UpCodes logo
Table of contentsContents
Unless stated otherwise, the following words and terms in this code shall have the meanings indicated in this chapter.
Words used in the present tense include the future; words in the masculine gender include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes the plural and the plural includes the singular.
Terms that are not defined in this code but are defined in the Florida Building Code, Building; Florida Fire Prevention Code; Florida Building Code, Fuel Gas; Florida Building Code, Mechanical; Florida Building Code, Plumbing or the Florida Building Code, Residential shall have the meanings ascribed to them in those codes.
Terms not defined by this chapter shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context implies.
ACCESSIBLE. Admitting close approach as a result of not being guarded by locked doors, elevation or other effective means (see "Readily accessible").
ADDITION. An extension or increase in the conditioned space floor area or height of a building or structure.
ADJACENT WALL, CEILING or FLOOR. A wall, ceiling or floor of a structure that separates conditioned space from enclosed but unconditioned space, such as an unconditioned attached garage, storage or utility room.
AEROSOL SEALANT. A closure product for duct and plenum systems, which is delivered internally to leak sites as aerosol particles using a pressurized air stream.
AIR BARRIER. Relating to air distribution systems, a material object(s) which impedes or restricts the free movement of air under specified conditions. For fibrous glass duct, the air barrier is its foil cladding; for flexible nonmetal duct, the air barrier is the nonporous core; and for sheet metal duct and air handling units, the air barrier is the metal in contact with the air stream. For mechanical closets, the air barrier may be a uniform panelized material such as gypsum wall board which meets ASTM C 36, or it may be a membrane which acts alone as an air barrier which is attached to a panel, such as the foil cladding of fibrous glass duct board.
Relating to the building envelope, air barriers comprise the planes of primary resistance to air flow between the interior spaces of a building and the outdoors and the planes of primary air flow resistance between adjacent air zones of a building, including planes between adjacent conditioned and unconditioned air spaces of a building. To be classed as an air barrier, a building plane must be substantially leak free; that is, it shall have an air leakage rate not greater than 0.5 cfm/ft2 when subjected to an air pressure gradient of 25 pascal. In general, air barriers are made of durable, nonporous materials and are sealed to adjoining wall, ceiling or floor surfaces with a suitable long-life mastic. House wraps and taped and sealed drywall may constitute an air barrier, but dropped acoustical tile ceilings (T-bar ceilings) may not. Batt insulation facings and asphalt-impregnated fiberboard and felt paper are not considered air barriers.
AIR CONDITIONING. The treatment of air so as to control simultaneously the temperature, humidity, cleanness and distribution of the air to meet the requirements of a conditioned space.
AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. Any system of ducts, plenums and air-handling equipment that circulates air within a space or spaces and includes systems made up of one or more air-handling units.
ALTERATION. Any construction or renovation to an existing structure other than repair or addition that requires a permit. Also, a change in a mechanical system that involves an extension, addition or change to the arrangement, type or purpose of the original installation that requires a permit.
APPROVED. Approval by the code official as a result of investigation and tests conducted by him or her, or by reason of accepted principles or tests by nationally recognized organizations.
ATTIC. An enclosed, unconditioned space located immediately below an uninsulated roof and immediately above the ceiling of a building.
AUTOMATIC. Self-acting, operating by its own mechanism when actuated by some impersonal influence, as, for example, a change in current strength, pressure, temperature or mechanical configuration (see "Manual").
BTU (British Thermal Unit). Abbreviation for British thermal unit, which is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound (454 g) of water 1°F (0.56°C)(1Btu=1055 J).
BUILDING. Any structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy. For each purpose of this code each portion of a building separated from other portions by a firewall shall be considered as a separate building. The term "building" shall be construed as if followed by the words "or part thereof."
BUILDING COMMISSIONING. A process that verifies and documents that the selected building systems have been designed, installed, and function according to the owner's project requirements and construction documents, and to minimum code requirements.
BUILDING ENTRANCE. Any door, set of doors, doorway, or other form of portal that is used to gain access to the building from the outside by the public.
