ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Energy Conservation Code 2015 (IECC 2015)

IECC — Commercial Provisions

IECC — Residential Provisions

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
This chapter applies to residential buildings.

R401.2 Compliance

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Projects shall comply with one of the following:
  1. Sections R401 through R405.
  2. Sections R406.

R401.2.1 Tropical Zone

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R401.3 Certificate (Mandatory)

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
For new construction and Level 3-alteration projects, an approved permanent certificate shall be completed by the builder or registered design professional and posted on a wall in the space where the furnace is located, a utility room or an approved location inside the building. Where located on an electrical panel, the certificate shall not cover or obstruct the visibility of the circuit directory label, service disconnect label or other required labels. The certificate shall list the predominant R-values of insulation installed in or on ceiling/roof, walls, foundation (slab, basement wall, crawlspace wall and floor) and ducts outside conditioned spaces; U-factors for fenestration and the solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) of fenestration, and the results from any required duct system and building envelope air leakage testing done on the building. Where there is more than one value for each component, the certificate shall list the value covering the largest area. The certificate shall list the types and efficiencies of heating, cooling and service water heating equipment. Where a gas-fired unvented room heater, electric furnace or baseboard electric heater is installed in the residence, the certificate shall list "gas-fired unvented room heater," "electric furnace" or "baseboard electric heater," as appropriate. An efficiency shall not be listed for gas-fired unvented room heaters, electric furnaces or electric baseboard heaters.

R402.1 General (Prescriptive)

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The building thermal envelope shall meet the requirements of Sections R402.1.2 through R402.1.5.

Exception: The following low-energy buildings, or portions thereof, separated from the remainder of the building by building thermal envelope assemblies complying with this section shall be exempt from the building thermal envelope provisions of Section R402.
  1. Those with a peak design rate of energy usage less than 3.4 Btu/h ft2 (10.7 W/m2) or 1.0 watt/ft2 of floor area for space-conditioning purposes.
  2. Those that do not contain conditioned space.

R402.1.1 Vapor Retarder

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R402.1.2 Insulation and Fenestration Criteria

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The building thermal envelope shall meet the requirements of Table R402.1.2.

'
TABLE R402.1.2
INSULATION AND FENESTRATION REQUIREMENTS BY COMPONENTa
FENESTRATION U-FACTORb 0.30 U-Factor
SKYLIGHTb U-FACTOR 0.55 U-Factor
GLAZED FENESTRATION SHGCb 0.40 Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC)
CEILING R-49
WOOD FRAME WALL AND RIM JOISTS R-19 in cavity + R-5 continuous on the exterior,
or R-13 in cavity + R-10 continuous on the exterior,
or R-15 continuous
MASS WALLc R-15 continuous on the exterior,
or R-20 continuous on the interior
FRAME FLOOR R-25 + R-5 continuous
ELEVATED SLAB R-15 continuous
BASEMENT WALL R-19 cavity + R-5 continuous on the exterior,
or R-13 in cavity + R-10 continuous on the exterior,
or R-15 continuous
SLAB ON GRADEd R-10 perimeter insulation for a depth of 2 ft
CONDITIONED CRAWLSPACE WALL R-19 cavity + R-5 continuous on the exterior,
or R-13 in cavity + R-10 continuous on the exterior, or R-15 continuous

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
  1. R-values are minimums. U-factors and SHGC are maximums. When insulation is installed in a cavity which is less than the label or design thickness of the insulation, the installed R-value of the insulation shall not be less than the R-value specified in the table.
  2. The fenestration U-factor column excludes skylights. The SHGC column applies to all glazed fenestration.
  3. The second R-value applies when more than half the insulation is on the interior of the mass wall.
  4. R-5 shall be added to the required slab edge R-values for heated slabs
Insulation material used in layers, such as framing cavity insulation, or continuous insulation shall be summed to compute the corresponding component R-value. The manufacturer's settled R-value shall be used for blown insulation. Computed R-values shall not include an R-value for other building materials or air films. Where insulated siding is used for the purpose of complying with the continuous insulation requirements of Table R402.1.2, the manufacturer's labeled R-value for insulated siding shall be reduced by R-0.6.

