Terms not defined by this chapter shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context implies.
ACCESSIBLE. Admitting close approach as a result of not being guarded by locked doors, elevation or other effective means (see "Readily accessible").
ADJACENT WALL, CEILING or FLOOR. A wall, ceiling or floor of a structure that separates conditioned space from enclosed but unconditioned space, such as an unconditioned attached garage, storage or utility room.
AIR BARRIER. Relating to air distribution systems, a material object(s) that impedes or restricts the free movement of air under specified conditions. For fibrous glass duct, the air barrier is its foil cladding; for flexible nonmetal duct, the air barrier is the nonporous core; and for sheet metal duct and air handling units, the air barrier is the metal in contact with the air stream. For mechanical closets, the air barrier may be a uniform panelized material such as gypsum wallboard that meets ASTM C36, or it may be a membrane that alone acts as an air barrier that is attached to a panel, such as the foil cladding of fibrous glass duct board. Relating to the building envelope, air barriers comprise the planes of primary resistance to airflow between the interior spaces of a building and the outdoors and the planes of primary airflow resistance between adjacent air zones of a building, including planes between adjacent conditioned and unconditioned air spaces of a building. To be classed as an air barrier, a building plane must be substantially leak free; that is, it shall have an air leakage rate not greater than 0.5 cfm/ft2 when subjected to an air pressure gradient of 25 pascal. In general, air barriers are made of durable, nonporous materials and are sealed to adjoining wall, ceiling or floor surfaces with a suitable long-life mastic. House wraps and taped and sealed drywall may constitute an air barrier, but dropped acoustical tile ceilings (T-bar ceilings) may not. Batt insulation facings and asphalt-impregnated fiberboard and felt paper are not considered air barriers.
AIR CURTAIN. A device, installed at the building entrance, that generates and discharges a laminar air stream intended to prevent the infiltration of external, unconditioned air into the conditioned spaces, or the loss of interior, conditioned air to the outside.
ALTERATION. Any construction, retrofit or renovation to an existing structure other than repair or addition that requires a permit. Also, a change in a building, electrical, gas, mechanical or plumbing system that involves an extension, addition or change to the arrangement, type or purpose of the original installation that requires a permit.
APPROVED. Approval by the code official as a result of investigation and tests conducted by him or her, or by reason of accepted principles or tests by nationally recognized organizations.
AUTOMATIC. Self-acting, operating by its own mechanism when actuated by some impersonal influence, as, for example, a change in current strength, pressure, temperature or mechanical configuration (see "Manual").
BOILER, MODULATING. A boiler that is capable of more than a single firing rate in response to a varying temperature or heating load.
BUBBLE POINT. The refrigerant liquid saturation temperature at a specified pressure.
BUILDING. Any structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy. For each purpose of this Code, each portion of a building separated from other portions by a firewall shall be considered as a separate building. The term "building" shall be construed as if followed by the words "or part thereof."
BUILDING COMMISSIONING. A process that verifies and documents that the selected building systems have been designed, installed, and function according to the owner's project requirements and construction documents, and to minimum code requirements.
BUILDING THERMAL ENVELOPE. The basement walls, exterior walls, floor, roof and any other building elements that enclose conditioned space. This boundary also includes the boundary between conditioned space and any exempt or unconditioned space. See "Adjacent wall, ceiling or floor."
C-FACTOR (THERMAL CONDUCTANCE). The coefficient of heat transmission (surface to surface) through a building component or assembly, equal to the time rate of heat flow per unit area and the unit temperature difference between the warm side and cold side surfaces (Btu/h • ft2 • °F) [W/(m2 • K)].
CIRCULATING HOT WATER SYSTEM. A specifically designed water distribution system where one or more pumps are operated in the service hot water piping to circulate heated water from the water-heating equipment to the fixture supply and back to the water-heating equipment.
CLIMATE ZONE. A geographical region based on climatic criteria as specified in this code.
CODE OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated authority charged with the administration and enforcement of this code, or a duly authorized representative.
COEFFICENT OF PERFORMANCE (COP) — COOLING. The ratio of the rate of heat input, in consistent units, for a complete refrigerating system or some specific portion of that system under designated operating conditions.
COEFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE (COP) — HEATING. The ratio of the rate of heat delivered to the rate of energy input, in consistent units, for a complete heat pump system, including the compressor and, if applicable, auxiliary heat, under designated operating conditions.
COMPUTER ROOM. A room whose primary function is to house equipment for the processing and storage of electronic data and that has a design electronic data equipment power density exceeding 20 watts per square foot of conditioned floor area.
CONDENSING UNIT. A factory-made assembly of refrigeration components designed to compress and liquefy a specific refrigerant. The unit consists of one or more refrigerant compressors, refrigerant condensers (air-cooled, evaporatively cooled, or water-cooled), condenser fans and motors (where used) and factory-supplied accessories.
CONDITIONED SPACE. An area, room or space that is enclosed within the building thermal envelope and is directly or indirectly heated or cooled. Spaces are indirectly heated or cooled where they communicate through openings with conditioned spaces; where they are separated from conditioned spaces by uninsulated walls, floors or ceilings; or where they contain uninsulated ducts, piping or other sources of heating or cooling. See "Space."
CONTINUOUS INSULATION (ci). Insulating material that is continuous across all structural members without thermal bridges other than fasteners and service openings. It is installed on the interior or exterior or is integral to any opaque surface of the building envelope.
DAYLIGHT ZONE. That portion of a building's interior floor area that is illuminated by natural light.
DEMAND CONTROL VENTILATION (DCV). A ventilation system capability that provides for the automatic reduction of outdoor air intake below design rates when the actual occupancy of spaces served by the system is less than design occupancy.
DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete independent living facilities for one or more persons, including permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitation.
DYNAMIC GLAZING. Any fenestration product that has the fully reversible ability to change its performance properties, including U-factor, solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC), or visible transmittance (VT).
ECONOMIZER, AIR. A duct and damper arrangement and automatic control system that allows a cooling system to supply outside air to reduce or eliminate the need for mechanical cooling during mild or cold weather.
ECONOMIZER, WATER. A system where the supply air of a cooling system is cooled indirectly with water that is itself cooled by heat or mass transfer to the environment without the use of mechanical cooling.
EFFICIENCY. Performance at specified rating conditions.
ENERGY. The capacity for doing work. It takes a number of forms that may be transformed from one into another such as thermal (heat), mechanical (work), electrical and chemical. Customary measurement units are British thermal units (Btu).
ENERGY RECOVERY VENTILATION SYSTEM. Systems that employ air-to-air heat exchangers to recover energy from exhaust air for the purpose of preheating, precooling, humidifying or dehumidifying outdoor ventilation air prior to supplying the air to a space, either directly or as part of an HVAC system.
ENTRANCE DOOR. Fenestration products used for ingress, egress and access in nonresidential buildings, including, but not limited to, exterior entrances that utilize latching hardware and automatic closers and contain over 50-percent glass specifically designed to withstand heavy use and possibly abuse.
EQUIPMENT. Devices for comfort conditioning, electric power, lighting, transportation or service water heating including, but not limited to, furnaces, boilers, air conditioners, heat pumps, chillers, water heaters, lamps, luminaires, ballasts, elevators, escalators or other devices or installations.
FAN EFFICIENCY GRADE (FEG). A numerical rating identifying the fan's aerodynamic ability to convert shaft power, or impeller power in the case of a direct-driven fan, to air power.
FAN SYSTEM BHP. The sum of the fan brake horsepower of all fans that are required to operate at fan system design conditions to supply air from the heating or cooling source to the conditioned spaces and return it to the source or exhaust it to the outdoors.
FAN SYSTEM DESIGN CONDITIONS. Operating conditions that can be expected to occur during normal system operation that result in the highest supply fan airflow rate to conditioned spaces served by the system.
FAN SYSTEM MOTOR NAMEPLATE HP. The sum of the motor nameplate horsepower of all fans that are required to operate at design conditions to supply air from the heating or cooling source to the conditioned spaces and return it to the source or exhaust it to the outdoors.
Skylight. Glass or other transparent or translucent glazing material installed at a slope of less than 60 degrees (1.05 rad) from horizontal. Glazing materials in skylights, including unit skylights, tubular daylighting devices, solariums, sunrooms, roofs and sloped walls are included in this definition.
