Wall, above-grade.”. See “
ACCESSIBLE. Admitting close approach as a result of not being guarded by locked doors, elevation or other effective means (see “Readily accessible”).
conditioned space floor area or height of a building or structure.. An extension or increase in the
ADJACENT WALL, CEILING or FLOOR. A wall, ceiling or floor of a structure that separates conditioned space from enclosed but unconditioned space, such as an unconditioned attached garage, storage or utility room.
air distribution systems, a material object(s) which impedes or restricts the free movement of air under specified conditions. For fibrous glass duct, the air barrier is its foil cladding; for flexible nonmetal duct, the air barrier is the nonporous core; and for sheet metal duct and air handling units, the air barrier is the metal in contact with the air stream. For mechanical closets, the air barrier may be a uniform panelized material such as gypsum wall board which meets ASTM C 36, or it may be a membrane which acts alone as an air barrier which is attached to a panel, such as the foil cladding of fibrous glass duct board.. Relating to
Relating to the building envelope, air barriers comprise the planes of primary resistance to air flow between the interior spaces of a building and the outdoors and the planes of primary air flow resistance between adjacent air zones of a building, including planes between adjacent conditioned and unconditioned air spaces of a building. To be classed as an air barrier, a building plane must be substantially leak free; that is, it shall have an air leakage rate not greater than 0.5 cfm/ft2 when subjected to an air pressure gradient of 25 pascal. In general, air barriers are made of durable, nonporous materials and are sealed to adjoining wall, ceiling or floor surfaces with a suitable long-life mastic. House wraps and taped and sealed drywall may constitute an air barrier, but dropped acoustical tile ceilings (T-bar ceilings) may not. Batt insulation facings and asphalt-impregnated fiberboard and felt paper are not considered air barriers.
repair or addition that requires a permit. Also, a change in a mechanical system that involves an extension, addition or change to the arrangement, type or purpose of the original installation that requires a permit.. Any construction or renovation to an existing structure other than
APPROVED. Approval by the code official as a result of investigation and tests conducted by him or her, or by reason of accepted principles or tests by nationally recognized organizations.
Manual”).. Self-acting, operating by its own mechanism when actuated by some impersonal influence, as, for example, a change in current strength, pressure, temperature or mechanical configuration (see “
BTU (British Thermal Unit). Abbreviation for British thermal unit, which is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound (454 g) of water 1°F (0.56°C)(1Btu=1055 J).
BUILDING. Any structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy. For each purpose of this code each portion of a building separated from other portions by a firewall shall be considered as a separate building. The term “building” shall be construed as if followed by the words “or part thereof.”
systems have been designed, installed, and function according to the owner’s project requirements and construction documents, and to minimum code requirements.. A process that verifies and documents that the selected building
outside by the public.. Any door, set of doors, doorway, or other form of portal that is used to gain access to the building from the
control of one entity.. A continguous area of land that is under the ownership or
basement walls, exterior walls, floor, roof, and any other building elements that enclose conditioned space. This boundary also includes the boundary between conditioned space and exempt or unconditioned space. See “Adjacent wall, ceiling or floor.”. The
C-FACTOR (THERMAL CONDUCTANCE). The coefficient of heat transmission (surface to surface) through a building component or assembly, equal to the time rate of heat flow per unit area and the unit temperature difference between the warm side and cold side surfaces (Btu/h ft2 × °F) [W/(m2 × K)].
. The officer or other designated authority charged with the administration and enforcement of this code, or a duly authorized representative.
COEFFICENT OF PERFORMANCE (COP) – COOLING. The ratio of the rate of heat removal to the rate of energy input, in consistent units, for a complete refrigerating system or some specific portion of that system under designated operating conditions.
COEFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE (COP) – HEATING. The ratio of the rate of heat delivered to the rate of energy input, in consistent units, for a complete heat pump system, including the compressor and, if applicable, auxiliary heat, under designated operating conditions.
1. Under skylights. The area under skylights whose horizontal dimension, in each direction, is equal to the skylight dimension in that direction plus either the floor-to-ceiling height or the dimension to a ceiling height opaque partition, or one-half the distance to adjacent skylights or vertical fenestration, whichever is least.
