CODES

ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Building Code 2012 (IBC 2012)

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 Use and Occupancy Classification

Chapter 4 Special Detailed Requirements Based on Use and Occupancy

Chapter 5 General Building Heights and Areas

Chapter 6 Types of Construction

Chapter 7 Fire and Smoke Protection Features

Chapter 8 Interior Finishes

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Accessibility

Chapter 12 Interior Environment

Chapter 13 Energy Efficiency

Chapter 14 Exterior Walls

Chapter 15 Roof Assemblies and Rooftop Structures

Chapter 16 Structural Design

Chapter 17 Special Inspections and Tests

Chapter 18 Soils and Foundations

Chapter 19 Concrete

Chapter 20 Aluminum

Chapter 21 Masonry

Chapter 22 Steel

Chapter 23 Wood

Chapter 24 Glass and Glazing

Chapter 25 Gypsum Board and Plaster

Chapter 26 Plastic

Chapter 27 Electrical

Chapter 28 Mechanical Systems

Chapter 29 Plumbing Systems

Chapter 30 Elevators and Conveying Systems

Chapter 31 Special Construction

Chapter 32 Encroachments Into the Public Right-Of-Way

Chapter 33 Safeguards During Construction

Chapter 34 Existing Structures

Chapter 35 Referenced Standards

Chapter 36 Florida Fire Prevention Code

Appendix A Employee Qualifications

Appendix B Chapter 9b-52 F.A.C. Florida Standard for Passive Radon-Resistant Construction

Appendix C Florida Standard for Mitigation of Radon in Existing Buildings

Appendix D Fire Districts

Appendix E Florida Standard for Radon-Resistant New Commercial Construction

Appendix F Rodentproofing

Appendix G Flood-Resistant Construction

Appendix H Signs

Appendix I Patio Covers

Appendix J Grading

Appendix K Administrative Provisions

Appendix L Earthquake Recording Instrumentation

Appendix M Tsunami-Generated Flood Hazard

The provisions of this chapter shall govern the materials, design, construction and quality of glass, light-transmitting ceramic and light-transmitting plastic panels for exterior and interior use in both vertical and sloped applications in buildings and structures.

Exception: Buildings and structures located within the high-velocity hurricane zone shall also comply with the provisions of Sections 2410 through 2415, excluding Section 2405.5.
The installation of replacement glass shall be as required for new installations.

The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

DALLE GLASS.

DECORATIVE GLASS.

Each pane shall bear the manufacturer’s mark designating the type and thickness of the glass or glazing material. With the exception of tempered glazing materials or laminated materials, the identification shall not be omitted unless approved and an affidavit is furnished by the glazing contractor certifying that each light is glazed in accordance with approved construction documents that comply with the provisions of this chapter. Safety glazing shall be identified in accordance with Section 2406.3.

Each pane of tempered glass, except tempered spandrel glass, shall be permanently identified by the manufacturer and each pane of laminated glass shall be permanently identified with the laminator, overall glass thickness and trade name of interlayer. The identification mark shall be acid etched, sand blasted, ceramic fired, laser etched, embossed or of a type that, once applied, cannot be removed without being destroyed.

Tempered or laminated spandrel glass shall be provided with a removable paper marking by the manufacturer.

Where one or more sides of any pane of glass are not firmly supported, or are subjected to unusual load conditions, detailed construction documents, detailed shop drawings and analysis or test data assuring safe performance for the specific installation shall be prepared by a registered design professional.
To be considered firmly supported, the framing members for each individual pane of glass shall be designed so the deflection of the edge of the glass perpendicular to the glass pane shall not exceed 1/175 of the glass edge length or 3/4 inch (19.1 mm), whichever is less, when subjected to the larger of the positive or negative load where loads are combined as specified in Section 1605.
Where interior glazing is installed adjacent to a walking surface, the differential deflection of two adjacent unsupported edges shall not be greater than the thickness of the panels when a force of 50 pounds per linear foot (plf) (730 N/m) is applied horizontally to one panel at any point up to 42 inches (1067 mm) above the walking surface.

Float, wired and patterned glass in louvered windows and jalousies shall be no thinner than nominal 3/16 inch (4.8 mm) and no longer than 48 inches (1219 mm). Exposed glass edges shall be smooth.

Wired glass with wire exposed on longitudinal edges shall not be used in louvered windows or jalousies.

Where other glass types are used, the design shall be submitted to the building official for approval.

Glass sloped 15 degrees (0.26 rad) or less from vertical in windows, curtain and window walls, doors and other exterior applications shall be designed to resist the wind loads due to ultimate design wind speed, Vult, in Section 1609 (HVHZ shall follow Section 1620) for components and cladding. Glass in glazed curtain walls, glazed storefronts and glazed partitions shall meet the seismic requirements of ASCE 7, Section 13.5.9. The load resistance of glass under uniform load shall be determined in accordance with ASTM E 1300.

The design of vertical glazing shall be based on the following equation:

0.6FgwFga(Equation 24-1)

where:

Fgw =Wind load on the glass due to ultimate design wind speed, Vult, computed in accordance with Section 1609.
Fga=Short duration load on the glass as determined in accordance with ASTM E 1300.

Glass sloped more than 15 degrees (0.26 rad) from vertical in skylights, sunrooms, sloped roofs and other exterior applications shall be designed to resist the most critical of the following combinations of loads.

Fg = 0.6Wo– D (Equation 24-2)
Fg= 0.6Wi + D + 0.5 S(Equation 24-3)
Fg= 0.3Wi + D + S(Equation 24-4)

where:

D=Glass dead load psf (kN/m2).
For glass sloped 30 degrees (0.52 rad) or less from horizontal,
=13 tg (For SI: 0.0245 tg).
For glass sloped more than 30 degrees (0.52 rad) from horizontal,
=13 tg cos θ (For SI: 0.0245 tg cos ).
Fg=Total load, psf (kN/m2) on glass.
S=Snow load, psf (kN/m2) as determined in Section1608.
tg=Total glass thickness, inches (mm) of glass panes and plies.
Wi=Inward wind force, psf (kN/m2) due to ultimate design wind speed, Vult, as calculated in Section 1609.
Wo =Outward wind force, psf (kN/m2) due to ultimate design wind speed, Vult, as calculated in Section 1609.
θ=Angle of slope from horizontal.
Exception: The design pressure rating of unit skylights and tubular daylighting devices shall be determined in accordance with Section 2405.5.

