Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
The provisions of this chapter shall govern the structural design of buildings, structures and portions thereof regulated by this code.
|Di||=||Weight of ice in accordance with Chapter 10 of ASCE 7.|
|E||=||Combined effect of horizontal and vertical earthquake induced forces as defined in Section 2.3.6 of ASCE 7.|
|F||=||Load due to fluids with well-defined pressures and maximum heights.|
|Fa||=||Flood load in accordance with Chapter 5 of ASCE 7.|
|H||=||Load due to lateral earth pressures, ground water pressure or pressure of bulk materials.|
|L||=||Roof live load greater than 20 psf (0.96 kN/m2) and floor live load.|
|Lr||=||Roof live load of 20 psf (0.96 kN/m2) or less.|
|T||=||Cumulative effect of self-straining load forces and effects.|
|Vasd||=||Nominal design wind speed (3-second gust), miles per hour (mph) (km/hr) where applicable.|
|Vult||=||Ultimate design wind speed (3-second gust), miles per hour (mph) (km/hr) determined from Figure 1609.3(1), 1609.3(2), 1609.3(3) or 1609.3(4) or ASCE 7.|
|W||=||Load due to wind pressure.|
|Wi||=||Wind-on-ice in accordance with Chapter 10 of ASCE 7.|
Construction documents shall show the size, section and relative locations of structural members with floor levels, column centers and offsets dimensioned. The design loads and other information pertinent to the structural design required by Sections 1603.1.1 through 1603.1.9 shall be indicated on the construction documents.
The ground snow load, pg, shall be indicated. In areas where the ground snow load, pg, exceeds 10 pounds per square foot (psf) (0.479 kN/m2), the following additional information shall also be provided, regardless of whether snow loads govern the design of the roof:
- Flat-roof snow load, pf.
- Snow exposure factor, Ce.
- Snow load importance factor, Is.
- Thermal factor, Ct.
- Slope factor(s), Cs.
- Drift surcharge load(s), pd, where the sum of pd and pf exceeds 20 psf (0.96 kN/m2).
- Width of snow drift(s), w.
The following information related to wind loads shall be shown, regardless of whether wind loads govern the design of the lateral force-resisting system of the structure:
- Ultimate design wind speed, Vult, (3-second gust), miles per hour (km/hr) and nominal design wind speed, Vasd, as determined in accordance with Section 1609.3.1.
- Risk category.
- Wind exposure. Applicable wind direction if more than one wind exposure is utilized.
- Applicable internal pressure coefficient.
- Design wind pressures to be used for exterior component and cladding materials not specifically designed by the registered design professional responsible for the design of the structure, psf (kN/m2).
The following information related to seismic loads shall be shown, regardless of whether seismic loads govern the design of the lateral force-resisting system of the structure:
- Risk category.
- Seismic importance factor, Ie.
- Mapped spectral response acceleration parameters, SS and S1.
- Site class.
- Design spectral response acceleration parameters, SDS and SD1.
- Seismic design category.
- Basic seismic force-resisting system(s).
- Design base shear(s).
- Seismic response coefficient(s), CS.
- Response modification coefficient(s), R.
- Analysis procedure used.
The design load-bearing values of soils shall be shown on the construction documents.
For buildings located in whole or in part in flood hazard areas as established in Section 1612.3, the documentation pertaining to design, if required in Section 1612.5, shall be included and the following information, referenced to the datum on the community's Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM), shall be shown, regardless of whether flood loads govern the design of the building:
- Flood design class assigned according to ASCE 24.
- In flood hazard areas other than coastal high hazard areas or coastal A zones, the elevation of the proposed lowest floor, including the basement.
- In flood hazard areas other than coastal high hazard areas or coastal A zones, the elevation to which any nonresidential building will be dry floodproofed.
- In coastal high hazard areas and coastal A zones, the proposed elevation of the bottom of the lowest horizontal structural member of the lowest floor, including the basement.
Special loads that are applicable to the design of the building, structure or portions thereof, including but not limited to the loads of machinery or equipment, that are of greater magnitude than the loads defined in the specified floor and roof loads shall be specified by their descriptions and locations.
The following roof rain load parameters shall be shown regardless of whether the rain loads govern the design:
- Rain load
- Rain intensity, i (in./hr) (cm/hr)
Buildings and other structures, and parts thereof, shall be designed and constructed to support safely the factored loads in load combinations defined in this code without exceeding the appropriate strength limit states for the materials of construction. Alternatively, buildings and other structures, and parts thereof, shall be designed and constructed to support safely the nominal loads in load combinations defined in this code without exceeding the appropriate specified allowable stresses for the materials of construction.
Structural systems and members thereof shall be designed to have adequate stiffness to limit deflections and lateral drift. See Section 12.12.1 of ASCE 7 for drift limits applicable to earthquake loading.
DEFLECTION LIMITSa, b, c, h, i
|CONSTRUCTION||L||S or W f||D + Ld, g|
|Supporting plaster or stucco ceiling||l/360||l/360||l/240|
|Supporting nonplaster ceiling||l/240||l/240||l/180|
|Not supporting ceiling||l/180||l/180||l/120|
|Members supporting screen surfacej||l/60|
|With plaster or stucco finishes||—||l/360||—|
|With other brittle finishes||—||l/240||—|
|With flexible finishes||—||l/120||—|
|With plaster or stucco finishes||l/360||—||—|
|With other brittle finishes||l/240||—||—|
|With flexible finishes||l/120||—||—|
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
- For structural roofing and siding made of formed metal sheets, the total load deflection shall not exceed l/60. For secondary roof structural members supporting formed metal roofing, the live load deflection shall not exceed l/150. For secondary wall members supporting formed metal siding, the design wind load deflection shall not exceed l/90. For roofs, this exception only applies when the metal sheets have no roof covering.
- Flexible, folding and portable partitions are not governed by the provisions of this section. The deflection criterion for interior partitions is based on the horizontal load defined in Section 1607.14.
- See Section 2403 for glass supports.
- The deflection limit for the D+L load combination only applies to the deflection due to the creep component of long-term dead load deflection plus the short-term live load deflection. For lumber, structural glued laminated timber, prefabricated wood I-joists and structural composite lumber members that are dry at time of installation and used under dry conditions in accordance with the ANSI/AWC NDS, the creep component of the long-term deflection shall be permitted to be estimated as the immediate dead load deflection resulting from 0.5D. For lumber and glued laminated timber members installed or used at all other moisture conditions or cross-laminated timber and wood structural panels that are dry at time of installation and used under dry conditions in accordance with the ANSI/AWC NDS, the creep component of the long-term deflection is permitted to be estimated as the immediate dead load deflection resulting from D. The value of 0.5D shall not be used in combination with ANSI/AWC NDS provisions for long-term loading.
- The above deflections do not ensure against ponding. Roofs that do not have sufficient slope or camber to ensure adequate drainage shall be investigated for ponding. See Section 1611 for rain and ponding requirements and Section 1503.4 for roof drainage requirements.
- The wind load is permitted to be taken as 0.42 times the "component and cladding" loads for the purpose of determining deflection limits herein. Where members support glass in accordance with Section 2403 using the deflection limit therein, the wind load shall be no less than 0.6 times the "component and cladding" loads for the purpose of determining deflection.
- For steel structural members, the dead load shall be taken as zero.
- For aluminum structural members or aluminum panels used in skylights and sloped glazing framing, roofs or walls of sunroom additions or patio covers not supporting edge of glass or aluminum sandwich panels, the total load deflection shall not exceed l/60. For continuous aluminum structural members supporting edge of glass, the total load deflection shall not exceed l/175 for each glass lite or l/60 for the entire length of the member, whichever is more stringent. For aluminum sandwich panels used in roofs or walls of sunroom additions or patio covers, the total load deflection shall not exceed 1/120.
- For cantilever members, l shall be taken as twice the length of the cantilever.
- Screen surfaces shall be permitted to include a maximum of 25-percent solid flexible finishes.
The deflection of steel structural members shall not exceed that permitted by AISC 360, AISI S100, ASCE 8, SJI 100 or SJI 200, as applicable.
The deflection of aluminum structural members shall not exceed that permitted by AA ADM1.
The deflection limits of Section 1604.3.1 shall be used unless more restrictive deflection limits are required by a referenced standard for the element or finish material.
Load effects on structural members and their connections shall be determined by methods of structural analysis that take into account equilibrium, general stability, geometric compatibility and both short- and long-term material properties.
Members that tend to accumulate residual deformations under repeated service loads shall have included in their analysis the added eccentricities expected to occur during their service life.
Any system or method of construction to be used shall be based on a rational analysis in accordance with well-established principles of mechanics. Such analysis shall result in a system that provides a complete load path capable of transferring loads from their point of origin to the load-resisting elements.
The total lateral force shall be distributed to the various vertical elements of the lateral force-resisting system in proportion to their rigidities, considering the rigidity of the horizontal bracing system or diaphragm. Rigid elements assumed not to be a part of the lateral force-resisting system are permitted to be incorporated into buildings provided their effect on the action of the system is considered and provided for in the design. A diaphragm is rigid for the purpose of distribution of story shear and torsional moment when the lateral deformation of the diaphragm is less than or equal to two times the average story drift. Where required by ASCE 7, provisions shall be made for the increased forces induced on resisting elements of the structural system resulting from torsion due to eccentricity between the center of application of the lateral forces and the center of rigidity of the lateral force-resisting system.
