.
Category I: A thermally isolated sunroom with walls that are either open or enclosed with insect screening or 0.5 mm (20 mil) maximum thickness plastic film. The space is defined as a nonhabitable, nonconditioned sunroom.
Category II: A thermally isolated sunroom with enclosed walls. The openings are permitted to be enclosed with translucent or transparent plastic or glass. The space is defined as a nonhabitable, nonconditioned sunroom.
Category III: A thermally isolated sunroom with enclosed walls. The openings are permitted to be enclosed with translucent or transparent plastic or glass. The sunroom fenestration complies with additional requirements for air infiltration resistance and water penetration resistance. The space is defined as a nonhabit able, nonconditioned sunroom.
Category IV: A thermally isolated sunroom with enclosed walls. The sunroom is designed to be heated and/or cooled by a separate temperature control or system and is thermally isolated from the primary structure. The sunroom fenestration complies with additional requirements for air infiltration resistance, water penetration resistance, and thermal performance. The space is defined as a nonhabitable and conditioned sunroom.
Category V: A sunroom with enclosed walls. The sunroom is designed to be heated and/or cooled and is open to the main structure. The sunroom fenestration complies with additional requirements for air infiltration resistance, water penetration resistance, and thermal performance. The space is defined as a habitable and conditioned sunroom.
(1) The purpose of this section is to provide an alternate method for designing aluminum screen enclosures as defined by the Florida Building Code, permitting the loads of the structural frame to be based on portions of the screen in the screen walls removed, retracted, moved to the open position, or cut. The use of framing materials other than aluminum is allowed in accordance with Section 104.11 of the Florida Building Code, Building. The method applies only to walls and roofs with a 100-percent screen.
(2) Where screen enclosures are designed in accordance with the screen removal alternates of this section, removable screen may consist of removable panels, retractable panels, or by designating specific screen panels in the design in which the screen is to be removed by cutting the screen. Removable panels shall be removed; retractable panels shall be placed in the retracted position without increasing the load on the affected area. Screen designated in the design to be cut shall be completely cut when wind speeds are forecast to exceed 75 mph (33.5 m/s).
(3) Where screen enclosures designed in accordance with the screen removal alternates of this section serve as the barrier required by Section R4501.17.1, the required minimum height of the barrier shall be maintained when screen panels are retracted, removed, moved to the open position, or cut.
(4) Where screen enclosures are designed in accordance with the screen removal alternates of this section, retractable screen panels, removable screen panels, and screen panels identified to be cut shall be clearly identified on adjacent structural members with highly visible permanent labels, at each panel, or by other means approved by the local building department.
(5) Where screen enclosures are designed in accordance with the screen removal alternates of this section, the retraction of screen panels, removal of screen panels, or cutting of screen panels shall not require the use of ladders or scaffolding.
(6) Engineering documents submitted with building permit applications shall identify the panels to be removed, retracted, opened, or cut.
(7) Where screen enclosures are designed in accordance with the screen removal alternates of this section based on removing screen panels by cutting the screen, the contractor shall provide replacement screen for a one-time replacement of all screen and spline designated by the design to be cut.
(8) Where screen enclosures are designed in accordance with the screen removal alternates of this section, the contractor shall provide written notice to the owner and the local building code enforcement department that the owner must retract, remove, or cut a panel or panels of the screen enclosure in accordance with the project engineering design or the manufacturer's instructions when wind speeds are expected to exceed 75 mph (33.5 m/s).
- Opening in sunrooms, balconies or enclosed porches constructed under existing roofs or decks are not required to be protected provided the spaces are separated from the building interior by a wall and all openings in the separating wall are protected in accordance with this section. Such space shall be permitted to be designed as either partially enclosed or enclosed structures.
- Storage sheds that are not designed for human habitation and that have a floor area of 720 square feet (67 m2) or less are not required to comply with the mandatory wind-borne debris impact standard of this code.
|FASTENER TYPE||FASTENER SPACING (inches)a, b|
span ≤ 4 feet
|4 feet < |
≤ 6 feet
|6 feet <|
≤ 8 feet
|No. 8 wood screw based anchor |
with 2-inch embedment length
|No. 10 wood screw based anchor |
with 2-inch embedment length
|1/4-inch lag screw based anchor |
with 2-inch embedment length
- This table is based on 130 mph wind speeds and a 33-foot mean roof height.
- Fasteners shall be installed at opposing ends of the wood structural panel. Fasteners shall be located a minimum of 1 inch from the edge of the panel.
- Anchors shall penetrate through the exterior wall covering with an embedment length of 2 inches minimum into the building frame. Fasteners shall be located a minimum of 21/2 inches from the edge of concrete block or concrete.
- Where panels are attached to masonry or masonry/stucco, they shall be attached using vibration-resistant anchors having a minimum ultimate withdrawal capacity of 1500 pounds.
0.2 to 0.5 Ppos1
0.0 to 0.6 Ppos
0.5 to 0.8 Ppos
0.3 to 1.0 Ppos
0.3 to 1.0 Pneg2
0.5 to 0.8 Pneg
0.0 to 0.6 Pneg
0.2 to 0.5 Pneg
- Ppos = 0.6 × positive ultimate design load in accordance with ASCE 7.
- Pneg = 0.6 × negative ultimate design load in accordance with ASCE 7.
WIND SPEED CONVERSIONSa, b, c
- Linear interpolation is permitted.
- Vasd = nominal design wind speed.
- Vult = ultimate design wind speed determined from Figure R301.2(4).
Surface Roughness B. Urban and suburban areas, wooded areas or other terrain with numerous closely spaced obstructions having the size of single-family dwellings or larger.
Surface Roughness C. Open terrain with scattered obstructions having heights generally less than 30 feet (9144 mm). This category includes flat open country and grasslands. This Surface Roughness shall also apply to any building located within Surface Roughness B-type terrain where the building is within 100 feet (30.5 m) horizontally in any direction of open areas of Surface Roughness C or D-type terrain that extends more than 600 feet (182.9 m) and width greater than 150 feet (45.7 m) in the upwind direction. Short-term (less than two-year) changes in the preexisting terrain exposure, for the purpose of development, shall not be considered Surface Roughness C. Where development buildout will occur within three years and the resultant condition will meet the definition of Surface Roughness B, Surface Roughness B shall be regulating for the purpose of permitting. This category includes flat open country and grasslands and shall extend downwind for a distance of 1,500 feet (457 m).
Surface Roughness D. Flat, unobstructed areas and water surfaces. This category includes smooth mud flats, salt flats and unbroken ice.
Exposure B. For buildings with a mean roof height of less than or equal to 30 feet (9144 mm), Exposure B shall apply where the ground surface roughness, as defined by Surface Roughness B, prevails in the upwind direction for a distance of at least 1,500 feet (457 m). For buildings with a mean roof height greater than 30 feet (9144 mm), Exposure B shall apply where Surface Roughness B prevails in the upwind direction for a distance of at least 2,600 feet (792 m) or 20 times the height of the building, whichever is greater.
Exposure C. Exposure C shall apply for all cases where Exposures B or D do not apply.
Exposure D. Exposure D shall apply where the ground surface roughness, as defined by Surface Roughness D, prevails in the upwind direction for a distance of at least 5,000 feet (1524 m) or 20 times the height of the building, whichever is greater. Exposure D shall also apply where the ground surface roughness immediately upwind of the site is B or C, and the site is within a distance of 600 feet (183 m) or 20 times the building height, whichever is greater, from an Exposure D condition as defined in the previous sentence.
- The average slope of the top half of the hill, ridge or escarpment is 10 percent or greater.
- The hill, ridge or escarpment is 60 feet (18 288 mm) or greater in height for Exposure B, 30 feet (9144 mm) or greater in height for Exposure C, and 15 feet (4572 mm) or greater in height for Exposure D.
- The hill, ridge or escarpment is isolated or unobstructed by other topographic features of similar height in the upwind direction for a distance measured from its high point of 100 times its height or 2 miles, whichever is less. See Figure R301.2.1.5.1(3) for upwind obstruction.
- The hill, ridge or escarpment protrudes by a factor of two or more above the height of other upwind topographic features located in any quadrant within a radius of 2 miles measured from its high point.
TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURES FOR WIND SPEED-UP EFFECT
ILLUSTRATION OF WHERE ON A TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURE, WIND SPEED INCREASE IS APPLIED
BASIC WIND MODIFICATION FOR TOPOGRAPHIC WIND EFFECT
|BASIC WIND SPEED |
FROM FIGURE R301.2(4) (mph)
|AVERAGE SLOPE OF THE TOP HALF OF HILL, RIDGE OR ESCARPMENT (percent)|
|0.10||0.125||0.15||0.175||0.20||0.23||0.25 or greater|
|Required basic wind speed-up, modified for topographic wind speed up (mph)|
|CALCULATED SDS||SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY|
|SDS ≤ 0.17g||A|
|0.17g < SDS ≤ 0.33g||B|
|0.33g < SDS ≤ 0.50g||C|
|0.50g < SDS ≤ 0.67g||D0|
|0.67g < SDS ≤ 0.83g||D1|
|0.83g < SDS ≤ 1.25g||D2|
|1.25g < SDS||E|
- A more detailed evaluation of the seismic design category is made in accordance with the provisions and maps of the Florida Building Code, Building. Buildings located in Seismic Design Category E per Table R301.2.2.1.1, but located in Seismic Design Category D per the Florida Building Code, Building, may be designed using the Seismic Design Category D2 requirements of this code.
- Buildings located in Seismic Design Category E that conform to the following additional restrictions are permitted to be constructed in accordance with the provisions for Seismic Design Category D2 of this code:
- Fifteen pounds per square foot (720 Pa) for exterior light-frame wood walls.
- Fourteen pounds per square foot (670 Pa) for exterior light-frame cold-formed steel walls.
- Ten pounds per square foot (480 Pa) for interior light-frame wood walls.
- Five pounds per square foot (240 Pa) for interior light-frame cold-formed steel walls.
- Eighty pounds per square foot (3830 Pa) for 8-inch-thick (203 mm) masonry walls.
- Eighty-five pounds per square foot (4070 Pa) for 6-inch-thick (152 mm) concrete walls.
- Ten pounds per square foot (480 Pa) for SIP walls.
- Roof and ceiling dead loads not exceeding 25 pounds per square foot (1190 Pa) shall be permitted provided the wall bracing amounts in Chapter 6 are increased in accordance with Table R301.2.2.2.1.
- Light-frame walls with stone or masonry veneer shall be permitted in accordance with the provisions of Sections R702.1 and R703.
- Fireplaces and chimneys shall be permitted in accordance with Chapter 10.
|WALL SUPPORTING||ROOF/CEILING DEAD LOAD|
|15 psf or less||25 psf|
|Roof plus one or two stories||1.0||1.1|
- Linear interpolation shall be permitted.
- When exterior shear wall lines or braced wall panels are not in one plane vertically from the foundation to the uppermost story in which they are required.
Exception: For wood light-frame construction, floors with cantilevers or setbacks not exceeding four times the nominal depth of the wood floor joists are permitted to support braced wall panels that are out of plane with braced wall panels below provided that:
- Floor joists are nominal 2 inches by 10 inches (51 mm by 254 mm) or larger and spaced not more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center.
- The ratio of the back span to the cantilever is at least 2 to 1.
- Floor joists at ends of braced wall panels are doubled.
- For wood-frame construction, a continuous rim joist is connected to ends of all cantilever joists. When spliced, the rim joists shall be spliced using a galvanized metal tie not less than 0.058 inch (1.5 mm) (16 gage) and 11/2 inches (38 mm) wide fastened with six 16d nails on each side of the splice or a block of the same size as the rim joist of sufficient length to fit securely between the joist space at which the splice occurs fastened with eight 16d nails on each side of the splice; and
- Gravity loads carried at the end of cantilevered joists are limited to uniform wall and roof loads and the reactions from headers having a span of 8 feet (2438 mm) or less.
- When a section of floor or roof is not laterally supported by shear walls or braced wall lines on all edges.
- When the end of a braced wall panel occurs over an opening in the wall below and ends at a horizontal distance greater than 1 foot (305 mm) from the edge of the opening. This provision is applicable to shear walls and braced wall panels offset in plane and to braced wall panels offset out of plane as permitted by the exception to Item 1 above.
Exception: For wood light-frame wall construction, one end of a braced wall panel shall be permitted to extend more than 1 foot (305 mm) over an opening not more than 8 feet (2438 mm) wide in the wall below provided that the opening includes a header in accordance with the following:
- The building width, loading condition and framing member species limitations of Table R502.5(1) shall apply; and
- Not less than one 2 × 12 or two 2 × 10 for an opening not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) wide; or
- Not less than two 2 × 12 or three 2 × 10 for an opening not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) wide; or
- Not less than three 2 × 12 or four 2 × 10 for an opening not more than 8 feet (2438 mm) wide; and
- The entire length of the braced wall panel does not occur over an opening in the wall below.
- When an opening in a floor or roof exceeds the lesser of 12 feet (3658 mm) or 50 percent of the least floor or roof dimension.
- When portions of a floor level are vertically offset.
- When shear walls and braced wall lines do not occur in two perpendicular directions.
- When stories above grade plane partially or completely braced by wood wall framing in accordance with Section R602 or steel wall framing in accordance with Section R603 include masonry or concrete construction. When this irregularity applies, the entire story shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
The wind and seismic provisions of this code shall apply to buildings with story heights not exceeding the following:
- For wood wall framing, the laterally unsupported bearing wall stud height permitted by Section R602 plus a height of floor framing not to exceed 16 inches (406 mm).
- For steel wall framing, a stud height of 10 feet (3048 mm), plus a height of floor framing not to exceed 16 inches (406 mm).
- For masonry walls, a maximum bearing wall clear height of 12 feet (3658 mm) plus a height of floor framing not to exceed 16 inches (406 mm).
5. For structural insulated panel (SIP) walls, the maximum bearing wall height per story as permitted by Section R613 tables shall not exceed 10 feet (3048 mm) plus a height of floor framing not to exceed 16 inches (406 mm).
Individual walls or walls studs shall be permitted to exceed these limits as permitted by Chapter 6 provisions, provided story heights are not exceeded. Floor framing height shall be permitted to exceed these limits provided the story height does not exceed 11 feet 7 inches (3531 mm). An engineered design shall be provided for the wall or wall framing members when they exceed the limits of Chapter 6. Where the story height limits of this section are exceeded, the design of the building, or the noncompliant portions thereof, to resist wind and seismic loads shall be in accordance with the Florida Building Code, Building.
The minimum uniformly distributed live load shall be as provided in Table R301.5.
|Uninhabitable attics without storageb||10|
|Uninhabitable attics with limited storageb, g||20|
|Habitable attics and attics served with fixed stairs||30|
|Balconies (exterior) and deckse||40|
|Guardrails and handrailsd||200h|
|Guardrail in-fill componentsf||50h|
|Passenger vehicle garagesa||50a|
|Rooms other than sleeping room||40|
- Elevated garage floors shall be capable of supporting a 2,000-pound load applied over a 20-square-inch area.
- Uninhabitable attics without storage are those where the maximum clear height between joists and rafters is less than 42 inches, or where there are not two or more adjacent trusses with web configurations capable of accommodating an assumed rectangle 42 inches high by 24 inches in width, or greater, within the plane of the trusses. This live load need not be assumed to act concurrently with any other live load requirements.
- Individual stair treads shall be designed for the uniformly distributed live load or a 300-pound concentrated load acting over an area of 4 square inches, whichever produces the greater stresses.
- A single concentrated load applied in any direction at any point along the top.
- See Section R502.2 for decks attached to exterior walls.
- Guard in-fill components (all those except the handrail), balusters and panel fillers shall be designed to withstand a horizontally applied normal load of 50 pounds on an area equal to 1 square foot. This load need not be assumed to act concurrently with any other live load requirement.
- Uninhabitable attics with limited storage are those where the maximum clear height between joists and rafters is 42 inches or greater, or where there are two or more adjacent trusses with web configurations capable of accommodating an assumed rectangle 42 inches in height by 24 inches in width, or greater, within the plane of the trusses.