2. Adjacent to vertical fenestration. The area adjacent to vertical fenestration which receives daylight through the fenestration. For purposes of this definition and unless more detailed analysis is provided, the daylight zone depth is assumed to extend into the space a distance of 15 feet (4572 mm) or to the nearest ceiling height opaque partition, whichever is less. The daylight zone width is assumed to be the width of the window plus 2 feet (610 mm) on each side, or the window width plus the distance to an opaque partition, or the window width plus one-half the distance to adjacent skylight or vertical fenestration, whichever is least.
DEMAND CONTROL VENTILATION (DCV). A ventilation system capability that provides for the automatic reduction of outdoor air intake below design rates when the actual occupancy of spaces served by the system is less than design occupancy.
system where pump(s) prime the service hot water piping with heated water upon demand for hot water.. A water distribution
[B] DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete independent living facilities for one or more persons, including permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitation.
fenestration product that has the fully reversible ability to change its performance properties, including U-factor, SHGC, or VT.. Any
. Performance at specified rating conditions.
heat), mechanical (work), electrical, and chemical. Customary measurement units are British thermal units (Btus).. The capacity for doing work. It takes a number of forms that may be transformed from one into another such as thermal (
energy for the building functions regulated by this code, including applicable demand charges.. The total estimated annual cost for purchased
[M] ENERGY RECOVERY VENTILATION SYSTEM. Systems that employ air-to-air heat exchangers to recover energy from exhaust air for the purpose of preheating, precooling, humidifying or dehumidifying outdoor ventilation air prior to supplying the air to a space, either directly or as part of an HVAC system.
energy use of a building.. An approved software program or calculation-based methodology that projects the annual
Fenestration products used for ingress, egress and access in nonresidential buildings, including, but not limited to, exterior entrances that utilize latching hardware and automatic closers and contain over 50-percent glass specifically designed to withstand heavy use and possibly abuse..
service water heating including, but not limited to, furnaces, boilers, air conditioners, heat pumps, chillers, water heaters, lamps, luminaires, ballasts, elevators, escalators, or other devices or installations.. Devices for comfort conditioning, electric power, lighting, transportation, or
FAN SYSTEM BHP. The sum of the fan brake horsepower of all fans that are required to operate at fan system design conditions to supply air from the heating or cooling source to the conditioned space(s) and return it to the source or exhaust it to the outdoors.
FAN SYSTEM DESIGN CONDITIONS. Operating conditions that can be expected to occur during normal system operation that result in the highest supply fan airflow rate to conditioned spaces served by the system.
FAN SYSTEM MOTOR NAMEPLATE HP. The sum of the motor nameplate horsepower of all fans that are required to operate at design conditions to supply air from the heating or cooling source to the conditioned space(s) and return it to the source or exhaust it to the outdoors.
Skylights, roof windows, vertical windows (fixed or moveable), opaque doors, glazed doors, glazed block and combination opaque/glazed doors. Fenestration includes products with glass and nonglass glazing materials..
fenestration measured using the rough opening and including the glazing, sash, and frame. For doors where the glazed vision area is less than 50 percent of the door area, the fenestration area is the glazed vision area. For all other doors, the fenestration area is the door area.. Total area of the
fenestration product whose frame is made at the construction site of standard dimensional lumber or other materials that were not previously cut, or otherwise formed with the specific intention of being used to fabricate a fenestration product or exterior door. Field fabricated does not include site-built fenestration.. A
fenestration designed to be made up of field-glazed or field-assembled units using specific factory cut or otherwise factory-formed framing and glazing units. Examples of site-built fenestration include storefront systems, curtain walls, and atrium roof systems.. A
F-FACTOR. The perimeter heat loss factor for slab-on-grade floors (Btu/h × ft × °F) [W/(m × K)].
energy computed as ratio = (3.412 × EAE)/1000 × EF + 3.412 × EAE) where EAE (average annual auxiliary electrical consumption) and EF (average annual fuel energy consumption) are defined in Appendix N to Subpart B of Part 430 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations and EF is expressed in millions of Btu’s per year.. The ratio of furnace electricity use to total furnace
air barriers of the joint and of creating an air-tight seal.. A compressible, resilient elastic packing, made of foam rubber or of a synthetic foam polymer. A gasket is distinct from the components being joined and must be capable of closing all air leakage pathways between the
General lighting shall not include decorative lighting or lighting that provides a dissimilar level of illumination to serve a specialized application or feature within such area.. Lighting that provides a substantially uniform level of illumination throughout an area.