BUILDING SITE. A continguous area of land that is under the ownership or control of one entity.
BUILDING THERMAL ENVELOPE. The basement walls, exterior walls, floor, roof, and any other building elements that enclose conditioned space. This boundary also includes the boundary between conditioned space and exempt or unconditioned space. See "Adjacent wall, ceiling or floor."
C-FACTOR (THERMAL CONDUCTANCE). The coefficient of heat transmission (surface to surface) through a building component or assembly, equal to the time rate of heat flow per unit area and the unit temperature difference between the warm side and cold side surfaces (Btu/h ft2 × °F) [W/(m2 × K)].
CODE OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated authority charged with the administration and enforcement of this code, or a duly authorized representative.
COEFFICENT OF PERFORMANCE (COP) — COOLING. The ratio of the rate of heat removal to the rate of energy input, in consistent units, for a complete refrigerating system or some specific portion of that system under designated operating conditions.
COEFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE (COP) — HEATING. The ratio of the rate of heat delivered to the rate of energy input, in consistent units, for a complete heat pump system, including the compressor and, if applicable, auxiliary heat, under designated operating conditions.
COMMERCIAL BUILDING. For this code, all buildings that are not included in the definition of "Residential buildings."
COMPUTER ROOM. A room whose primary function is to house equipment for the processing and storage of electronic data and that has a design electronic data equipment power density exceeding 20 watts/ft2 of conditioned floor area.
CONDITIONED FLOOR AREA. The horizontal projection of that portion of space which is conditioned directly or indirectly by an energy-using system.
CONDITIONED SPACE. An area or room within a building being heated or cooled, containing uninsulated ducts, or with a fixed opening directly into an adjacent conditioned space. See "Space."
CONTINUOUS AIR BARRIER. A combination of materials and assemblies that restrict or prevent the passage of air through the building thermal envelope.
CONTROL. To regulate the operation of equipment.
CONTROL DEVICE. A specialized device used to regulate the operation of equipment.
CRAWL SPACE WALL. The opaque portion of a wall that encloses a crawl space and is partially or totally below grade.
CURTAIN WALL. Fenestration products used to create an external nonload-bearing wall that is designed to separate the exterior and interior environments.
  1. Under skylights. The area under skylights whose horizontal dimension, in each direction, is equal to the skylight dimension in that direction plus either the floor-to-ceiling height or the dimension to a ceiling height opaque partition, or one-half the distance to adjacent skylights or vertical fenestration, whichever is least.
  2. Adjacent to vertical fenestration. The area adjacent to vertical fenestration which receives daylight through the fenestration. For purposes of this definition and unless more detailed analysis is provided, the daylight zone depth is assumed to extend into the space a distance of 15 feet (4572 mm) or to the nearest ceiling height opaque partition, whichever is less. The daylight zone width is assumed to be the width of the window plus 2 feet (610 mm) on each side, or the window width plus the distance to an opaque partition, or the window width plus one-half the distance to adjacent skylight or vertical fenestration, whichever is least.
DEMAND CONTROL VENTILATION (DCV). A ventilation system capability that provides for the automatic reduction of outdoor air intake below design rates when the actual occupancy of spaces served by the system is less than design occupancy.
DEMAND RECIRCULATION WATER SYSTEM. A water distribution system where pump(s) prime the service hot water piping with heated water upon demand for hot water.
DUCT. A tube or conduit utilized for conveying air. The air passages of self-contained systems are not to be construed as air ducts.
DUCT SYSTEM. A continuous passageway for the transmission of air that, in addition to ducts, includes duct fittings, dampers, plenums, fans and accessory air-handling equipment and appliances.
[B] DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete independent living facilities for one or more persons, including permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitation.
DYNAMIC GLAZING. Any fenestration product that has the fully reversible ability to change its performance properties, including U-factor, SHGC, or VT.
ECONOMIZER, AIR. A duct and damper arrangement and automatic control system that allows a cooling system to supply outside air to reduce or eliminate the need for mechanical cooling during mild or cold weather.