- The attic area is accessible from an opening not less than 20 inches in width by 30 inches in length that is located where the clear height in the attic is a minimum of 30 inches.
- The slopes of the joists or truss bottom chords are no greater than 2 inches vertical to 12 units horizontal.
- Required insulation depth is less than the joist or truss bottom chord member depth.
|ROOF SLOPE||TRIBUTARY LOADED AREA IN |
SQUARE FEET FOR ANY
|0 to 200||201 to 600||Over 600|
|Flat or rise less than 4 inches per |
|Rise 4 inches per foot (1:3) to |
less than 12 inches per foot (1:1)
|Rise 12 inches per foot (1:1) |
ALLOWABLE DEFLECTION OF STRUCTURAL MEMBERSb, c
|STRUCTURAL MEMBER||ALLOWABLE DEFLECTION|
|Rafters having slopes greater than 3:12 with no finished ceiling |
attached to rafters
|Interior walls and partitions||H/180|
|Floors/ceilings with plaster or stucco finish||L/360|
|All other structural members||L/240|
|Exterior walls—wind loadsa with plaster or |
|Exterior walls with other brittle finishes||H/240|
|Exterior walls with flexible finishes||H/120d|
|Lintels supporting masonry veneer wallse||L/600|
- Walls, projections, openings or penetrations in walls perpendicular to the line used to determine the fire separation distance.
- Walls of dwellings and accessory structures located on the same lot.
- Detached tool sheds and storage sheds, playhouses and similar structures exempted from permits are not required to provide wall protection based on location on the lot. Projections beyond the exterior wall shall not extend over the lot line.
- Detached garages accessory to a dwelling located within 2 feet (610 mm) of a lot line are permitted to have roof eave projections not exceeding 4 inches (102 mm).
- Foundation vents installed in compliance with this code are permitted.
- Screen enclosure walls of insect screening with a maximum of 25-percent solid flexible finishes.
- Openings and roof overhang projections shall be permitted on the exterior wall of a building located on a zero lot line when the building exterior wall is separated from an adjacent building exterior wall by a distance of 6 feet or more, and the roof overhang projection is separated from an adjacent building projection by a distance of 4 feet or more, with 1 hour fire resistive construction on the underside of the overhang required, unless the separation between projections is 6 feet or more.
|EXTERIOR WALL ELEMENT||MINIMUM
|Walls||Fire-resistance rated||1 hour—tested in accordance with ASTM E 119
or UL 263 with exposure from both sides
|Not fire-resistance rated||0 hours||3 feet|
|Projections||Not allowed||N/A||< 2 feet|
|Fire-resistance rated||1 hour on the underside||2 feet|
|Not fire-resistance rated||0 hours||3 feet|
|Openings in walls||Not allowed||N/A||< 3 feet|
|Unlimited||0 hours||3 feet|
|Penetrations||All||Comply with Section R302.4||< 3 feet|
|None required||3 feet|
|EXTERIOR WALL ELEMENT||MINIMUM |
|MINIMUM FIRE |
|Walls||Fire-resistance rated||1 hour—tested in accordance with ASTM E 119 |
or UL 263 with exposure from the outside
|Not fire-resistance rated||0 hours||3 feeta|
|Projections||Fire-resistance rated||1 hour on the underside||2 feeta|
|Not fire-resistance rated||0 hours||3 feet|
|Openings in walls||Not allowed||N/A||< 3 feet|
|Unlimited||0 hours||3 feeta|
|Penetrations||All||Comply with Section R302.4||< 3 feet|
|None required||3 feeta|
N/A = Not Applicable.
- For residential subdivisions where all dwellings are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance with Section P2904, the fire separation distance for nonrated exterior walls and rated projections shall be permitted to be reduced to 0 feet, and unlimited unprotected openings and penetrations shall be permitted, where the adjoining lot provides an open setback yard that is 6 feet or more in width on the opposite side of the property line.
- Where roof surfaces adjacent to the wall or walls are at the same elevation, the parapet shall extend not less than 30 inches (762 mm) above the roof surfaces.
- Where roof surfaces adjacent to the wall or walls are at different elevations and the higher roof is not more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the lower roof, the parapet shall extend not less than 30 inches (762 mm) above the lower roof surface.
3. A parapet is not required where roof surfaces adjacent to the wall or walls are at different elevations and the higher roof is more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the lower roof. The common wall construction from the lower roof to the underside of the higher roof deck shall have not less than a 1-hour fire-resistance rating. The wall shall be rated for exposure from both sides.
Each individual townhouse shall be structurally independent.
- Foundations supporting exterior walls or common walls.
- Structural roof and wall sheathing from each unit may fasten to the common wall framing.
- Nonstructural wall and roof coverings.
- Flashing at termination of roof covering over common wall.
- Townhouses separated by a common 1-hour fire-resistance-rated wall as provided in Section R302.2.
Dwelling units in two-family dwellings shall be separated from each other by wall and/or floor assemblies having not less than a 1-hour fire-resistance rating when tested in accordance with ASTM E 119 or UL 263. Fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling and wall assemblies shall extend to and be tight against the exterior wall, and wall assemblies shall extend from the foundation to the underside of the roof sheathing.
- A fire-resistance rating of 1/2 hour shall be permitted in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with NFPA 13.
- Wall assemblies need not extend through attic spaces when the ceiling is protected by not less than 5/8-inch (15.9 mm) Type X gypsum board and an attic draft stop constructed as specified in Section R302.12.1 is provided above and along the wall assembly separating the dwellings. The structural framing supporting the ceiling shall also be protected by not less than 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board or equivalent.
- Screen enclosure walls of insect screening with a maximum of 25-percent solid flexible finishes.
In concrete or masonry wall or floor assemblies, concrete, grout or mortar shall be permitted where installed to the full thickness of the wall or floor assembly or the thickness required to maintain the fire-resistance rating, provided:
- The nominal diameter of the penetrating item is a maximum of 6 inches (152 mm); and
- The area of the opening through the wall does not exceed 144 square inches (92 900 mm2).
- The material used to fill the annular space shall prevent the passage of flame and hot gases sufficient to ignite cotton waste where subjected to ASTM E 119 or UL 263 time temperature fire conditions under a minimum positive pressure differential of 0.01 inch of water (3 Pa) at the location of the penetration for the time period equivalent to the fire-resistance rating of the construction penetrated.
Membrane penetrations of maximum 2-hour fire-resistance-rated walls and partitions by steel electrical boxes that do not exceed 16 square inches (0.0103 m2) in area provided the aggregate area of the openings through the membrane does not exceed 100 square inches (0.0645 m2) in any 100 square feet (9.29 m)2 of wall area. The annular space between the wall membrane and the box shall not exceed 1/8 inch (3.1 mm). Such boxes on opposite sides of the wall shall be separated by one of the following:
- By a horizontal distance of not less than 24 inches (610 mm) where the wall or partition is constructed with individual noncommunicating stud cavities;
- By a horizontal distance of not less than the depth of the wall cavity when the wall cavity is filled with cellulose loose-fill, rockwool or slag mineral wool insulation;
- By solid fire blocking in accordance with Section R302.11;
- By protecting both boxes with listed putty pads; or
- By other listed materials and methods.
- Membrane penetrations by listed electrical boxes of any materials provided the boxes have been tested for use in fire-resistance-rated assemblies and are installed in accordance with the instructions included in the listing. The annular space between the wall membrane and the box shall not exceed 1/8 inch (3.1 mm) unless listed otherwise. Such boxes on opposite sides of the wall shall be separated by one of the following:
- The annular space created by the penetration of a fire sprinkler provided it is covered by a metal escutcheon plate.
The garage shall be separated as required by Table R302.6. Openings in garage walls shall comply with Section R302.5. This provision does not apply to garage walls that are perpendicular to the adjacent dwelling unit wall.
|From the residence and attics||Not less than 1/2-inch gypsum board or equivalent applied to the garage side|
|From all habitable rooms above the garage||Not less than 5/8-inch Type X gypsum board or equivalent|
|Structure(s) supporting floor/ceiling assemblies used for separation required by this section||Not less than 1/2-inch gypsum board or equivalent|
|Garages located less than 3 feet from a dwelling unit on the same lot||Not less than 1/2-inch gypsum board or equivalent applied to the interior side of exterior walls that are within this area|
Wall and ceiling finishes shall have a flame spread index of not greater than 200.