Each building and structure shall be assigned a risk category in accordance with Table 1604.5. Where a referenced standard specifies an occupancy category, the risk category shall not be taken as lower than the occupancy category specified therein. Where a referenced standard specifies that the assignment of a risk category be in accordance with ASCE 7, Table 1.5-1, Table 1604.5 shall be used in lieu of ASCE 7, Table 1.5-1.
|RISK CATEGORY||NATURE OF OCCUPANCY|
|I||Buildings and other structures that represent a low hazard to human life in the event of failure, including but not limited to:|
|II||Buildings and other structures except those listed in Risk Categories I, III and IV.|
|III||Buildings and other structures that represent a substantial hazard to human life in the event of failure, including but not limited to: |
|IV||Buildings and other structures designated as essential facilities, including but not limited to: |
- For purposes of occupant load calculation, occupancies required by Table 1004.5 to use gross floor area calculations shall be permitted to use net floor areas to determine the total occupant load.
- Where approved by the building official, the classification of buildings and other structures as Risk Category III or IV based on their quantities of toxic, highly toxic or explosive materials is permitted to be reduced to Risk Category II, provided it can be demonstrated by a hazard assessment in accordance with Section 1.5.3 of ASCE 7 that a release of the toxic, highly toxic or explosive materials is not sufficient to pose a threat to the public.
Where a building or structure is occupied by two or more occupancies not included in the same risk category, it shall be assigned the classification of the highest risk category corresponding to the various occupancies. Where buildings or structures have two or more portions that are structurally separated, each portion shall be separately classified. Where a separated portion of a building or structure provides required access to, required egress from or shares life safety components with another portion having a higher risk category, both portions shall be assigned to the higher risk category.
Exception: Where a storm shelter designed and constructed in accordance with ICC 500 is provided in a building, structure or portion thereof normally occupied for other purposes, the risk category for the normal occupancy of the building shall apply unless the storm shelter is a designated emergency shelter in accordance with Table 1604.5.
Walls that provide vertical load-bearing resistance or lateral shear resistance for a portion of the structure shall be anchored to the roof and to all floors and members that provide lateral support for the wall or that are supported by the wall. The connections shall be capable of resisting the horizontal forces specified in Section 1.4.5 of ASCE 7 for walls of structures assigned to Seismic Design Category A and to Section 12.11 of ASCE 7 for walls of structures assigned to all other seismic design categories. Required anchors in masonry walls of hollow units or cavity walls shall be embedded in a reinforced grouted structural element of the wall. See Sections 1609 for wind design requirements and 1613 for earthquake design requirements.
Where supported by attachment to an exterior wall, decks shall be positively anchored to the primary structure and designed for both vertical and lateral loads as applicable. Such attachment shall not be accomplished by the use of toenails or nails subject to withdrawal. Where positive connection to the primary building structure cannot be verified during inspection, decks shall be self-supporting. Connections of decks with cantilevered framing members to exterior walls or other framing members shall be designed for both of the following:
- The reactions resulting from the dead load and live load specified in Table 1607.1, or the snow load specified in Section 1608, in accordance with Section 1605, acting on all portions of the deck.
- The reactions resulting from the dead load and live load specified in Table 1607.1, or the snow load specified in Section 1608, in accordance with Section 1605, acting on the cantilevered portion of the deck, and no live load or snow load on the remaining portion of the deck.
Structural members, systems, components and cladding shall be designed to resist forces due to earthquakes and wind, with consideration of overturning, sliding and uplift. Continuous load paths shall be provided for transmitting these forces to the foundation. Where sliding is used to isolate the elements, the effects of friction between sliding elements shall be included as a force.
Buildings and other structures and portions thereof shall be designed to resist:
- The load combinations specified in Section 1605.2, 1605.3.1 or 1605.3.2;
- The load combinations specified in Chapters 18 through 23; and
- The seismic load effects including overstrength factor in accordance with Sections 2.3.6 and 2.4.5 of ASCE 7 where required by Chapters 12, 13 and 15 of ASCE 7. With the simplified procedure of ASCE 7 Section 12.14, the seismic load effects including overstrength factor in accordance with Section 220.127.116.11 and Chapter 2 of ASCE 7 shall be used.
Applicable loads shall be considered, including both earthquake and wind, in accordance with the specified load combinations. Each load combination shall also be investigated with one or more of the variable loads set to zero.
Where the load combinations with overstrength factor in Sections 2.3.6 and 2.4.5 of ASCE 7 apply, they shall be used as follows:
- The basic combinations for strength design with overstrength factor in lieu of Equations 16-5 and 16-7 in Section 1605.2.
- The basic combinations for allowable stress design with overstrength factor in lieu of Equations 16-12, 16-14 and 16-16 in Section 1605.3.1.
- The basic combinations for allowable stress design with overstrength factor in lieu of Equations 16-21 and 16-22 in Section 1605.3.2.
Regardless of which load combinations are used to design for strength, where overall structure stability (such as stability against overturning, sliding, or buoyancy) is being verified, use of the load combinations specified in Section 1605.2 or 1605.3 shall be permitted. Where the load combinations specified in Section 1605.2 are used, strength reduction factors applicable to soil resistance shall be provided by a registered design professional. The stability of retaining walls shall be verified in accordance with Section 1807.2.3.
Where strength design or load and resistance factor design is used, buildings and other structures, and portions thereof, shall be designed to resist the most critical effects resulting from the following combinations of factored loads:
- Where other factored load combinations are specifically required by other provisions of this code, such combinations shall take precedence.
- Where the effect of H resists the primary variable load effect, a load factor of 0.9 shall be included with H where H is permanent and H shall be set to zero for all other conditions.
Where flood loads, Fa, are to be considered in the design, the load combinations of Section 2.3.2 of ASCE 7 shall be used. Where self-straining loads, T, are considered in design, their structural effects in combination with other loads shall be determined in accordance with Section 2.3.4 of ASCE 7. Where an ice-sensitive structure is subjected to loads due to atmospheric icing, the load combinations of Section 2.3.3 of ASCE 7 shall be considered.
Where allowable stress design (working stress design), as permitted by this code, is used, structures and portions thereof shall resist the most critical effects resulting from the following combinations of loads:
- Crane hook loads need not be combined with roof live load or with more than three-fourths of the snow load or one-half of the wind load.
- Flat roof snow loads of 30 psf (1.44 kN/m2) or less and roof live loads of 30 psf (1.44 kN/m2) or less need not be combined with seismic loads. Where flat roof snow loads exceed 30 psf (1.44 kN/m2), 20 percent shall be combined with seismic loads.
- Where the effect of H resists the primary variable load effect, a load factor of 0.6 shall be included with H where H is permanent and H shall be set to zero for all other conditions.
- In Equation 16-15, the wind load, W, is permitted to be reduced in accordance with Exception 2 of Section 2.4.1 of ASCE 7.
- In Equation 16-16, 0.6 D is permitted to be increased to 0.9 D for the design of special reinforced masonry shear walls complying with Chapter 21.
Where flood loads, Fa, are to be considered in design, the load combinations of Section 2.4.2 of ASCE 7 shall be used. Where self-straining loads, T, are considered in design, their structural effects in combination with other loads shall be determined in accordance with Section 2.4.4 of ASCE 7. Where an ice-sensitive structure is subjected to loads due to atmospheric icing, the load combinations of Section 2.4.3 of ASCE 7 shall be considered.
In lieu of the basic load combinations specified in Section 1605.3.1, structures and portions thereof shall be permitted to be designed for the most critical effects resulting from the following combinations. When using these alternative allowable stress load combinations that include wind or seismic loads, allowable stresses are permitted to be increased or load combinations reduced where permitted by the material chapter of this code or the referenced standards. For load combinations that include the counteracting effects of dead and wind loads, only two-thirds of the minimum dead load likely to be in place during a design wind event shall be used. When using allowable stresses that have been increased or load combinations that have been reduced as permitted by the material chapter of this code or the referenced standards, where wind loads are calculated in accordance with Chapters 26 through 31 of ASCE 7, the coefficient (ω) in the following equations shall be taken as 1.3. For other wind loads, (ω) shall be taken as 1. When allowable stresses have not been increased or load combinations have not been reduced as permitted by the material chapter of this code or the referenced standards, (ω) shall be taken as 1. When using these alternative load combinations to evaluate sliding, overturning and soil bearing at the soil-structure interface, the reduction of foundation overturning from Section 12.13.4 in ASCE 7 shall not be used. When using these alternative basic load combinations for proportioning foundations for loadings, which include seismic loads, the vertical seismic load effect, Ev, in Equation 12.4-4 of ASCE 7 is permitted to be taken equal to zero.
- Crane hook loads need not be combined with roof live loads or with more than three-fourths of the snow load or one-half of the wind load.
- Flat roof snow loads of 30 psf (1.44 kN/m2) or less and roof live loads of 30 psf (1.44 kN/m2) or less need not be combined with seismic loads. Where flat roof snow loads exceed 30 psf (1.44 kN/m2), 20 percent shall be combined with seismic loads.
Where F, H or T is to be considered in the design, each applicable load shall be added to the combinations specified in Section 1605.3.2. Where self-straining loads, T, are considered in design, their structural effects in combination with other loads shall be determined in accordance with Section 2.4.4 of ASCE 7.