The design of sloped glazing shall be based on the following equation:

FgFga(Equation 24-5)

where:

Fg=Total load on the glass determined from the load
combinations above.
Fga=Short duration load resistance of the glass as
determined according to ASTM E 1300 for Equations
24-2 and24-3; or the long duration load resistance of
the glass as determined according to ASTM E 1300 for Equation24-4.

Wired glass sloped 15 degrees (0.26 rad) or less from vertical in windows, curtain and window walls, doors and other exterior applications shall be designed to resist the wind loads in Section 1609 (HVHZ shall comply with Section 1620) for components and cladding according to the following equation:

0.6Fgw< 0.5 Fge(Equation 24-6)
where:
Fgw=Is the wind load on the glass due to ultimate design
wind speed, Vult, computed per Section1609.
Fge=Nonfactored load from ASTM E 1300 using a
thickness designation for monolithic glass that is not
greater than the thickness of wired glass.

Wired glass sloped more than 15 degrees (0.26 rad) from vertical in skylights, sunspaces, sloped roofs and other exterior applications shall be designed to resist the most critical of the combinations of loads from Section 2404.2.

For Equations 24-2 and 24-3:
Fg< 0.5 Fge(Equation 24-7)
For Equation 24-4:
Fg< 0.3 Fge(Equation 24-8)
where:
Fg=Total load on the glass, as determined by Equations
24-2,24-3 or24-4.
Fge=Nonfactored load from ASTM E 1300.

Patterned glass sloped 15 degrees (0.26 rad) or less from vertical in windows, curtain and window walls, doors and other exterior applications shall be designed to resist the wind loads in Section 1609 (HVHZ shall comply with Section 1620) for components and cladding according to the following equation:

0.6Fgw< 1.0 Fge(Equation 24-9)
where:
Fgw=Wind load on the glass due to ultimate design wind
speed, Vult, computed per Section 1609 (HVHZ shall
comply with Section 1620).
Fge=Nonfactored load from ASTM E 1300. The value for
patterned glass shall be based on the thinnest part of
the glass. Interpolation between nonfactored load
charts in ASTM E 1300 shall be permitted.

Patterned glass sloped more than 15 degrees (0.26 rad) from vertical in skylights, sunspaces, sloped roofs and other exterior applications shall be designed to resist the most critical of the combinations of loads from Section 2404.2.

For Equations 24-2 and 24-3:
Fg< 1.0 Fge(Equation 24-10)
For Equation 24-4:
Fg < 0.6Fge(Equation 24-11)
where
Fg=Total load on the glass, as determined by Equations
24-2, 24-3 or 24-4.
Fge=Nonfactored load from ASTM E 1300. The value for
patterned glass shall be based on the thinnest part of
the glass. Interpolation between the nonfactored
load charts in ASTM E 1300 shall be permitted.

Sandblasted glass sloped 15 degrees (0.26 rad) or less from vertical in windows, curtain and window walls, doors, and other exterior applications shall be designed to resist the wind loads in Section 1609 (HVHZ shall comply with Section 1620) for components and cladding according to the following equation:

0.6Fgw<0.5 Fge (Equation 24-12)
where:
Fgw=Wind load on the glass due to ultimate design wind
speed, Vult, computed per Section 1609.
Fge=Nonfactored load from ASTM E 1300. The value for
sandblasted glass is for moderate levels of sandblasting.
For designs outside the scope of this section, an analysis or test data for the specific installation shall be prepared by a registered design professional.
This section applies to the installation of glass and other transparent, translucent or opaque glazing material installed at a slope more than 15 degrees (0.26 rad) from the vertical plane, including glazing materials in skylights, roofs and sloped walls.

Sloped glazing shall be any of the following materials, subject to the listed limitations.

1. For monolithic glazing systems, the glazing material of the single light or layer shall be laminated glass with a minimum 30-mil (0.76 mm) polyvinyl butyral (or equivalent) interlayer, wired glass, light-transmitting plastic materials meeting the requirements of Section 2607, heat-strengthened glass or fully tempered glass.

2. For multiple-layer glazing systems, each light or layer shall consist of any of the glazing materials specified in Item 1 above.

Annealed glass is permitted to be used as specified within Exceptions 2 and 3 of Section 2405.3.
For additional requirements for plastic skylights, see Section 2610. Glass-block construction shall conform to the requirements of Section 2101.2.5.

Where used in monolithic glazing systems, heat-strengthened glass and fully tempered glass shall have screens installed below the glazing material. The screens and their fastenings shall: (1) be capable of supporting twice the weight of the glazing; (2) be firmly and substantially fastened to the framing members and (3) be installed within 4 inches (102 mm) of the glass. The screens shall be constructed of a noncombustible material not thinner than No. 12 B&S gage (0.0808 inch) with mesh not larger than 1 inch by 1 inch (25 mm by 25 mm). In a corrosive atmosphere, structurally equivalent noncorrosive screen materials shall be used. Heat-strengthened glass, fully tempered glass and wired glass, when used in multiple-layer glazing systems as the bottom glass layer over the walking surface, shall be equipped with screening that conforms to the requirements for monolithic glazing systems.