As an alternative to having a flame spread index of not greater than 200 and a smoke-developed index of not greater than 450 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723, wall and ceiling finishes shall be permitted to be tested in accordance with NFPA 286. Materials tested in accordance with NFPA 286 shall meet the following criteria:
- During the 40 kW exposure, flames shall not spread to the ceiling.
- The flame shall not spread to the outer extremity of the sample on any wall or ceiling.
- Flashover, as defined in NFPA 286, shall not occur.
- The peak heat release rate throughout the test shall not exceed 800 kW.
- The total smoke released throughout the test shall not exceed 1,000 m2.
Insulation materials, including facings, such as vapor retarders and vapor-permeable membranes installed within floor/ceiling assemblies, roof/ceiling assemblies, wall assemblies, crawl spaces and attics shall have a flame spread index not to exceed 25 with an accompanying smoke-developed index not to exceed 450 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723.
- When such materials are installed in concealed spaces, the flame spread index and smoke-developed index limitations do not apply to the facings, provided that the facing is installed in substantial contact with the unexposed surface of the ceiling, floor or wall finish.
- Cellulose loose-fill insulation, which is not spray applied, complying with the requirements of Section R302.10.3, shall only be required to meet the smoke-developed index of not more than 450.
- Foam plastic insulation shall comply with Section R316.
Loose-fill insulation materials that cannot be mounted in the ASTM E 84 or UL 723 apparatus without a screen or artificial supports shall comply with the flame spread and smoke-developed limits of Section R302.10.1 when tested in accordance with CAN/ULC S102.2.
Fireblocking shall be provided in wood-frame construction in the following locations:
In concealed spaces of stud walls and partitions, including furred spaces and parallel rows of studs or staggered studs, as follows:
- Vertically at the ceiling and floor levels.
- Horizontally at intervals not exceeding 10 feet (3048 mm).
- At all interconnections between concealed vertical and horizontal spaces such as occur at soffits, drop ceilings and cove ceilings.
- In concealed spaces between stair stringers at the top and bottom of the run. Enclosed spaces under stairs shall comply with Section R302.7.
- At openings around vents, pipes, ducts, cables and wires at ceiling and floor level, with an approved material to resist the free passage of flame and products of combustion. The material filling this annular space shall not be required to meet the ASTM E 136 requirements.
- For the fireblocking of chimneys and fireplaces, see Section R1003.19.
- Fireblocking of cornices of a two-family dwelling is required at the line of dwelling unit separation.
- Two-inch (51 mm) nominal lumber.
- Two thicknesses of 1-inch (25.4 mm) nominal lumber with broken lap joints.
- One thickness of 23/32-inch (18.3 mm) wood structural panels with joints backed by 23/32-inch (18.3 mm) wood structural panels.
- One thickness of 3/4-inch (19.1 mm) particleboard with joints backed by 3/4-inch (19.1 mm) particleboard.
- One-half-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board.
- One-quarter-inch (6.4 mm) cement-based millboard.
- Batts or blankets of mineral wool or glass fiber or other approved materials installed in such a manner as to be securely retained in place.
- Cellulose insulation installed as tested for the specific application.
In combustible construction where there is usable space both above and below the concealed space of a floor/ceiling assembly, draftstops shall be installed so that the area of the concealed space does not exceed 1,000 square feet (92.9 m2). Draftstopping shall divide the concealed space into approximately equal areas. Where the assembly is enclosed by a floor membrane above and a ceiling membrane below, draftstopping shall be provided in floor/ceiling assemblies under the following circumstances:
- Ceiling is suspended under the floor framing.
- Floor framing is constructed of truss-type open-web or perforated members.
Combustible insulation shall be separated a minimum of 3 inches (76 mm) from recessed luminaires, fan motors and other heat-producing devices.
All habitable rooms shall have an aggregate glazing area of not less than 8 percent of the floor area of such rooms. Natural ventilation shall be through windows, doors, louvers or other approved openings to the outdoor air. Such openings shall be provided with ready access or shall otherwise be readily controllable by the building occupants. The minimum openable area to the outdoors shall be 4 percent of the floor area being ventilated.
- The glazed areas need not be openable where the opening is not required by Section R310 and a whole-house mechanical ventilation system is installed in accordance with Section M1507.
- The glazed areas need not be installed in rooms where Exception 1 above is satisfied and artificial light is provided capable of producing an average illumination of 6 footcandles (65 lux) over the area of the room at a height of 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor level.
- Use of sunroom and patio covers, as defined in Section R202, shall be permitted for natural ventilation if in excess of 40 percent of the exterior sunroom walls are open, or are enclosed only by insect screening.
For the purpose of determining light and ventilation requirements, any room shall be considered as a portion of an adjoining room when at least one-half of the area of the common wall is open and unobstructed and provides an opening of not less than one-tenth of the floor area of the interior room but not less than 25 square feet (2.3 m2).
Mechanical and gravity outdoor air intake openings shall be located a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) from any hazardous or noxious contaminant, such as vents, chimneys, plumbing vents, streets, alleys, parking lots and loading docks, except as otherwise specified in this code. Where a source of contaminant is located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of an intake opening, such opening shall be located a minimum of 3 feet (914 mm) below the contaminant source.
All interior and exterior stairways shall be provided with a means to illuminate the stairs, including the landings and treads. Interior stairways shall be provided with an artificial light source located in the immediate vicinity of each landing of the stairway. For interior stairs the artificial light sources shall be capable of illuminating treads and landings to levels not less than 1 footcandle (11 lux) measured at the center of treads and landings. Exterior stairways shall be provided with an artificial light source located in the immediate vicinity of the top landing of the stairway. Exterior stairways providing access to a basement from the outside grade level shall be provided with an artificial light source located in the immediate vicinity of the bottom landing of the stairway.
Where lighting outlets are installed in interior stairways, there shall be a wall switch at each floor level to control the lighting outlet where the stairway has six or more risers. The illumination of exterior stairways shall be controlled from inside the dwelling unit.
- Required glazed openings may face into a roofed porch where the porch abuts a street, yard or court and the longer side of the porch is at least 65 percent unobstructed and the ceiling height is not less than 7 feet (2134 mm).
- Eave projections shall not be considered as obstructing the clear open space of a yard or court.
- Required glazed openings may face into the area under a deck, balcony, bay or floor cantilever provided a clear vertical space at least 36 inches (914 mm) in height is provided.
Other habitable rooms shall have a floor area of not less than 70 square feet (6.5 m2).
Habitable rooms shall not be less than 7 feet (2134 mm) in any horizontal dimension.
- For rooms with sloped ceilings, at least 50 percent of the required floor area of the room must have a ceiling height of at least 7 feet (2134 mm) and no portion of the required floor area may have a ceiling height of less than 5 feet (1524 mm).
- Bathrooms shall have a minimum ceiling height of 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm) at the center of the front clearance area for fixtures as shown in Figure R307.1. The ceiling height above fixtures shall be such that the fixture is capable of being used for its intended purpose. A shower or tub equipped with a showerhead shall have a minimum ceiling height of 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm) above a minimum area 30 inches (762 mm) by 30 inches (762 mm) at the showerhead.
Each pane shall bear the manufacturer's label designating the type and thickness of glass or glazing material. Except as indicated in Section R308.1.1 each pane of glazing installed in hazardous locations as defined in Section R308.4 shall be provided with a manufacturer's or installer's label, designating the type of glass and the safety glazing standard with which it complies, which is visible in the final installation. The safety glazing label shall be acid etched, sandblasted, ceramic-fired, laser etched, embossed, or be of a type which once applied cannot be removed without being destroyed. Laminated glass, other than used for safety glazing, shall be permanently identified as per this section, designating laminator, overall glass thickness and trade name of interlayer.
- For other than tempered glass, manufacturer's designations are not required provided the building official approves the use of a certificate, affidavit or other evidence furnished by the glazing contractor certifying that each light is glazed in accordance with approved construction documents that comply with the provisions of this chapter confirming compliance with this code.