Vertical fenestration. Windows (fixed or moveable), opaque doors, glazed doors, glazed block and combination opaque/glazed doors composed of glass or other transparent or translucent glazing materials and installed at a slope of at least 60 degrees (1.05 rad) from horizontal.
FENESTRATION AREA. Total area of the fenestration measured using the rough opening and including the glazing, sash and frame. For doors where the glazed vision area is less than 50% of the door area, the fenestration area is the glazed vision area. For all other doors, the fenestration area is the door area.
FENESTRATION PRODUCT, FIELD-FABRICATED. A fenestration product whose frame is made at the construction site of standard dimensional lumber or other materials that were not previously cut, or otherwise formed with the specific intention of being used to fabricate a fenestration product or exterior door. Field fabricated does not include site-built fenestration.
FENESTRATION PRODUCT, SITE-BUILT. A fenestration designed to be made up of field-glazed or field-assembled units using specific factory cut or otherwise factory-formed framing and glazing units. Examples of site-built fenestration include storefront systems, curtain walls and atrium roof systems.
F-FACTOR. The perimeter heat loss factor for slab-on-grade floors (Btu/h • ft • °F) [W/(m • K)].
FLOOR AREA, NET. The actual occupied area not including unoccupied accessory areas such as corridors, stairways, toilet rooms, mechanical rooms and closets.
GASKETING. A compressible, resilient elastic packing, made of foam rubber or of a synthetic foam polymer. A gasket is distinct from the components being joined and must be capable of closing all air leakage pathways between the air barriers of the joint and of creating an air-tight seal.
GENERAL LIGHTING. Lighting that provides a substantially uniform level of illumination throughout an area. General lighting shall not include decorative lighting or lighting that provides a dissimilar level of illumination to serve a specialized application or feature within such area.
GENERAL PURPOSE ELECTRIC MOTOR (SUBTYPE I). A motor that is designed in standard ratings with either of the following:
- Standard operating characteristics and standard mechanical construction for use under usual service conditions, such as those specified in NEMA MG 1, paragraph 14.02, "Usual Service Conditions," and without restriction to a particular application or type of application.
- Standard operating characteristics or standard mechanical construction for use under unusual service conditions, such as those specified in NEMA MG 1, paragraph 14.03, "Unusual Service Conditions," or for a particular type of application, and that can be used in most general purpose applications.
General purpose electric motors (Subtype I) are constructed in NEMA T-frame sizes or IEC metric equivalent, starting at 143T.
- A U-frame motor.
- A Design C motor.
- A close-coupled pump motor.
- A footless motor.
- A vertical, solid-shaft, normal-thrust motor (as tested in a horizontal configuration).
- An 8-pole motor (900 rpm).
- A polyphase motor with voltage of not more than 600 volts (other than 230 or 460 volts).
GREENHOUSE. A structure or a thermally isolated area of a building that maintains a specialized sunlit environment exclusively used for, and essential to, the cultivation, protection or maintenance of plants.
HIGH-SPEED DOOR. A nonswinging door used primarily to facilitate vehicular access or material transportation, with a minimum opening rate of 32 inches (813 mm) per second, a minimum closing rate of 24 inches (610 mm) per second and that includes an automatic-closing device.
HISTORIC BUILDING. Any building or structure that is one or more of the following:
- Listed, or certified as eligible for listing by the State Historic Preservation Officer or the Keeper of the National Register of Historic Places, in the National Register of Historic Places.
- Designated as historic under an applicable state or local law.
- Certified as a contributing resource within a National Register-listed, state-designated or locally designated historic district.
HORSEPOWER (hp). Unit of power; work done at a rate equal to 745.7 watts, 550 foot lb. per second, or 33,000 foot lb. per minute.
HVAC SYSTEM. The equipment, distribution systems, and terminals that provide, either collectively or individually, the processes of heating, ventilating or air conditioning to a building or portion of a building.
INDOOR. Within the conditioned building envelope.
