The air removed by every mechanical exhaust system shall be discharged outdoors at a point where it will not cause a nuisance and not less than the distances specified in Section 501.3.1. The air shall be discharged to a location from which it cannot again be readily drawn in by a ventilating system. Air shall not be exhausted into an attic or crawl space.
- For ducts conveying explosive or flammable vapors, fumes or dusts: 30 feet (9144 mm) from property lines; 10 feet (3048 mm) from operable openings into buildings; 6 feet (1829 mm) from exterior walls and roofs; 30 feet (9144 mm) from combustible walls and operable openings into buildings which are in the direction of the exhaust discharge; 10 feet (3048 mm) above adjoining grade.
- For other product-conveying outlets: 10 feet (3048 mm) from the property lines; 3 feet (914 mm) from exterior walls and roofs; 10 feet (3048 mm) from operable openings into buildings; 10 feet (3048 mm) above adjoining grade.
- For all environmental air exhaust: 3 feet (914 mm) from property lines; 3 feet (914 mm) from operable openings into buildings for all occupancies other than Group U, and 10 feet (3048 mm) from mechanical air intakes. Such exhaust shall not be considered hazardous or noxious.
- Exhaust outlets serving structures in flood hazard areas shall be installed at or above the elevation required by Section 1612 of the Florida Building Code, Building for utilities and attendant equipment.
- For specific systems see the following sections:
- Clothes dryer exhaust, Section 504.4.
- Kitchen hoods and other kitchen exhaust equipment, Sections 506.3.13, 506.4 and 506.5.
- Dust stock and refuse conveying systems, Section 511.2.
- Subslab soil exhaust systems, Section 512.4.
- Smoke control systems, Section 513.10.3.
- Refrigerant discharge, Section 1105.7.
- Machinery room discharge, Section 1105.6.1.
Type IV and V dry cleaning systems shall be provided with an automatically activated exhaust ventilation system to maintain a minimum of 100 feet per minute (0.51 m/s) air velocity through the loading door when the door is opened.
Exception: Dry cleaning units are not required to be provided with exhaust ventilation where an exhaust hood is installed immediately outside of and above the loading door which operates at an airflow rate as follows:
|Q = 100 × ALD||(Equation 5-1)|
|Q||=||Flow rate exhausted through the hood, cubic feet per minute.|
|ALD||=||Area of the loading door, square feet.|
- Air exhausted from spraying operations shall be permitted to be recirculated as makeup air for unmanned spray operations provided that:
- The solid particulate has been removed.
- The vapor concentration is less than 25 percent of the lower flammable limit (LFL).
- Approved equipment is used to monitor the vapor concentration.
- An alarm is sounded and spray operations are automatically shut down if the vapor concentration exceeds 25 percent of the LFL.
- In the event of shutdown of the vapor concentration monitor, 100 percent of the air volume specified in Section 510 is automatically exhausted.
- Air exhausted from spraying operations is allowed to be recirculated as makeup air to manned spraying operations where all of the conditions provided in Exception 1 are included in the installation and documents have been prepared to show that the installation does not pose a life safety hazard to personnel inside the spray booth, spraying space or spray room.
- Multiple spray booths having a combined frontal area of 18 square feet (1.67 m2) or less are allowed to have a common exhaust where identical spray-finishing material is used in each booth. If more than one fan serves one booth, such fans shall be interconnected so that all fans operate simultaneously.
- Where treatment of exhaust is necessary for air pollution control or energy conservation, ducts shall be allowed to be manifolded if all of the following conditions are met:
- The sprayed materials used are compatible and will not react or cause ignition of the residue in the ducts.
- Nitrocellulose-based finishing material shall not be used.
- A filtering system shall be provided to reduce the amount of overspray carried into the duct manifold.
- Automatic sprinkler protection shall be provided at the junction of each booth exhaust with the manifold, in addition to the protection required by this chapter.
Indoor storage areas and storage buildings for hazardous materials in amounts exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area shall be provided with mechanical exhaust ventilation or natural ventilation where natural ventilation can be shown to be acceptable for the materials as stored.
- Storage areas for flammable solids complying with the Florida Fire Prevention Code.
- Storage areas and storage buildings for fireworks and explosives complying with the Florida Fire Prevention Code.
Exhaust ventilation systems shall comply with all of the following:
- The installation shall be in accordance with this code.
- Mechanical ventilation shall be provided at a rate of not less than 1 cfm per square foot [0.00508 m3/(s • m2)] of floor area over the storage area.
- The systems shall operate continuously unless alternate designs are approved.
- A manual shutoff control shall be provided outside of the room in a position adjacent to the access door to the room or in another approved location. The switch shall be a break-glass or other approved type and shall be labeled: VENTILATION SYSTEM EMERGENCY SHUTOFF.
- The exhaust ventilation shall be designed to consider the density of the potential fumes or vapors released. For fumes or vapors that are heavier than air, exhaust shall be taken from a point within 12 inches (305 mm) of the floor. For fumes or vapors that are lighter than air, exhaust shall be taken from a point within 12 inches (305 mm) of the highest point of the room.
- The location of both the exhaust and inlet air openings shall be designed to provide air movement across all portions of the floor or room to prevent the accumulation of vapors.
- The exhaust air shall not be recirculated to occupied areas if the materials stored are capable of emitting hazardous vapors and contaminants have not been removed. Air contaminated with explosive or flammable vapors, fumes or dusts; flammable, highly toxic or toxic gases; or radioactive materials shall not be recirculated.