- Tempered spandrel glass is permitted to be identified by the manufacturer with a removable paper label.
Where required by other sections of the code, glazing shall be tested in accordance with CPSC 16 CFR 1201. Glazing shall comply with the test criteria for Category II unless otherwise indicated in Table R308.3.1(1).
MINIMUM CATEGORY CLASSIFICATION OF GLAZING USING CPSC 16 CFR 1201
|EXPOSED SURFACE |
AREA OF ONE SIDE
OF ONE LITE
|GLAZING IN |
|GLAZING IN |
|GLAZED PANELS |
|GLAZED PANELS |
|GLAZING IN |
|SLIDING GLASS |
DOORS PATIO TYPE
|9 square feet or less||I||I||NR||I||II||II|
|More than 9 square feet||II||II||II||II||II||II|
MINIMUM CATEGORY CLASSIFICATION OF GLAZING USING ANSI Z97.1
|EXPOSED SURFACE AREA OF ONE SIDE OF ONE LITE||GLAZED PANELS REGULATED BY |
|GLAZED PANELS REGULATED BY |
|DOORS AND ENCLOSURES REGULATED |
BY SECTION R308.4.5a
|9 square feet or less||No requirement||B||A|
|More than 9 square feet||A||A||A|
Glazing in an individual fixed or operable panel adjacent to a door where the nearest vertical edge of the glazing is within a 24-inch (610 mm) arc of either vertical edge of the door in a closed position and where the bottom exposed edge of the glazing is less than 60 inches (1524 mm) above the floor or walking surface shall be considered a hazardous location.
- Decorative glazing.
- When there is an intervening wall or other permanent barrier between the door and the glazing.
- Glazing in walls on the latch side of and perpendicular to the plane of the door in a closed position.
- Where access through the door is to a closet or storage area 3 feet (914 mm) or less in depth. Glazing in this application shall comply with section R308.4.3.
- Glazing that is adjacent to the fixed panel of patio doors.
Glazing in an individual fixed or operable panel that meets all of the following conditions shall be considered a hazardous location:
- The exposed area of an individual pane is larger than 9 square feet (0.836 m2);
- The bottom edge of the glazing is less than 18 inches (457 mm) above the floor;
- The top edge of the glazing is more than 36 inches (914 mm) above the floor; and
- One or more walking surfaces are within 36 inches (914 mm), measured horizontally and in a straight line, of the glazing.
- Decorative glazing.
- When a horizontal rail is installed on the accessible side(s) of the glazing 34 to 38 inches (864 to 965 mm) above the walking surface. The rail shall be capable of with-standing a horizontal load of 50 pounds per linear foot (730 N/m) without contacting the glass and be a minimum of 11/2 inches (38 mm) in cross sectional height.
- Outboard panes in insulating glass units and other multiple glazed panels when the bottom edge of the glass is 25 feet (7620 mm) or more above grade, a roof, walking surfaces or other horizontal [within 45 degrees (0.79 rad) of horizontal] surface adjacent to the glass exterior.
Glazing in walls, enclosures or fences containing or facing hot tubs, spas, whirlpools, saunas, steam rooms, bathtubs, showers and
indoor or outdoor swimming pools where the bottom exposed edge of the glazing is less than 60 inches (1524 mm) measured vertically above any standing or walking surface shall be considered a hazardous location. This shall apply to single glazing and all panes in multiple glazing.
Glazing where the bottom exposed edge of the glazing is less than 36 inches (914 mm) above the plane of the adjacent walking surface of stairways, landings between flights of stairs and ramps shall be considered a hazardous location.
- When a rail is installed on the accessible side(s) of the glazing 34 to 38 inches (864 to 965 mm) above the walking surface.The rail shall be capable of withstanding a horizontal load of 50 pounds per linear foot (730 N/m) without contacting the glass and be a minimum of 11/2 inches (38 mm) in cross sectional height.
- Glazing 36 inches (914 mm) or more measured horizontally from the walking surface.
Glazing adjacent to the landing at the bottom of a stairway where the glazing is less than 36 inches (914 mm) above the landing and within 60 inches (1524 mm) horizontally of the bottom tread shall be considered a hazardous location.
The following types of glazing may be used:
- Laminated glass with a minimum 0.015-inch (0.38 mm) polyvinyl butyral interlayer for glass panes 16 square feet (1.5 m2) or less in area located such that the highest point of the glass is not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) above a walking surface or other accessible area; for higher or larger sizes, the minimum interlayer thickness shall be 0.030 inch (0.76 mm).
- Fully tempered glass.
- Heat-strengthened glass.
- Wired glass.
- Approved rigid plastics.
Screens shall not be required when fully tempered glass is used as single glazing or the inboard pane in multiple glazing and either of the following conditions are met:
- Glass area 16 square feet (1.49 m2) or less. Highest point of glass not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) above a walking surface or other accessible area, nominal glass thickness not more than 3/16 inch (4.8 mm), and (for multiple glazing only) the other pane or panes fully tempered, laminated or wired glass.
- Glass area greater than 16 square feet (1.49 m2). Glass sloped 30 degrees (0.52 rad) or less from vertical, and highest point of glass not more than 10 feet (3048 mm) above a walking surface or other accessible area.
Carports shall be open on at least two sides. Carport floor surfaces shall be of approved noncombustible material. Carports not open on at least two sides shall be considered a garage and shall comply with the provisions of this section for garages.
For buildings located in flood hazard areas as established by Table R301.2(1), garage floors shall be:
- Elevated to or above the design flood elevation as determined in Section R322; or
- Located below the design flood elevation provided they are at or above grade on at least one side, are used solely for parking, building access or storage, meet the requirements of Section R322 and are otherwise constructed in accordance with this code.
Basements, habitable attics and every sleeping room shall have at least one operable emergency escape and rescue opening. Where basements contain one or more sleeping rooms, emergency egress and rescue openings shall be required in each sleeping room. Where emergency escape and rescue openings are provided they shall have a sill height of not more than 44 inches (1118 mm) measured from the finished floor to the bottom of the clear opening. Where a door opening having a threshold below the adjacent ground elevation serves as an emergency escape and rescue opening and is provided with a bulkhead enclosure, the bulkhead enclosure shall comply with Section R310.3. The net clear opening dimensions required by this section shall be obtained by the normal operation of the emergency escape and rescue opening from the inside. Emergency escape and rescue openings with a finished sill height below the adjacent ground elevation shall be provided with a window well in accordance with Section R310.2. Emergency escape and rescue openings shall open directly into a public way, or to a yard or court that opens to a public way.
The minimum horizontal area of the window well shall be 9 square feet (0.9 m2), with a minimum horizontal projection and width of 36 inches (914 mm). The area of the window well shall allow the emergency escape and rescue opening to be fully opened.
Window wells shall be designed for proper drainage by connecting to the building's foundation drainage system required by Section R405.1 or by an approved alternative method.
Bars, grilles, covers, screens or similar devices are permitted to be placed over emergency escape and rescue openings, bulkhead enclosures, or window wells that serve such openings, provided the minimum net clear opening size complies with Sections R310.1.1 to R310.1.3, and such devices shall be releasable or removable from the inside without the use of a key, tool, special knowledge or force greater than that which is required for normal operation of the escape and rescue opening. The temporary installation or closure of storm shutters, panels, and other approved hurricane protection devices shall be permitted on emergency escape and rescue openings during the threat of a storm. Such devices shall not be required to comply with the operational constraints of Section R310.1.4. While such protection is provided, at least one means of escape from the dwelling or dwelling unit shall be provided. The means of escape shall be within the first floor of the dwelling or dwelling unit and shall not be located within a garage without a side-hinged door leading directly to the exterior.
At least one egress door shall be provided for each dwelling unit. The egress door shall be side-hinged, and shall provide a minimum clear width of 32 inches (813 mm) when measured between the face of the door and the stop, with the door open 90 degrees (1.57 rad). The minimum clear height of the door opening shall not be less than 78 inches (1981 mm) in height measured from the top of the threshold to the bottom of the stop. Other doors shall not be required to comply with these minimum dimensions. Egress doors shall be readily openable from inside the dwelling without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort.
