The provisions of this chapter shall govern the minimum conditions and standards for light, ventilation and space for occupying a structure.
The owner of the structure shall provide and maintain light, ventilation and space conditions in compliance with these requirements. A person shall not occupy as owner-occupant, or permit another person to occupy, any premises that do not comply with the requirements of this chapter.
In lieu of the means for natural light and ventilation herein prescribed, artificial light or mechanical ventilation complying with the International Building Code shall be permitted.
Exterior glazed openings shall open directly onto a public way or onto a yard or court in accordance with the provisions in effect when the building was approved for occupancy. Wherever walls or other portions of a structure face a window of any room and such obstructions are located less than 3 feet (914 mm) from the window and extend to a level above the sill of the window, such window shall not be deemed to face directly to the outdoors nor to a court and shall not be included as contributing to the required minimum total window area for the room. A reasonable number of trees or shrubs shall not violate this section.
Habitable spaces are permitted below grade plane, provided they meet the requirements of this code.
Every habitable space shall have at least one window of approved size facing directly to the outdoors or to a court. The minimum total glazed area for every habitable space shall be 8 percent of the floor area of such room. Wherever walls or other portions of a structure face a window of any room and such obstructions are located less than 3 feet (914 mm) from the window and extend to a level above that of the ceiling of the room, such window shall not be deemed to face directly to the outdoors nor to a court and shall not be included as contributing to the required minimum total window area for the room.
Exception: Where natural light for rooms or spaces without exterior glazing areas is provided through an adjoining room, the unobstructed opening to the adjoining room shall be at least 8 percent of the floor area of the interior room or space, but a minimum of 25 square feet (2.33 m2). The exterior glazing area shall be based on the total floor area being served.
Every space intended for human occupancy shall be provided with natural light by means of exterior glazed openings in accordance with Section 1205.2 of the Building Code or shall be provided with artificial light in accordance with Section 1205.3 of the Building Code.
Exception: Artificial light shall not be used to meet the lighting requirements for bedrooms, living rooms and sleeping units.
Where natural light is required, the minimum net glazed area shall be not less than 8 percent of the floor area of the room or rooms served. At least 50 percent of required glazing shall be clear glass; it is permissible for the remainder of the required glazing to be obscure glass, glass block or other approved translucent material.
For the purpose of natural lighting, any room is permitted to be considered as a portion of an adjoining room where one-half of the area of the common wall is open and unobstructed and provides an opening of not less than one-tenth of the floor area of the interior room or 25 square feet (2.32 m2), whichever is greater.
- It is permissible for glazing to fill a portion or all of the required opening between adjoining spaces.
- It is permissible to install doors in openings
between adjoining spaces. However, opaque portions
of doors shall not contribute to meeting the
minimum opening requirement of not less than
one-tenth of the floor area of the interior room or
25 square feet (2.32 m2), whichever is greater.
Exception: Openings required for natural light shall be permitted to open into a sunroom with thermal isolation or a patio cover where the common wall provides a glazed area of not less than one-tenth of the floor area of the interior room or 20 square feet (1.86 m2), whichever is greater.
Exterior openings required by Section 402.1 for natural light shall open directly onto a public way, yard or court, as set forth in Section 401.3.
- Required exterior openings are permitted to
open into a roofed porch where the porch:
- Abuts a public way, yard or court;
- Has a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet (2134 mm); and
- Has a longer side at least 65 percent open and unobstructed.
- Skylights are not required to open directly onto a public way, yard or court.
Artificial light shall be provided that is adequate to provide an average illumination of 10 footcandles (107 lux) over the area of the room at a height of 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor level.
Every common hallspace and stairway in residential occupancies, other than in one-and two-family dwellings, shall be lighted at all times with at least a minimum 60-watt standard incandescent light bulb for each 200 square feet (19 m2) of floor area or equivalent illumination, provided that the spacing between lights shall not be greater than 30 feet (9144 mm) of 15 footcandles (164 lux) at floor level. In other than residential occupancies, means of egress, Means of egress serving more than two dwelling units, including exterior means of egress, stairways shall be illuminated at all times the building space served by the means of egress is occupied with a minimum of 1 footcandle (11 lux) at floors, landings and treads.