ECONOMIZER, WATER. A system where the supply air of a cooling system is cooled indirectly with water that is itself cooled by heat or mass transfer to the environment without the use of mechanical cooling.
EFFICIENCY. Performance at specified rating conditions.
ENCLOSED SPACE. A volume surrounded by solid surfaces such as walls, floors, roofs, and openable devices such as doors and operable windows.
ENERGY. The capacity for doing work. It takes a number of forms that may be transformed from one into another such as thermal (heat), mechanical (work), electrical, and chemical. Customary measurement units are British thermal units (Btus).
ENERGY ANALYSIS. A method for estimating the annual energy use of the proposed design and standard reference design based on estimates of energy use.
ENERGY COST. The total estimated annual cost for purchased energy for the building functions regulated by this code, including applicable demand charges.
[M] ENERGY RECOVERY VENTILATION SYSTEM. Systems that employ air-to-air heat exchangers to recover energy from exhaust air for the purpose of preheating, precooling, humidifying or dehumidifying outdoor ventilation air prior to supplying the air to a space, either directly or as part of an HVAC system.
ENERGY SIMULATION TOOL. An approved software program or calculation-based methodology that projects the annual energy use of a building.
ENTRANCE DOOR. Fenestration products used for ingress, egress and access in nonresidential buildings, including, but not limited to, exterior entrances that utilize latching hardware and automatic closers and contain over 50-percent glass specifically designed to withstand heavy use and possibly abuse.
EQUIPMENT. Devices for comfort conditioning, electric power, lighting, transportation, or service water heating including, but not limited to, furnaces, boilers, air conditioners, heat pumps, chillers, water heaters, lamps, luminaires, ballasts, elevators, escalators, or other devices or installations.
EQUIPMENT ROOM. A space that contains either electrical equipment, mechanical equipment, machinery, water pumps or hydraulic pumps that are a function of the building's services.
EXTERIOR WALL. Walls including both above-grade walls and basement walls which form a boundary between a conditioned and an outdoor space.
FAN BRAKE HORSEPOWER (BHP). The horsepower delivered to the fan's shaft. Brake horsepower does not include the mechanical drive losses (belts, gears, etc.).
FAN SYSTEM BHP. The sum of the fan brake horsepower of all fans that are required to operate at fan system design conditions to supply air from the heating or cooling source to the conditioned space(s) and return it to the source or exhaust it to the outdoors.
FAN SYSTEM DESIGN CONDITIONS. Operating conditions that can be expected to occur during normal system operation that result in the highest supply fan airflow rate to conditioned spaces served by the system.
FAN SYSTEM MOTOR NAMEPLATE HP. The sum of the motor nameplate horsepower of all fans that are required to operate at design conditions to supply air from the heating or cooling source to the conditioned space(s) and return it to the source or exhaust it to the outdoors.
FENESTRATION. Skylights, roof windows, vertical windows (fixed or moveable), opaque doors, glazed doors, glazed block and combination opaque/glazed doors. Fenestration includes products with glass and nonglass glazing materials.
FENESTRATION AREA. Total area of the fenestration measured using the rough opening and including the glazing, sash, and frame. For doors where the glazed vision area is less than 50 percent of the door area, the fenestration area is the glazed vision area. For all other doors, the fenestration area is the door area.
FENESTRATION PRODUCT, FIELD-FABRICATED. A fenestration product whose frame is made at the construction site of standard dimensional lumber or other materials that were not previously cut, or otherwise formed with the specific intention of being used to fabricate a fenestration product or exterior door. Field fabricated does not include site-built fenestration.
FENESTRATION PRODUCT, SITE-BUILT. A fenestration designed to be made up of field-glazed or field-assembled units using specific factory cut or otherwise factory-formed framing and glazing units. Examples of site-built fenestration include storefront systems, curtain walls, and atrium roof systems.
F-FACTOR. The perimeter heat loss factor for slab-on-grade floors (Btu/h × ft × °F) [W/(m × K)].