There shall be a landing or floor on each side of each exterior door. The width of each landing shall not be less than the door served. Every landing shall have a minimum dimension of 36 inches (914 mm) measured in the direction of travel. Exterior landings shall be permitted to have a slope not to exceed 1/4 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent).
Landings or finished floors at the required egress door shall not be more than 11/2 inches (38 mm) lower than the top of the threshold.
Stairways shall not be less than 36 inches (914 mm) in clear width at all points above the permitted handrail height and below the required headroom height. Handrails shall not project more than 4.5 inches (114 mm) on either side of the stairway and the minimum clear width of the stairway at and below the handrail height, including treads and landings, shall not be less than 311/2 inches (787 mm) where a handrail is installed on one side and 27 inches (698 mm) where handrails are provided on both sides.
The minimum headroom in all parts of the stairway shall not be less than 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm) measured vertically from the sloped line adjoining the tread nosing or from the floor surface of the landing or platform on that portion of the stairway.
There shall be a floor or landing at the top and bottom of each stairway. The minimum width perpendicular to the direction of travel shall be no less than the width of the flight served. Landings of shapes other than square or rectangular shall be permitted provided the depth at the walk line and the total area is not less than that of a quarter circle with a radius equal to the required landing width. Where the stairway has a straight run, the minimum depth in the direction of travel shall be not less than 36 inches (914 mm).
- The use of a volute, turnout or starting easing shall be allowed over the lowest tread.
- When handrail fittings or bendings are used to provide continuous transition between flights, transitions at winder treads, the transition from handrail to guardrail, or used at the start of a flight, the handrail height at the fittings or bendings shall be permitted to exceed the maximum height.
- Handrails shall be permitted to be interrupted by a newel post at the turn.
- The use of a volute, turnout, starting easing or starting newel shall be allowed over the lowest tread.
All required handrails shall be of one of the following types or provide equivalent grasp-ability.
- Type I. Handrails with a circular cross section shall have an outside diameter of at least 11/4 inches (32 mm) and not greater than 2 inches (51 mm). If the handrail is not circular, it shall have a perimeter dimension of at least 4 inches (102 mm) and not greater than 61/4 inches (160 mm) with a maximum cross section of dimension of 21/4 inches (57 mm). Edges shall have a minimum radius of 0.01 inch (0.25 mm).
- Type II. Handrails with a perimeter greater than 61/4 inches (160 mm) shall have a graspable finger recess area on both sides of the profile. The finger recess shall begin within a distance of 3/4 inch (19 mm) measured vertically from the tallest portion of the profile and achieve a depth of at least 5/16 inch (8 mm) within 7/8 inch (22 mm) below the widest portion of the profile. This required depth shall continue for at least 3/8 inch (10 mm) to a level that is not less than 13/4 inches (45 mm) below the tallest portion of the profile. The minimum width of the handrail above the recess shall be 11/4 inches (32 mm) to a maximum of 23/4 inches (70 mm). Edges shall have a minimum radius of 0.01 inch (0.25 mm).
Required guards at open-sided walking surfaces, including stairs, porches, balconies or landings, shall be not less than 36 inches (914 mm) high measured vertically above the adjacent walking surface, adjacent fixed seating or the line connecting the leading edges of the treads.
- Guards on the open sides of stairs shall have a height not less than 34 inches (864 mm) measured vertically from a line connecting the leading edges of the treads.
- Where the top of the guard also serves as a handrail on the open sides of stairs, the top of the guard shall not be less than 34 inches (864 mm) and not more than 38 inches (965 mm) measured vertically from a line connecting the leading edges of the treads.
In dwelling units, where the opening of an operable window is located more than 72 inches (1829 mm) above the finished grade or surface below, the lowest part of the clear opening of the window shall be a minimum of 24 inches (610 mm) above the fininshed floor of the room in which the window is located. Operable sections of windows shall not permit openings that allow passage of a 4-inch-diameter (102 mm) sphere where such openings are located within 24 inches (610 mm) of the finished floor.
- Windows whose openings will not allow a 4- inch-diameter (102 mm) sphere to pass through the opening when the opening is in its largest opened position.
- Openings that are provided with window fall prevention devices that comply with ASTM F 2090.
- Windows that are provided with window opening control devices that comply with Section R312.2.2.
Household fire alarm systems installed in accordance with NFPA 72 that include smoke alarms, or a combination of smoke detector and audible notification device installed as required by this section for smoke alarms, shall be permitted. The household fire alarm system shall provide the same level of smoke detection and alarm as required by this section for smoke alarms. Where a household fire warning system is installed using a combination of smoke detector and audible notification device(s), it shall become a permanent fixture of the occupancy and owned by the homeowner. The system shall be monitored by an approved supervising station and be maintained in accordance with NFPA 72.
Smoke alarms shall be installed in the following locations:
- In each sleeping room.
- Outside each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms.
- On each additional story of the dwelling, including basements and habitable attics but not including crawl spaces and uninhabitable attics. In dwellings or dwelling units with split levels and without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level.
When alterations, repairs or additions requiring a permit occur, or when one or more sleeping rooms are added or created in existing dwellings, the individual dwelling unit shall be equipped with smoke alarms located as required for new dwellings.
- Work involving the exterior surfaces of dwellings, such as the replacement of roofing or siding, or the addition or replacement of windows or doors, or the addition of a porch or deck, are exempt from the requirements of this section.
- Installation, alteration or repairs of plumbing or mechanical systems are exempt from the requirements of this section.
Smoke alarms shall receive their primary power from the building wiring when such wiring is served from a commercial source, and when primary power is interrupted, shall receive power from a battery. Wiring shall be permanent and without a disconnecting switch other than those required for overcurrent protection.
- Smoke alarms shall be permitted to be battery operated when installed in buildings without commercial power.
- Hard wiring of smoke alarms in existing areas shall not be required where the alterations or repairs do not result in the removal of interior wall or ceiling finishes exposing the structure, unless there is an attic, crawl space or basement available which could provide access for hard wiring without the removal of interior finishes.
- One-family and two-family dwellings and townhomes undergoing a repair, or a Level 1 alteration as defined in the Florida Building Code, may use smoke alarms powered by 10-year nonremovable, nonreplaceable batteries in lieu of retrofitting such dwelling with smoke alarms powered by the dwelling's electrical system.
Where more than one smoke alarm is required to be installed within an individual dwelling unit in accordance with Section R314.3, the alarm devices shall be interconnected in such a manner that the actuation of one alarm will activate all of the alarms in the individual unit. Physical interconnection of smoke alarms shall not be required where listed wireless alarms are installed and all alarms sound upon activation of one alarm.
Every separate building or an addition to an existing building for which a permit for new construction is issued and having a fossil-fuel-burning heater or appliance, a fireplace, an attached garage, or other feature, fixture, or element that emits carbon monoxide as byproduct of combustion shall have an operational carbon monoxide alarm installed within 10 feet (3048 mm) of each room used for sleeping purposes.
The requirements of Section R315.1 shall be satisfied by providing for one of the following alarm installations:
(1) A hard-wired carbon monoxide alarm.
(2) A battery-powered carbon monoxide alarm.
(3) A hard-wired combination carbon monoxide and smoke alarm.
(4) A battery-powered combination carbon monoxide and smoke alarm.
Unless otherwise allowed in Section R316.5 or R316.6, all foam plastic or foam plastic cores used as a component in manufactured assemblies used in building construction shall have a flame spread index of not more than 75 and shall have a smoke-developed index of not more than 450 when tested in the maximum thickness intended for use in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723. Loose-fill-type foam plastic insulation shall be tested as board stock for the flame spread index and smoke-developed index.
- Attic access is required by Section R807.1.
- The space is entered only for purposes of repairs or maintenance.
The foam plastic insulation is protected against ignition using one of the following ignition barrier materials:
- 11/2-inch-thick (38 mm) mineral fiber insulation;
- 1/4-inch-thick (6.4 mm) wood structural panels;
- 3/8-inch (9.5 mm) particleboard;
- 1/4-inch (6.4 mm) hardboard;
- 3/8-inch (9.5 mm) gypsum board; or
- Corrosion-resistant steel having a base metal thickness of 0.016 inch (0.406 mm);
- 11/2-inch-thick (38 mm) cellulose insulation.
