Accessible routes shall consist of one or more of the following components: walking surfaces with a running slope not steeper than 1:20, doorways, ramps, curb ramps excluding the flared sides, elevators, and platform lifts. All components of an accessible route shall comply with the applicable requirements of Chapter 4 and 208.3.1.
Advisory 402.2 Components. Walking surfaces must have running slopes not steeper than 1:20, see 403.3. Other components of accessible routes, such as ramps (405) and curb ramps (406), are permitted to be more steeply sloped.
Florida requirements of s.553.5041, F.S., incorporated in section 208.3.1 for accessible routes to parking that modify requirements of Chapter 4 must be complied with. Pursuant to s.553.512, F.S., Florida requirements, except s.553.5041(5)(a) width of accessible route to parking and s.553.041(c)1 parking space and access aisle width, may be waived down to the requirements of the ADA Standards for Accessible Design.
EXCEPTION: The clear width shall be permitted to be reduced to 32 inches (815 mm) minimum for a length of 24 inches (610 mm) maximum provided that reduced width segments are separated by segments that are 48 inches (1220 mm) long minimum and 36 inches (915 mm) wide minimum.
Where the accessible route makes a 180 degree turn around an element which is less than 48 inches (1220 mm) wide, clear width shall be 42 inches (1065 mm) minimum approaching the turn, 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum at the turn and 42 inches (1065 mm) minimum leaving the turn.
EXCEPTION: Where the clear width at the turn is 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum compliance with 403.5.2 shall not be required.
Doors, doorways, and gates that are part of an accessible route shall comply with 404.
Advisory 404.1 General Exception. Security personnel must have sole control of doors that are eligible for the Exception at 404.1. It would not be acceptable for security personnel to operate the doors for people with disabilities while allowing others to have independent access.
Door openings shall provide a clear width of 32 inches (815 mm) minimum. Clear openings of doorways with swinging doors shall be measured between the face of the door and the stop, with the door open 90 degrees. Openings more than 24 inches (610 mm) deep shall provide a clear opening of 36 inches (915 mm) minimum. There shall be no projections into the required clear opening width lower than 34 inches (865 mm) above the finish floor or ground. Projections into the clear opening width between 34 inches (865 mm) and 80 inches (2030 mm) above the finish floor or ground shall not exceed 4 inches (100 mm).
Minimum maneuvering clearances at doors and gates shall comply with 404.2.4. Maneuvering clearances shall extend the full width of the doorway and the required latch side or hinge side clearance.
EXCEPTION: Entry doors to hospital patient rooms shall not be required to provide the clearance beyond the latch side of the door.
Swinging doors and gates shall have maneuvering clearances complying with Table 404.2.4.1.
MANEUVERING CLEARANCE AT MANUAL SWINGING DOORS AND GATES
|Type of Use||Minimum Maneuvering Clearance|
|Approach Direction||Door or Gate Side||Perpendicular to Doorway||Parallel to Doorway |
(beyond latch side unless noted)
|From front||Pull||60 inches (1525 mm)||18 inches (455 mm)|
|From front||Push||48 inches (1220 mm)||0 inches (0 mm)1|
|From hinge side||Pull||60 inches (1525 mm)||36 inches (915 mm)|
|From hinge side||Pull||54 inches (1370 mm)||42 inches (1065 mm)|
|From hinge side||Push||42 inches (1065 mm)2||22 inches (560 mm)3|
|From latch side||Pull||48 inches (1220 mm)4||24 inches (610 mm)|
|From latch side||Push||42 inches (1065 mm)4||24 inches (610 mm)|
Doorways less than 36 inches (915 mm) wide without doors or gates, sliding doors, or folding doors shall have maneuvering clearances complying with Table 404.2.4.2.