FURNACE ELECTRICITY RATIO. The ratio of furnace electricity use to total furnace energy computed as ratio = (3.412 × EAE)/1000 × EF + 3.412 × EAE) where EAE (average annual auxiliary electrical consumption) and EF (average annual fuel energy consumption) are defined in Appendix N to Subpart B of Part 430 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations and EF is expressed in millions of Btu's per year.
GASKETING. A compressible, resilient elastic packing, made of foam rubber or of a synthetic foam polymer. A gasket is distinct from the components being joined and must be capable of closing all air leakage pathways between the air barriers of the joint and of creating an air-tight seal.
GENERAL LIGHTING. Lighting that provides a substantially uniform level of illumination throughout an area. General lighting shall not include decorative lighting or lighting that provides a dissimilar level of illumination to serve a specialized application or feature within such area.
HEAT. The form of energy that is transferred by virtue of a temperature difference or a change in the state of a material.
HEAT TRAP. An arrangement of piping and fittings, such as elbows, or a commercially available heat trap that prevents thermosyphoning of hot water during standby periods.
HEATED SLAB. Slab-on-grade construction in which the heating elements, hydronic tubing, or hot air distribution system is in contact with, or placed within or under, the slab.
HIGH-EFFICACY LAMPS. Compact fluorescent lamps, T-8 or smaller diameter linear fluorescent lamps, or lamps with a minimum efficacy of:
1. 60 lumens per watt for lamps over 40 watts;
2. 50 lumens per watt for lamps over 15 watts to 40 watts; and
3. 40 lumens per watt for lamps 15 watts or less.
HORSEPOWER (HP). Unit of power; work done at a rate equal to 745.7 Watts, 550 foot pounds per second, or 33,000 foot pounds per minute.
HUMIDISTAT. A regulatory device, actuated by changes in humidity, used for automatic control of relative humidity.
HVAC. Heating, ventilating and air conditioning.
HVAC SYSTEM. The equipment, distribution systems, and terminals that provide, either collectively or individually, the processes of heating, ventilating, or air conditioning to a building or portion of a building.
INDOOR. Within the conditioned building envelope.
INFILTRATION. The uncontrolled inward air leakage through cracks and crevices in any building element and around windows and doors of a building caused by pressure differences across these elements due to factors such as wind, inside and outside temperature differences (stack effect), and imbalance between supply and exhaust air systems.
INSULATION. Material mainly used to retard the flow of heat.
INSULATING SHEATHING. An insulating board with a core material having a minimum R-value of R-2.
INTEGRATED PART LOAD VALUE (IPLV). A single-number figure of merit based on part-load EER, COP, or kW/ton expressing part-load efficiency for air-conditioning and heat pump equipment on the basis of weighted operation at various load capacities for equipment.
KILOWATT (kW). The basic unit of electric power, equal to KILOWATT (kW). The basic unit of electric power, equal to 1,000 Watts.
LABELED. Equipment, materials or products to which have been affixed a label, seal, symbol or other identifying mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory, inspection agency or other organization concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic inspection of the production of the above-labeled items and whose labeling indicates either that the equipment, material or product meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.
LIGHTING SYSTEM. A group of luminaires circuited or controlled to perform a specific function.
LISTED. Equipment, materials, products or services included in a list published by an organization acceptable to the code official and concerned with evaluation of products or services that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of services and whose listing states either that the equipment, material, product or service meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.
LOW-VOLTAGE LIGHTING. Lighting equipment powered through a transformer such as a cable conductor, a rail conductor and track lighting.
MANUAL. Capable of being operated by personal intervention (see "Automatic").
MANUFACTURER. The company engaged in the original production and assembly of products or equipment or a company that purchases such products and equipment manufactured in accordance with company specifications.
MECHANICAL CLOSET. For the purposes of this code, a closet used as an air plenum which contains the blower unit or air handler of a central air-conditioning or heating unit.
NAMEPLATE HORSEPOWER. The nominal motor horsepower rating stamped on the motor nameplate.