For purposes of design, the actual weights of materials of construction and fixed service equipment shall be used. In the absence of definite information, values used shall be subject to the approval of the building official.
|OCCUPANCY OR USE||UNIFORM |
|1. Apartments (see residential)||—||—|
|2. Access floor systems|
|3. Armories and drill rooms||150n||—|
|4. Assembly areas||—|
|Fixed seats (fastened to floor)||60m|
|Follow spot, projections and |
|Other assembly areas||100m|
|5. Balconies and decksh||1.5 times the |
live load for thearea served. Not
required toexceed 100
|First floor |
|Same as |
|9. Dining rooms and restaurants||100m||—|
|10. Dwellings (see residential)||—||—|
|11. Elevator machine room and control |
room grating(on area of 2 inches by 2 inches)
|12. Finish light floor plate construction |
(on area of 1 inch by 1 inch)
|13. Fire escapes||100||—|
|On single-family dwellings only||40|
|14. Garages (passenger vehicles only) |
Trucks and buses
|See Section 1607.7|
|15. Handrails, guards and grab bars||See Section 1607.8|
|16. Helipads||See Section 1607.6|
|Corridors above first floor||80||1,000|
|Operating rooms, laboratories||60||1,000|
|18. Hotels (see residential)||—||—|
|Corridors above first floor||80||1,000|
|Stack rooms||150b, n||1,000|
|21. Marquees, except one- and two-family||75||—|
|22. Office buildings|
|Corridors above first floor||80||2,000|
|File and computer rooms shall be |
designed for heavier loads basedon anticipated occupancy
|Lobbies and first-floor corridors||100||2,000|
|23. Penal institutions||—|
|24. Recreational uses:||—|
|Bowling alleys, poolrooms and |
|Dance halls and ballrooms||100m|
|Ice skating rink||250n|
|Reviewing stands, grandstands and||100c, m|
|Roller skating rink||100m|
|Stadiums and arenas with fixed |
seats (fastened to floor)
|One- and two-family dwellings|
|Uninhabitable attics without |
|Uninhabitable attics with storagei, j, k||20|
|Habitable attics and sleeping areask||30|
|Canopies, including marquees||20|
|All other areas||40|
|Hotels and multifamily dwellings|
|Private rooms and corridors serving |
|Public roomsm and corridors serving |
|All roof surfaces subject to maintenance |
|Awnings and canopies:|
|Fabric construction supported by a |
|All other construction, except one- |
and two-family dwellings
|Ordinary flat, pitched, and curved |
roofs (that are not occupiable)
|Primary roof members exposed to a |
|Single panel point of lower chord of |
roof trusses or any point alongprimary structural members
supporting roofs over manufacturing,storage warehouses, and
|All other primary roof members||300|
|All other similar areas||Note 1||Note 1|
|Corridors above first floor||80||1,000|
|28. Scuttles, skylight ribs and accessible |
|29. Sidewalks, vehicular driveways and |
yards, subject to trucking
|30. Stairs and exits|
|One- and two-family dwellings||40||300f|
|31. Storage warehouses (shall be designed |
for heavier loads if required foranticipated storage)
|Wholesale, all floors||125n||1,000|
|33. Vehicle barriers||See Section 1607.8.3|
|34. Walkways and elevated platforms |
(other than exitways)
|35. Yards and terraces, pedestrians||100m||—|
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.16 mm2, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m2, 1 pound = 0.004448 kN, 1 pound per cubic foot = 16 kg/m3.
- Floors in garages or portions of buildings used for the storage of motor vehicles shall be designed for the uniformly distributed live loads of this Table or the following concentrated loads: (1) for garages restricted to passenger vehicles accommodating not more than nine passengers, 3,000 pounds acting on an area of 41/2 inches by 41/2 inches; (2) for mechanical parking structures without slab or deck that are used for storing passenger vehicles only, 2,250 pounds per wheel.
- The loading applies to stack room floors that support nonmobile, double-faced library book stacks, subject to the following limitations:
- Design in accordance with ICC 300.
- Other uniform loads in accordance with an approved method containing provisions for truck loadings shall be considered where appropriate.
- The concentrated wheel load shall be applied on an area of 4.5 inches by 4.5 inches.
- The minimum concentrated load on stair treads shall be applied on an area of 2 inches by 2 inches. This load need not be assumed to act concurrently with the uniform load.
- Where snow loads occur that are in excess of the design conditions, the structure shall be designed to support the loads due to the increased loads caused by drift buildup or a greater snow design determined by the building official (see Section 1608).
- See Section 1604.8.3 (HVHZ shall comply with Section 1616.5) for decks attached to exterior walls.
- Uninhabitable attics without storage are those where the maximum clear height between the joists and rafters is less than 42 inches, or where there are not two or more adjacent trusses with web configurations capable of accommodating an assumed rectangle 42 inches in height by 24 inches in width, or greater, within the plane of the trusses. This live load need not be assumed to act concurrently with any other live load requirements.
- Uninhabitable attics with storage are those where the maximum clear height between the joists and rafters is 42 inches or greater, or where there are two or more adjacent trusses with web configurations capable of accommodating an assumed rectangle 42 inches in height by 24 inches in width, or greater, within the plane of the trusses.The live load need only be applied to those portions of the joists or truss bottom chords where both of the following conditions are met:
The remaining portions of the joists or truss bottom chords shall be designed for a uniformly distributed concurrent live load of not less than 10 pounds per square foot.
- The attic area is accessible from an opening not less than 20 inches in width by 30 inches in length that is located where the clear height in the attic is a minimum of 30 inches; and
- The slopes of the joists or truss bottom chords are no greater than two units vertical in 12 units horizontal.
- Attic spaces served by stairways other than the pull-down type shall be designed to support the minimum live load specified for habitable attics and sleeping rooms.
- Areas of occupiable roofs, other than roof gardens and assembly areas, shall be designed for appropriate loads as approved by the building official. Unoccupied landscaped areas of roofs shall be designed in accordance with Section 1607.12.3.
- Live load reduction is not permitted.
- Live load reduction is only permitted in accordance with Section 1607.10.1.2 or Item 1 of Section 1607.10.2.
- Live load reduction is only permitted in accordance with Section 1607.10.1.3 or Item 2 of Section 1607.10.2.
Floors, roofs and other similar surfaces shall be designed to support the uniformly distributed live loads prescribed in Section 1607.3 or the concentrated live loads, given in Table 1607.1, whichever produces the greater load effects. Unless otherwise specified, the indicated concentration shall be assumed to be uniformly distributed over an area of 21/2 feet by 21/2 feet (762 mm by 762 mm) and shall be located so as to produce the maximum load effects in the structural members.
In office buildings and in other buildings where partition locations are subject to change, provisions for partition weight shall be made, whether or not partitions are shown on the construction documents, unless the specified live load is 80 psf (3.83 kN/m2) or greater. The partition load shall be not less than a uniformly distributed live load of 15 psf (0.72 kN/m2).
- A uniform live load, L, as specified below. This load shall not be reduced.
- 1.1. 40 psf (1.92 kN/m2) where the design basis helicopter has a maximum take-off weight of 3,000 pounds (13.35 kN) or less.
- 1.2. 60 psf (2.87 kN/m2) where the design basis helicopter has a maximum take-off weight greater than 3,000 pounds (13.35 kN).
- A single concentrated live load, L, of 3,000 pounds (13.35 kN) applied over an area of 4.5 inches by 4.5 inches (114 mm by 114 mm) and located so as to produce the maximum load effects on the structural elements under consideration. The concentrated load is not required to act concurrently with other uniform or concentrated live loads.
- Two single concentrated live loads, L, 8 feet (2438 mm) apart applied on the landing pad (representing the helicopter's two main landing gear, whether skid type or wheeled type), each having a magnitude of 0.75 times the maximum take-off weight of the helicopter, and located so as to produce the maximum load effects on the structural elements under consideration. The concentrated loads shall be applied over an area of 8 inches by 8 inches (203 mm by 203 mm) and are not required to act concurrently with other uniform or concentrated live loads.
Landing areas designed for a design basis helicopter with maximum take-off weight of 3,000-pounds (13.35 kN) shall be identified with a 3,000 pound (13.34 kN) weight limitation. The landing area weight limitation shall be indicated by the numeral "3" (kips) located in the bottom right corner of the landing area as viewed from the primary approach path. The indication for the landing area weight limitation shall be a minimum 5 feet (1524 mm) in height.
Where any structure does not restrict access for vehicles that exceed a 10,000-pound (4536 kg) gross vehicle weight rating, those portions of the structure subject to such loads shall be designed using the vehicular live loads, including consideration of impact and fatigue, in accordance with the codes and specifications required by the jurisdiction having authority for the design and construction of the roadways and bridges in the same location of the structure.
Where a structure or portions of a structure are accessed and loaded by fire department access vehicles and other similar emergency vehicles, the structure shall be designed for the greater of the following loads:
Garages designed to accommodate vehicles that exceed a 10,000-pound (4536 kg) gross vehicle weight rating, shall be designed using the live loading specified by Section 1607.7.1. For garages the design for impact and fatigue is not required.
Exception: The vehicular live loads and load placement are allowed to be determined using the actual vehicle weights for the vehicles allowed onto the garage floors, provided such loads and placement are based on rational engineering principles and are approved by the building official, but shall not be less than 50 psf (2.9 kN/m2). This live load shall not be reduced.
Where a structure is intended to have forklifts or other movable equipment present, the structure shall be designed for the total vehicle or equipment load and the individual wheel loads for the anticipated vehicles as specified by the owner of the facility. These loads shall be posted in accordance with Section 1607.7.5.
Handrails and guards shall be designed to resist a linear load of 50 pounds per linear foot (plf) (0.73 kN/m) in accordance with Section 4.5.1 of ASCE 7. Glass handrail assemblies and guards shall also comply with Section 2407.
- For one- and two-family dwellings, only the single concentrated load required by Section 1607.8.1.1 shall be applied.
- In Group I-3, F, H and S occupancies, for areas that are not accessible to the general public and that have an occupant load less than 50, the minimum load shall be 20 pounds per foot (0.29 kN/m).
Grab bars, shower seats and dressing room bench seats shall be designed to resist a single concentrated load of 250 pounds (1.11 kN) applied in any direction at any point on the grab bar or seat so as to produce the maximum load effects.