Indoor dispensing and use areas for hazardous materials in amounts exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area shall be provided with exhaust ventilation in accordance with Section 502.8.1.
Exception: Ventilation is not required for dispensing and use of flammable solids other than finely divided particles.
Where gases, liquids or solids in amounts exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area and having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accordance with NFPA 704 are dispensed or used, mechanical exhaust ventilation shall be provided to capture gases, fumes, mists or vapors at the point of generation.
Exception: Where it can be demonstrated that the gases, liquids or solids do not create harmful gases, fumes, mists or vapors.
Rooms for the storage of compressed medical gases in amounts exceeding the permit amounts for compressed gases in the Florida Fire Prevention Code, and that do not have an exterior wall, shall be exhausted through a duct to the exterior of the building. Both separate airstreams shall be enclosed in a 1-hour-rated shaft enclosure from the room to the exterior. Approved mechanical ventilation shall be provided at a minimum rate of 1 cfm/ft2 [0.00508 m3/(s • m2)] of the area of the room.
Gas cabinets for the storage of compressed medical gases in amounts exceeding the permit amounts for compressed gases in the Florida Fire Prevention Code shall be connected to an exhaust system. The average velocity of ventilation at the face of access ports or windows shall be not less than 200 feet per minute (1.02 m/s) with a minimum velocity of 150 feet per minute (0.76 m/s) at any point at the access port or window.
Storage areas for stationary or portable containers of cryogenic fluids in any quantity shall be ventilated in accordance with Section 502.8. Indoor areas where cryogenic fluids in any quantity are dispensed shall be ventilated in accordance with the requirements of Section 502.8.4 in a manner that captures any vapor at the point of generation.
Exception: Ventilation for indoor dispensing areas is not required where it can be demonstrated that the cryogenic fluids do not create harmful vapors.
Exhaust ventilation systems shall be provided as required by Sections 502.9.5.1 through 502.9.5.5 for the storage, use, dispensing, mixing and handling of flammable and combustible liquids. Unless otherwise specified, this section shall apply to any quantity of flammable and combustible liquids.
Exception: This section shall not apply to flammable and combustible liquids that are exempt from the Florida Fire Prevention Code.
Continuous mechanical ventilation shall be provided for the use, dispensing and mixing of flammable and combustible liquids in open or closed systems in amounts exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area and for bulk transfer and process transfer operations. The ventilation rate shall be not less than 1 cfm/ft2 [0.00508 m3/(s • m2)] of floor area over the design area. Provisions shall be made for the introduction of makeup air in a manner that will include all floor areas or pits where vapors can collect. Local or spot ventilation shall be provided where needed to prevent the accumulation of hazardous vapors.
Exception: Where natural ventilation can be shown to be effective for the materials used, dispensed or mixed.
Mechanical exhaust ventilation shall be provided for highly toxic and toxic liquids used in open systems in accordance with Section 502.8.4. Mechanical exhaust ventilation shall be provided for highly toxic and toxic liquids used in closed systems in accordance with Section 502.8.5.
Exception: Liquids or solids that do not generate highly toxic or toxic fumes, mists or vapors.
Gas cabinets containing highly toxic or toxic compressed gases in any quantity shall comply with Section 502.8.2 and the following requirements:
- The average ventilation velocity at the face of gas cabinet access ports or windows shall be not less than 200 feet per minute (1.02 m/s) with a minimum velocity of 150 feet per minute (0.76 m/s) at any point at the access port or window.
- Gas cabinets shall be connected to an exhaust system.
- Gas cabinets shall not be used as the sole means of exhaust for any room or area.
Exhausted enclosures containing highly toxic or toxic compressed gases in any quantity shall comply with Section 502.8.2 and the following requirements:
- The average ventilation velocity at the face of the enclosure shall be not less than 200 feet per minute (1.02 m/s) with a minimum velocity of 150 feet per minute (0.76 m/s).
- Exhausted enclosures shall be connected to an exhaust system.
- Exhausted enclosures shall not be used as the sole means of exhaust for any room or area.
[F] 502.9.8 Highly Toxic and Toxic Compressed Gases—Quantities Exceeding the Maximum Allowable Quantity Per Control Area
Above-grade underfloor spaces or basements in which portable LP-gas containers are used or are stored awaiting use or resale shall be provided with an approved means of ventilation.
Exception: Department of Transportation (DOT) specification cylinders with a maximum water capacity of 2.5 pounds (1 kg) for use in completely self-contained hand torches and similar applications.
The quantity of LP-gas shall not exceed 20 pounds (9 kg).
- Fabrication areas: Exhaust ventilation for fabrication areas shall comply with the Florida Building Code, Building. Additional manual control switches shall be provided where required by the code official.
- Workstations: A ventilation system shall be provided to capture and exhaust gases, fumes and vapors at workstations.
- Liquid storage rooms: Exhaust ventilation for liquid storage rooms shall comply with Section 502.8.1.1 and the Florida Building Code, Building.
- HPM rooms: Exhaust ventilation for HPM rooms shall comply with Section 502.8.1.1 and the Florida Building Code, Building.
- Gas cabinets: Exhaust ventilation for gas cabinets shall comply with Section 502.8.2. The gas cabinet ventilation system is allowed to connect to a workstation ventilation system. Exhaust ventilation for gas cabinets containing highly toxic or toxic gases shall also comply with Sections 502.9.7 and 502.9.8.