NONSTANDARD PART LOAD VALUE (NPLV). A single-number part-load efficiency figure of merit calculated and referenced to conditions other than IPLV conditions, for units that are not designed to operate at ARI standard rating conditions.
OCCUPANCY. The purpose for which a building, or part thereof, is used or intended to be used. For the purposes of determining changes of occupancy for this Code, the occupancy shall be considered the major occupancy group designations established by Chapter 3 of the Florida Building Code, Building.
ON-SITE RENEWABLE ENERGY. Energy derived from solar radiation, wind, waves, tides, landfill gas, biomass, or the internal heat of the earth. The energy system providing on-site renewable energy shall be located on the project site.
OUTDOOR. The environment exterior to the building structure.
OUTDOOR (OUTSIDE) AIR. Air that is outside the building envelope or is taken from outside the building that has not been previously circulated through the building.
OUTSIDE. The environment exterior to the conditioned space of the building and may include attics, garages, crawlspaces, etc., but not return air plenums.
PLENUM. A compartment or chamber to which one or more ducts are connected, that forms a part of the air distribution system, and that is not used for occupancy or storage. A plenum often is formed in part or in total by portions of the building.
POSITIVE INDOOR PRESSURE. A positive pressure condition within a conditioned space caused by bringing in more outside air than the amount of air that is exhausted and/or lost through air leakage.
PRESSURE ENVELOPE. The primary air barrier of a building; that part of the envelope that provides the greatest resistance to air flow to or from the building.
PRESSURE-SENSITIVE TAPE. Tape used for sealing duct system components and air barriers which adheres when pressure is applied and is not heat activated.
PROPOSED DESIGN. A description or computer representation of the proposed building used to estimate annual energy use for determining compliance based on total building performance or design energy cost.
READILY ACCESSIBLE. Capable of being reached quickly for operation, renewal or inspection without requiring those to whom ready access is requisite to climb over or remove obstacles or to resort to portable ladders or access equipment (see "Accessible"). In public facilities, accessibility may be limited to certified personnel through locking covers or by placing equipment in locked rooms.
RENOVATED BUILDING. A residential or nonresidential building undergoing alteration that varies or changes insulation, HVAC systems, water heating systems, or exterior envelope conditions, provided the estimated cost of renovation exceeds 30 percent of the assessed value of the structure.
REPAIR. The reconstruction or renewal of any part of an existing building.
REPLACEMENT. The installation of part or all of an existing mechanical or electrical system in an existing building.
RESIDENTIAL BUILDING. For the purpose of this code, includes Group R-3 buildings, as well as Group R-2 and R-4 buildings three stories or less in height above grade plane.
RETROFIT. Modification of existing equipment or systems to incorporate improved performance of operation.
ROOF. The upper portion of the building envelope, including opaque areas and fenestration, that is horizontal or tilted at an angle of less than 60 degrees from horizontal. For the purposes of determining building envelope requirements, the classifications are defined as follows:
  1. Attic and other roofs: all other roofs, including roofs with insulation entirely below (inside of) the roof structure (i.e., attics, cathedral ceilings, and single-rafter ceilings), roofs with insulation both above and below the roof structure, and roofs without insulation but excluding metal building roofs.
  2. Metal building roof: a roof that is (a) constructed with a metal, structural, weathering surface, (b) has no ventilated cavity, and (c) has the insulation entirely below deck (i.e., does not include composite concrete and metal deck construction nor a roof framing system that is separated from the superstructure by a wood substrate) and whose structure consists of one or more of the following configurations: (1) metal roofing in direct contact with the steel framing members, or (2) insulation between the metal roofing and the steel framing members or (3) insulated metal roofing panels installed as described in (1) or (2).
  3. Roof with insulation entirely above deck: a roof with all insulation (1) installed above (outside of) the roof structure and (2) continuous (i.e., uninterrupted by framing members).
  4. Single-rafter roof: a subcategory of attic roofs where the roof above and the ceiling below are both attached to the same wood rafter and where insulation is located in the space between these wood rafters.