All other spaces shall be provided with natural or artificial light sufficient to permit the maintenance of sanitary conditions, and the safe occupancy of the space and utilization of the appliances, equipment and fixtures.
Each bathroom, toilet room or compartment, and other similar rooms shall be naturally or artificially lighted at least equivalent to the requirements of Section 402. Naturally lighted bathrooms, toilet rooms or compartments, and other similar rooms shall be provided with aggregate glazing area of not less than 3 square feet (0.3 m²).
Every habitable space shall have at least one openable window. The total openable area of the window in every room shall be equal to at least 45 percent of the minimum glazed area required in Section 402.1.
Exception: Where rooms and spaces without openings to the outdoors are ventilated through an adjoining room, the unobstructed opening to the adjoining room shall be at least 8 percent of the floor area of the interior room or space, but a minimum of 25 square feet (2.33 m2). The ventilation openings to the outdoors shall be based on a total floor area being ventilated.
Every space intended for human occupancy shall be provided with natural ventilation in accordance with Section 1203.4 of the Building Code, or mechanical ventilation in accordance with the Mechanical Code. Each new dwelling unit shall be ventilated by mechanical means in accordance with Section 403 of the Mechanical Code and shall have at least one opening to the outdoors for natural ventilation of not less than 4 percent of the floor area of the habitable spaces of the dwelling unit.
Every bathroom and toilet room shall comply with the ventilation requirements for habitable spaces as required by Section 403.1, except that a window shall not be required in such spaces equipped with a mechanical ventilation system. Air exhausted by a mechanical ventilation system from a bathroom or toilet room shall discharge to the outdoors and shall not be recirculated.
Unless approved through the certificate of occupancy, cooking shall not be permitted in any rooming unit or dormitory unit, and a cooking facility or appliance shall not be permitted to be present in the rooming unit or dormitory unit.
1. Where specifically approved in writing by the code official.
2. Devices such as coffee pots and microwave ovens shall not be considered cooking appliances.
Where injurious, toxic, irritating or noxious fumes, gases, dusts or mists are generated, a local exhaust ventilation system shall be provided to remove the contaminating agent at the source. Air shall be exhausted to the exterior and not be recirculated to any space.
Clothes dryer exhaust systems shall be independent of all other systems and shall be exhausted outside the structure in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Exception: Listed and labeled condensing (ductless) clothes dryers.
Dwelling units, hotel units, housekeeping units, rooming units and dormitory units shall be arranged to provide privacy and be separate from other adjoining spaces, and shall be arranged so that occupants can access common space without going through another unit.
A habitable room, other than a kitchen, shall be a minimum of 7 feet (2134 mm) in any plan dimension. Kitchens shall have a minimum clear passageway of 3 feet (914 mm) between counterfronts and appliances or counterfronts and walls.
Habitable spaces, hallways, corridors, laundry areas, bathrooms, toilet rooms and habitable basement areas shall have a minimum clear ceiling height of 7 feet (2134 mm).
1. In one- and two-family dwellings, beams or girders spaced a minimum of 4 feet (1219 mm) on center and projecting a maximum of 6 inches (152 mm) below the required ceiling height.
2. Basement rooms in one- and two-family dwellings occupied exclusively for laundry, study or recreation purposes, having a minimum ceiling height of 6 feet 8 inches (2033 mm) with a minimum clear height of 6 feet 4 inches (1932 mm) under beams, girders, ducts and similar obstructions.
3. Rooms occupied exclusively for sleeping, study or similar purposes and having a sloped ceiling over all or part of the room, with a minimum clear ceiling height of 7 feet (2134 mm) over a minimum of one-third of the required minimum floor area. In calculating the floor area of such rooms, only those portions of the floor area with a minimum clear ceiling height of 5 feet (1524 mm) shall be included.