- Exhausted enclosures: Exhaust ventilation for exhausted enclosures shall comply with Section 502.8.2. Exhaust ventilation for exhausted enclosures containing highly toxic or toxic gases shall also comply with Sections 502.9.7 and 502.9.8.
- Gas rooms: Exhaust ventilation for gas rooms shall comply with Section 502.8.2. Exhaust ventilation for gas rooms containing highly toxic or toxic gases shall also comply with Sections 502.9.7 and 502.9.8.
- Cabinets containing pyrophoric liquids or Class 3 water-reactive liquids: Exhaust ventilation for cabinets in fabrication areas containing pyrophoric liquids shall be as required in the Florida Fire Prevention Code.
In areas where motor vehicles operate, mechanical ventilation shall be provided in accordance with Section 403. Additionally, areas in which stationary motor vehicles are operated shall be provided with a source capture system that connects directly to the motor vehicle exhaust systems.
- This section shall not apply where the motor vehicles being operated or repaired are electrically powered.
- This section shall not apply to one- and two-family dwellings.
- This section shall not apply to motor vehicle service areas where engines are operated inside the building only for the duration necessary to move the motor vehicles in and out of the building.
Repair garages used for the repair of natural gas- or hydrogen-fueled vehicles shall be provided with an approved mechanical ventilation system. The mechanical ventilation system shall be in accordance with Sections 502.16.1 and 502.16.2.
Indoor locations shall be ventilated utilizing air supply inlets and exhaust outlets arranged to provide uniform air movement to the extent practical. Inlets shall be uniformly arranged on exterior walls near floor level. Outlets shall be located at the high point of the room in exterior walls or the roof.
Ventilation shall be by a continuous mechanical ventilation system or by a mechanical ventilation system activated by a continuously monitoring natural gas detection system, or for hydrogen, a continuously monitoring flammable gas detection system, each activating at a gas concentration of 25 percent of the lower flammable limit (LFL). In all cases, the system shall shut down the fueling system in the event of failure of the ventilation system.
The ventilation rate shall be at least 1 cubic foot per minute per 12 cubic feet [0.00138 m3/(s • m3)] of room volume.
The mechanical ventilation system shall operate continuously.
- Mechanical ventilation systems that are interlocked with a gas detection system designed in accordance with the Florida Fire Prevention Code.
- Mechanical ventilation systems in garages that are used only for the repair of vehicles fueled by liquid fuels or odorized gases, such as CNG, where the ventilation system is electrically interlocked with the lighting circuit.
Clothes dryers shall be exhausted in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Dryer exhaust systems shall be independent of all other systems and shall convey the moisture and any products of combustion to the outside of the building.
The maximum length of the exhaust duct shall be 35 feet (10 668 mm) from the connection to the transition duct from the dryer to the outlet terminal. Where fittings are used, the maximum length of the exhaust duct shall be reduced in accordance with Table 504.6.4.1.
|DRYER EXHAUST DUCT FITTING TYPE||EQUIVALENT LENGTH|
|4" radius mitered 45-degree elbow||2 feet 6 inches|
|4" radius mitered 90-degree elbow||5 feet|
|6" radius smooth 45-degree elbow||1 foot|
|6" radius smooth 90-degree elbow||1 foot 9 inches|
|8" radius smooth 45-degree elbow||1 foot|
|8" radius smooth 90-degree elbow||1 foot 7 inches|
|10" radius smooth 45-degree elbow||9 inches|
|10" radius smooth 90-degree elbow||1 foot 6 inches|
Where space for a clothes dryer is provided, an exhaust duct system shall be installed. Where the clothes dryer is not installed at the time of occupancy, the exhaust duct shall be capped at the location of the future dryer.
- The shaft in which the duct is installed shall be constructed and fire-resistance rated as required by the Florida Building Code, Building.
- Dampers shall be prohibited in the exhaust duct. Penetrations of the shaft and ductwork shall be protected in accordance with Section 607.5.5, Exception 2.
- Rigid metal ductwork shall be installed within the shaft to convey the exhaust. The ductwork shall be constructed of sheet steel having a minimum thickness of 0.0187 inch (0.4712 mm) (No. 26 gage) and in accordance with SMACNA Duct Construction Standards.
- The ductwork within the shaft shall be designed and installed without offsets.
- The exhaust fan motor design shall be in accordance with Section 503.2.
- The exhaust fan motor shall be located outside of the airstream.
- The exhaust fan shall run continuously, and shall be connected to a standby power source.
- Exhaust fan operation shall be monitored in an approved location and shall initiate an audible or visual signal when the fan is not in operation.
- Makeup air shall be provided for the exhaust system.
- A cleanout opening shall be located at the base of the shaft to provide access to the duct to allow for cleaning and inspection. The finished opening shall be not less than 12 inches by 12 inches (305 mm by 305 mm).
- Screens shall not be installed at the termination.
- The common multistory duct system shall serve only clothes dryers and shall be independent of other exhaust systems.
- Where installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and where mechanical or natural ventilation is otherwise provided in accordance with Chapter 4, listed and labeled ductless range hoods shall not be required to discharge to the outdoors.
- Ducts for domestic kitchen cooking appliances equipped with downdraft exhaust systems shall be permitted to be constructed of Schedule 40 PVC pipe and fittings provided that the installation complies with all of the following:
- The duct shall be installed under a concrete slab poured on grade.
- The underfloor trench in which the duct is installed shall be completely backfilled with sand or gravel.
- The PVC duct shall extend not more than 1 inch (25 mm) above the indoor concrete floor surface.
- The PVC duct shall extend not more than 1 inch (25 mm) above grade outside of the building.