MANEUVERING CLEARANCES AT DOORWAYS WITHOUT DOORS OR GATES, MANUAL SLIDING DOORS, AND MANUAL FOLDING DOORS
|Minimum Maneuvering Clearance|
|Approach Direction||Perpendicular to Doorway||Parallel to Doorway |
(beyond stop/latch side unless noted)
|From Front||48 inches (1220 mm)||0 inches (0 mm)|
|From side1||42 inches (1065 mm)||0 inches (0 mm)|
|From pocket/hinge side||42 inches (1065 mm)||22 inches (560 mm)2|
|From stop/latch side||42 inches (1065 mm)||24 inches (610 mm)|
Maneuvering clearances for forward approach shall be provided when any obstruction within 18 inches (455 mm) of the latch side of a doorway projects more than 8 inches (205 mm) beyond the face of the door, measured perpendicular to the face of the door or gate.
Advisory 404.2.4.3 Recessed Doors and Gates. A door can be recessed due to wall thickness or because of the placement of casework and other fixed elements adjacent to the doorway. This provision must be applied wherever doors are recessed.
Floor or ground surface within required maneuvering clearances shall comply with 302. Changes in level are not permitted.
EXCEPTION: Existing or altered thresholds 3/4 inch (19 mm) high maximum that have a beveled edge on each side with a slope not steeper than 1:2 shall not be required to comply with 404.2.5.
The distance between two hinged or pivoted doors in series and gates in series shall be 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum plus the width of doors or gates swinging into the space.
Handles, pulls, latches, locks, and other operable parts on doors and gates shall comply with 309.4. Operable parts of such hardware shall be 34 inches (865 mm) minimum and 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum above the finish floor or ground. Where sliding doors are in the fully open position, operating hardware shall be exposed and usable from both sides.
Advisory 404.2.7 Door and Gate Hardware. Door hardware that can be operated with a closed fist or a loose grip accommodates the greatest range of users. Hardware that requires simultaneous hand and finger movements require greater dexterity and coordination, and is not recommended.
Fire doors shall have a minimum opening force allowable by the appropriate administrative authority. The force for pushing or pulling open a door or gate other than fire doors shall be as follows:
These forces do not apply to the force required to retract latch bolts or disengage other devices that hold the door or gate in a closed position.
Advisory 404.2.9 Door and Gate Opening Force. The maximum force pertains to the continuous application of force necessary to fully open a door, not the initial force needed to overcome the inertia of the door. It does not apply to the force required to retract bolts or to disengage other devices used to keep the door in a closed position.
Florida law, s.553.504(6), F.S., establishes requirements for exterior door opening force.
Swinging door and gate surfaces within 10 inches (255 mm) of the finish floor or ground measured vertically shall have a smooth surface on the push side extending the full width of the door or gate. Parts creating horizontal or vertical joints in these surfaces shall be within 1/16 inch (1.6 mm) of the same plane as the other. Cavities created by added kick plates shall be capped.
Doors, gates, and side lights adjacent to doors or gates, containing one or more glazing panels that permit viewing through the panels shall have the bottom of at least one glazed panel located 43 inches (1090 mm) maximum above the finish floor.
EXCEPTION: Vision lights with the lowest part more than 66 inches (1675 mm) from the finish floor or ground shall not be required to comply with 404.2.11.
Clearances at power-assisted doors and gates shall comply with 404.2.4. Clearances at automatic doors and gates without standby power and serving an accessible means of egress shall comply with 404.2.4.
EXCEPTION: Where automatic doors and gates remain open in the power-off condition, compliance with 404.2.4 shall not be required.
Where doors and gates without standby power are a part of a means of egress, the clear break out opening at swinging or sliding doors and gates shall be 32 inches (815 mm) minimum when operated in emergency mode.
EXCEPTION: Where manual swinging doors and gates comply with 404.2 and serve the same means of egress compliance with 404.3.6 shall not be required.
EXCEPTION: In existing sites, buildings, and facilities, ramps shall be permitted to have running slopes steeper than 1:12 complying with Table 405.2 where such slopes are necessary due to space limitations.
Advisory 405.2 Slope. To accommodate the widest range of users, provide ramps with the least possible running slope and, wherever possible, accompany ramps with stairs for use by those individuals for whom distance presents a greater barrier than steps, e.g., people with heart disease or limited stamina.