Vehicle barriers for passenger vehicles shall be designed to resist a concentrated load of 6,000 pounds (26.70 kN) in accordance with Section 4.5.3 of ASCE 7. Garages accommodating trucks and buses shall be designed in accordance with an approved method that contains provisions for traffic railings.
For the purpose of design, the weight of machinery and moving loads shall be increased as follows to allow for impact: (1) light machinery, shaft-or motor-driven, 20 percent; and (2) reciprocating machinery or power-driven units, 50 percent. Percentages shall be increased where specified by the manufacturer.
Subject to the limitations of Sections 1607.10.1.1 through 1607.10.1.3 and Table 1607.1, members for which a value of KLLAT is 400 square feet (37.16 m2) or more are permitted to be designed for a reduced uniformly distributed live load, L, in accordance with the following equation:
Lo = Unreduced design live load per square foot (m2) of area supported by the member (see Table 1607.1).
KLL = Live load element factor (see Table 1607.10.1).
AT = Tributary area, in square feet (m2).
L shall be not less than 0.50Lo for members supporting one floor and L shall be not less than 0.40Lo for members supporting two or more floors.
LIVE LOAD ELEMENT FACTOR, KLL
|Exterior columns without cantilever slabs||4|
|Edge columns with cantilever slabs||3|
|Corner columns with cantilever slabs||2|
|Edge beams without cantilever slabs||2|
|All other members not identified above including:||1|
|Edge beams with cantilever slabs|
|Members without provisions for continuous shear |
transfer normal to their span
Live loads that exceed 100 psf (4.79 kN/m2) shall not be reduced.
- The live loads for members supporting two or more floors are permitted to be reduced by a maximum of 20 percent, but the live load shall be not less than L as calculated in Section 1607.10.1.
- For uses other than storage, where approved, additional live load reductions shall be permitted where shown by the registered design professional that a rational approach has been used and that such reductions are warranted.
As an alternative to Section 1607.10.1 and subject to the limitations of Table 1607.1, uniformly distributed live loads are permitted to be reduced in accordance with the following provisions. Such reductions shall apply to slab systems, beams, girders, columns, piers, walls and foundations.
- A reduction shall not be permitted where the live load exceeds 100 psf (4.79 kN/m2) except that the design live load for members supporting two or more floors is permitted to be reduced by a maximum of 20 percent.
- A reduction shall not be permitted in passenger vehicle parking garages except that the live loads for members supporting two or more floors are permitted to be reduced by a maximum of 20 percent.
- For live loads not exceeding 100 psf (4.79 kN/m2), the design live load for any structural member supporting 150 square feet (13.94 m2) or more is permitted to be reduced in accordance with Equation 16-24.
- For one-way slabs, the area, A, for use in Equation 16-24 shall not exceed the product of the slab span and a width normal to the span of 0.5 times the slab span.(Equation 16-24)For SI: R = 0.861(A — 13.94)Such reduction shall not exceed the smallest of:
- 40 percent for members supporting one floor.
- 60 percent for members supporting two or more floors.
- R as determined by the following equation:
Where uniform floor live loads are involved in the design of structural members arranged so as to create continuity, the minimum applied loads shall be the full dead loads on all spans in combination with the floor live loads on spans selected to produce the greatest load effect at each location under consideration. Floor live loads are permitted to be reduced in accordance with Section 1607.10.
The structural supports of roofs and marquees shall be designed to resist wind and, where applicable, snow and earthquake loads, in addition to the dead load of construction and the appropriate live loads as prescribed in this section, or as set forth in Table 1607.1. The live loads acting on a sloping surface shall be assumed to act vertically on the horizontal projection of that surface.
Where uniform roof live loads are reduced to less than 20 psf (0.96 kN/m2) in accordance with Section 1607.12.2.1 and are applied to the design of structural members arranged so as to create continuity, the reduced roof live load shall be applied to adjacent spans or to alternate spans, whichever produces the most unfavorable load effect. See Section 1607.12.2 for reductions in minimum roof live loads and Section 7.5 of ASCE 7 for partial snow loading.
Ordinary flat, pitched and curved roofs, and awnings and canopies other than of fabric construction supported by a skeleton structure, are permitted to be designed for a reduced uniformly distributed roof live load, Lr, as specified in the following equations or other controlling combinations of loads as specified in Section 1605, whichever produces the greater load effect.
In structures such as greenhouses, where special scaffolding is used as a work surface for workers and materials during maintenance and repair operations, a lower roof load than specified in the following equations shall not be used unless approved by the building official. Such structures shall be designed for a minimum roof live load of 12 psf (0.58 kN/m2).
where: 12 ≤ Lr ≤ 20
For SI: Lr = LoR1R2
The reduction factors R1 and R2 shall be determined as follows:
For SI: 1.2 - 0.011At for 18.58 square meters < At < 55.74 square meters
At = Tributary area (span length multiplied by effective width) in square feet (m2) supported by the member, and
F = For a sloped roof, the number of inches of rise per foot (for SI: F = 0.12 × slope, with slope expressed as a percentage), or for an arch or dome, the rise-to-span ratio multiplied by 32.
The weight of all landscaping materials shall be considered as dead load and shall be computed on the basis of saturation of the soil as determined in accordance with Section 3.1.4 of ASCE 7. The uniform design live load in unoccupied landscaped areas on roofs shall be 20 psf (0.958 kN/m2). The uniform design live load for occupied landscaped areas on roofs shall be determined in accordance with Table 1607.1.
Roof structures that support photovoltaic panel systems shall be designed to resist each of the following conditions:
The structure of a roof that supports solar photovoltaic panels or modules shall be designed to accommodate the full solar photovoltaic panels or modules and ballast dead load, including concentrated loads from support frames in combination with the loads from Section 1607.12.5.1 and other applicable loads. Where applicable, snow drift loads created by the photovoltaic panels or modules shall be included.
Structures with open-grid framing and no roof deck or sheathing supporting photovoltaic panel systems shall be designed to support the uniform and concentrated roof live loads specified in Section 1607.12.5.1, except that the uniform roof live load shall be permitted to be reduced to 12 psf (0.57 kN/m2).
Solar photovoltaic panels or modules that are independent structures and do not have accessible/occupied space underneath are not required to accommodate a roof photovoltaic live load, provided the area under the structure is restricted to keep the public away. All other loads and combinations in accordance with Section 1605 shall be accommodated.
Solar photovoltaic panels or modules that are designed to be the roof, span to structural supports and have accessible/occupied space underneath shall have the panels or modules and all supporting structures designed to support a roof photovoltaic live load, as defined in Section 1607.12.5.1 in combination with other applicable loads. Solar photovoltaic panels or modules in this application are not permitted to be classified as "not accessible" in accordance with Section 1607.12.5.1.
The crane live load shall be the rated capacity of the crane. Design loads for the runway beams, including connections and support brackets, of moving bridge cranes and monorail cranes shall include the maximum wheel loads of the crane and the vertical impact, lateral and longitudinal forces induced by the moving crane.
The maximum wheel loads of the crane shall be increased by the percentages shown below to determine the induced vertical impact or vibration force:
|Monorail cranes (powered)||25 percent|
|Cab-operated or remotely operated bridge cranes (powered)||25 percent|
|Pendant-operated bridge cranes (powered)||10 percent|
|Bridge cranes or monorail cranes with hand-geared bridge, trolley and hoist||0 percent|
The lateral force on crane runway beams with electrically powered trolleys shall be calculated as 20 percent of the sum of the rated capacity of the crane and the weight of the hoist and trolley. The lateral force shall be assumed to act horizontally at the traction surface of a runway beam, in either direction perpendicular to the beam, and shall be distributed with due regard to the lateral stiffness of the runway beam and supporting structure.
The longitudinal force on crane runway beams, except for bridge cranes with hand-geared bridges, shall be calculated as 10 percent of the maximum wheel loads of the crane. The longitudinal force shall be assumed to act horizontally at the traction surface of a runway beam, in either direction parallel to the beam.
Fabric partitions that exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) in height, including their finish materials, shall have adequate strength and stiffness to resist the following load conditions:
- The horizontal distributed load need only be applied to the partition framing. The total area used to determine the distributed load shall be the area of the fabric face between the framing members to which the fabric is attached. The total distributed load shall be uniformly applied to such framing members in proportion to the length of each member.
- A concentrated load of 40 pounds (0.176 kN) applied to an 8-inch-diameter (203 mm) area [50.3 square inches (32 452 mm2)] of the fabric face at a height of 54 inches (1372 mm) above the floor.
The ground snow loads to be used in determining the design snow loads for roofs shall be determined in accordance with ASCE 7 or Figure 1608.2 for the contiguous United States and Table 1608.2 for Alaska. Site-specific case studies shall be made in areas designated "CS" in Figure 1608.2. Ground snow loads for sites at elevations above the limits indicated in Figure 1608.2 and for all sites within the CS areas shall be approved. Ground snow load determination for such sites shall be based on an extreme value statistical analysis of data available in the vicinity of the site using a value with a 2-percent annual probability of being exceeded (50-year mean recurrence interval). Snow loads are zero for Hawaii, except in mountainous regions as approved by the building official.
GROUND SNOW LOADS, pg, FOR ALASKAN LOCATIONS
|LOCATION||POUNDS PER |
|LOCATION||POUNDS PER |
|LOCATION||POUNDS PER |
|Anchorage||50||Gulkana||70||St. Paul Islands||40|
For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m2.
Susceptible bays of roofs shall be evaluated for ponding instability in accordance with Section 7.11 of ASCE 7.
Buildings, structures and parts thereof shall be designed to withstand the minimum wind loads prescribed herein. Decreases in wind loads shall not be made for the effect of shielding by other structures. All exterior wall coverings and soffits shall be capable of resisting the design pressures specified for walls for components and cladding loads in accordance with Section 1609.1.1. Manufactured soffits shall be labeled in accordance with Section 1709.10 of this code.