- The PVC ducts shall be solvent cemented.
Exhaust hood systems capable of exhausting in excess of 400 cfm (0.19 m3/s) shall be provided with makeup air at a rate approximately equal to the exhaust air rate. Such makeup air systems shall be equipped with a means of closure and shall be automatically controlled to start and operate simultaneously with the exhaust system.
(a) Four hundred cubic feet per minute or less; or
Grease ducts serving Type I hoods shall be constructed of steel having a minimum thickness of 0.0575 inch (1.463 mm) (No. 16 gage) or stainless steel not less than 0.0450 inch (1.14 mm) (No. 18 gage) in thickness.
- Penetrations shall not be required to be welded or brazed where sealed by devices that are listed for the application.
- Internal welding or brazing shall not be prohibited provided that the joint is formed or ground smooth and is provided with ready access for inspection.
- Factory-built commercial kitchen grease ducts listed and labeled in accordance with UL 1978 and installed in accordance with Section 304.1.
- A vertical duct-to-hood collar connection made in the top plane of the hood in accordance with all of the following:
- The hood duct opening shall have a 1-inch-deep (25 mm), full perimeter, welded flange turned down into the hood interior at an angle of 90 degrees (1.57 rad) from the plane of the opening.
- The duct shall have a 1-inch-deep (25 mm) flange made by a 1-inch by 1-inch (25 mm by 25 mm) angle iron welded to the full perimeter of the duct not less than 1 inch (25 mm) above the bottom end of the duct.
- A gasket rated for use at not less than 1,500°F (815°C) is installed between the duct flange and the top of the hood.
- The duct-to-hood joint shall be secured by stud bolts not less than 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) in diameter welded to the hood with a spacing not greater than 4 inches (102 mm) on center for the full perimeter of the opening. All bolts and nuts are to be secured with lockwashers.
- Listed and labeled duct-to-hood collar connections installed in accordance with Section 304.1.
Prior to the use or concealment of any portion of a grease duct system, a leakage test shall be performed. Ducts shall be considered to be concealed where installed in shafts or covered by coatings or wraps that prevent the ductwork from being visually inspected on all sides. The permit holder shall be responsible to provide the necessary equipment and perform the grease duct leakage test. A light test shall be performed to determine that all welded and brazed joints are liquid tight.
A light test shall be performed by passing a lamp having a power rating of not less than 100 watts through the entire section of ductwork to be tested. The lamp shall be open so as to emit light equally in all directions perpendicular to the duct walls. A test shall be performed for the entire duct system, including the hood-to-duct connection. The duct work shall be permitted to be tested in sections, provided that every joint is tested. For listed factory-built grease ducts, this test shall be limited to duct joints assembled in the field and shall exclude factory welds.
Exception: The velocity limitations shall not apply within duct transitions utilized to connect ducts to differently sized or shaped openings in hoods and fans, provided that such transitions do not exceed 3 feet (914 mm) in length and are designed to prevent the trapping of grease.
Where enclosures are not required, grease duct systems and exhaust equipment serving a Type I hood shall have a clearance to combustible construction of not less than 18 inches (457 mm), and shall have a clearance to noncombustible construction and gypsum wallboard attached to noncombustible structures of not less than 3 inches (76 mm).
- Factory-built commercial kitchen grease ducts listed and labeled in accordance with UL 1978.
- Listed and labeled exhaust equipment installed in accordance with Section 304.1.
- Where commercial kitchen grease ducts are continuously covered on all sides with a listed and labeled field-applied grease duct enclosure material, system, product or method of construction specifically evaluated for such purpose in accordance with ASTM E 2336, the required clearance shall be in accordance with the listing of such material, system, product or method.
Grease reservoirs shall:
- Be constructed as required for the grease duct they serve.
- Be located on the bottom of the horizontal duct or the bottommost section of the duct riser.
- Have a length and width of not less than 12 inches (305 mm). Where the grease duct is less than 12 inches (305 mm) in a dimension, the reservoir shall be not more than 2 inches (51 mm) smaller than the duct in that dimension.
- Have a depth of not less than 1 inch (25.4 mm).
- Have a bottom that is sloped to a point for drainage.
- Be provided with a cleanout opening constructed in accordance with Section 506.3.8 and installed to provide direct access to the reservoir. The cleanout opening shall be located on a side or on top of the duct so as to permit cleaning of the reservoir.
- Be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions where manufactured devices are utilized.
Grease duct cleanouts and openings shall comply with all of the following:
- Grease ducts shall not have openings except where required for the operation and maintenance of the system.
- Sections of grease ducts that are inaccessible from the hood or discharge openings shall be provided with cleanout openings.
- Cleanouts and openings shall be equipped with tight-fitting doors constructed of steel having a thickness not less than that required for the duct.
- Cleanout doors shall be installed liquid tight.
- Door assemblies including any frames and gaskets shall be approved for the application and shall not have fasteners that penetrate the duct.
- Gasket and sealing materials shall be rated for not less than 1500°F (816°C).
- Listed door assemblies shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
Cleanouts serving horizontal sections of grease ducts shall:
- Be spaced not more than 20 feet (6096 mm) apart.
- Be located not more than 10 feet (3048 mm) from changes in direction that are greater than 45 degrees (.79 rad).
- Be located on the bottom only where other locations are not available and shall be provided with internal damming of the opening such that grease will flow past the opening without pooling. Bottom cleanouts and openings shall be approved for the application and installed liquid-tight.