The clear width of a ramp run and, where handrails are provided, the clear width between handrails shall be 36 inches (915 mm) minimum.
EXCEPTION: Within employee work areas, the required clear width of ramps that are a part of common use circulation paths shall be permitted to be decreased by work area equipment provided that the decrease is essential to the function of the work being performed.
Advisory 405.7 Landings. Ramps that do not have level landings at changes in direction can create a compound slope that will not meet the requirements of this code. Circular or curved ramps continually change direction. Curvilinear ramps with small radii also can create compound cross slopes and cannot, by their nature, meet the requirements for accessible routes. A level landing is needed at the accessible door to permit maneuvering and simultaneously door operation.
Landings shall comply with 302. Changes in level are not permitted.
EXCEPTION: Slopes not steeper than 1:48 shall be permitted.
EXCEPTION: Within employee work areas, handrails shall not be required where ramps that are part of common use circulation paths are designed to permit the installation of handrails complying with 505. Ramps not subject to the exception to 405.5 shall be designed to maintain a 36 inch (915 mm) minimum clear width when handrails are installed.
A curb or barrier shall be provided that prevents the passage of a 4 inch (100 mm) diameter sphere, where any portion of the sphere is within 4 inches (100 mm) of the finish floor or ground surface.
Landings shall be provided at the tops of curb ramps. The landing clear length shall be 36 inches (915 mm) minimum. The landing clear width shall be at least as wide as the curb ramp, excluding flared sides, leading to the landing.
Diagonal or corner type curb ramps with returned curbs or other well-defined edges shall have the edges parallel to the direction of pedestrian flow. The bottom of diagonal curb ramps shall have a clear space 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum outside active traffic lanes of the roadway. Diagonal curb ramps provided at marked crossings shall provide the 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum clear space within the markings. Diagonal curb ramps with flared sides shall have a segment of curb 24 inches (610 mm) long minimum located on each side of the curb ramp and within the marked crossing.
Raised islands in crossings shall be cut through level with the street or have curb ramps at both sides. Each curb ramp shall have a level area 48 inches (1220 mm) long minimum by 36 inches (915 mm) wide minimum at the top of the curb ramp in the part of the island intersected by the crossings. Each 48 inch (1220 mm) minimum by 36 inch (915 mm) minimum area shall be oriented so that the 48 inch (1220 mm) minimum length is in the direction of the running slope of the curb ramp it serves. The 48 inch (1220 mm) minimum by 36 inch (915 mm) minimum areas and the accessible route shall be permitted to overlap.
Curb ramps subject to Department of Transportation regulation 49 CFR 37.21 shall have a detectable warning complying with 705. The detectable warning shall extend the full width of the curb ramp (exclusive of flared sides) and shall extend either the full depth of the curb ramp or 24 inches (610 mm) deep minimum measured from the back of the curb on the ramp surface.
Elevators shall comply with 407 and with ASME A17.1 (incorporated by reference, see "Referenced Standards" in Chapter 1). They shall be passenger elevators as classified by ASME A17.1. Elevator operation shall be automatic.
Advisory 407.1 General. The ADA and other Federal civil rights laws require that accessible features be maintained in working order so that they are accessible to and usable by those people they are intended to benefit. Building owners should note that the ASME Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators requires routine maintenance and inspections. Isolated or temporary interruptions in service due to maintenance or repairs may be unavoidable; however, failure to take prompt action to effect repairs could constitute a violation of Federal laws and these requirements.
Where elevator call buttons or keypads are provided, they shall comply with 407.2.1 and 309.4. Call buttons shall be raised or flush.
EXCEPTION: Existing elevators shall be permitted to have recessed call buttons.
Call buttons and keypads shall be located within one of the reach ranges specified in 308, measured to the centerline of the highest operable part.
EXCEPTION: Existing call buttons and existing keypads shall be permitted to be located at 54 inches (1370 mm) maximum above the finish floor, measured to the centerline of the highest operable part.