INFILTRATION. The uncontrolled inward air leakage through cracks and crevices in any building element and around windows and doors of a building caused by pressure differences across these elements due to factors such as wind, inside and outside temperature differences (stack effect), and imbalance between supply and exhaust air systems.
INTEGRATED PART LOAD VALUE (IPLV). A single-number figure of merit based on part-load EER, COP or kW/ton expressing part-load efficiency for air-conditioning and heat pump equipment on the basis of weighted operation at various load capacities for equipment.
LABELED. Equipment, materials or products to which have been affixed a label, seal, symbol or other identifying mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory, inspection agency or other organization concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic inspection of the production of the above-labeled items and whose labeling indicates either that the equipment, material or product meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.
LIGHTING SYSTEM. A group of luminaires circuited or controlled to perform a specific function.
- A continuous vapor barrier liner membrane that is installed below the purlins and that is uninterrupted by framing members.
- An uncompressed, unfaced insulation resting on top of the liner membrane and located between the purlins.
LISTED. Equipment, materials, products or services included in a list published by an organization acceptable to the code official and concerned with evaluation of products or services that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of services and whose listing states either that the equipment, material, product or service meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.
LOW-VOLTAGE DRY-TYPE DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER. A transformer that is air-cooled, does not use oil as a coolant, has an input voltage less than or equal to 600 volts and is rated for operation at a frequency of 60 hertz.
MANUFACTURER. The company engaged in the original production and assembly of products or equipment or a company that purchases such products and equipment manufactured in accordance with company specifications.
NONSTANDARD PART LOAD VALUE (NPLV). A single-number part-load efficiency figure of merit calculated and referenced to conditions other than IPLV conditions, for units that are not designed to operate at AHRI standard rating conditions.
OCCUPANCY. The purpose for which a building, or part thereof, is used or intended to be used. For the purposes of determining changes of occupancy for this Code, the occupancy shall be considered the major occupancy group designations established by Chapter 3 of the Florida Building Code, Building.
ON-SITE RENEWABLE ENERGY. Energy derived from solar radiation, wind, waves, tides, landfill gas, biomass or the internal heat of the earth. The energy system providing on-site renewable energy shall be located on the project site.
OPAQUE DOOR. A door that is not less than 50-percent opaque in surface area.
OUTDOOR. The environment exterior to the building structure.
PLENUM. A compartment or chamber to which one or more ducts are connected, that forms a part of the air distribution system, and that is not used for occupancy or storage. A plenum often is formed in part or in total by portions of the building.
POWERED ROOF/WALL VENTILATORS. A fan consisting of a centrifugal or axial impeller with an integral driver in a weather-resistant housing and with a base designed to fit, usually by means of a curb, over a wall or roof opening.
PROPOSED DESIGN. A description or computer representation of the proposed building used to estimate annual energy use for determining compliance based on total building performance or design energy cost.
READILY ACCESSIBLE. Capable of being reached quickly for operation, renewal or inspection without requiring those to whom ready access is requisite to climb over or remove obstacles or to resort to portable ladders or access equipment (see "Accessible"). In public facilities, accessibility may be limited to certified personnel through locking covers or by placing equipment in locked rooms.
REFRIGERANT DEW POINT. The refrigerant vapor saturation temperature at a specified pressure.
REFRIGERATED WAREHOUSE COOLER. An enclosed storage space capable of being refrigerated to temperatures above 32°F (0°C), that can be walked into and has a total chilled storage area of not less than 3,000 square feet (279 m2).
REFRIGERATED WAREHOUSE FREEZER. An enclosed storage space capable of being refrigerated to temperatures at or below 32°F (0°C), that can be walked into and has a total chilled storage area of not less than 3,000 square feet (279 m2).
REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An individual who is registered or licensed to practice their respective design profession as defined by the statutory requirements of the professional registration laws of the state or jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed. This includes any registered design professional so long as they are practicing within the scope of their license, which includes those licensed under Chapters 471 and 481, Florida Statutes.
RENOVATED BUILDING. A residential or nonresidential building undergoing alteration that varies or changes insulation, HVAC systems, water heating systems or exterior envelope conditions, provided the estimated cost of renovation exceeds 30 percent of the assessed value of the structure.