Where a hotel or motel has a valid certificate of occupancy as of January 1, 2014, and the hotel or motel uses any sleeping room for the accommodation of a greater number of occupants than is authorized by Sections 404.4.1 and 404.5, the increased density of occupancy (referred to as “high density occupancy” or “high density use”) shall be permitted only if there is compliance with the following conditions:
- Each occupant of a high density use room shall be a transient;
- The maximum number of occupants accommodated on any single floor of the hotel or motel shall not exceed one person for each 50 square feet (4.6 m2) of the total habitable room area in all of the rooming units located on that floor;
- High density occupancy rooms shall be provided with daily maid service which shall include at least one thorough cleaning of the room each day it is occupied;
- Each high density occupancy room shall be given a daily airing, unless the room is mechanically ventilated;
- The beds in each high density occupancy room shall be arranged so that the head end of each bed is at least 3 feet (914 mm) distant from the head end of any other bed;
- A high density use room shall be located in a hotel or a motel protected by a supervised watchman service comprised of such number of employees, with such number of watchmen’s clock stations, and with inspection tours following such routes, as may be approved by the Fire Marshal; and
- Each floor and stairway in a high density use hotel or a motel shall be inspected by the employees of the supervised watchman service at least once every 30 minutes during the period beginning at midnight and ending at 7:00 a.m. the following morning.
Every bedroom shall have access to at least one water closet and one lavatory without passing through another bedroom, or a nonresidential space. Every bedroom in a dwelling unit shall have access to at least one water closet and lavatory located in the same story as the bedroom or an adjacent story.
Kitchens and nonhabitable spaces shall not be used for sleeping purposes.
Bedrooms shall comply with the applicable provisions of this code including, but not limited to, the light, ventilation, room area, ceiling height and room width requirements of this chapter; the plumbing facilities and water-heating facilities requirements of Chapter 5; the heating facilities and electrical receptacle requirements of Chapter 6; and the smoke detector and emergency escape requirements of Chapter 7.
No room shall be divided in any manner into space intended for living, sleeping, eating or cooking purposes by an installed partition or divider of any type above 4 feet (1219 mm) in height, unless each such subdivided part complies with the requirements for a habitable space.
Exception: The enclosure of cabinet-type kitchenettes by doors or other closing devices, where those kitchenettes are too small to be occupied when the doors or other closing devices are closed in a normal manner, shall not be deemed to subdivide the room.
Dwelling units shall not be occupied by more occupants than permitted by the minimum area requirements of Table 404.5.
MINIMUM AREA REQUIREMENTS
|SPACE||MINIMUM AREA IN SQUARE FEET|
|1-2 occupants||3-5 occupants||6 or more occupants|
|Living rooma, b||120||120||150|
|Dining rooma, b||No |
|Bedrooms||Shall comply with Section 404.4.1|
For SI: 1 square foot = 0.093 m2.
a. See Section 404.5.2 for combined living room/dining room spaces.
b. See Section 404.5.1 for limitations on determining the minimum occupancy area for sleeping purposes.
Combined living room and dining room spaces shall comply with the requirements of Table 404.5 if the total area is equal to that required for separate rooms and if the space is located so as to function as a combination living room/dining room.
Nothing in this section shall prohibit an efficiency living unit from meeting the following requirements:
1. A unit occupied by not more than one occupant shall have a minimum clear floor area of 120 square feet (11.2 m2). A unit occupied by not more than two occupants shall have a minimum clear floor area of 220 square feet (20.4 m2). A unit occupied by three occupants shall have a minimum clear floor area of 320 square feet (29.7 m2). These required areas shall be exclusive of the areas required by Items 2 and 3.
2. The unit shall be provided with a kitchen sink, cooking appliance and refrigeration facilities, each having a minimum clear working space of 30 inches (762 mm) in front. Light and ventilation conforming to this code shall be provided.
3. The unit shall be provided with a separate bathroom containing a water closet, lavatory and bathtub or shower.
4. The maximum number of occupants shall be three.
All spaces to be occupied for food preparation purposes shall contain suitable space and equipment to store, prepare and serve foods in a sanitary manner. There shall be adequate facilities and services for the sanitary disposal of food wastes and refuse, including facilities for temporary storage.
If an owner furnishes any facilities for cooking, storage or refrigeration of food that are not within a sleeping unit or dwelling unit, these facilities shall be maintained by the owner in a safe and sanitary condition and in good working order.