- Crawlspace access is required by Section R408.4.
- Entry is made only for purposes of repairs or maintenance.
- The foam plastic insulation is protected against ignition using one of the following ignition barrier materials:
The thermal barrier specified in Section R316.4 is not required where siding backer board foam plastic insulation has a maximum thickness of 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) and a potential heat of not more than 2000 Btu per square foot (22 720 kJ/m2) when tested in accordance with NFPA 259 provided that:
- The foam plastic insulation is separated from the interior of the building by not less than 2 inches (51 mm) of mineral fiber insulation;
- The foam plastic insulation is installed over existing exterior wall finish in conjunction with re-siding; or
- The foam plastic insulation has been tested in accordance with Section R316.6.
- The minimum density is 20 pounds per cubic foot (320 kg/m3).
- The maximum thickness of the trim is 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) and the maximum width is 8 inches (204 mm).
- The interior trim shall not constitute more than 10 percent of the aggregate wall and ceiling area of any room or space.
- The flame spread index does not exceed 75 when tested per ASTM E 84 or UL 723. The smoke-developed index is not limited.
- The maximum thickness of the foam plastic shall be 31/4 inches (83 mm).
- The density of the foam plastic shall be in the range of 0.5 to 2.0 pounds per cubic foot (8 to 32 kg/m3).
- The foam plastic shall have a flame spread index of 25 or less and an accompanying smoke-developed index of 450 or less when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723.
Protection of wood and wood based products from decay shall be provided in the following locations by the use of naturally durable wood or wood that is preservative-treated in accordance with AWPA U1 for the species, product, preservative and end use. Preservatives shall be listed in Section 4 of AWPA U1.
- Wood joists or the bottom of a wood structural floor when closer than 18 inches (457 mm) or wood girders when closer than 12 inches (305 mm) to the exposed ground in crawl spaces or unexcavated area located within the periphery of the building foundation.
- All wood framing members that rest on concrete or masonry exterior foundation walls and are less than 8 inches (203 mm) from the exposed ground.
- Sills and sleepers on a concrete or masonry slab that is in direct contact with the ground unless separated from such slab by an impervious moisture barrier.
- The ends of wood girders entering exterior masonry or concrete walls having clearances of less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) on tops, sides and ends.
- Wood siding, sheathing and wall framing on the exterior of a building having a clearance of less than 6 inches (152 mm) from the ground or less than 2 inches (51 mm) measured vertically from concrete steps, porch slabs, patio slabs, and similar horizontal surfaces exposed to the weather.
- Wood structural members supporting moisture-permeable floors or roofs that are exposed to the weather, such as concrete or masonry slabs, unless separated from such floors or roofs by an impervious moisture barrier.
- Wood furring strips or other wood framing members attached directly to the interior of exterior masonry walls or concrete walls below grade except where an approved vapor retarder is applied between the wall and the furring strips or framing members.
In geographical areas where experience has demonstrated a specific need, approved naturally durable or pressure-preservative-treated wood shall be used for those portions of wood members that form the structural supports of buildings, balconies, porches or similar permanent building appurtenances when those members are exposed to the weather without adequate protection from a roof, eave, overhang or other covering that would prevent moisture or water accumulation on the surface or at joints between members. Depending on local experience, such members may include:
- Horizontal members such as girders, joists and decking.
- Vertical members such as posts, poles and columns.
- Both horizontal and vertical members.
Wood columns shall be approved wood of natural decay resistance or approved pressure-preservative-treated wood.
- Columns exposed to the weather or in basements when supported by concrete piers or metal pedestals projecting 1 inch (25.4 mm) above a concrete floor or 6 inches (152 mm) above exposed earth and the earth is covered by an approved impervious moisture barrier.
- Columns in enclosed crawl spaces or unexcavated areas located within the periphery of the building when supported by a concrete pier or metal pedestal at a height more than 8 inches (203 mm) from exposed earth and the earth is covered by an impervious moisture barrier.
The required quality mark on each piece of pressure-preservative-treated lumber or plywood shall contain the following information:
- Identification of the treating plant.
- Type of preservative.
- The minimum preservative retention.
- End use for which the product was treated.
- Standard to which the product was treated.
- Identity of the approved inspection agency.
- The designation "Dry," if applicable.
R317.3 Fasteners and Connectors in Contact With Preservative-Treated and Fire-Retardant-Treated Wood
Fasteners, including nuts and washers, for preservative-treated wood shall be of hot-dipped, zinc-coated galvanized steel, stainless steel, silicon bronze or copper. Coating types and weights for connectors in contact with preservative-treated wood shall be in accordance with the connector manufacturer's recommendations. In the absence of manufacturer's recommendations, a minimum of ASTM A 653 type G185 zinc-coated galvanized steel, or equivalent, shall be used.
- One-half-inch-diameter (12.7 mm) or greater steel bolts.
- Fasteners other than nails and timber rivets shall be permitted to be of mechanically deposited zinc-coated steel with coating weights in accordance with ASTM B 695, Class 55 minimum.
- Plain carbon steel fasteners in SBX/DOT and zinc borate preservative-treated wood in an interior, dry environment shall be permitted.
R317.3.3 Fasteners for Fire-Retardant-Treated Wood Used in Exterior Applications or Wet or Damp Locations
If a registered termiticide formulated and registered as a bait system is used for subterranean termite prevention, Section R318.1.1 through Section R318.1.6 do not apply; however, a signed contract assuring the installation, maintenance and monitoring of the baiting system that is in compliance with the requirements of Chapter 482, Florida Statutes, shall be provided to the building official prior to the pouring of the slab, and the system must be installed prior to final building approval.
Cells and cavities in masonry units and air gaps between brick, stone or masonry veneers and the structure shall be cleaned of all non-preservative-treated or non-naturally durable wood, or other cellulose-containing material prior to concrete placement.
Brick, stone or other veneer shall be supported by a concrete bearing ledge at least equal to the total thickness of the brick, stone or other veneer which is poured integrally with the concrete foundation. No supplemental concrete foundation pours which will create a hidden cold joint shall be used without supplemental treatment in the foundation unless there is an approved physical barrier. An approved physical barrier shall also be installed from below the wall sill plate or first block course horizontally to embed in a mortar joint. If masonry veneer extends below grade, a termite protective treatment must be applied to the cavity created between the veneer and the foundation, in lieu of a physical barrier.
- Paint or decorative cementitious finish less than 5/8 inch (17.1 mm) thick adhered directly to the masonry foundation sidewall.
- Access or vehicle ramps which rise to the interior finish floor elevation for the width of such ramps only.
- A 4-inch (102 mm) inspection space above patio and garage slabs and entry areas.
- If the patio has been soil treated for termites, the finish elevation may match the building interior finish floor elevations on masonry construction only.
- Masonry veneers constructed in accordance with Section R318.4.
In areas where the probability of termite infestation is "very heavy," as indicated in Figure R301.2(6), extruded and expanded polystyrene, polyisocyanurate and other foam plastics shall not be installed on the exterior face or under interior or exterior foundation walls or slab foundations located below grade. The clearance between foam plastics installed above grade and exposed earth shall be at least 6 inches (152 mm).
- Buildings where the structural members of walls, floors, ceilings and roofs are entirely of noncombustible materials or pressure-preservative-treated wood.
- When in addition to the requirements of Section R318.1, an approved method of protecting the foam plastic and structure from subterranean termite damage is used.
- On the interior side of basement walls.
- The distance between the hoistway face of the hoistway doors and the hoistway edge of the landing sill may not exceed 3/4 inch for swinging doors and 2 1/4 inches for sliding doors.
- Horizontal sliding car doors and gates shall be designed and installed to withstand a force of 75 pounds applied horizontally on an area 4 inches by 4 inches at right angles to and at any location on the car door without permanent deformation. The deflection may not exceed 3/4 inch and may not displace the door from its guides or tracks. The force must be applied while the door is in the fully closed position.