RESIDENTIAL BUILDING. For the purpose of this code, includes R-3 buildings, as well as R-2 and R-4 buildings three stories or less in height above grade plane.
ROOF. The upper portion of the building envelope, including opaque areas and fenestration, that is horizontal or tilted at an angle of less than 60° from horizontal. For the purposes of determining building envelope requirements, the classifications are defined as follows:
- Attic and other roofs: all other roofs, including roofs with insulation entirely below (inside of) the roof structure (i.e., attics, cathedral ceilings, and single-rafter ceilings), roofs with insulation both above and below the roof structure, and roofs without insulation but excluding metal building roofs.
- Metal building roof: a roof that is constructed with (a) a metal, structural, weathering surface, (b) has no ventilated cavity, and (c) has the insulation entirely below deck (i.e., does not include composite concrete and metal deck construction nor a roof framing system that is separated from the superstructure by a wood substrate) and whose structure consists of one or more of the following configurations: (1) metal roofing in direct contact with the steel framing members or (2) insulation between the metal roofing and the steel framing members or (3) insulated metal roofing panels installed as described in (1) or (2).
- Roof with insulation entirely above deck: a roof with all insulation (1) installed above (outside of) the roof structure and (2) continuous (i.e., uninterrupted by framing members).
- Single-rafter roof: a subcategory of attic roofs where the roof above and the ceiling below are both attached to the same wood rafter and where insulation is located in the space between these wood rafters.
ROOF ASSEMBLY. A system designed to provide weather protection and resistance to design loads. The system consists of a roof covering and roof deck or a single component serving as both the roof covering and the roof deck. A roof assembly includes the roof covering, underlayment, roof deck, insulation, vapor retarder and interior finish.
R-VALUE (THERMAL RESISTANCE). The inverse of the time rate of heat flow through a body from one of its bounding surfaces to the other surface for a unit temperature difference between the two surfaces, under steady state conditions, per unit area (h • ft2 • °F/Btu) [(m2 • K)/W].
SATURATED CONDENSING TEMPERATURE. The saturation temperature corresponding to the measured refrigerant pressure at the condenser inlet for single component and azeotropic refrigerants, and the arithmetic average of the dew point and bubble point temperatures corresponding to the refrigerant pressure at the condenser entrance for zeotropic refrigerants.
SCREW LAMP HOLDERS. A lamp base that requires a screw-in-type lamp, such as a compact-fluorescent, incandescent or tungsten-halogen bulb.
SERVICE WATER HEATING. Supply of hot water for purposes other than comfort heating.
SLEEPING UNIT. A room or space in which people sleep, which can also include permanent provisions for living, eating, and either sanitation or kitchen facilities but not both. Such rooms and spaces that are also part of a dwelling unit are not sleeping units.
- is designed for, and produces, at least 1.2 inches of external static pressure when operated at the certified air volume rate of 220—350 cfm per rated ton of cooling; and
- when applied in the field, uses high-velocity room outlets generally greater than 1,000 fpm that have less than 6.0 square inches of free area.
SMALL ELECTRIC MOTOR. A general purpose, alternating current, single speed induction motor.
SOLAR HEAT GAIN COEFFICIENT (SHGC). The ratio of the solar heat gain entering the space through the fenestration assembly to the incident solar radiation. Solar heat gain includes directly transmitted solar heat and absorbed solar radiation which is then reradiated, conducted or convected into the space. (See "Fenestration area.")
- Cooled space: an enclosed space within a building that is cooled by a cooling system whose sensible output capacity exceeds 5 Btu/h • ft2 of floor area.
- Heated space: an enclosed space within a building that is heated by a heating system whose output capacity relative to the floor area is greater than or equal to 5 Btu/h • ft2.
- Indirectly conditioned space: an enclosed space within a building that is not a heated space or a cooled space, which is heated or cooled indirectly by being connected to adjacent space(s) provided (a) the product of the U-factor(s) and surface area(s) of the space adjacent to connected space(s) exceeds the combined sum of the product of the U-factor(s) and surface area(s) of the space adjoining the outdoors, unconditioned spaces, and to or from semiheated spaces (e.g., corridors) or (b) that air from heated or cooled spaces is intentionally transferred (naturally or mechanically) into the space at a rate exceeding 3 air changes per hour (ACH) (e.g., atria).