energy that is transferred by virtue of a temperature difference or a change in the state of a material.. The form of
heat trap that prevents thermosyphoning of hot water during standby periods.. An arrangement of piping and fittings, such as elbows, or a commercially available
air distribution system is in contact with, or placed within or under, the slab.. Slab-on-grade construction in which the heating elements, hydronic tubing, or hot
. Compact fluorescent lamps, T-8 or smaller diameter linear fluorescent lamps, or lamps with a minimum efficacy of:
1. 60 lumens per watt for lamps over 40 watts;
2. 50 lumens per watt for lamps over 15 watts to 40 watts; and
3. 40 lumens per watt for lamps 15 watts or less.
(HP). Unit of power; work done at a rate equal to 745.7 Watts, 550 foot pounds per second, or 33,000 foot pounds per minute.
Space.”. See “
. Within the conditioned building envelope.
heat.. Material mainly used to retard the flow of
. An insulating board with a core material having a minimum R-value of R-2.
KILOWATT (kW). The basic unit of electric power, equal to 1,000 Watts.(kW). The basic unit of electric power, equal to
Equipment, materials or products to which have been affixed a label, seal, symbol or other identifying mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory, inspection agency or other organization concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic inspection of the production of the above-labeled items and whose labeling indicates either that the equipment, material or product meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose..
. A group of luminaires circuited or controlled to perform a specific function.
LISTED. Equipment, materials, products or services included in a list published by an organization acceptable to the code official and concerned with evaluation of products or services that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of services and whose listing states either that the equipment, material, product or service meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.
equipment powered through a transformer such as a cable conductor, a rail conductor and track lighting.. Lighting
Automatic”).. Capable of being operated by personal intervention (see “
plenum which contains the blower unit or air handler of a central air-conditioning or heating unit.. For the purposes of this code, a closet used as an air
horsepower rating stamped on the motor nameplate.. The nominal motor
efficiency figure of merit calculated and referenced to conditions other than IPLV conditions, for units that are not designed to operate at ARI standard rating conditions.(NPLV). A single-number part-load
Energy derived from solar radiation, wind, waves, tides, landfill gas, biomass, or the internal heat of the earth. The energy system providing on-site renewable energy shall be located on the project site..
. The environment exterior to the building structure.
air barrier of a building; that part of the envelope that provides the greatest resistance to air flow to or from the building.. The primary
alteration that varies or changes insulation, HVAC systems, water heating systems, or exterior envelope conditions, provided the estimated cost of renovation exceeds 30 percent of the assessed value of the structure.. A residential or nonresidential building undergoing
. For the purpose of this code, includes Group R-3 buildings, as well as Group R-2 and R-4 buildings three stories or less in height above grade plane.
fenestration, that is horizontal or tilted at an angle of less than 60 degrees from horizontal. For the purposes of determining building envelope requirements, the classifications are defined as follows:. The upper portion of the building envelope, including opaque areas and
1. Attic and other roofs: all other roofs, including roofs with insulation entirely below (inside of) the roof structure (i.e., attics, cathedral ceilings, and single-rafter ceilings), roofs with insulation both above and below the roof structure, and roofs without insulation but excluding metal building roofs.
2. Metal building roof: a roof that is (a) constructed with a metal, structural, weathering surface, (b) has no ventilated cavity, and (c) has the insulation entirely below deck (i.e., does not include composite concrete and metal deck construction nor a roof framing system that is separated from the superstructure by a wood substrate) and whose structure consists of one or more of the following configurations: (1) metal roofing in direct contact with the steel framing members, or (2) insulation between the metal roofing and the steel framing members or (3) insulated metal roofing panels installed as described in (1) or (2).
4. Single-rafter roof: a subcategory of attic roofs where the roof above and the ceiling below are both attached to the same wood rafter and where insulation is located in the space between these wood rafters.
system designed to provide weather protection and resistance to design loads. The system consists of a roof covering and roof deck or a single component serving as both the roof covering and the roof deck. A roof assembly includes the roof covering, underlayment, roof deck, insulation, vapor retarder and interior finish.. A
R-VALUE (THERMAL RESISTANCE). The inverse of the time rate of heat flow through a body from one of its bounding surfaces to the other surface for a unit temperature difference between the two surfaces, under steady state conditions, per unit area (h • ft2 • °F/Btu) [(m2 • K)/W].