R402.1.4 U-factor Alternative

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
An assembly with a U-factor equal to or less than that specified in Table R402.1.4 shall be permitted as an alternative to the R-value in Table R402.1.2.


TABLE R402.1.4 
EQUIVALENT U-FACTORSa
FENESTRATION U-FACTOR 0.30 U-Factor
SKYLIGHT U-FACTOR 0.55 U-Factor
CEILING U-FACTOR 0.026 U-Factor
WOOD FRAME WALL U-FACTOR 0.045 U-Factor
MASS WALL U-FACTOR 0.060 U-Factor
FRAME FLOOR U-FACTOR 0.033 U-Factor
ELEVATED SLAB 0.066 U-Factor
MASS FLOOR U-FACTOR 0.058 U-Factor
BASEMENT WALL U-FACTOR 0.045 U-Factor
CONDITIONED CRAWLSPACE WALL U-FACTOR 0.045 U-Factor
  1. Nonfenestration U-factors shall be obtained from measurement, calculation or an approved source.
If the total building thermal envelope UA (sum of U-factor times assembly area) is less than or equal to the total UA resulting from using the U-factors in Table R402.1.4 (multiplied by the same assembly area as in the proposed building), the building shall be considered in compliance with Table R402.1.2. The UA calculation shall be done using a method consistent with the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals and shall include the thermal bridging effects of framing materials. The SHGC requirements shall be met in addition to UA compliance.
In addition to the requirements of Section R402.1, insulation shall meet the specific requirements of Sections R402.2.1 through R402.2.13.

R402.2.1 Ceilings With Attic Spaces

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Where Section R402.1.2 would require R-49 insulation in the ceiling but the depth of the roof rafters does not allow R49, the ceiling insulation value may be reduced to R-38 This reduction shall not apply to the U-factor alternative approach in Section R402.1.4 and the total UA alternative in Section R402.1.5.

R402.2.2 Ceilings Without Attic Spaces

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R402.2.3 Eave Baffle

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
For air-permeable insulation in vented attics utilizing eave vents, a baffle shall be installed adjacent to soffit and eave vents. Baffles shall maintain an opening equal or greater than the size of the vent. The baffle shall extend over the top of the attic insulation. The baffle may be any solid material.

R402.2.4 Access Hatches and Doors

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Access doors from conditioned spaces to unconditioned spaces such as attics and crawl spaces shall be weatherstripped and insulated to a level equivalent to the insulation on the surrounding surfaces. Access shall be provided to all equipment that prevents damaging or compressing the insulation. A wood-framed or equivalent baffle or retainer is required to be provided when loose-fill insulation is installed, the purpose of which is to prevent the loose-fill insulation from spilling into the living space when the attic access is opened, and to provide a permanent means of maintaining the installed R-value of the loose-fill insulation.
Exception: Vertical doors that provide access from conditioned to unconditioned spaces shall be permitted to meet the fenestration requirements of Table R402.1.2.
Mass walls for the purposes of this chapter shall be considered above-grade walls of concrete block, concrete, insulated concrete form (ICF), masonry cavity, brick (other than brick veneer), earth (adobe, compressed earth block, rammed earth) and solid timber/logs, or any other walls having a heat capacity greater than or equal to 6 Btu/ft2 × °F (123 kJ/m2 × K).