- Unvented attic assembly: as defined in Section R806.5 of the Florida Building Code, Residential. These spaces shall not require supply or return outlets.
- Semiheated space: an enclosed space within a building that is heated by a heating system whose output capacity is greater than or equal to 3.4 Btu/h • ft2 of floor area but is not a conditioned space.
- Unconditioned space: an enclosed space within a building that is not a conditioned space or a semiheated space. Crawl spaces, attics and parking garages with natural or mechanical ventilation are not considered enclosed spaces.
STANDARD REFERENCE DESIGN. A version of the proposed design that meets the minimum requirements of this code and is used to determine the maximum annual energy use requirement for compliance based on total building performance.
STOREFRONT. A nonresidential system of doors and windows mulled as a composite fenestration structure that has been designed to resist heavy use. Storefront systems include, but are not limited to, exterior fenestration systems that span from the floor level or above to the ceiling of the same story on commercial buildings.
STRUCTURE. That which is built or constructed.
- A room with roof panels that includes sloped glazing that is a one-story structure added to an existing dwelling with an open or glazed area in excess of 40 percent of the gross area of the sunroom structure's exterior walls and roof.
- A one-story structure added to a dwelling with structural roof panels without sloped glazing. The sunroom walls may have any configuration, provided the open area of the longer wall and one additional wall is equal to at least 65 percent of the area below 6 feet 8 inches of each wall, measured from the floor.
SYSTEM. A combination of equipment and auxiliary devices (e.g., controls, accessories, interconnecting means and terminal elements) by which energy is transformed so it performs a specific function such as HVAC, service water heating or lighting.
U-FACTOR (THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE). The coefficient of heat transmission (air to air) through a building component or assembly, equal to the time rate of heat flow per unit area and unit temperature difference between the warm side and cold side air films (Btu/h • ft2 • °F) [W/(m2 • K)].
VARIABLE REFRIGERANT FLOW MULTI-SPLIT AIR CONDITIONER. A Unit of commercial package air-conditioning and heating equipment that is configured as a split system air conditioner incorporating a single refrigerant circuit, with one or more outdoor units, at least one variable-speed compressor or an alternate compressor combination for varying the capacity of the system by three or more steps, and multiple indoor fan coil units, each of which is individually metered and individually controlled by an integral control device and common communications network and which can operate independently in response to multiple indoor thermostats. Variable refrigerant flow implies three or more steps of capacity control on common, interconnecting piping.
VARIABLE REFRIGERANT FLOW SYSTEM. An engineered direct-expansion (DX) refrigerant system that incorporates a common condensing unit, at least one variable-capacity compressor, a distributed refrigerant piping network to multiple indoor fan heating and cooling units each capable of individual zone temperature control, through integral zone temperature control devices and a common communications network. Variable refrigerant flow utilizes three or more steps of control on common interconnecting piping.
VISIBLE TRANSMITTANCE [VT]. The ratio of visible light entering the space through the fenestration product assembly to the incident visible light. Visible transmittance includes the effects of glazing material and frame and is expressed as a number between 0 and 1.
WALK-IN COOLER. An enclosed storage space capable of being refrigerated to temperatures above 32°F (0°C) and less than 55°F (12.8°C) that can be walked into, has a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet (2134 mm) and has a total chilled storage area of less than 3,000 square feet (279 m2).
WALK-IN FREEZER. An enclosed storage space capable of being refrigerated to temperatures at or below 32°F (0°C) that can be walked into, has a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet (2134 mm) and has a total chilled storage area of less than 3,000 square feet (279 m2).
WALL, ABOVE-GRADE. A wall associated with the building thermal envelope that is more than 15 percent above grade and is on the exterior of the building or any wall that is associated with the building thermal envelope that is not on the exterior of the building.
WALL, BELOW-GRADE. A wall associated with the basement or first story of the building that is part of the building thermal envelope, is not less than 85 percent below grade and is on the exterior of the building.
ZONE. A space or group of spaces within a building with heating or cooling requirements that are sufficiently similar so that desired conditions can be maintained throughout using a single controlling device.