Exception: In monolithic and multiple-layer sloped glazing systems, the following applies:
1. Fully tempered glass installed without protective screens where glazed between intervening floors at a slope of 30 degrees (0.52 rad) or less from the vertical plane shall have the highest point of the glass 10 feet (3048 mm) or less above the walking surface.
2. Screens are not required below any glazing material, including annealed glass, where the walking surface below the glazing material is permanently protected from the risk of falling glass or the area below the glazing material is not a walking surface.
3. Any glazing material, including annealed glass, is permitted to be installed without screens in the sloped glazing systems of commercial or detached noncombustible greenhouses used exclusively for growing plants and not open to the public, provided that the height of the greenhouse at the ridge does not exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) above grade.
4. Screens shall not be required within individual dwelling units in Groups R-2, R-3 and R-4 where fully tempered glass is used as single glazing or as both panes in an insulating glass unit, and the following conditions are met:

4.1. Each pane of the glass is 16 square feet (1.5 m2) or less in area.

4.2. The highest point of the glass is 12 feet (3658 mm) or less above any walking surface or other accessible area.

4.3. The glass thickness is 3/16 inch (4.8 mm) or less.

5. Screens shall not be required for laminated glass with a 15-mil (0.38 mm) polyvinyl butyral (or equivalent) interlayer used within individual dwelling units in Groups R-2, R-3 and R-4 within the following limits:

5.1. Each pane of glass is 16 square feet (1.5 m2) or less in area.

5.2. The highest point of the glass is 12 feet (3658 mm) or less above a walking surface or other accessible area.

In Type I and II construction, sloped glazing and skylight frames shall be constructed of noncombustible materials. In structures where acid fumes deleterious to metal are incidental to the use of the buildings, approved pressure-treated wood or other approved noncorrosive materials are permitted to be used for sash and frames. Framing supporting sloped glazing and skylights shall be designed to resist the tributary roof loads in Chapter 16. Skylights set at an angle of less than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) from the horizontal plane shall be mounted at least 4 inches (102 mm) above the plane of the roof on a curb constructed as required for the frame. Skylights shall not be installed in the plane of the roof where the roof pitch is less than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) from the horizontal.

Exception: Installation of a skylight without a curb shall be permitted on roofs with a minimum slope of 14 degrees (three units vertical in 12 units horizontal) in Group R-3 occupancies. All unit skylights installed in a roof with a pitch flatter than 14 degrees (0.25 rad) shall be mounted at least 4 inches (102 mm) above the plane of the roof on a curb constructed as required for the frame unless otherwise specified in the manufacturer’s installation instructions.
Unit skylights and tubular devices shall be tested and labeled as complying with AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S./A440. The label shall state the name of the manufacturer, the approved labeling agency, the product designation and the performance grade rating as specified in AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/ A440. If the product manufacturer has chosen to have the performance grade of the skylight rated separately for positive and negative design pressure, then the label shall state both performance grade ratings as specified in AAMA/WDMA/ CSA 101/I.S.2/A440 and the skylight shall comply with Section 2405.5.2. If the skylight is not rated separately for positive and negative pressure, then the performance grade rating shown on the label shall be the performance grade rating determined in accordance with AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/ I.S.2/A440 for both positive and negative design pressure and the skylight shall conform to Section 2405.5.1.

The design of skylights shall be based on the following equation:

FgPG(Equation 24-13)
where:
Fg=Maximum load on the skylight determined from
Equations 24-2 through 24-4 in Section 2404.2.
PG= Performance grade rating of the skylight.

The design of skylights rated for performance grade for both positive and negative design pressures shall be based on the following equations:

FgiPGPos (Equation 24-14)
FgoPGNeg (Equation 24-15)
where:
PGPos=Performance grade rating of the skylight under
positive design pressure;
PGNeg=Performance grade rating of the skylight under
negative design pressure; and
Fgi and Fgo are determined in accordance with the following:
For 0.6Wo D,
where:
Wo=Outward wind force, psf (kN/m2) due to ultimate
design wind speed, Vult, as calculated in Section 1609.
D=The dead weight of the glazing, psf (kN/m2) as
determined in Section 2404.2 for glass, or by the
weight of the plastic, psf (kN/m2) for plastic glazing.
Fgi=Maximum load on the skylight determined from
Equations 24-3 and 24-4 in Section 2404.2.
Fgo=Maximum load on the skylight determined from Equation 24-2.
For 0.6Wo<D,
where:
Wo= Is the outward wind force, psf (kN/m2) due to
ultimate design wind speed, Vult, as calculated in
Section 1609.
D=The dead weight of the glazing, psf (kN/m2) as
determined in Section 2404.2 for glass, or by the
weight of the plastic for plastic glazing.
Fgi=Maximum load on the skylight determined from
Equations 24-2 through 24-4 in Section 2404.2.
Fgo=0.

Individual glazed areas, including glass mirrors, in hazardous locations as defined in Section 2406.4 shall comply with Sections 2406.1.1 through 2406.1.4.

Exception: Mirrors and other glass panels mounted or hung on a surface that provides a continuous backing support.
Except as provided in Sections 2406.1.2 through 2406.1.4, all glazing shall pass the impact test requirements of Section 2406.2.
Plastic glazing shall meet the weathering requirements of ANSI Z97.1.
Glass-block walls shall comply with Section 2101.2.5.
Louvered windows and jalousies shall comply with Section 2403.5.

Where required by other sections of this code, glazing shall be tested in accordance with CPSC 16 CFR Part 1201. Glazing shall comply with the test criteria for Category II, unless otherwise indicated in Table 2406.2(1).

Exception: Glazing not in doors or enclosures for hot tubs, whirlpools, saunas, steam rooms, bathtubs and showers shall be permitted to be tested in accordance with ANSI Z97.1. Glazing shall comply with the test criteria for Class A, unless otherwise indicated in Table 2406.2(2).

TABLE 2406.2(1)
MINIMUM CATEGORY CLASSIFICATION OF GLAZING USING CPSC 16 CFR PART 1201

EXPOSED SURFACE
AREA OF ONE SIDE OF
ONE LITE
GLAZING IN
STORM OR
COMBINATION
DOORS
(Category class)
GLAZING IN DOORS
(Category class)
GLAZED PANELS
REGULATED BY
SECTION 2406.4.3

(Category class)
GLAZED PANELS
REGULATED BY
SECTION 2406.4.2
(Category class)
DOORS AND
ENCLOSURES
REGULATED BY
SECTION 2406.4.5
(Category class)
SLIDING GLASS
DOORS PATIO TYPE
(Category class)
9 square feet or lessIINo requirementIIIII
More than 9 square feetIIIIIIIIIIII
For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.