Wind loads on every building or structure shall be determined in accordance with Chapters 26 to 30 of ASCE 7. Wind shall be assumed to come from any horizontal direction and wind pressures shall be assumed to act normal to the surface considered.
- Subject to the limitations of Section 1609.1.1.1, the provisions of ICC 600 shall be permitted for applicable Group R-2 and R-3 buildings.
- Subject to the limitations of Section 1609.1.1.1, residential structures using the provisions of AWC WFCM.
- Subject to the limitations of Section 1609.1.1.1, residential structures using the provisions of AISI S230.
- Designs using NAAMM FP 1001, Guide Specifications for Design of Metal Flagpoles.
- Designs using TIA-222 for antenna-supporting structures and antennas. Design using this standard shall be permitted for communication tower and steel antenna support structures.
- Wind tunnel tests in accordance with ASCE 49 and Sections 31.4 and 31.5 of ASCE 7.
- Wind loads for screen enclosures shall be determined in accordance with Section 2002.4.
- Exposed mechanical equipment or appliances fastened to a roof or installed on the ground in compliance with the code using rated stands, platforms, curbs, slabs, walls, or other means are deemed to comply with the wind resistance requirements of the 2007 Florida Building Code, as amended. Further support or enclosure of such mechanical equipment or appliances is not required by a state or local official having authority to enforce the Florida Building Code.
The provisions of ICC 600 are applicable only to buildings located within Exposure B or C as defined in Section 1609.4. The provisions of ICC 600, AWC WFCM and AISI S230 shall not apply to buildings sited on the upper half of an isolated hill, ridge or escarpment meeting the following conditions:
- The hill, ridge or escarpment is 60 feet (18 288 mm) or higher if located in Exposure B or 30 feet (9144 mm) or higher if located in Exposure C;
- The maximum average slope of the hill exceeds 10 percent; and
- The hill, ridge or escarpment is unobstructed upwind by other such topographic features for a distance from the high point of 50 times the height of the hill or 1 mile (1.61 km), whichever is greater.
In wind-borne debris regions, glazed openings in buildings shall be impact resistant or protected with an impact-resistant covering meeting the requirements of ANSI/DASMA 115 (for garage doors and rolling doors) or TAS 201, 202 and 203, AAMA 506, ASTM E1996 and ASTM E1886 referenced herein, or an approved impact-resistant standard as follows:
- Glazed openings located within 30 feet (9144 mm) of grade shall meet the requirements of the large missile test of ASTM E1996.
- Glazed openings located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) above grade shall meet the provisions of the small missile test of ASTM E1996.
- Storage sheds that are not designed for human habitation and that have a floor area of 720 square feet (67 m2) or less are not required to comply with the mandatory windborne debris impact standards of this code.
- Openings in sunrooms, balconies or enclosed porches constructed under existing roofs or decks are not required to be protected provided the spaces are separated from the building interior by a wall and all openings in the separating wall are protected in accordance with Section 1609.1.2 above. Such spaces shall be permitted to be designed as either partially enclosed or enclosed structures.
- Wood structural panels with a minimum thickness of 7/16 inch (11.1 mm) and maximum span between lines of fasteners of 44 inches (1118 mm) shall be permitted for opening protection in Group R-3 or R-4 occupancy buildings with a mean roof height of 33 feet (10 058 mm) or less where Vult is 180 mph (80 m/s) or less. Panels shall be precut to overlap the wall such that they extend a minimum of 2 inches (50.8 mm) beyond the lines of fasteners and are attached to the framing surrounding the opening containing the product with the glazed opening. Panels shall be predrilled as required for the attachment method and secured with corrosion-resistant attachment hardware permanently installed on the building.
- Attachments shall be designed to resist the components and cladding loads determined in accordance with the provisions of ASCE 7, with corrosion-resistant attachment hardware provided and anchors permanently installed on the building.
- As an alternative, panels shall be fastened at 16 inches (406.4 mm) on center along the edges of the opposing long sides of the panel.
- For wood frame construction, fasteners shall be located on the wall such that they are embedded into the wall framing members, nominally a minimum of 1 inch (25.4 mm) from the edge of the opening and 2 inches (50.8 mm) inward from the panel edge. Permanently installed anchors used for buildings with wood frame wall construction shall have the threaded portion that will be embedded into the wall framing based on 1/4-inch (6.35 mm) lagscrews and shall be long enough to penetrate through the exterior wall covering with sufficient embedment length to provide an allowable minimum 300 pounds ASD design withdrawal capacity.
- For concrete or masonry wall construction, fasteners shall be located on the wall a minimum of 11/2 inches (37.9 mm) from the edge of the opening and 2 inches (50.8 mm) inward of the panel edge. Permanently installed anchors in concrete or masonry wall construction shall have an allowable minimum 300 pounds ASD design withdrawal capacity and an allowable minimum 525 pounds ASD design shear capacity with a 11/2 inch edge distance. Hex nuts, washered wing-nuts, or bolts used to attach the wood structural panels to the anchors shall be minimum 1/4-inch (6.4 mm) hardware and shall be installed with or have integral washers with a minimum 1-inch (25 mm) outside diameter.
- Vibration-resistant alternative attachments designed to resist the component and cladding loads determined in accordance with provisions of ASCE 7 shall be permitted.
- Glazing in Risk Category I buildings, including greenhouses that are occupied for growing plants on a production or research basis, without public access shall be permitted to be unprotected.
- Glazing in Risk Category II, III or IV buildings located over 60 feet (18 288 mm) above the ground and over 30 feet (9144 mm) above aggregate surface roofs located within 1,500 feet (458 m) of the building shall be permitted to be unprotected.
Louvers protecting intake and exhaust ventilation ducts not assumed to be open that are located within 30 feet (9144 mm) of grade shall meet the requirements of AMCA 540 or shall be protected by an impact-resistant cover complying with the large missile test of ASTM E1996 or an approved impact-resistance standard. Louvers required to be open for life safety purposes such as providing a breathable atmosphere shall meet the requirements of AMCA 540.
The text of Section 6.2.2 of ASTM E1996 shall be substituted as follows:
6.2.2 Unless otherwise specified, select the wind zone based on the strength design wind speed, Vult, as follows:
18.104.22.168 Wind Zone 1—130 mph ≤ ultimate design wind speed, Vult < 140 mph.
22.214.171.124 Wind Zone 2—140 mph ≤ ultimate design wind speed, Vult < 150 mph at greater than one mile (1.6 km) from the coastline. The coastline shall be measured from the mean high water mark.
126.96.36.199 Wind Zone 3—150 mph (58 m/s) ≤ ultimate design wind speed, Vult ≤ 170 mph (63 m/s), or 140 mph (54 m/s) ≤ ultimate design wind speed, Vult ≤ 170 mph (63 m/s) and within one mile (1.6 km) of the coastline. The coastline shall be measured from the mean high water mark.
188.8.131.52 Wind Zone 4— ultimate design wind speed, Vult >170 mph (63 m/s).
Garage door glazed opening protection for wind-borne debris shall meet the requirements of an approved impact-resisting standard or ANSI/DASMA 115.
Impact-resistant coverings shall be tested at 1.5 times the design pressure (positive or negative) expressed in pounds per square feet as determined by the Florida Building Code, Building Section 1609 or ASCE 7, for which the specimen is to be tested. The design pressures, as determined from ASCE 7, are permitted to be multiplied by 0.6.
The ultimate design wind speed, Vult, in mph, for the determination of the wind loads shall be determined by Figures 1609.3(1), 1609.3(2), 1609.3(3) and 1609.3(4). The ultimate design wind speed, Vult, for use in the design of Risk Category II buildings and structures shall be obtained from Figure 1609.3(1). The ultimate design wind speed, Vult, for use in the design of Risk Category III buildings and structures shall be obtained from Figure 1609.3(2). The ultimate design wind speed, Vult, for use in the design of Risk Category IV buildings and structures shall be obtained from Figure 1609.3(3). The ultimate design wind speed, Vult, for use in the design of Risk Category I buildings and structures shall be obtained from Figure 1609.3(4). The ultimate design wind speed, Vult, for the special wind regions indicated near mountainous terrain and near gorges shall be in accordance with local jurisdiction requirements. The ultimate design wind speeds, Vult, determined by the local jurisdiction shall be in accordance with Chapter 26 of ASCE 7. The exact location of wind speed lines shall be established by local ordinance using recognized physical landmarks such as major roads, canals, rivers and lake shores wherever possible.
Where required, the ultimate design wind speeds of Figures 1609.3(1), 1609.3(2), 1609.3(3) and 1609.3(4) shall be converted to nominal design wind speeds, Vasd, using Table 1609.3.1 or Equation 16-33.
WIND SPEED CONVERSIONSa, b, c
For each wind direction considered, an exposure category that adequately reflects the characteristics of ground surface irregularities shall be determined for the site at which the building or structure is to be constructed. Account shall be taken of variations in ground surface roughness that arise from natural topography and vegetation as well as from constructed features.
For each selected wind direction at which the wind loads are to be evaluated, the exposure of the building or structure shall be determined for the two upwind sectors extending 45 degrees (0.79 rad) either side of the selected wind direction. The exposures in these two sectors shall be determined in accordance with Sections 1609.4.2 and 1609.4.3 and the exposure resulting in the highest wind loads shall be used to represent winds from that direction.
A ground surface roughness within each 45-degree (0.79 rad) sector shall be determined for a distance upwind of the site as defined in Section 1609.4.3 from the categories defined below, for the purpose of assigning an exposure category as defined in Section 1609.4.3.
- Urban and suburban areas, wooded areas or other terrain with numerous closely spaced obstructions having the size of single-family dwellings or larger.