- Not be closer than 1 inch (25.4 mm) from the edges of the duct.
- Have opening dimensions of not less than 12 inches by 12 inches (305 mm by 305 mm). Where such dimensions preclude installation, the opening shall be not less than 12 inches (305 mm) on one side and shall be large enough to provide access for cleaning and maintenance.
- Shall be located at grease reservoirs.
Underground grease duct installations shall comply with all of the following:
- Underground grease ducts shall be constructed of steel having a minimum thickness of 0.0575 inch (1.463 mm) (No. 16 gage) and shall be coated to provide protection from corrosion or shall be constructed of stainless steel having a minimum thickness of 0.0450 inch (1.140 mm) (No. 18 gage).
- The underground duct system shall be tested and approved in accordance with Section 506.3.2.5 prior to coating or placement in the ground.
- The underground duct system shall be completely encased in concrete with a minimum thickness of 4 inches (102 mm).
- Ducts shall slope toward grease reservoirs.
- A grease reservoir with a cleanout to allow cleaning of the reservoir shall be provided at the base of each vertical duct riser.
- Cleanouts shall be provided with access to permit cleaning and inspection of the duct in accordance with Section 506.3.
- Cleanouts in horizontal ducts shall be installed on the topside of the duct.
- Cleanout locations shall be legibly identified at the point of access from the interior space.
Commercial kitchen grease ducts constructed in accordance with Section 506.3.1 shall be enclosed by fieldapplied grease duct enclosure that is a listed and labeled material, system, product, or method of construction specifically evaluated for such purpose in accordance with ASTM E 2336.
The surface of the duct shall be continuously covered on all sides from the point at which the duct originates to the outlet terminal. Duct penetrations shall be protected with a through-penetration fire-stop system classified in accordance with ASTM E 814 or UL 1497 and having a "F" and "T" rating equal to the fire-resistance rating of the assembly being penetrated. Such systems shall be installed in accordance with the listing and the manufacturer's installation instructions. Partial application of a field-applied grease duct enclosure system shall not be installed for the sole purpose of reducing clearances to combustibles at isolated sections of grease duct. Exposed duct-wrap systems shall be protected where subject to physical damage.
Exhaust outlets shall be located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) horizontally from parts of the same or contiguous buildings, adjacent buildings and adjacent property lines and shall be located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) above the adjoining grade level. Exhaust outlets shall be located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) horizontally from or not less than 3 feet (914 mm) above air intake openings into any building.
Exception: Exhaust outlets shall terminate not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) horizontally from parts of the same or contiguous building, an adjacent building, adjacent property line and air intake openings into a building where air from the exhaust outlet discharges away from such locations.
- Exhaust outlets shall terminate not less than 3 feet (914 mm) in any direction from openings into the building.
- Outlets shall terminate not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from property lines or buildings on the same lot.
- Outlets shall terminate not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) above grade.
- Outlets that terminate above a roof shall terminate not less than 30 inches (762 mm) above the roof surface.
- Outlets shall terminate not less than 30 inches (762 mm) from exterior vertical walls.
- Outlets shall be protected against local weather conditions.
- Outlets shall not be directed onto walkways.
- Outlets shall meet the provisions for exterior wall opening protectives in accordance with the Florida Building Code, Building.
Exception: The minimum horizontal distance between vertical discharge fans and parapet-type building structures shall be 2 feet (610 mm) provided that such structures are not higher than the top of the fan discharge opening.
Commercial kitchen exhaust hoods shall comply with the requirements of this section. Hoods shall be Type I or II and shall be designed to capture and confine cooking vapors and residues. Commercial kitchen exhaust hood systems shall operate during the cooking operation.
- Factory-built commercial exhaust hoods that are listed and labeled in accordance with UL 710, and installed in accordance with Section 304.1 shall not be required to comply with Sections 507.4, 507.5, 507.7, 507.11, 507.12, 507.13, 507.14, and 507.15.
- Factory-built commercial cooking recirculating systems that are listed and labeled in accordance with UL 710B, and installed in accordance with Section 304.1 shall not be required to comply with Sections 507.4, 507.5, 507.7, 507.11, 507.12, 507.13, 507.14, and 507.15. Spaces in which such systems are located shall be considered to be kitchens and shall be ventilated in accordance with Table 403.3. For the purpose of determining the floor area required to be ventilated, each individual appliance shall be considered as occupying not less than 100 square feet (9.3 m2).
- Net exhaust volumes for hoods shall be permitted to be reduced during part-load cooking conditions, where engineered or listed multispeed or variablespeed controls automatically operate the exhaust system to maintain capture and removal of cooking effluents as required by this section. Reduced volumes shall not be below that required to maintain capture and removal of effluents from the idle cooking appliances that are operating in a standby mode.
A Type I or Type II hood shall be installed at or above all commercial cooking appliances in accordance with Sections 507.2.1 and 507.2.2. Where any cooking appliance under a single hood requires a Type I hood, a Type I hood shall be installed. Where a Type II hood is required, a Type I or Type II hood shall be installed.
Exception: Where cooking appliances are equipped with integral down-draft exhaust systems and such appliances and exhaust systems are listed and labeled for the application in accordance with NFPA 96, a hood shall not be required at or above them.
Type I hoods shall be installed where cooking appliances produce grease or smoke as a result of the cooking process. Type I hoods shall be installed over medium-duty, heavy-duty and extra-heavy-duty cooking appliances. Type I hoods shall be installed over light-duty cooking appliances that produce grease or smoke.