TABLE 2406.2(2)
MINIMUM CATEGORY CLASSIFICATION OF GLAZING USING ANSI Z97.1

EXPOSED SURFACE AREA OF ONE
SIDE OF ONE LITE
GLAZED PANELS REGULATED BY
SECTION 2406.4.3
(Category class)
GLAZED PANELS REGULATED BY
SECTION 2406.4.2
(Category class)
DOORS AND ENCLOSURES
REGULATED BY SECTION 2406.4.5
a
(Category class)
9 square feet or lessNo requirementBA
More than 9 square feetAAA
For SI: square foot = 0.0929 m2.
a. Use is only permitted by the exception to Section 2406.2.

Except as indicated in Section 2406.3.1, each pane of safety glazing installed in hazardous locations shall be identified by a manufacturer’s designation specifying who applied the designation, the manufacturer or installer and the safety glazing standard with which it complies, as well as the information specified in Section 2403.1. The designation shall be acid etched, sand blasted, ceramic fired, laser etched, embossed or of a type that once applied, cannot be removed without being destroyed. A label as defined in Section 202 and meeting the requirements of this section shall be permitted in lieu of the manufacturer’s designation.

Exceptions:

1. For other than tempered glass, manufacturer’s designations are not required, provided the building official approves the use of a certificate, affidavit or other evidence confirming compliance with this code.

2. Tempered spandrel glass is permitted to be identified by the manufacturer with a removable paper designation.

Multi-pane glazed assemblies having individual panes not exceeding 1 square foot (0.09 m2) in exposed areas shall have at least one pane in the assembly marked as indicated in Section 2406.3. Other panes in the assembly shall be marked “CPSC 16 CFR Part 1201” or “ANSI Z97.1,” as appropriate.
The locations specified in Sections 2406.4.1 through 2406.4.7 shall be considered specific hazardous locations requiring safety glazing materials.

Glazing in all fixed and operable panels of swinging, sliding, and bifold doors shall be considered a hazardous location.

Exceptions:

1. Glazed openings of a size through which a 3-inch-diameter (76 mm) sphere is unable to pass.

2. Decorative glazing.

3. Glazing materials used as curved glazed panels in revolving doors.

4. Commercial refrigerated cabinet glazed doors.

Glazing in an individual fixed or operable panel adjacent to a door where the nearest vertical edge of the glazing is within a 24-inch (610 mm) arc of either vertical edge of the door in a closed position and where the bottom exposed edge of the glazing is less than 60 inches (1524 mm) above the walking surface shall be considered a hazardous location.

Exceptions:

1. Decorative glazing.

2. Where there is an intervening wall or other permanent barrier between the door and glazing.

3. Where access through the door is to a closet or storage area 3 feet (914 mm) or less in depth. Glazing in this application shall comply with Section 2406.4.3.

4. Glazing in walls on the latch side of and perpendicular to the plane of the door in a closed position in one- and two-family dwellings or within dwelling units in Group R-2.

Glazing in an individual fixed or operable panel that meets all of the following conditions shall be considered a hazardous location:

1. The exposed area of an individual pane is greater than 9 square feet (0.84 m2);

2. The bottom edge of the glazing is less than 18 inches (457 mm) above the floor;

3. The top edge of the glazing is greater than 36 inches (914 mm) above the floor; and

4. One or more walking surface(s) are within 36 inches (914 mm), measured horizontally and in a straight line, of the plane of the glazing.

Exceptions:

1. Decorative glazing.

2. Where a horizontal rail is installed on the accessible side(s) of the glazing 34 to 38 inches (864 to 965 mm) above the walking surface. The rail shall be capable of withstanding a horizontal load of 50 pounds per linear foot (730 N/m) without contacting the glass and be a minimum of 11/2 inches (38 mm) in cross-sectional height.

3. Outboard panes in insulating glass units or multiple glazing where the bottom exposed edge of the glass is 25 feet (7620 mm) or more above any grade, roof, walking surface or other horizontal or sloped (within 45 degrees of horizontal) (0.78 rad) surface adjacent to the glass exterior.

Glazing in guards and railings, including structural baluster panels and nonstructural in-fill panels, regardless of area or height above a walking surface shall be considered a hazardous location.

Glazing in walls, enclosures or fences containing or facing hot tubs, spas, whirlpools, saunas, steam rooms, bathtubs, showers and indoor or outdoor swimming pools where the bottom exposed edge of the glazing is less than 60 inches (1524 mm) measured vertically above any standing or walking surface shall be considered a hazardous location. This shall apply to single glazing and all panes in multiple glazing.

Exception: Glazing that is more than 60 inches (1524 mm), measured horizontally and in a straight line, from the water’s edge of a bathtub, hot tub, spa, whirlpool, or swimming pool.

Glazing where the bottom exposed edge of the glazing is less than 60 inches (1524 mm) above the plane of the adjacent walking surface of stairways, landings between flights of stairs, and ramps shall be considered a hazardous location.

Exceptions:

1. The side of a stairway, landing or ramp that has a guard complying with the provisions of Sections 1013 and 1607.8, and the plane of the glass is greater than 18 inches (457 mm) from the railing.

2. Glazing 36 inches (914 mm) or more measured horizontally from the walking surface.

Glazing adjacent to the landing at the bottom of a stairway where the glazing is less than 36 inches (914 mm) above the landing and within 60 inches (1524 mm) horizontally of the bottom tread shall be considered a hazardous location.