- Open terrain with scattered obstructions having heights generally less than 30 feet (9144 mm). This category includes flat open country, and grasslands.
- Flat, unobstructed areas and water surfaces. This category includes smooth mud flats, salt flats and unbroken ice.
An exposure category shall be determined in accordance with the following:
- For buildings with a mean roof height of less than or equal to 30 feet (9144 mm), Exposure B shall apply where the ground surface roughness, as defined by Surface Roughness B, prevails in the upwind direction for a distance of at least 1,500 feet (457 m). For buildings with a mean roof height greater than 30 feet (9144 mm), Exposure B shall apply where Surface Roughness B prevails in the upwind direction for a distance of at least 2,600 feet (792 m) or 20 times the height of the building, whichever is greater.
- Exposure C shall apply for all cases where Exposure B or D does not apply.
- Exposure D shall apply where the ground surface roughness, as defined by Surface Roughness D, prevails in the upwind direction for a distance of at least 5,000 feet (1524 m) or 20 times the height of the building, whichever is greater. Exposure D shall also apply where the ground surface roughness immediately upwind of the site is B or C, and the site is within a distance of 600 feet (183 m) or 20 times the building height, whichever is greater, from an Exposure D condition as defined in the previous sentence.
The roof deck shall be designed to withstand the wind pressures determined in accordance with ASCE 7.
Exception: Rigid tile roof coverings that are air permeable and installed over a roof deck complying with Section 1609.5.1 are permitted to be designed in accordance with Section 1609.5.3.
Wind loads on rigid tile roof coverings shall be determined in accordance with the following equation:
b = Exposed width, feet (mm) of the roof tile.
CL = Lift coefficient. The lift coefficient for concrete and clay tile shall be 0.2 or shall be determined by test in accordance with Section 1504.2.1.
GCp = Roof pressure coefficient for each applicable roof zone determined from Chapter 30 of ASCE 7. Roof coefficients shall not be adjusted for internal pressure.
L = Length, feet (mm) of the roof tile.
La = Moment arm, feet (mm) from the axis of rotation to the point of uplift on the roof tile. The point of uplift shall be taken at 0.76L from the head of the tile and the middle of the exposed width. For roof tiles with nails or screws (with or without a tail clip), the axis of rotation shall be taken as the head of the tile for direct deck application or as the top edge of the batten for battened applications. For roof tiles fastened only by a nail or screw along the side of the tile, the axis of rotation shall be determined by testing. For roof tiles installed with battens and fastened only by a clip near the tail of the tile, the moment arm shall be determined about the top edge of the batten with consideration given for the point of rotation of the tiles based on straight bond or broken bond and the tile profile.
Ma = Aerodynamic uplift moment, feet-pounds (N-mm) acting to raise the tail of the tile.
qh = Wind velocity pressure, psf (kN/m2) determined from Section 26.10.2 of ASCE 7.
Concrete and clay roof tiles complying with the following limitations shall be designed to withstand the aerodynamic uplift moment as determined by this section.
- The roof tiles shall be either loose laid on battens, mechanically fastened, mortar set or adhesive set.
- The roof tiles shall be installed on solid sheathing that has been designed as components and cladding.
- An underlayment shall be installed in accordance with Chapter 15.
- The tile shall be single lapped interlocking with a minimum head lap of not less than 2 inches (51 mm).
- The length of the tile shall be between 1.0 and 1.75 feet (305 mm and 533 mm).
- The exposed width of the tile shall be between 0.67 and 1.25 feet (204 mm and 381 mm).
- The maximum thickness of the tail of the tile shall not exceed 1.3 inches (33 mm).
- Roof tiles using mortar set or adhesive set systems shall have at least two-thirds of the tile's area free of mortar or adhesive contact.
Pressures from Table 1609.6(1) for wind loading actions on garage doors and rolling doors for buildings designed as enclosed shall be permitted.
|ULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED (Vult) DETERMINED IN ACCORDANCE WITH SECTION 1609.3 (MPH - 3 SECOND GUST)|
|100 MPH||110 MPH||120 MPH||130 MPH||140 MPH||150 MPH||160 MPH||170 MPH||180 MPH||190 MPH||200 MPH|
|Roof Angle 0 — 10 degrees|
|8||8||+ 10.0||— 10.0||+ 10.5||— 11.9||+ 12.5||— 14.2||+ 14.7||— 16.6||+ 17.1||— 19.3||+ 19.6||— 22.2||+ 22.3||— 25.2||+ 25.1||— 28.5||+ 28.2||— 31.9||+ 31.4||— 35.5||+ 34.8||— 39.4|
|10||10||+ 10.0||— 10.0||+ 10.2||— 11.4||+ 12.1||— 13.6||+ 14.2||— 16.0||+ 16.5||— 18.5||+ 18.9||— 21.2||+ 21.5||— 24.2||+ 24.3||— 27.3||+ 27.3||— 30.6||+ 30.4||— 34.1||+ 33.7||— 37.8|
|14||14||+ 10.0||— 10.0||+ 10.0||— 10.8||+ 11.5||— 12.8||+ 13.5||— 15.0||+ 15.7||— 17.4||+ 18.0||— 20.0||+ 20.5||— 22.8||+ 23.1||— 25.7||+ 25.9||— 28.8||+ 28.9||— 32.1||+ 32.0||— 35.6|
|Roof Angle > 10 degrees|
|9||7||+10.0||—10.9||+ 11.4||— 12.9||+ 13.7||— 15.5||+ 16.1||— 18.2||+ 18.5||— 20.9||+ 21.3||— 24.1||+ 24.3||— 27.5||+ 27.6||— 31.2||+ 30.6||— 34.6||+ 34.2||— 38.6||+ 38.0||— 43.0|
|16||7||+10.0||—10.3||+ 10.9||— 12.2||+ 13.1||— 14.6||+ 15.5||— 17.2||+ 17.7||— 19.7||+ 20.4||— 22.7||+ 23.3||— 26.0||+ 26.4||— 29.4||+ 29.3||— 32.6||+ 32.7||— 36.5||+ 36.4||— 40.6|
|78 MPH||85 MPH||93 MPH||101 MPH||108 MPH||116 MPH||124 MPH||132 MPH||139 MPH||147 MPH||155 MPH|
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 1.609 km/h, 1 psf = 47.88 N/m2.
- For door sizes or wind speeds between those given above the load may be interpolated, otherwise use the load associated with the lower door size.
- Table values shall be adjusted for height and exposure by multiplying by the adjustment coefficient in Table 1609.6(2). Minimum positive wind load shall be 10 psf and minimum negative wind load shall be 10 psf.
- Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting toward and away from the building surfaces.
- Negative pressures assume door has 2 feet of width in building's end zone.
- Table values include the 0.6 load reduction factor.
Foundation walls and retaining walls shall be designed to resist lateral soil loads. Soil loads specified in Table 1610.1 shall be used as the minimum design lateral soil loads unless determined otherwise by a geotechnical investigation in accordance with Section 1803. Foundation walls and other walls in which horizontal movement is restricted at the top shall be designed for at-rest pressure. Retaining walls free to move and rotate at the top shall be permitted to be designed for active pressure. Design lateral pressure from surcharge loads shall be added to the lateral earth pressure load. Design lateral pressure shall be increased if soils at the site are expansive. Foundation walls shall be designed to support the weight of the full hydrostatic pressure of undrained backfill unless a drainage system is installed in accordance with Sections 1805.4.2 and 1805.4.3.
Exception: Foundation walls extending not more than 8 feet (2438 mm) below grade and laterally supported at the top by flexible diaphragms shall be permitted to be designed for active pressure.
LATERAL SOIL LOAD
|DESCRIPTION OF BACKFILL MATERIALc||UNIFIED SOIL |
|DESIGN LATERAL SOIL LOADa |
(pound per square foot per foot of depth)
|Active pressure||At-rest pressure|
|Well-graded, clean gravels; gravel-sand mixes||GW||30||60|
|Poorly graded clean gravels; gravel-sand mixes||GP||30||60|
|Silty gravels, poorly graded gravel-sand mixes||GM||40||60|
|Clayey gravels, poorly graded gravel-and-clay mixes||GC||45||60|
|Well-graded, clean sands; gravelly sand mixes||SW||30||60|
|Poorly graded clean sands; sand-gravel mixes||SP||30||60|
|Silty sands, poorly graded sand-silt mixes||SM||45||60|
|Sand-silt clay mix with plastic fines||SM-SC||45||100|
|Clayey sands, poorly graded sand-clay mixes||SC||60||100|
|Inorganic silts and clayey silts||ML||45||100|
|Mixture of inorganic silt and clay||ML-CL||60||100|
|Inorganic clays of low to medium plasticity||CL||60||100|
|Organic silts and silt clays, low plasticity||OL||Note b||Note b|
|Inorganic clayey silts, elastic silts||MH||Note b||Note b|
|Inorganic clays of high plasticity||CH||Note b||Note b|
|Organic clays and silty clays||OH||Note b||Note b|
For SI: 1 pound per square foot per foot of depth = 0.157 kPa/m, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
- Design lateral soil loads are given for moist conditions for the specified soils at their optimum densities. Actual field conditions shall govern. Submerged or saturated soil pressures shall include the weight of the buoyant soil plus the hydrostatic loads.
- Unsuitable as backfill material.
- The definition and classification of soil materials shall be in accordance with ASTM D2487.
Each portion of a roof shall be designed to sustain the load of rainwater that will accumulate on it if the primary drainage system for that portion is blocked plus the uniform load caused by water that rises above the inlet of the secondary drainage system at its design flow. The design rainfall shall be based on the 100-year hourly rainfall rate indicated in Figure 1611.1 or on other rainfall rates determined from approved local weather data.