R402.2.6 Steel-Frame Ceilings, Walls and Floors

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Steel-frame ceilings, walls, and floors shall meet the insulation requirements of Table R402.2.6 or shall meet the U-factor requirements of Table R402.1.4. The calculation of the U-factor for a steel-frame envelope assembly shall use a series-parallel path calculation method.
TABLE R402.2.6
STEEL-FRAME CEILING, WALL AND FLOOR INSULATION
(R-VALUE)
WOOD FRAME
R-VALUE
REQUIREMENT
COLD-FORMED STEEL
EQUIVALENT R-VALUEa
Steel Truss Ceilingsb
R-30 R-38 or R-30 + 3 or R-26 + 5
R-38 R-49 or R-38 + 3
R-49 R-38 + 5
Steel Joist Ceilingsb
R-30 R-38 in 2 × 4 or 2 × 6 or 2 × 8 R-49
in any framing
R-38 R-49 in 2 × 4 or 2 × 6 or 2 × 8 or 2 × 10
Steel-Framed Wall, 16" on center
R-13 R-13 + 4.2 or R-19 + 2.1 or R-21 + 2.8 or
R-0 + 9.3 or R-15 + 3.8 or R-21 + 3.1
R-13 + 3 R-0 + 11.2 or R-13 + 6.1 or R-15 + 5.7 or
R-19 + 5.0 or R-21 + 4.7
R-20 R-0 + 14.0 or R-13 + 8.9 or R-15 + 8.5 or
R-19 + 7.8 or R-19 + 6.2 or R-21 + 7.5
R-19 + 5 R-15 continuous or R-13 + 12.2 or R-15 + 11.8 or
R-19 + 11.2 or R-21 + 10.9 or R-25 + 10.5
R-21 R-0 + 14.6 or R-13 + 9.5 or R-15 + 9.1 or
R-19 + 8.4 or R-21 + 8.1 or R-25 + 7.7
Steel Framed Wall, 24" on center
R-13 R-0 + 9.3 or R-13 + 3.0 or R-15 + 2.4
R-13 + 3 R-0 + 11.2 or R-13 + 4.9 or R-15 + 4.3 or
R-19 + 3.5 or R-21 + 3.1
R-20 R-0 + 14.0 or R-13 + 7.7 or R-15 + 7.1 or
R-19 + 6.3 or R-21 + 5.9
R-19 + 5 R-15 continuous or R-13 + 11.1 or R-15 + 10.4 or
R-19 + 9,7 or  R-21 + 9.2 or R-25 + 8,7
R-21 R-0 + 14.6 or R-13 + 8.3 or R-15 + 7.7 or
R-19 + 6.9 or R-21 + 6.5 or R-25 + 5.9
Steel Joist Floor
R-13 R-19 in 2 × 6, or R-19 + 6 in 2 × 8 or 2 × 10
R-19 R-19 + 6 in 2 × 6, or R-19 + 12 in 2 × 8 or 2 × 10
R-25 + 5 R-15 + 15

a Cavity insulation R-value is listed first, followed by continuous insulation R-value.
b. Insulation exceeding the height of the framing shall cover the framing.
Where Section R402.1.2 would require continuous insulation on exterior walls and structural sheathing covers 40 percent or less of the gross area of all exterior walls, the continuous insulation R-value shall be permitted to be reduced by an amount necessary to result in a consistent total sheathing thickness, but not more than R-3, on areas of the walls covered by structural sheathing. This reduction shall not apply to the U-factor alternative approach in Section R402.1.4 and the total UA alternative in Section R402.1.5.
Floor framing-cavity insulation shall be installed to maintain permanent contact with the underside of the subfloor decking.

Exception: The floor framing-cavity insulation shall be permitted to be in contact with the topside of sheathing or continuous insulation installed on the bottom side of floor framing where combined with insulation that meets or exceeds the minimum wood frame wall R-value in Table 402.1.2 and that extends from the bottom to the top of all perimeter floor framing members.