Exception: Glazing that is protected by a guard complying with Sections 1013 and 1607.8 where the plane of the glass is greater than 18 inches (457 mm) from the guard.
Fire department glass access panels shall be of tempered glass. For insulating glass units, all panes shall be tempered glass.
Glass used as a handrail assembly or a guard section shall be constructed of either single fully tempered glass, laminated fully tempered glass or laminated heat-strengthened glass. Glazing in railing in-fill panels shall be of an approved safety glazing material that conforms to the provisions of Section 2406.1.1. For all glazing types, the minimum nominal thickness shall be 1/4 inch (6.4 mm). Fully tempered glass and laminated glass shall comply with Category II of CPSC 16 CFR Part 1201 or Class A of ANSI Z97.1.
The panels and their support system shall be designed to withstand the loads specified in Section 1607.8. A safety factor of four shall be used.

Each handrail or guard section shall be supported by a minimum of three glass balusters or shall be otherwise supported to remain in place should one baluster panel fail. Glass balusters shall not be installed without an attached handrail or guard.

Exception: A top rail shall not be required where the glass balusters are laminated glass with two or more glass plies of equal thickness and the same glass type when approved by the building official. The panels shall be designed to withstand the loads specified in Section 1607.8.
Glazing materials shall not be installed in handrails or guards in parking garages except for pedestrian areas not exposed to impact from vehicles.
Glazing installed in in-fill panels or balusters in wind-borne debris regions shall comply with the following.
Glass installed in exterior railing in-fill panels or balusters shall be laminated glass complying with Category II of CPSC 16 CFR Part 1201 or Class A of ANSI Z97.1.
When the top rail is supported by glass, the assembly shall be tested according to the impact requirements of Section 1609.1.2 (HVHZ shall comply with Section 1618.4.6.4). The top rail shall remain in place after impact.
Glazing in athletic facilities and similar uses subject to impact loads, which forms whole or partial wall sections or which is used as a door or part of a door, shall comply with this section.

Test methods and loads for individual glazed areas in racquetball and squash courts subject to impact loads shall conform to those of CPSC 16 CFR Part 1201 or ANSI Z97.1 with impacts being applied at a height of 59 inches (1499 mm) above the playing surface to an actual or simulated glass wall installation with fixtures, fittings and methods of assembly identical to those used in practice.

Glass walls shall comply with the following conditions:
1. A glass wall in a racquetball or squash court, or similar use subject to impact loads, shall remain intact following a test impact.
2. The deflection of such walls shall not be greater than 11/2 inches (38 mm) at the point of impact for a drop height of 48 inches (1219 mm).
Glass doors shall comply with the following conditions:
1. Glass doors shall remain intact following a test impact at the prescribed height in the center of the door.
2. The relative deflection between the edge of a glass door and the adjacent wall shall not exceed the thickness of the wall plus 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) for a drop height of 48 inches (1219 mm).
Glazing in multipurpose gymnasiums, basketball courts and similar athletic facilities subject to human impact loads shall comply with Category II of CPSC 16 CFR Part 1201 or Class A of ANSI Z97.1.
Glass in elevator hoistway enclosures and hoistway doors shall be laminated glass conforming to ANSI Z97.1 or CPSC 16 CFR Part 1201.
Glass installed in hoistways and hoistway doors where the hoistway is required to have a fire-resistance rating shall also comply with Section 716.
The glass in glass hoistway doors shall be not less than 60 percent of the total visible door panel surface area as seen from the landing side.
Glass in vision panels in elevator hoistway doors shall be permitted to be any transparent glazing material not less than 1/4 inches (0.64 mm) in thickness conforming to Class A in accordance with ANSI Z97.1 or Category II in accordance with CPSC 16 CFR Part 1201. The area of any single vision panel shall not be less than 24 square inches (15 484 mm2) and the total area of one or more vision panels in any hoistway door shall be not more than 85 square inches (54 839 mm2).

Glass in elevator car enclosures, glass elevator car doors and glass used for lining walls and ceilings of elevator cars shall be laminated glass conforming to Class A in accordance with ANSI Z97.1 or Category II in accordance with CPSC 16 CFR Part 1201.

Exception: Tempered glass shall be permitted to be used for lining walls and ceilings of elevator cars provided:

1. The glass is bonded to a nonpolymeric coating, sheeting or film backing having a physical integrity to hold the fragments when the glass breaks.

2. The glass is not subjected to further treatment such as sandblasting; etching; heat treatment or painting that could alter the original properties of the glass.

3. The glass is tested to the acceptance criteria for laminated glass as specified for Class A in accordance with ANSI Z97.l or Category II in accordance with CPSC 16 CFR Part 1201.

The glass in glass elevator car doors shall be not less than 60 percent of the total visible door panel surface area as seen from the car side of the doors.
Exterior wall cladding, surfacing and glazing, where provided, shall be as set forth in Sections 2410 through 2415.

Exterior wall cladding, surfacing and glazing shall be designed and constructed to sufficiently resist the full pressurization from the wind loads prescribed in Chapter 16 (High-Velocity Hurricane Zones) and the concentrated loads that result from hurricane-generated wind-borne debris.

1. Exterior wall cladding, surfacing and glazing, within the lowest 30 feet (9.1 m) of the exterior building walls shall be of sufficient strength to resist large missile impacts as outlined in Chapter 16 (High-Velocity Hurricane Zones).

2. Exterior wall cladding, surfacing and glazing located above the lowest 30 feet (9.1 mm) of the exterior building walls shall be of sufficient strength to resist small missile impacts as outlined in Chapter 16 (High-Velocity Hurricane Zones).