ROOF ASSEMBLY. A system designed to provide weather protection and resistance to design loads. The system consists of a roof covering and roof deck or a single component serving as both the roof covering and the roof deck. A roof assembly includes the roof covering, underlayment, roof deck, insulation, vapor retarder and interior finish.
R-VALUE (THERMAL RESISTANCE). The inverse of the time rate of heat flow through a body from one of its bounding surfaces to the other surface for a unit temperature difference between the two surfaces, under steady state conditions, per unit area (h • ft2 • °F/Btu) [(m2 • K)/W].
SCREW LAMP HOLDERS. A lamp base that requires a screw-in-type lamp, such as a compact-fluorescent, incandescent, or tungsten-halogen bulb.
SERVICE WATER HEATING. Supply of hot water for purposes other than comfort heating.
SKYLIGHT. Glass or other transparent or translucent glazing material installed at a slope of less than 60 degrees (1.05 rad) from horizontal. Glazing material in skylights, including unit skylights, solariums, sunrooms, roofs and sloped walls is included in this definition.
[B] SLEEPING UNIT. A room or space in which people sleep, which can also include permanent provisions for living, eating, and either sanitation or kitchen facilities but not both. Such rooms and spaces that are also part of a dwelling unit are not sleeping units.
SMALL DUCT, HIGH VELOCITY SYSTEM. A heating and cooling product that contains a blower and indoor coil combination that meets the following:
  1. Is designed for, and produces, at least 1.2 inches of external static pressure when operated at the certified air volume rate of 220-350 cfm per rated ton of cooling; and
  2. when applied in the field, uses high velocity room outlets generally greater than 1,000 fpm that have less than 6.0 square inches of free area.
SOLAR HEAT GAIN COEFFICIENT (SHGC). The ratio of the solar heat gain entering the space through the fenestration assembly to the incident solar radiation. Solar heat gain includes directly transmitted solar heat and absorbed solar radiation which is then reradiated, conducted or convected into the space. (See "Fenestration area.")
SPACE. An enclosed space within a building. The classifications of spaces are as follows for the purpose of determining building envelope requirements.
  1. Conditioned space: a cooled space, heated space, or indirectly conditioned space or unvented attic assembly defined as follows.
    1. Cooled space: an enclosed space within a building that is cooled by a cooling system whose sensible output capacity exceeds 5 Btu/h•ft2 of floor area.
    2. Heated space: an enclosed space within a building that is heated by a heating system whose output capacity relative to the floor area is greater than or equal to 5 Btu/h•ft2.
    3. Indirectly conditioned space: an enclosed space within a building that is not a heated space or a cooled space, which is heated or cooled indirectly by being connected to adjacent space(s) provided (a) the product of the U-factor(s) and surface area(s) of the space adjacent to connected space(s) exceeds the combined sum of the product of the U-factor(s) and surface area(s) of the space adjoining the outdoors, unconditioned spaces, and to or from semiheated spaces (e.g., corridors) or (b) that air from heated or cooled spaces is intentionally transferred (naturally or mechanically) into the space at a rate exceeding 3 air changes per hour (ACH) (e.g., atria).
    4. Unvented attic assembly: as defined in Section R806.5 of the Florida Building Code, Residential. These spaces shall not require supply or return outlets.
  2. Semiheated space: an enclosed space within a building that is heated by a heating system whose output capacity is greater than or equal to 3.4 Btu/h•ft2 of floor area but is not a conditioned space.
  3. Unconditioned space: an enclosed space within a building that is not a conditioned space or a semiheated space. Crawl spaces, attics, and parking garages with natural or mechanical ventilation are not considered enclosed spaces.
STANDARD REFERENCE DESIGN. A version of the proposed design that meets the minimum requirements of this code and is used to determine the maximum annual energy use requirement for compliance based on total building performance.
STOREFRONT. A nonresidential system of doors and windows mulled as a composite fenestration structure that has been designed to resist heavy use. Storefront systems include, but are not limited to, exterior fenestration systems that span from the floor level or above to the ceiling of the same story on commercial buildings.