- Folding car doors shall be designed and installed to withstand a force of 75 pounds applied horizontally using a 4- inch-diameter sphere at any location within the folds on the car door without permanent deformation. The deflection may not 38 exceed 3/4 inch and may not displace the door from its guides or tracks. The force must be applied while the door is in the fully closed position.
- The distance between the hoistway face of the landing door and the hoistway face of the car door or gate shall conform to one of the following:
- If a power-operated horizontally sliding hoistway and car doors are used, the measurement between the leading edge of the doors or sight guard, if provided, may not exceed 4 inches. If it is possible for a user to detach or disconnect either door from the operator and such detachment or disconnection allows the user to operate the door manually, the requirement in subparagraph 5. applies.
- If swinging hoistway doors and folding car doors are used and both doors are in the fully closed position, the space between the hoistway door and the folding door must reject a 4- inch-diameter sphere at all points.
- If swinging hoistway doors and car gates are used, the 56 space between the hoistway door and the car gate must reject a 4-inch-diameter sphere at all points.
- If the car doors are powered and arranged so that they cannot be closed until after the hoistway door is closed, and the car doors automatically open when the car is at a landing and the hoistway door is opened, the measurement between the hoistway face of the hoistway door and the hoistway face of the car door at its leading edge may not exceed 4 inches. If it is possible for a user to detach or disconnect either door from the operator and such detachment or disconnection allows the user to operate the door manually, the requirement in subparagraph 5. applies.
- If swinging or horizontally sliding hoistway doors and manual horizontally sliding car doors are used and both doors are in the fully closed position, the space between the swinging or horizontally sliding hoistway door and the manual horizontally sliding car doors must reject a 4-inch-diameter sphere at all points.
The design flood elevation shall be used to define flood hazard areas. At a minimum, the design flood elevation is the higher of:
- The base flood elevation at the depth of peak elevation of flooding (including wave height) which has a 1 percent (100-year flood) or greater chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year; or
- The elevation of the design flood associated with the area designated on a flood hazard map adopted by the community, or otherwise legally designated.
- Obtain and reasonably use data available from a federal, state or other source; or
- Determine the design flood elevation in accordance with accepted hydrologic and hydraulic engineering practices used to define special flood hazard areas. Determinations shall be undertaken by a registered design professional who shall document that the technical methods used reflect currently accepted engineering practice. Studies, analyses and computations shall be submitted in sufficient detail to allow thorough review and approval.
Electrical systems, equipment and components; heating, ventilating, air conditioning; plumbing appliances and plumbing fixtures; duct systems; and other service equipment shall be located at or above the elevation required in Section R322.2 (flood hazard areas including A Zones) or R322.3 (coastal high-hazard areas including V Zones). If replaced as part of a substantial improvement, electrical systems, equipment and components; heating, ventilating, air conditioning and plumbing appliances and plumbing fixtures; duct systems; and other service equipment shall meet the requirements of this section. Systems, fixtures, and equipment and components shall not be mounted on or penetrate through walls intended to break away under flood loads.
- All wood, including floor sheathing, shall be pressure-preservative-treated in accordance with AWPA U1 for the species, product, preservative and end use or be the decay-resistant heartwood of redwood, black locust or cedars. Preservatives shall be listed in Section 4 of AWPA U1.
- Materials and installation methods used for flooring and interior and exterior walls and wall coverings shall conform to the provisions of FEMA/FIA-TB-2.
- Buildings and structures in flood hazard areas not designated as Coastal A Zones shall have the lowest floors elevated to or above the design flood elevation.
- Buildings and structures in flood hazard areas designated as Coastal A Zones shall have the lowest floors elevated to or above the base flood elevation plus 1 foot (305 mm), or to the design flood elevation, whichever is higher.
- In areas of shallow flooding (AO Zones), buildings and structures shall have the lowest floor (including basement) elevated at least as high above the highest adjacent grade as the depth number specified in feet on the FIRM, or at least 2 feet (610 mm) if a depth number is not specified.
- Basement floors that are below grade on all sides shall be elevated to or above the design flood elevation.
- Be used solely for parking of vehicles, building access or storage.
- Be provided with flood openings that meet the following criteria:
- There shall be a minimum of two openings on different sides of each enclosed area; if a building has more than one enclosed area below the design flood elevation, each area shall have openings on exterior walls.
- The total net area of all openings shall be at least 1 square inch (645 mm2) for each square foot (0.093 m2) of enclosed area, or the openings shall be designed and the construction documents shall include a statement by a registered design professional that the design of the openings will provide for equalization of hydrostatic flood forces on exterior walls by allowing for the automatic entry and exit of floodwaters as specified in Section 18.104.22.168 of ASCE 24.
- The bottom of each opening shall be 1 foot (305 mm) or less above the adjacent ground level.
- Openings shall be not less than 3 inches (76 mm) in any direction in the plane of the wall.
- Any louvers, screens or other opening covers shall allow the automatic flow of floodwaters into and out of the enclosed area.
- Openings installed in doors and windows, that meet requirements 2.1 through 2.5, are acceptable; however, doors and windows without installed openings do not meet the requirements of this section.
- The unsupported height of 6-inch (152 mm) plain masonry walls shall be no more than 3 feet (914 mm).
- The unsupported height of 8-inch (203 mm) plain masonry walls shall be no more than 4 feet (1219 mm).
- The unsupported height of 8-inch (203 mm) reinforced masonry walls shall be no more than 8 feet (2438 mm).
Pools that are located in flood hazard areas established by Table R301.2(1), including above-ground pools, on-ground pools, and in-ground pools that involve placement of fill, shall comply with Sections R322.214.171.124 or R3126.96.36.199.
- New buildings and buildings that are determined to be substantially improved pursuant to Section R188.8.131.52, shall be located landward of the reach of mean high tide.
- For any alteration of sand dunes and mangrove stands the building official shall require submission of an engineering analysis which demonstrates that the proposed alteration will not increase the potential for flood damage.
- All buildings and structures erected within coastal high-hazard areas shall be elevated so that the lowest portion of all structural members supporting the lowest floor, with the exception of piling, pile caps, columns, grade beams and bracing, is elevated to or above the design flood elevation.
- Basement floors that are below grade on all sides are prohibited.
- The use of fill for structural support is prohibited.
- Minor grading, and the placement of minor quantities of fill, shall be permitted for landscaping and for drainage purposes under and around buildings and for support of parking slabs, pool decks, patios and walkways.
- Electrical, mechanical, and plumbing system components are not to be mounted on or penetrate through walls that are designed to break away under flood loads; and
- Are constructed with insect screening or open lattice; or
- Are designed to break away or collapse without causing collapse, displacement or other structural damage to the elevated portion of the building or supporting foundation system. Such walls, framing and connections shall have a resistance of not less than 10 (479 Pa) and no more than 20 pounds per square foot (958 Pa), determined using allowable stress design; or
- Where wind loading values of this code exceed 20 pounds per square foot (958 Pa), determined using the allowable stress design, the construction documents shall include documentation prepared and sealed by a registered design professional that:
- The walls and partitions below the design flood elevation have been designed to collapse from a water load less than that which would occur during the design flood.
- The elevated portion of the building and supporting foundation system have been designed to withstand the effects of wind and flood loads acting simultaneously on all building components (structural and non-structural). Water-loading values used shall be those associated with the design flood. Wind-loading values shall be those required by this code.
The Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act of 1979, 14 CFR, Part 150 (US Department of Transportation) including revisions through January, 2005 and hereby adopted as a guideline for establishing airport noise control. When required by a local government by local ordinance to provide noise attenuation in a new structure or addition to an existing structure near an airport in the area of the local government, the applicant must provide either:
- A testing certificate from an accredited noise testing lab that a new structure or addition to existing structure built to the submitted engineering plans will achieve an average minimum dBA reduction equal to or greater than the reduction required,
- An engineering judgment signed and sealed by an engineer licensed in the State of Florida that the structure or addition built to the submitted engineering plans will achieve an average minimum dBA reduction equal to or greater than the reduction required, or
- Plans using the standards contained in "Guidelines for Sound Insulation of Residences Exposed to Aircraft Operations" prepared for the Department of the Navy by Wyle Research and Consulting, Arlington, Virginia, April 2005 on file with the Florida Building Commission.