Exception: Exterior wall cladding, surfacing and glazing when protected by fixed, operable or portable shutters or screens which have product approval to resist full pressurization from wind loads as well as large and small missile impacts as outlined in the high-velocity hurricane provisions of Chapter 16, without deforming to the point where the substrate being protected is compromised.
Reserved.
All exterior wall cladding, surfacing, garage doors, skylights, operative and inoperative windows shall have product approval.
Windows, doors, glass and glazing shall be as set forth in this section.
Glass shall comply with ASTM C 1036 requirements for flat glass Type I and II and GSA DD-G-451c Standard for Glass, Flat and Corrugated, for Glazing Mirrors and Other Uses.
Heat-strengthened and ceramic-coated spandrel glass shall comply with ASTM C 1048.
Installed glass shall not be less than single-strength B quality unless otherwise approved by the building official, and where edges are exposed they shall be seamed or ground.
Where a light of glass is of such height above grade that the top 50 percent or more is in a zone of greater wind load, the area of the entire light shall be limited as for the greater height above grade.
Replacement of any glazing or part thereof shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Chapter 34, Existing Buildings Provisions for High-Velocity Hurricane Zones.
Fixed glazing used as an exterior component shall require product approval. Comparative analysis in compliance with Section 2411.3.2.4 by a Florida-registered engineer or architect may be accepted when the actual pressure and geometry conditions differ from the conditions shown in the approval.

Exterior lite of glass in an insulated glass unit shall be safety glazed.

Exceptions:

1. Large missile impact-resistant glazed assemblies.

2. Nonmissile impact units protected with shutters.

The minimum thickness of annealed float glazing materials used in exterior walls shall be determined and shall not be less than as set forth in ASTM E 1300.
For glazing materials other than annealed float, use the glazing material resistance factors used in ASTM E 1300.
Corrugated glass and other special glass shall be limited to spans determined by analysis and test to resist the loads set forth in Chapter 16 (High Wind Zones) based on fiber stresses not exceeding 4000 psi (27.58 MPa).
Glass block shall have product approval.
The design and approval of sliding doors, swinging doors and operative windows in exterior walls, including the supporting members, shall be based on the proposed use-height above grade in accordance with Chapter 16 (High-Velocity Hurricane Zones).
Maximum glass sizes shall comply with ASTM E 1300.
The architect or professional engineer of record shall be required to specify the design wind pressure, determined in accordance with Chapter 16 (High-Velocity Hurricane Zones), for all garage doors, skylights operative windows and fixed glazing. The design wind pressure for each component of the exterior building surface shall be incorporated into the building design drawing so as to allow the respective manufacturer to size the prefabricated assembly for the proper wind pressures.
Exterior garage doors shall be designed and constructed to actively or passively lock in the closed position when subjected to a uniform lateral pressure in excess of 50 percent of the design wind pressure as prescribed in Chapter 16 (High-Velocity Hurricane Zones).

The architect or professional engineer of record shall be required to detail on the drawings submitted for permit, rough opening dimensions, supporting framework, method of attachment and waterproofing procedures for all garage doors, passage doors, skylights, operative and inoperative windows in exterior walls. Said framework and method of attachment shall be designed and constructed so as to sufficiently resist the design wind pressures as outlined in Chapter 16 (High-Velocity Hurricane Zones).

Exception: When detailed engineered shop drawings, along with the notices of product approval, produced by the manufacturer’s specialty engineer and approved by the architect or professional engineer of record, are admitted at the time of permit application, which completely identifies rough openings, supporting framework, method of attachment and waterproofing procedures are prepared and bear the signature and seal of a professional engineer.

Operative window and door assemblies shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of this section, TAS 202 and provisions from ANSI/ AAMA/MWWDA 101/IS 2, and the forced entry prevention requirements of the American Architectural Manufacturers Association (AAMA) Sections 1302.5 and 1303.5.

Exceptions:

1. Door assemblies installed in nonhabitable areas where the door assembly and area are designed to accept water infiltration need not be tested for water infiltration.

2. Door assemblies installed where the overhang (OH) ratio is equal to or more than 1 need not be tested for water infiltration. The overhang ratio shall be calculated by the following equation:

OH ratio= OH Length/OH Height

where:

OH length = The horizontal measure of how
far an overhang over a door projects out from
the door’s surface.
OH height = The vertical measure of the distance
from the door’s sill to the bottom of the
overhang over a door.

3. Pass-through windows for serving from a single-family kitchen, where protected by a roof overhang of 5 feet (1.5 m) or more shall be exempted from the requirements of the water infiltration test.

Glazed curtain wall, window wall and storefront systems shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of this section and the laboratory test requirements of the American Architectural Manufacturers Association (AAMA) Standard 501, following test load sequence and test load duration in TAS 202.
Such assemblies with permanent muntin bars shall be tested with muntin bars in place.
Such assemblies shall be installed in accordance with the conditions of test and approval.

Structural wind load design pressures for window and door units other than the size tested in accordance with Section 2411.3.2.1 shall be permitted to be different than the design value of the tested unit provided such different pressures are determined by accepted engineering analysis or validated by an additional test of the window or door unit to the different design pressure in accordance with Section 2411.3.2.1. All components of the alternate size unit shall be the same as the tested or labeled unit.

i. Operable windows and glass doors rated in this manner shall comply with the following:

1. The frame area of the alternate size unit shall not exceed the frame area of the tested approved unit.

2. Shall vary from the tested approved unit only in width, height or load requirements.

3. Shall not exceed 100 percent of the proportional deflection for fiber stress of the intermediate members of the approved unit.

4. Shall not exceed 100 percent of the concentrated load at the juncture of the intermediate members and the frame of the approved unit.

5. Shall not exceed the air and water infiltration resistance of the tested approved unit.

6. Shall not exceed the maximum cyclic pressure of the tested approved unit when tested in accordance with TAS 201 and TAS 203.

ii. Nonoperable windows and glass doors rated in this manner shall comply with the following:

1. The frame area of the alternate size unit shall not exceed the frame area of the tested approved unit.

2. Shall vary from the tested approved unit only in width, height or load requirements.

3. The maximum uniform load distribution (ULD) of any side shall be equal to the uniform load carried by the side divided by the length of the side.

4. The ULD of any member shall not exceed the ULD of the corresponding member of the tested approved unit.

5. The ULD of each member shall be calculated in accordance with standard engineering analysis.

6. Shall not exceed the air and water infiltration resistance of the tested approved unit.

7. Shall not exceed the maximum cyclic pressure of the tested approved unit when tested in accordance with TAS 201 and 203.