STRUCTURE. That which is built or constructed.
SUNROOM. For the purposes of this code, the term "sunroom" as used herein shall be as follows and shall include conservatories, sunspaces, solariums, and porch or patio covers or enclosures.
  1. A room with roof panels that includes sloped glazing that is a one-story structure added to an existing dwelling with an open or glazed area in excess of 40 percent of the gross area of the sunroom structure's exterior walls and roof.
  2. A one-story structure added to a dwelling with structural roof panels without sloped glazing. The sunroom walls may have any configuration, provided the open area of the longer wall and one additional wall is equal to at least 65 percent of the area below 6 feet 8 inches of each wall, measured from the floor.
SYSTEM. A combination of equipment and auxiliary devices (e.g., controls, accessories, interconnecting means, and terminal elements) by which energy is transformed so it performs a specific function such as HVAC, service water heating, or lighting.
TERMINAL. A device by which energy from a system is finally delivered, e.g., registers, diffusers, lighting fixtures, faucets, etc.
THERMAL ENVELOPE. The primary insulation layer of a building; that part of the envelope that provides the greatest resistance to heat flow to or from the building.
THERMAL ISOLATION. Physical and space conditioning separation from conditioned space(s). The conditioned space(s) shall be controlled as separate zones for heating and cooling or conditioned by separate equipment.
THERMOSTAT. An automatic control device used to maintain temperature at a fixed or adjustable set point.
U-FACTOR (THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE). The coefficient of heat transmission (air to air) through a building component or assembly, equal to the time rate of heat flow per unit area and unit temperature difference between the warm side and cold side air films (Btu/h • ft2 • °F) [W/(m2 • K)].
VARIABLE REFRIGERANT FLOW MULTI-SPLIT AIR CONDITIONER. A unit of commercial package air-conditioning and heating equipment that is configured as a split system air conditioner, incorporating a single refrigerant circuit, with one or more outdoor units, at least one variable-speed compressor or an alternate compressor combination for varying the capacity of the system by three or more steps, and multiple indoor fan coil units, each of which is individually metered and individually controlled by an integral control device and common communications network and which can operate independently in response to multiple indoor thermostats. Variable refrigerant flow implies three or more steps of capacity control on common, interconnecting piping.
[M] VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process of supplying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing such air from, any space.
[M] VENTILATION AIR. That portion of supply air that comes from outside (outdoors) plus any recirculated air that has been treated to maintain the desired quality of air within a designated space.
VISIBLE TRANSMITTANCE [VT]. The ratio of visible light entering the space through the fenestration product assembly to the incident visible light, Visible Transmittance, includes the effects of glazing material and frame and is expressed as a number between 0 and 1.
WALL. That portion of the building envelope, including opaque area and fenestration, that is vertical or tilted at an angle of 60 degrees from horizontal or greater. This includes above and below-grade walls, between floor spandrels, peripheral edges of floors, and foundation walls. For the purposes of determining building envelope requirements, the classifications are defined as follows:
  1. Above-grade wall: a wall that is not a below-grade wall.
  2. Below-grade wall: that portion of a wall in the building envelope that is entirely below the finish grade and in contact with the ground.
  3. Mass wall: a wall with a heat capacity exceeding (1) 7 Btu/ft2•°F or (2) 5 Btu/ft2•°F provided that the wall has a material unit weight not greater than 120 lb/ft3.
  4. Metal building wall: a wall whose structure consists of metal spanning members supported by steel structural members (i.e., does not include spandrel glass or metal panels in curtain wall systems).
  5. Steel-framed wall: a wall with a cavity (insulated or otherwise) whose exterior surfaces are separated by steel framing members (i.e., typical steel stud walls and curtain wall systems).
  6. Wood-framed and other walls: all other wall types, including wood stud walls.
ZONE. A space or group of spaces within a building with heating or cooling requirements that are sufficiently similar so that desired conditions can be maintained throughout using a single controlling device.