Exception: A Type I hood shall not be required for an electric cooking appliance where an approved testing agency provides documentation that the appliance effluent contains 5 mg/m3 or less of grease when tested at an exhaust flow rate of 500 cfm (0.236 m3/s) in accordance with Section 17 of UL 710B.
External hood joints, seams and penetrations for Type I hoods shall be made with a continuous external liquid-tight weld or braze to the lowest outermost perimeter of the hood. Internal hood joints, seams, penetrations, filter support frames and other appendages attached inside the hood shall not be required to be welded or brazed but shall be otherwise sealed to be grease tight.
- Penetrations shall not be required to be welded or brazed where sealed by devices that are listed for the application.
- Internal welding or brazing of seams, joints and penetrations of the hood shall not be prohibited provided that the joint is formed smooth or ground so as to not trap grease, and is readily cleanable.
Exception: Clearance shall not be required from gypsum wallboard or 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) or thicker cementitious wallboard attached to noncombustible structures provided that a smooth, cleanable, nonabsorbent and noncombustible material is installed between the hood and the gypsum or cementitious wallboard over an area extending not less than 18 inches (457 mm) in all directions from the hood.
Type I hoods shall be equipped with grease filters listed and labeled in accordance with UL 1046 and designed for the specific purpose. Grease-collecting equipment shall be provided with access for cleaning. The lowest edge of a grease filter located above the cooking surface shall be not less than the height specified in Table 507.11.
MINIMUM DISTANCE BETWEEN THE LOWEST EDGE OF A
GREASE FILTER AND THE COOKING SURFACE OR THE
|TYPE OF COOKING |
|HEIGHT ABOVE |
|Without exposed flame||0.5|
|Exposed flame and burners||2|
|Exposed charcoal and charbroil type||3.5|
The inside lower edge of canopy-type Type I and II commercial hoods shall overhang or extend a horizontal distance of not less than 6 inches (152 mm) beyond the edge of the top horizontal surface of the appliance on all open sides. The vertical distance between the front lower lip of the hood and such surface shall not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm).
|Type of Hood||CFM per linear foot of hood|
|Double island canopy|
|Single island canopy||700|
|Type of Hood||CFM per linear foot of hood|
|Double island canopy||400|
|Single island canopy||600|
|Type of Hood||CFM per linear foot of hood|
|Double island canopy||300|
|Single island canopy||500|
|Type of Hood||CFM per linear foot of hood|
|Double island canopy||250|
|Single island canopy||400|
Manufacturers of compensating hoods shall provide a label indicating minimum exhaust flow and/or maximum makeup airflow that provides capture and containment of the exhaust effluent.
This section shall govern the design and construction of duct systems for hazardous exhaust and shall determine where such systems are required. Hazardous exhaust systems are systems designed to capture and control hazardous emissions generated from product handling or processes, and convey those emissions to the outdoors. Hazardous emissions include flammable vapors, gases, fumes, mists or dusts, and volatile or airborne materials posing a health hazard, such as toxic or corrosive materials. For the purposes of this section, the health hazard rating of materials shall be as specified in NFPA 704.
For the purposes of the provisions of Section 510, a laboratory shall be defined as a facility where the use of chemicals is related to testing, analysis, teaching, research or developmental activities. Chemicals are used or synthesized on a nonproduction basis, rather than in a manufacturing process.
A hazardous exhaust system shall be required wherever operations involving the handling or processing of hazardous materials, in the absence of such exhaust systems and under normal operating conditions, have the potential to create one of the following conditions:
- A flammable vapor, gas, fume, mist or dust is present in concentrations exceeding 25 percent of the lower flammability limit of the substance for the expected room temperature.
- A vapor, gas, fume, mist or dust with a health-hazard rating of 4 is present in any concentration.
- A vapor, gas, fume, mist or dust with a health-hazard rating of 1, 2 or 3 is present in concentrations exceeding 1 percent of the median lethal concentration of the substance for acute inhalation toxicity.
Exception: Laboratories, as defined in Section 510.1, except where the concentrations listed in Item 1 are exceeded or a vapor, gas, fume, mist or dust with a health-hazard rating of 1, 2, 3 or 4 is present in concentrations exceeding 1 percent of the median lethal concentration of the substance for acute inhalation toxicity.
Hazardous exhaust systems shall be independent of other types of exhaust systems. Incompatible materials, as defined in the Florida Fire Prevention Code, shall not be exhausted through the same hazardous exhaust system. Hazardous exhaust systems shall not share common shafts with other duct systems, except where such systems are hazardous exhaust systems originating in the same fire area.
Exception: The provision of this section shall not apply to laboratory exhaust systems where all of the following conditions apply:
- All of the hazardous exhaust ductwork and other laboratory exhaust within both the occupied space and the shafts are under negative pressure while in operation.
- The hazardous exhaust ductwork manifolded together within the occupied space must originate within the same fire area.
- Each control branch has a flow regulating device.
- Perchloric acid hoods and connected exhaust shall be prohibited from manifolding.
- Radioisotope hoods are equipped with filtration and/or carbon beds where required by the registered design professional.
- Biological safety cabinets are filtered.
- Provision is made for continuous maintenance of negative static pressure in the ductwork.
Contaminated air shall not be recirculated to occupiable areas. Air containing explosive or flammable vapors, fumes or dusts; flammable, highly toxic or toxic gases; or radioactive material shall be considered to be contaminated.
- An approved automatic fire suppression system shall not be required in ducts conveying materials, fumes, mists and vapors that are nonflammable and noncombustible under all conditions and at any concentrations.