Call buttons shall be 3/4 inch (19 mm) minimum in the smallest dimension.
EXCEPTION: Existing elevator call buttons shall not be required to comply with 407.2.1.2.
Advisory 407.2.1.3 Clear Floor or Ground Space. The clear floor or ground space required at elevator call buttons must remain free of obstructions including ashtrays, plants, and other decorative elements that prevent wheelchair users and others from reaching the call buttons. The height of the clear floor or ground space is considered to be a volume from the floor to 80 inches (2030 mm) above the floor. Recessed ashtrays should not be placed near elevator call buttons so that persons who are blind or visually impaired do not inadvertently contact them or their contents as they reach for the call buttons.
The call button that designates the up direction shall be located above the call button that designates the down direction.
EXCEPTION: Destination-oriented elevators shall not be required to comply with 407.2.1.4.
Advisory 407.2.1.4 Location Exception. A destination-oriented elevator system provides lobby controls enabling passengers to select floor stops, lobby indicators designating which elevator to use, and a car indicator designating the floors at which the car will stop. Responding cars are programmed for maximum efficiency by reducing the number of stops any passenger experiences.
Call buttons shall have visible signals to indicate when each call is registered and when each call is answered.
A visible and audible signal shall be provided at each hoistway entrance to indicate which car is answering a call and the car's direction of travel. Where in-car signals are provided, they shall be visible from the floor area adjacent to the hall call buttons.
Visible signal fixtures shall be centered at 72 inches (1830 mm) minimum above the finish floor or ground. The visible signal elements shall be 21/2 inches (64 mm) minimum measured along the vertical centerline of the element. Signals shall be visible from the floor area adjacent to the hall call button.
Audible signals shall sound once for the up direction and twice for the down direction, or shall have verbal annunciators that indicate the direction of elevator car travel. Audible signals shall have a frequency of 1500 Hz maximum. Verbal annunciators shall have a frequency of 300 Hz minimum and 3000 Hz maximum. The audible signal and verbal annunciator shall be 10 dB minimum above ambient, but shall not exceed 80 dB, measured at the hall call button.
Floor designations complying with 703.2 and 703.4.1 shall be provided on both jambs of elevator hoistway entrances. Floor designations shall be provided in both tactile characters and braille. Tactile characters shall be 2 inches (51 mm) high minimum. A tactile star shall be provided on both jambs at the main entry level.
Elevator doors shall be provided with a reopening device complying with 407.3.3 that shall stop and reopen a car door and hoistway door automatically if the door becomes obstructed by an object or person.
EXCEPTION: Existing elevators with manually operated doors shall not be required to comply with 407.3.3.
The minimum acceptable time from notification that a car is answering a call or notification of the car assigned at the means for the entry of destination information until the doors of that car start to close shall be calculated from the following equation:
T = D/(1.5 ft/s) or T = D/(455 mm/s) = 5 seconds minimum where T equals the total time in seconds and D equals the distance (in feet or millimeters) from the point in the lobby or corridor 60 inches (1525 mm) directly in front of the farthest call button controlling that car to the centerline of its hoistway door.
Inside dimensions of elevator cars and clear width of elevator doors shall comply with Table 407.4.1.
EXCEPTION: Existing elevator car configurations that provide a clear floor area of 16 square feet (1.5 m2) minimum and also provide an inside clear depth 54 inches (1370 mm) minimum and a clear width 36 inches (915 mm) minimum shall be permitted.
ELEVATOR CAR DIMENSIONS
|Door Location||Door Clear Width||Inside Car, Side to |
|Inside Car, Back |
Wall to FrontReturn
|Inside Car, Back |
Wall toInside Face of Door
|Centered||42 inches |
|80 inches |
|51 inches |
|54 inches |
|36 inches |
|68 inches |
|51 inches |
|54 inches |
|Any||36 inches |
|54 inches |
|80 inches |
|80 inches |
|Any||36 inches |
|60 inches |
|60 inches |
|60 inches |
Where provided, elevator car controls shall comply with 407.4.6 and 309.4.