Reserved.
Reserved.
Construction details for fixed glass shall comply with the requirements of this paragraph except that structural glazing as defined in Section 202 need not comply with this section, but shall comply with Section 2415.
Each light of fixed glass more than 3 feet (914 mm) in width shall have two approved setting blocks or approved suspension clamps. Setting blocks shall be Neoprene 70-90 Shore A durometer hardness or approved equal.
Fixed glass lights shall be set in corrosion-resistant metal frames and shall comply with applicable requirements of Chapter 16 (High-Velocity Hurricane Zones) for wind loads, allowable stresses and load tests. Fixed glass lights may be set in wood, metal or concrete frames as permitted for the types of construction by Chapter 3 through Chapter 6.
Wood shall have been preservative treated or shall be of a durable species as defined in Section 2304.11.
Attachment shall be as set forth in Chapter 16 (High-Velocity Hurricane Zones) and shall be corrosion resistant.
Glass in fixed lights shall be securely and continuously supported at the perimeter of each sheet unless the design is based on one or more unsupported edges. Supporting members such as division bars and mullions shall be designed by rational analysis to support the wind pressures set forth in Chapter 16 (High-Velocity Hurricane Zones). Supporting bars shall be attached at the ends to resist the loads set forth in Chapter 16 (High-Velocity Hurricane Zones).
The depth of the glazing rabbet and depth of engagement in the rabbet, for fixed glass, shall be based on consideration of the dimensional reduction from deflection and the dimensional changes caused by temperature.

Exterior lite of glass in an insulated glass unit shall be safety glazed.

Exceptions:

1. Large missile impact-resistant glazed assemblies.

2. Nonmissile impact units protected with shutters.

Gaskets used in glazing systems shall comply with the following standards as applicable:

1. ASTM C 864, Dense Elastomeric Compression Seal Gaskets, Setting Blocks, and Spacers.

2. ASTM C 509, Elastomeric Cellular Preformed Gaskets and Sealing Material.

3. ASTM C 1115, Dense Elastomeric Silicone Rubber Gaskets and Accessories.

4. ASTM E 2203, Dense Thermoplastic Elastomers Used for Compression Seals, Gaskets, Setting Blocks, Spacers and Accessories.

Glass veneer shall be as set forth in this section.
Glass veneer units shall be not less than 11/32 inch (8.7 mm) in thickness. No unit shall be larger in area than 10 square feet (0.93 m2) where 15 feet (4.6 m) or less above the grade directly below, nor larger than 6 square feet (0.56 m2) where more than 15 feet (4.6 m) above the grade directly below.
Every glass veneer unit shall be attached to the backing with approved mastic cement and corrosion-resistant ties and shall be supported on shelf angles.
Where more than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade, veneer shall be supported by shelf angles, and ties shall be used in both horizontal and vertical joints.
Below a point 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade, glass veneer shall rest on shelf angles. Veneering shall not be supported on construction which is not an integral part of the wall, and over sidewalks shall be supported on a shelf angle not less than 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) above grade.
All edges of glass veneer shall be ground.
The mastic shall cover not less than one-half of the area of the unit after the unit has been set in place and shall be neither less than 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) nor more than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) in thickness.
The mastic shall be insoluble in water and shall not lose its adhesive qualities when dry.
Absorbent surfaces shall be sealed by a bonding coat before mastic is applied. The bonding coat shall be cohesive with the mastic.
Glass veneer surfaces to which mastic is applied shall be clean and uncoated.
Space between edges of glass veneer shall be filled uniformly with an approved-type pointing compound.
Shelf angles shall be of corrosion-resistant material capable of supporting four times the width of the supported veneer. The shelf angles shall be spaced vertically in alternate horizontal joints, but not more than 3 feet (914 mm) apart. Shelf angles shall be secured to the wall at intervals not exceeding 2 feet (610 mm) with corrosion-resistant bolts not less than 1/4-inch (6.4 mm) diameter. Bolts shall be set in masonry and secured by lead shields.
Ties shall be of corrosion-resistant metal as manufactured especially for holding glass-veneer sheets to masonry surfaces. There shall be not less than one such approved tie for each 2 square feet (0.19 m2) of veneer surface.
Exterior glass veneer shall be applied only upon masonry, concrete or stucco.
Glass veneer units shall be separated from each other and from adjoining materials by an expansion joint at least 1/16 inch (1.6 mm) in thickness. There shall be at least 1/64-inch (0.4 mm) clearance between bolts and the adjacent glass.
Unless exterior wall components including but not limited to structural glazing, doors and windows of enclosed buildings have specific product approval to preserve the enclosed building envelope against impact loads as set forth in Chapter 16 (High-Velocity Hurricane Zones), all such components shall be protected by product approved storm shutters.
The storm shutters shall be designed and constructed to insure a minimum of 1-inch (25 mm) separation at maximum deflection with components and frames of components they are to protect unless the components and frame are specifically designed to receive the load of storm shutters, and shall be designed to resist the wind pressures as set forth in Chapter 16 (High-Velocity Hurricane Zones) by methods admitting of rational analysis based on established principles of design. Storm shutter shall also be designed to comply with the impact load requirements included within Chapter 16 (High-Velocity Hurricane Zones).
The storm shutter design calculations and detailed drawings, including attachment to the main structure, shall be prepared by and bear the seal of a qualified Florida-registered delegated engineer, or if qualified to prepare such design, by the engineer or architect of record, which architect or engineer shall be proficient in structural design. The architect or engineer of record shall, in all instances, review and approve documents prepared by the delegated engineer.
Storm shutters shall be approved by the certification agency and shall bear the name of the company engraved in every section of the system.
Deflection shall not exceed the limits set forth in Chapter 16 (High-Velocity Hurricane Zones).

Shutters used to protect openings above the first story of any building or structure must be permanently installed and closable from the inside of the building or structure unless such openings are accessible without the use of a ladder or lift, or shutters can be installed from the interior of the building or structure.