- Automatic fire suppression systems shall not be required in metallic and noncombustible, nonmetallic exhaust ducts in semiconductor fabrication facilities.
- An approved automatic fire suppression system shall not be required in ducts where the largest cross-sectional diameter of the duct is less than 10 inches (254 mm).
- For laboratories, as defined in Section 510.1, automatic fire protection systems shall not be required in laboratory hoods or exhaust systems.
Ducts used to convey hazardous exhaust shall be constructed of approved G90 galvanized sheet steel, with a minimum nominal thickness as specified in Table 510.8. Nonmetallic ducts used in systems exhausting nonflammable corrosive fumes or vapors shall be listed and labeled.
Nonmetallic ducts shall have a flame spread index of 25 or less and a smoke-developed index of 50 or less, when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723. Ducts shall be approved for installation in such an exhaust system. Where the products being exhausted are detrimental to the duct material, the ducts shall be constructed of alternative materials that are compatible with the exhaust.
|DIAMETER OF |
|MINIMUM NOMINAL THICKNESS|
|Nonabrasive materials||Nonabrasive/ |
|0-8 inches||0.028 inch |
(No. 24 gage)
|0.034 inch |
(No. 22 gage)
|0.040 inch |
(No. 20 gage)
|9-18 inches||0.034 inch |
(No. 22 gage)
|0.040 inch |
(No. 20 gage)
|0.052 inch |
(No. 18 gage)
|19-30 inches||0.040 inch |
(No. 20 gage)
|0.052 inch |
(No. 18 gage)
|0.064 inch |
(No. 16 gage)
|Over 30 inches||0.052 inch |
(No. 18 gage)
|0.064 inch |
(No. 16 gage)
|0.079 inch |
(No. 14 gage)
Ducts shall have a clearance to combustibles in accordance with Table 510.8.2. Exhaust gases having temperatures in excess of 600°F (316°C) shall be exhausted to a chimney in accordance with Section 511.2.
|TYPE OF EXHAUST OR |
TEMPERATURE OF EXHAUST (°F)
|CLEARANCE TO |
|Less than 100||1|
Collectors and separators involving such systems as centrifugal separators, bag filter systems and similar devices, and associated supports shall be constructed of noncombustible materials and shall be located on the exterior of the building or structure. A collector or separator shall not be located nearer than 10 feet (3048 mm) to combustible construction or to an unprotected wall or floor opening, unless the collector is provided with a metal vent pipe that extends above the highest part of any roof with a distance of 30 feet (9144 mm).
- Collectors such as "Point of Use" collectors, close extraction weld fume collectors, spray finishing booths, stationary grinding tables, sanding booths, and integrated or machine-mounted collectors shall be permitted to be installed indoors provided the installation is in accordance with the Florida Fire Prevention Code and NFPA 70.
- Collectors in independent exhaust systems handling combustible dusts shall be permitted to be installed indoors provided that such collectors are installed in compliance with the Florida Fire Prevention Code and NFPA 70.
|Above any part of |
building within (feet)
|High-heat appliances |
(No. 10 MSG)
on 41/2" bed
|20||—||—||20||See Note c|
|Low-heat appliances |
(1,000°F normal operation)
(No. 10 MSG)
|none||3||2||—||—||18||6||Up to 18" diameter, 2"|
Over 18" diameter, 4"
|Medium-heat appliances |
(No. 10 MSG)
|Up to 18" dia.—|
On 41/2" bed
Smoke barriers shall comply with the Florida Building Code, Building. Smoke barriers shall be constructed and sealed to limit leakage areas exclusive of protected openings. The maximum allowable leakage area shall be the aggregate area calculated using the following leakage area ratios:
- Walls: A/Aw = 0.00100
- Interior exit stairways and ramps and exit passageways: A/Aw = 0.00035
- Enclosed exit access stairways and ramps and all other shafts: A/Aw = 0.00150
- Floors and roofs: A/AF = 0.00050
|A||=||Total leakage area, square feet (m2).|
|AF||=||Unit floor or roof area of barrier, square feet (m2).|
|Aw||=||Unit wall area of barrier, square feet (m2).|
The leakage area ratios shown do not include openings due to doors, operable windows or similar gaps. These shall be included in calculating the total leakage area.
Openings in smoke barriers shall be protected by automatic-closing devices actuated by the required controls for the mechanical smoke control system. Door openings shall be protected by door assemblies complying with the requirements of the Florida Building Code, Building for doors in smoke barriers.
- Passive smoke control systems with automatic-closing devices actuated by spot-type smoke detectors listed for releasing service installed in accordance with the Florida Building Code, Building.
- Fixed openings between smoke zones which are protected utilizing the airflow method.
- In Group I-2 where such doors are installed across corridors, a pair of opposite-swinging doors without a center mullion shall be installed having vision panels with approved fire-rated glazing materials in approved fire-rated frames, the area of which shall not exceed that tested. The doors shall be close-fitting within operational tolerances, and shall not have undercuts, louvers or grilles. The doors shall have head and jamb stops, astragals or rabbets at meeting edges and automatic-closing devices. Positive latching devices are not required.
- Group I-3.
- Openings between smoke zones with clear ceiling heights of 14 feet (4267 mm) or greater and bank down capacity of greater than 20 minutes as determined by the design fire size.
The minimum pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be 0.05-inch water gage (12.4 Pa) in fully sprinklered buildings.