EXCEPTION: In existing elevators, where a new car operating panel complying with 407.4.6 is provided, existing car operating panels shall not be required to comply with 407.4.6.
Controls shall be located within one of the reach ranges specified in 308.
Car control buttons with floor designations shall comply with 407.4.6.2 and shall be raised or flush.
EXCEPTION: In existing elevators, buttons shall be permitted to be recessed.
Designations and indicators of car controls shall comply with 407.4.7.
EXCEPTION: In existing elevators, where a new car operating panel complying with 407.4.7 is provided, existing car operating panels shall not be required to comply with 407.4.7.
Raised character and braille designations shall be placed immediately to the left of the control button to which the designations apply.
The control button for the emergency stop, alarm, door open, door close, main entry floor, and phone, shall be identified with tactile symbols as shown in Table 407.4.7.1.3.
As the car passes a floor and when a car stops at a floor served by the elevator, the corresponding character shall illuminate.
EXCEPTION: Destination-oriented elevators shall not be required to comply with 407.4.8.1.3 provided that the visible indicators extinguish when the call has been answered.
The signal shall be an automatic verbal annunciator which announces the floor at which the car is about to stop.
EXCEPTION: For elevators other than destination-oriented elevators that have a rated speed of 200 feet per minute (1 m/s) or less, a non-verbal audible signal with a frequency of 1500 Hz maximum which sounds as the car passes or is about to stop at a floor served by the elevator shall be permitted.
Elevator cars shall provide a clear width 42 inches (1065 mm) minimum and a clear depth 54 inches (1370 mm) minimum. Car doors shall be positioned at the narrow ends of cars and shall provide 32 inches (815 mm) minimum clear width.
Hoistway doors, car doors, and car gates shall comply with 409.3 and 404.
EXCEPTION: Doors shall not be required to comply with the maneuvering clearance requirements in 404.2.4.1 for approaches to the push side of swinging doors.
Elevator car and hoistway doors and gates shall be power operated and shall comply with ANSI/BHMA A156.19 (1997 or 2002 edition) (incorporated by reference, see "Referenced Standards" in Chapter 1). Power operated doors and gates shall remain open for 20 seconds minimum when activated.
EXCEPTION: In elevator cars with more than one opening, hoistway doors and gates shall be permitted to be of the manual-open, self-close type.
Control panels shall be on a side wall, 12 inches (305 mm) minimum from any adjacent wall.
Platform lifts shall comply with ASME A18.1 (1999 edition or 2003 edition) (incorporated by reference, see "Referenced Standards" in Chapter 1). Platform lifts shall not be attendant-operated and shall provide unassisted entry and exit from the lift.
Advisory 410.1 General. Inclined stairway chairlifts and inclined and vertical platform lifts are available for short-distance vertical transportation. Because an accessible route requires an 80 inch (2030 mm) vertical clearance, care should be taken in selecting lifts as they may not be equally suitable for use by people using wheelchairs and people standing. If a lift does not provide 80 inch (2030 mm) vertical clearance, it cannot be considered part of an accessible route in new construction.
The ADA and other Federal civil rights laws require that accessible features be maintained in working order so that they are accessible to and usable by those people they are intended to benefit. Building owners are reminded that the ASME A18 Safety Standard for Platform Lifts and Stairway Chairlifts requires routine maintenance and inspections. Isolated or temporary interruptions in service due to maintenance or repairs may be unavoidable; however, failure to take prompt action to effect repairs could constitute a violation of Federal laws and these requirements.
Platform lifts shall have low-energy power-operated doors or gates complying with 404.3. Doors shall remain open for 20 seconds minimum. End doors and gates shall provide a clear width 32 inches (815 mm) minimum. Side doors and gates shall provide a clear width 42 inches (1065 mm) minimum.
EXCEPTION: Platform lifts serving two landings maximum and having doors or gates on opposite sides shall be permitted to have self-closing manual doors or gates.