R402.2.9 Basement Walls

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R402.2.10 Slab-On-Grade Floors

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Slab-on-grade floors with a floor surface less than 30 inches (762 mm) below grade shall be insulated in accordance with Table R402.1.2. The insulation shall extend downward from the top of the slab on the outside or inside of the foundation wall. Insulation located below grade shall be extended the distance provided in Table R402.1.2 by any combination of vertical insulation, insulation extending under the slab or insulation extending out from the building. Insulation extending away from the building shall be protected by pavement or by not less than 10 inches (254 mm) of soil. The top edge of the insulation installed between the exterior wall and the edge of the interior slab shall be permitted to be cut at a 45-degree (0.79 rad) angle away from the exterior wall. Slab-edge insulation is not required in jurisdictions designated by the code official as having a very heavy termite infestation.

R402.2.11 Crawl Space Walls

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
As an alternative to insulating floors over crawl spaces, crawl space walls may be insulated when the crawl space is not vented to the outside. Crawl space wall insulation shall be permanently fastened to the wall and extend downward from the underside of the floor, including the band joist area, to the finished grade level and then vertically and/or horizontally for at least an additional 24 inches (610 mm). Exposed earth in unvented crawl space foundations shall be covered with a continuous Class I vapor retarder in accordance with the Building Code or Residential Code, as applicable. All joints of the vapor retarder shall overlap by 6 inches (153 mm) and be sealed or taped. The edges of the vapor retarder shall extend not less than 6 inches (153 mm) up the stem wall and shall be attached to the stem wall.
Insulation shall not be required on the horizontal portion of the foundation that supports a masonry veneer.

R402.2.13 Sunroom Insulation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Sunrooms enclosing conditioned space shall meet the insulation requirements of this code.
In addition to the requirements of Section R402, fenestration shall comply with Sections R402.3.1 through R402.3.5.
An area-weighted average of fenestration products shall be permitted to satisfy the U-factor requirements.
An area-weighted average of fenestration products more than 50-percent glazed shall be permitted to satisfy the SHGC requirements.

Dynamic glazing shall be permitted to satisfy the SHGC requirements of Table R402.1.2 provided the ratio of the higher to lower labeled SHGC is greater than or equal to 2.4, and the dynamic glazing is automatically controlled to modulate the amount of solar gain into the space in multiple steps. Dynamic glazing shall be considered separately from other fenestration, and area-weighted averaging with other fenestration that is not dynamic glazing shall not be permitted.
Exception:  Dynamic glazing is not required to comply with this section when both the lower and higher labeled SHGC already comply with the requirements of Table R402.1.2.
Up to 15 square feet (1.4 m2) of glazed fenestration per dwelling unit shall be permitted to be exempt from U-factor and SHGC requirements in Section R402.1.2. This exemption shall not apply to the U-factor alternative approach in Section R402.1.4 and the Total UA alternative in Section R402.1.5.
One side-hinged opaque door assembly up to 24 square feet (2.22 m2) in area is exempted from the U-factor requirement in Section R402.1.2. This exemption shall not apply to the U-factor alternative approach in Section R402.1.4 and the total UA alternative in Section R402.1.5.

R402.3.5 Sunroom Fenestration

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Sunrooms enclosing conditioned space shall meet the fenestration requirements of this code.
The building thermal envelope shall be constructed to limit air leakage in accordance with the requirements of Sections R402.4.1 through R402.4.5.
The building thermal envelope shall comply with Sections R402.4.1.1 and R402.4.1.2. The sealing methods between dissimilar materials shall allow for differential expansion and contraction.

R402.4.1.1 Installation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The components of the building thermal envelope as listed in Table R402.4.1.1 shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and the criteria listed in Table R402.4.1.1, as applicable to the method of construction. Where required by the code official, an approved third party shall inspect all components and verify compliance.
 
TABLE R402.4.1.1
AIR BARRIER AND INSULATION INSTALLATION
COMPONENT AIR BARRIER CRITERIA INSULATION INSTALLATION
CRITERIA
General requirements A continuous six-sided air barrier shall be installed in the building envelope.

The exterior thermal envelope contains a continuous air barrier.