In buildings permitted to be other than fully sprinklered, the smoke control system shall be designed to achieve pressure differences at least two times the maximum calculated pressure difference produced by the design fire.
The maximum air pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be determined by required door-opening or closing forces. The actual force required to open exit doors when the system is in the smoke control mode shall be in accordance with the Florida Building Code, Building. Opening and closing forces for other doors shall be determined by standard engineering methods for the resolution of forces and reactions. The calculated force to set a side-hinged, swinging door in motion shall be determined by:
|F = Fdc +K(WAΔP)/2(W-d)||(Equation 5-2)|
|A||=||Door area, square feet (m2).|
|d||=||Distance from door handle to latch edge of door, feet (m).|
|F||=||Total door opening force, pounds (N).|
|Fdc||=||Force required to overcome closing device, pounds (N).|
|K||=||Coefficient 5.2 (1.0).|
|W||=||Door width, feet (m).|
|ΔP||=||Design pressure difference, inches (Pa) water gage.|
The minimum average velocity through a fixed opening shall not be less than:
|v = 217.2 [h (Tf - To)/(Tf + 460)]1/2||(Equation 5-3)|
For SI: v = 119.9 [h(Tf - To)/Tf ]1/2
|H||=||Height of opening, feet (m).|
|Tf||=||Temperature of smoke, °F (K).|
|To||=||Temperature of ambient air, °F (K).|
|v||=||Air velocity, feet per minute (m/minute).|
Components of exhaust fans shall be rated and certified by the manufacturer for the probable temperature rise to which the components will be exposed. This temperature rise shall be computed by:
|Ts = (Qc/mc)+ (Ta)||(Equation 5-4)|
|c||=||Specific heat of smoke at smoke-layer temperature, Btu/lb°F (kJ/kg • K).|
|m||=||Exhaust rate, pounds per second (kg/s).|
|Qc||=||Convective heat output of fire, Btu/s (kW).|
|Ta||=||Ambient temperature, °F (K).|
|Ts||=||Smoke temperature, °F (K).|
Exception: Reduced Ts as calculated based on the assurance of adequate dilution air.
Duct materials and joints shall be capable of withstanding the probable temperatures and pressures to which they are exposed as determined in accordance with Section 513.10.1. Ducts shall be constructed and supported in accordance with Chapter 6.
Ducts shall be leak tested to 1.5 times the maximum design pressure in accordance with nationally accepted practices. Measured leakage shall not exceed 5 percent of design flow. Results of such testing shall be a part of the documentation procedure. Ducts shall be supported directly from fire-resistance-rated structural elements of the building by substantial, noncombustible supports.
Exception: Flexible connections, for the purpose of vibration isolation, that are constructed of approved fire-resistance-rated materials.
Fire detection systems providing control input or output signals to mechanical smoke control systems or elements thereof shall comply with NFPA 72 and the requirements of Chapter 9 of the Florida Building Code, Building or the Florida Fire Prevention Code. Such systems shall be equipped with a control unit complying with UL 864 and listed as smoke control equipment.
Control systems for mechanical smoke control systems shall include provisions for verification. Verification shall include positive confirmation of actuation, testing, manual override, the presence of power downstream of all disconnects and, through a preprogrammed weekly test sequence report, abnormal conditions audibly, visually and by printed report.
Control-air tubing shall be hard-drawn copper, Type L, ACR in accordance with ASTM B 42, ASTM B 43, ASTM B 68, ASTM B 88, ASTM B 251 and ASTM B 280. Fittings shall be wrought copper or brass, solder type in accordance with ASME B 16.18 or ASME B 16.22. Changes in direction shall be made with appropriate tool bends. Brass compression-type fittings shall be used at final connection to devices; other joints shall be brazed using a BCuP5 brazing alloy with solidus above 1,100°F (593°C) and liquids below 1,500°F (816°C). Brazing flux shall be used on copper-to-brass joints only.
- Tubing shall comply with the requirements of Section 602.2.1.3.
- Tubing and connected device shall be completely enclosed within a galvanized or paint-grade steel enclosure having a minimum thickness of 0.0296 inch (0.7534 mm) (No. 22 gage). Entry to the enclosure shall be by copper tubing with a protective grommet of Neoprene or Teflon or by suitable brass compression to male barbed adapter.
- Tubing shall be identified by appropriately documented coding.
- Tubing shall be neatly tied and supported within the enclosure. Tubing bridging cabinets and doors or moveable devices shall be of sufficient length to avoid tension and excessive stress. Tubing shall be protected against abrasion. Tubing serving devices on doors shall be fastened along hinges.
Energy recovery ventilation systems shall not be used in the following systems:
- Hazardous exhaust systems covered in Section 510.
- Dust, stock and refuse systems that convey explosive or flammable vapors, fumes or dust.
- Smoke control systems covered in Section 513.
- Commercial kitchen exhaust systems serving Type I and Type II hoods.
- Clothes dryer exhaust systems covered in Section 504.
|Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene |
(ABS) plastic pipe
|ASTM D 2661, |
ASTM F 628, CSA B181.1
|Polylefin pipe||CSA CAN/CSA B181.3|
|Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic |
pipe (Type DWV)
|ASTM D 2665, |
ASTM D 2949, ASTM F 891
CRYPT PRESSURE RELIEF FITTINGS
|Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene |
(ABS) plastic pipe
|ASTM D 3311, CSA B181.1|
|Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) |
plastic pipe (Type DWV)
|ASTM D 2949, ASTM D 3311, |
ASTM F 891
|Plastic, general||ASTM F 409|