For SI: R = 0.0098(ds + dh)
dh = Additional depth of water on the undeflected roof above the inlet of secondary drainage system at its design flow (i.e., the hydraulic head), in inches (mm).
ds = Depth of water on the undeflected roof up to the inlet of secondary drainage system when the primary drainage system is blocked (i.e., the static head), in inches (mm).
Susceptible bays of roofs shall be evaluated for ponding instability in accordance with Section 8.4 of ASCE 7.
Roofs equipped with hardware to control the rate of drainage shall be equipped with a secondary drainage system at a higher elevation that limits accumulation of water on the roof above that elevation. Such roofs shall be designed to sustain the load of rainwater that will accumulate on them to the elevation of the secondary drainage system plus the uniform load caused by water that rises above the inlet of the secondary drainage system at its design flow determined from Section 1611.1. Such roofs shall also be checked for ponding instability in accordance with Section 1611.2.
Within flood hazard areas as established in Section 1612.3, all new construction of buildings, structures and portions of buildings and structures, including substantial improvement and restoration of substantial damage to buildings and structures, shall be designed and constructed to resist the effects of flood hazards and flood loads. For buildings that are located in more than one flood hazard area, the provisions associated with the most restrictive flood hazard area shall apply.
CROSS REFERENCES DEFINING FLOOD-RESISTANT PROVISIONS OF THE FLORIDA BUILDING CODE
|Florida Building Code — Building|
|Chapter 1||Administration||Chapter 14||Exterior Walls|
|107||Construction Documents||Chapter 16||Structural Design|
|111||Certificates of Occupancy and Completion||1603||Construction Documents|
|117||Variances in Flood Hazard Areas||1605||Load Combinations|
|202||Definitions||Chapter 18||Soils and Foundations|
|1804||Excavation, Grading and Fill|
|Chapter 4||Special Detailed Requirements Based on Use and Occupancy||1805||Dampproofing and Waterproofing|
|450||Nursing Homes||Chapter 27||Electrical|
|453||Educational Facilities||2702||Emergency and Standby Power Systems|
|454||Swimming Pools and Bathing Places (Public And Private)|
|Chapter 30||Elevators and Conveying Systems|
|Chapter 8||Interior Finishes||3001||General|
|Chapter 31||Special Construction|
|Chapter 12||Interior Environment||3102||Membrane Structures|
|1203||Ventilation||3109||Coastal Construction Control Line|
|Florida Building Code — Residential|
|Chapter 2||Definitions||Chapter 20||Boilers and Water Heaters|
|Chapter 3||Building Planning||Chapter 22||Special Piping and Storage Systems|
|R301||Design Criteria||M2201||Oil Tanks|
|R309||Garages and Carports|
|R322||Flood-Resistant Construction||Chapter 24||Fuel Gas|
|R401||General||Chapter 26||General Plumbing Requirements|
|R404||Foundation and Retaining Walls||P2601||General|
|Chapter 27||Plumbing Fixtures|
|Chapter 13||General Mechanical System Requirements||P2705||Installation|
|Chapter 30||Sanitary Drainage|
|Chapter 14||Heating and Cooling Equipment||P3001||General|
|Chapter 16||Duct Systems||P3101||Vent Systems|
|Chapter 17||Combustion Air||Chapter 45||Private Swimming Pools|
|Florida Building Code — Existing Building|
|Chapter 2||Definitions||Chapter 7||Alterations — Level I|
|Chapter 3||Compliance Methods||Chapter 11||Additions|
|Chapter 4||Repairs||Chapter 12||Historic Buildings|
|Chapter 13||Relocated or Moved Buildings|
|Chapter 5||Prescriptive Compliance Method||1302||Requirements|
|503||Alterations||Chapter 14||Performance Compliance Methods|
|Florida Building Code — Mechanical|
|Chapter 3||General Regulations||Chapter 6||Duct Systems|
|M603||Duct Construction and Installation|
|M401||General||Chapter 12||Hydronic Piping|
|Chapter 5||Exhaust Systems|
|M501||General||Chapter 13||Fuel Oil Piping and Storage|
|M1305||Fuel Oil System Installation|
|Florida Building Code — Plumbing|
|Chapter 3||General Regulations|
|P309||Flood Hazard Resistance|
|Florida Building Code — Fuel Gas|
|Chapter 3||General Regulations|
To establish flood hazard areas, the applicable governing authority shall, by local flood plain management ordinance, adopt a flood hazard map and supporting data. The flood hazard map shall include, at a minimum, areas of special flood hazard as identified by the Federal Emergency Management Agency.
Where design flood elevations are not included in the flood hazard areas established in Section 1612.3, or where floodways are not designated, the building official is authorized to require the applicant to:
- Obtain and reasonably utilize any design flood elevation and floodway data available from a federal, state or other source; or
- Determine the design flood elevation and/or floodway in accordance with accepted hydrologic and hydraulic engineering practices used to define special flood hazard areas. Determinations shall be undertaken by a registered design professional who shall document that the technical methods used reflect currently accepted engineering practice.
In riverine flood hazard areas where design flood elevations are specified but floodways have not been designated, the applicant shall provide a floodway analysis that demonstrates that the proposed work will not increase the design flood elevation more than 1 foot (305 mm) at any point within the jurisdiction of the applicable governing authority.
Table 6-1 and Section 6.2.1 in ASCE 24 shall be modified as follows:
- The title of Table 6.1 shall be "Minimum Elevation of Floodproofing, Relative to Base Flood Elevation (BFE) or Design Flood Elevation (DFE), in Coastal A Zones and in Other Flood Hazard Areas that are not High Risk Flood Hazard Areas."
- Section 6.2.1 shall be modified to permit dry floodproofing in Coastal A Zones, as follows: "Dry floodproofing of nonresidential structures and nonresidential areas of mixed-use structures shall not be allowed unless such structures are located outside of High Risk Flood Hazard areas and Coastal High Hazard Areas. Dry floodproofing shall be permitted in Coastal A Zones provided wave loads and the potential for erosion and local scour are accounted for in the design. Dry floodproofing of residential structures or residential areas of mixed-use structures shall not be permitted."
Modify Section 9.6 in ASCE 24 by adding an exception as follows:
9.6 Pools. In-ground and above-ground pools shall be designed to withstand all flood-related loads and load combinations. Mechanical equipment for pools such as pumps, heating systems and filtering systems, and their associated electrical systems, shall comply with Chapter 7.
Exception: Equipment for pools, spas and water features shall be permitted below the elevation required in Table 7-1, provided it is elevated to the extent practical, is anchored to prevent flotation and resist flood forces, and is supplied by branch circuits that have ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection.
The following documentation shall be prepared and sealed by a registered design professional and submitted to the building official:
- 1.1. The elevation of the lowest floor, including the basement, as required by the lowest floor elevation inspection in Section 110.3, Building, 1.1 and for the final inspection in Section 110.3, Building, 5.1.
- 1.2. For fully enclosed areas below the design flood elevation where provisions to allow for the automatic entry and exit of floodwaters do not meet the minimum requirements in Section 184.108.40.206 of ASCE 24, construction documents shall include a statement that the design will provide for equalization of hydrostatic flood forces in accordance with Section 220.127.116.11 of ASCE 24.
- 1.3. For dry floodproofed nonresidential buildings, construction documents shall include a statement that the dry floodproofing is designed in accordance with ASCE 24.
- 2.1. The elevation of the bottom of the lowest horizontal structural member as required by the lowest floor elevation inspection in Section 110.3, Building, 1.1 and for the final inspection in Section 110.3, Building, 5.1.
- 2.2. Construction documents shall include a statement that the building is designed in accordance with ASCE 24, including that the pile or column foundation and building or structure to be attached thereto is designed to be anchored to resist flotation, collapse and lateral movement due to the effects of wind and flood loads acting simultaneously on all building components, and other load requirements of Chapter 16.2.3. For breakaway walls designed to have a resistance of more than 20 psf (0.96 kN/m2) determined using allowable stress design, construction documents shall include a statement that the breakaway wall is designed in accordance with ASCE 24.
Every structure, and portion thereof, including nonstructural components that are permanently attached to structures and their supports and attachments, shall be designed and constructed to resist the effects of earthquake motions in accordance with ASCE 7, excluding Chapter 14 and Appendix 11A. The seismic design category for a structure is permitted to be determined in accordance with Section 1613 or ASCE 7.
- Detached one- and two-family dwellings, assigned to Seismic Design Category A, B or C, or located where the mapped short-period spectral response acceleration, SS, is less than 0.4 g.
- The seismic force-resisting system of wood-frame buildings that conform to the provisions of Section 2308 are not required to be analyzed as specified in this section.
- Agricultural storage structures intended only for incidental human occupancy.
- Structures that require special consideration of their response characteristics and environment that are not addressed by this code or ASCE 7 and for which other regulations provide seismic criteria, such as vehicular bridges, electrical transmission towers, hydraulic structures, buried utility lines and their appurtenances and nuclear reactors.
Seismic ground motion values shall be determined in accordance with this section.
The parameters SS and S1 shall be determined from the 0.2 and 1-second spectral response accelerations shown on Figures 1613.3.1(1) through 1613.3.1(8). Where S1 is less than or equal to 0.04 and SS is less than or equal to 0.15, the structure is permitted to be assigned Seismic Design Category A.
Based on the site soil properties, the site shall be classified as Site Class A, B, C, D, E or F in accordance with Chapter 20 of ASCE 7.