. A lamp base that requires a screw-in-type lamp, such as a compact-fluorescent, incandescent, or tungsten-halogen bulb.
. Supply of hot water for purposes other than comfort heating.
[B] SLEEPING UNIT. A room or space in which people sleep, which can also include permanent provisions for living, eating, and either sanitation or kitchen facilities but not both. Such rooms and spaces that are also part of a dwelling unit are not sleeping units.
1) Is designed for, and produces, at least 1.2 inches of external static pressure when operated at the certified air volume rate of 220-350 cfm per rated ton of cooling; and
2) when applied in the field, uses high velocity room outlets generally greater than 1,000 fpm that have less than 6.0 square inches of free area.
SOLAR HEAT GAIN COEFFICIENT (SHGC). The ratio of the solar heat gain entering the space through the fenestration assembly to the incident solar radiation. Solar heat gain includes directly transmitted solar heat and absorbed solar radiation which is then reradiated, conducted or convected into the space. (See “Fenestration area.”)
c. Indirectly conditioned space: an enclosed space within a building that is not a heated space or a cooled space, which is heated or cooled indirectly by being connected to adjacent space(s) provided (a) the product of the U-factor(s) and surface area(s) of the space adjacent to connected space(s) exceeds the combined sum of the product of the U-factor(s) and surface area(s) of the space adjoining the outdoors, unconditioned spaces, and to or from semiheated spaces (e.g., corridors) or (b) that air from heated or cooled spaces is intentionally transferred (naturally or mechanically) into the space at a rate exceeding 3 air changes per hour (ACH) (e.g., atria).
2. Semiheated space: an enclosed space within a building that is heated by a heating system whose output capacity is greater than or equal to 3.4 Btu/h•ft2 of floor area but is not a conditioned space.
3. Unconditioned space: an enclosed space within a building that is not a conditioned space or a semiheated space. Crawl spaces, attics, and parking garages with natural or mechanical ventilation are not considered enclosed spaces.
system of doors and windows mulled as a composite fenestration structure that has been designed to resist heavy use. Storefront systems include, but are not limited to, exterior fenestration systems that span from the floor level or above to the ceiling of the same story on commercial buildings.. A nonresidential
STRUCTURE. That which is built or constructed.
sunroom” as used herein shall be as follows and shall include conservatories, sunspaces, solariums, and porch or patio covers or enclosures.. For the purposes of this code, the term “
1. A room with roof panels that includes sloped glazing that is a one-story structure added to an existing dwelling with an open or glazed area in excess of 40 percent of the gross area of the sunroom structure’s exterior walls and roof.
2. A one-story structure added to a dwelling with structural roof panels without sloped glazing. The sunroom walls may have any configuration, provided the open area of the longer wall and one additional wall is equal to at least 65 percent of the area below 6 feet 8 inches of each wall, measured from the floor.
equipment and auxiliary devices (e.g., controls, accessories, interconnecting means, and terminal elements) by which energy is transformed so it performs a specific function such as HVAC, service water heating, or lighting.. A combination of
SPACE.”. See “
U-FACTOR (THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE). The coefficient of heat transmission (air to air) through a building component or assembly, equal to the time rate of heat flow per unit area and unit temperature difference between the warm side and cold side air films (Btu/h • ft2 • °F) [W/(m2 • K)].
equipment that is configured as a split system air conditioner, incorporating a single refrigerant circuit, with one or more outdoor units, at least one variable-speed compressor or an alternate compressor combination for varying the capacity of the system by three or more steps, and multiple indoor fan coil units, each of which is individually metered and individually controlled by an integral control device and common communications network and which can operate independently in response to multiple indoor thermostats. Variable refrigerant flow implies three or more steps of capacity control on common, interconnecting piping.. A unit of commercial package air-conditioning and heating
fenestration, that is vertical or tilted at an angle of 60 degrees from horizontal or greater. This includes above and below-grade walls, between floor spandrels, peripheral edges of floors, and foundation walls. For the purposes of determining building envelope requirements, the classifications are defined as follows:. That portion of the building envelope, including opaque area and
4. Metal building wall: a wall whose structure consists of metal spanning members supported by steel structural members (i.e., does not include spandrel glass or metal panels in curtain wall systems).
space or group of spaces within a building with heating or cooling requirements that are sufficiently similar so that desired conditions can be maintained throughout using a single controlling device.. A