Exception: Group R3 detached single-family residences not exceeding two stories.
Storm shutters must completely cover an opening in all directions.
On any side of an opening, the maximum side clearance between the shutter and a wall or inset surface shall be 1/4 inch (6.4 mm). Any distance in excess of 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) shall require end closure or shutter overlap, where applicable.
Shutter overlap shall be a minimum of 1.5 times the side clearance between the shutter and wall.
End closures shall be designed to resist wind loads specified in Chapter 16 (High-Velocity Hurricane Zones), based on rational analysis.
This section prescribes requirements for curtain walls of buildings or structures regulated by this code.
A curtain wall is any prefabricated assembly of various components to enclose a building usually attached to and/or supported by the building frame other than a single door, or window, masonry units, poured in place concrete and siding of single membrane metal, wood or plastic.
Curtain walls, as defined in Section 2414.2, shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the requirements of this section.
Structural glazing in curtain walls shall also comply with the requirements of Section 2415.
All structural elements of curtain wall systems and their attachments (including embedments) to the main structural frame shall be designed by and bear the seal of a qualified Florida-registered delegated engineer, or if qualified to prepare such design, by the engineer or architect of record, which architect or engineer shall be proficient in structural design. The engineer of record shall, in all instances, review and approve documents prepared by the delegated engineer.
Curtain wall systems supported from more than two adjacent floors shall be designed to withstand all imposed loads without exceeding allowable stresses in the event of destruction or failure of any single span within the system. Documents for the main building permit shall include sufficient details describing the curtain wall system attachment to the main structure. This portion of the contract documents, if not prepared by the qualified engineer or architect of record, shall bear the signature and seal of the qualified Florida-registered delegated engineer charged with the responsibility for the design of the curtain wall system.
Individual mullions acting as a continuous member shall transfer loads through supports from no more than three adjacent floors.
The materials used in any curtain wall shall comply with the applicable provisions of this code.
Reserved.
Reserved.
This section prescribes requirements for structural glazing systems of buildings or structures regulated by this code.
Structural glazing, as defined in Section 2414.2, shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the requirements of this section.
Structural glazing systems used in curtain walls shall also comply with the requirements of Section 2414.
The terms used in this section shall be defined as set forth in Section 202.

Adhesives and sealants used in structural glazing systems shall comply with following standards:

ASTM C 794, Test Method for Adhesion-In-Peel of Elastomeric Joint Sealants.
ASTM C 920, Specification for Elastomeric Joint Sealants.
ASTM D 412, Test Methods for Rubber Properties in Tension.
ASTM D 624, Test Method for Rubber Property-Tear Resistance.
ASTM D 2240, Test Method for Rubber Property-Durometer Hardness.
Federal Specifications TT-S-001543A and TT-S-00230C.
ASTM E 331, Test Method for Water Penetration of Exterior Windows, Curtain Walls and Doors.
ASTM E 330, Test Method for Structural Performance of Exterior Windows, Curtain Walls and Doors.
Structural glazing systems shall be designed by and bear the seal of a Florida-registered professional engineer.
All materials shall be clearly identified as to manufacturer and manufacturer’s product number.
Only approved silicone elastomer adhesives and sealants shall be used for fastening glass lights and other panels to curtain wall framing.
Such adhesives and sealants shall be of a polymer that is 100-percent silicone.
Adhesives and sealants shall have been tested in accordance with the standards set forth in Section 2415.4.
Compatibility of all components and fabrication procedures of structural glazing systems shall be tested, approved and recommended in writing by the manufacturer of the adhesive; the manufacturer of the coating; whether it is anodized, baked or otherwise applied and the manufacturer of the glass panel.
Manufacturer’s testing, recommendation and approval shall address, but shall not be limited in scope by the following sections.
The compatibility of the sealant with metal, glazing materials, shims, spacers, setting blocks, backer rods, gaskets and other materials.
Adhesion to the designated substrates and adhesion of the substrates to the base metal.
The design and structural capability of silicone joints and cross sections.
The design stress of the structural silicone shall not exceed 20 psi (138 kPa) for materials having a minimum strength of 100 psi (690 kPa) at the weakest element in the line of stress.
Such design stress shall also provide for a safety factor of not less than 5.0.
Safety factors greater than 5.0 shall be specified by the engineer when required or recommended by the manufacturer.
The silicone structural seal shall have a maximum modulus of elasticity to allow no more than 25-percent movement of the joint width at 20 psi (138 kPa) stress.
In insulating glass units, the secondary silicone seal shall be designed to withstand a minimum of one-half the design negative wind load applicable to the outboard lights.

Structural glazing shall be limited to adhesive bonding on one side or on two opposing sides of infill glass lights or panel.

Exception: Three- or four-side bonding shall be permitted only when structural glazing units are shop fabricated and shop glazed.
Job-site replacement reglazing shall be permitted only when performed following a procedure approved in writing by the applicable structural silicone manufacturer.
Replacement shall be performed only by individuals or firms approved or certified by the silicone manufacturer.
Reserved.
A minimum of 1 percent of the structurally glazed panels shall be tested for load carrying capacity and sealant adhesion in accordance with Chapter 16 (High-Velocity Hurricane Zones) and ASTM E 330.
Structural glazed panels shall be inspected by a Florida-registered architect or professional engineer for conformance with the approved design and installation procedures determined by the authority having jurisdiction prior to the erection of such panels and after the seal curing period established by the silicone manufacturer.
It shall be the responsibility of the contractor to verify the adhesion of the cured sealant periodically throughout the application to assure compliance with the manufacturer’s specifications and quality of application.
Structural glazing systems on threshold buildings shall be recertified by the owner as specified by the authority having jurisdiction at six month intervals for the first year after installation. Subsequently, such systems shall be recertified every five years at regular intervals.
Such recertifications shall determine the structural condition and adhesion capacity of the silicone sealant.
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