1613.3.3 Site Coefficients and Adjusted Maximum Considered Earthquake Spectral Response Acceleration Parameters
The maximum considered earthquake spectral response acceleration for short periods, SMS, and at 1-second period, SM1, adjusted for site class effects shall be determined by Equations 16-37 and 16-38, respectively:
VALUES OF SITE COEFFICIENT Fa a
|SITE CLASS||MAPPED SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATION AT SHORT PERIOD|
|Ss ≤ 0.25||Ss = 0.50||Ss = 0.75||Ss = 1.00||Ss ≥ 1.25|
|F||Note b||Note b||Note b||Note b||Note b|
- Use straight-line interpolation for intermediate values of mapped spectral response acceleration at short period, Ss.
- Values shall be determined in accordance with Section 11.4.7 of ASCE 7.
VALUES OF SITE COEFFICIENT FV a
|SITE CLASS||MAPPED SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATION AT 1-SECOND PERIOD|
|S1 ≤ 0.1||S1 = 0.2||S1 = 0.3||S1 = 0.4||S1 ≥ 0.5|
|F||Note b||Note b||Note b||Note b||Note b|
- Use straight-line interpolation for intermediate values of mapped spectral response acceleration at 1-second period, S1.
- Values shall be determined in accordance with Section 11.4.7 of ASCE 7.
Five-percent damped design spectral response acceleration at short periods, SDS, and at 1-second period, SD1, shall be determined from Equations 16-39 and 16-40, respectively:
Structures classified as Risk Category I, II or III that are located where the mapped spectral response acceleration parameter at 1-second period, S1, is greater than or equal to 0.75 shall be assigned to Seismic Design Category E. Structures classified as Risk Category IV that are located where the mapped spectral response acceleration parameter at 1-second period, S1, is greater than or equal to 0.75 shall be assigned to Seismic Design Category F. All other structures shall be assigned to a seismic design category based on their risk category and the design spectral response acceleration parameters, SDS and SD1, determined in accordance with Section 1613.3.4 or the site-specific procedures of ASCE 7. Each building and structure shall be assigned to the more severe seismic design category in accordance with Table 1613.3.5(1) or 1613.3.5(2), irrespective of the fundamental period of vibration of the structure, T.
SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY BASED ON SHORT-PERIOD (0.2 second) RESPONSE ACCELERATION
|VALUE OF SDS||RISK CATEGORY|
|I or II||III||IV|
|SDS < 0.167g||A||A||A|
|0.167g ≤ SDS < 0.33g||B||B||C|
|0.33g ≤ SDS < 0.50g||C||C||D|
|0.50g ≤ SDS||D||D||D|
Where S1 is less than 0.75, the seismic design category is permitted to be determined from Table 1613.3.5(1) alone when all of the following apply:
- In each of the two orthogonal directions, the approximate fundamental period of the structure, Ta, in each of the two orthogonal directions determined in accordance with Section 18.104.22.168 of ASCE 7, is less than 0.8 Ts determined in accordance with Section 11.4.5 of ASCE 7.
- In each of the two orthogonal directions, the fundamental period of the structure used to calculate the story drift is less than Ts.
- Equation 12.8-2 of ASCE 7 is used to determine the seismic response coefficient, Cs.
- The diaphragms are rigid or are permitted to be idealized as rigid in accordance with Section 12.3.1 of ASCE 7 or, for diaphragms permitted to be idealized as flexible in accordance with Section 12.3.1 of ASCE 7, the distances between vertical elements of the seismic force-resisting system do not exceed 40 feet (12 192 mm).
Where the alternate simplified design procedure of ASCE 7 is used, the seismic design category shall be determined in accordance with ASCE 7.
The provisions of Section 1613.4 shall be permitted as alternatives to the relevant provisions of ASCE 7.
Add the following exception to the end of Section 22.214.171.124 of ASCE 7:
Exception: For isolated structures designed in accordance with this standard, the structural system limitations including structural height limits, in Table 12.2-1 for ordinary steel concentrically braced frames (OCBFs) as defined in Chapter 11 and ordinary moment frames (OMFs) as defined in Chapter 11 are permitted to be taken as 160 feet (48 768 mm) for structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F, provided that the following conditions are satisfied:
The provisions of Section 1613.5 shall be permitted as an amendment to the relevant provisions of ASCE 7.
Modify ASCE 7 Section 126.96.36.199.1 as follows:
188.8.131.52.1 Transfer of anchorage forces into diaphragm. Diaphragms shall be provided with continuous ties or struts between diaphragm chords to distribute these anchorage forces into the diaphragms. Diaphragm connections shall be positive, mechanical or welded. Added chords are permitted to be used to form subdiaphragms to transmit the anchorage forces to the main continuous cross-ties. The maximum length-to-width ratio of a wood, wood structural panel or untopped steel deck sheathed structural subdiaphragm that serves as part of the continuous tie system shall be 2.5 to 1. Connections and anchorages capable of resisting the prescribed forces shall be provided between the diaphragm and the attached components. Connections shall extend into the diaphragm a sufficient distance to develop the force transferred into the diaphragm.
Ballasted, roof-mounted photovoltaic panel systems need not be rigidly attached to the roof or supporting structure. Ballasted nonpenetrating systems shall be designed and installed only on roofs with slopes not more than one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal. Ballasted nonpenetrating systems shall be designed to resist sliding and uplift resulting from lateral and vertical forces as required by Section 1605, using a coefficient of friction determined by acceptable engineering principles. In structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, E or F, ballasted nonpenetrating systems shall be designed to accommodate seismic displacement determined by nonlinear response-history analysis or shake-table testing, using input motions consistent with ASCE 7 lateral and vertical seismic forces for nonstructural components on roofs.
Frame structures constructed primarily of reinforced or prestressed concrete, either cast-in-place or precast, or a combination of these, shall conform to the requirements of Section 4.10 of ACI 318. Where ACI 318 requires that nonprestressed reinforcing or prestressing steel pass through the region bounded by the longitudinal column reinforcement, that reinforcing or prestressing steel shall have a minimum nominal tensile strength equal to two-thirds of the required one-way vertical strength of the connection of the floor or roof system to the column in each direction of beam or slab reinforcement passing through the column.
Exception: Where concrete slabs with continuous reinforcement having an area not less than 0.0015 times the concrete area in each of two orthogonal directions are present and are either monolithic with or equivalently bonded to beams, girders or columns, the longitudinal reinforcing or prestressing steel passing through the column reinforcement shall have a nominal tensile strength of one-third of the required one-way vertical strength of the connection of the floor or roof system to the column in each direction of beam or slab reinforcement passing through the column.
1615.3.2 Structural Steel, Open Web Steel Joist or Joist Girder, or Composite Steel and Concrete Frame Structures
Frame structures constructed with a structural steel frame or a frame composed of open web steel joists, joist girders with or without other structural steel elements or a frame composed of composite steel or composite steel joists and reinforced concrete elements shall conform to the requirements of this section.
End connections of all beams and girders shall have a minimum nominal axial tensile strength equal to the required vertical shear strength for allowable stress design (ASD) or two-thirds of the required shear strength for load and resistance factor design (LRFD) but not less than 10 kips (45 kN). For the purpose of this section, the shear force and the axial tensile force need not be considered to act simultaneously.
Exception: Where beams, girders, open web joist and joist girders support a concrete slab or concrete slab on metal deck that is attached to the beam or girder with not less than 3/8-inch-diameter (9.5 mm) headed shear studs, at a spacing of not more than 12 inches (305 mm) on center, averaged over the length of the member, or other attachment having equivalent shear strength, and the slab contains continuous distributed reinforcement in each of two orthogonal directions with an area not less than 0.0015 times the concrete area, the nominal axial tension strength of the end connection shall be permitted to be taken as half the required vertical shear strength for ASD or one-third of the required shear strength for LRFD, but not less than 10 kips (45 kN).
Longitudinal ties shall consist of continuous reinforcement in slabs; continuous or spliced decks or sheathing; continuous or spliced members framing to, within or across walls; or connections of continuous framing members to walls. Longitudinal ties shall extend across interior load-bearing walls and shall connect to exterior load-bearing walls and shall be spaced at not greater than 10 feet (3038 mm) on center. Ties shall have a minimum nominal tensile strength, TT, given by Equation 16-41. For ASD the minimum nominal tensile strength shall be permitted to be taken as 1.5 times the allowable tensile stress times the area of the tie.
L = The span of the horizontal element in the direction of the tie, between bearing walls, feet (m).
w = The weight per unit area of the floor or roof in the span being tied to or across the wall, psf (N/m2).
S = The spacing between ties, feet (m).
Transverse ties shall consist of continuous reinforcement in slabs; continuous or spliced decks or sheathing; continuous or spliced members framing to, within or across walls; or connections of continuous framing members to walls. Transverse ties shall be placed no farther apart than the spacing of load-bearing walls. Transverse ties shall have minimum nominal tensile strength TT, given by Equation 16-41. For ASD the minimum nominal tensile strength shall be permitted to be taken as 1.5 times the allowable tensile stress times the area of the tie.
Perimeter ties shall consist of continuous reinforcement in slabs; continuous or spliced decks or sheathing; continuous or spliced members framing to, within or across walls; or connections of continuous framing members to walls. Ties around the perimeter of each floor and roof shall be located within 4 feet (1219 mm) of the edge and shall provide a nominal strength in tension not less than Tp, given by Equation 16-42. For ASD the minimum nominal tensile strength shall be permitted to be taken as 1.5 times the allowable tensile stress times the area of the tie.
Vertical ties shall consist of continuous or spliced reinforcing, continuous or spliced members, wall sheathing or other engineered systems. Vertical tension ties shall be provided in bearing walls and shall be continuous over the height of the building. The minimum nominal tensile strength for vertical ties within a bearing wall shall be equal to the weight of the wall within that story plus the weight of the diaphragm tributary to the wall in the story below. No fewer than two ties shall be provided for each wall. The