Breaks or joints in the air barrier shall be sealed.
Air-permeable insulation shall not be used as a sealing material. All ceiling, wall, floor and slab insulation shall achieve Grade I installation per the RESNET Standards or, alternatively, Grade II for surfaces that contain a layer of continuous, air impermeable insulation > R5.
Ceiling/attic The air barrier in any dropped ceiling/soffit shall be aligned with the insulation and any gaps in the air barrier shall be sealed.
Access openings, drop down stairs or knee wall doors to unconditioned attic spaces shall be sealed.
The insulation in any dropped ceiling/soffit shall be aligned with the air barrier.
Walls The junction of the foundation and sill plate shall be sealed.

The junction of the top plate and the top of exterior walls shall be sealed.

Knee walls shall be sealed.
Cavities within corners and headers of frame
walls shall be insulated by completely filling the
cavity with a material having a thermal resistance
of R-3 per inch minimum.

Exterior thermal envelope insulation for framed
walls shall be installed in substantial contact and
continuous alignment with the air barrier.
Windows, skylights and doors The space between window/door jambs and framing,
and skylights and framing shall be sealed. Doors adjacent to unconditioned space or ambient conditions shall be made substantially air-tight with weather stripping or equivalent gasket.
Continuous exterior insulation shall continue over window and door headers.

Skylight and window chases through unconditioned attic space must be insulated to exterior wall values per table 402.1.2.
Rim joists Rim joists shall include continuous air barrier. Rim joists shall be insulated per Table 402.1.2.
Floors (including above garage and
cantilevered floors)
The air barrier shall be installed at any exposed edge of insulation. Floor framing cavity insulation shall be installed to maintain permanent contact with the underside of subfloor decking, or floor framing cavity insulation shall be permitted to be in contact with the top side of sheathing, or continuous insulation installed on the underside of floor framing and  extends from the bottom to the top of all perimeter floor framing members.
Crawl space walls Exposed earth in unvented crawl spaces shall be covered with a Class I vapor retarder with  overlapping joints taped. Where provided instead of floor insulation,
insulation shall be permanently attached to the  crawlspace walls.
Shafts, penetrations Duct shafts, utility penetrations, and flue shafts opening to exterior or unconditioned space shall be sealed. Duct shafts or chases next to exterior or unconditioned space shall be insulated.
Narrow cavities   Batts in narrow cavities shall be cut to fit, or
narrow cavities shall be filled by insulation that  on installation readily conforms to the available cavity space.
Garage separation Air sealing shall be provided between the garage and conditioned spaces. Walls next to unconditioned garage space
shall be insulated.
Recessed lighting Recessed light fixtures installed in the building thermal envelope shall be sealed to the drywall. Recessed light fixtures installed in the building thermal envelope shall be air tight and IC rated.
Plumbing and wiring Seal any plumbing or wiring that penetrates the building envelope. Batt insulation shall be cut neatly to fit around  wiring and plumbing in exterior walls, or insulation that on installation readily conforms to available space shall extend behind piping and wiring.
Shower/tub on exterior wall The air barrier installed at exterior walls adjacent to  showers and tubs shall separate them from the  showers and tubs. Exterior walls adjacent to showers and tubs shall be insulated.
Electrical/phone box on exterior walls The air barrier shall be installed behind electrical or communication boxes or air-sealed boxes shall be
installed.
 
Common wall separating
dwelling units
Air barrier is installed in common wall between dwelling units.  
HVAC register boots HVAC register boots that penetrate building thermal envelope shall be sealed to the subfloor or drywall.  
Concealed sprinklers When required to be sealed, concealed fire sprinklers shall only be sealed in a manner that is recommended by the manufacturer. Caulking or other adhesive sealants shall not be used to fill voids between fire sprinkler cover plates and walls or ceilings.  
Fireplace An air barrier shall be installed on fireplace walls.  

a. In addition, inspection of log walls shall be in accordance with the provisions of ICC-400.

R402.4.1.2 Testing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R402.4.1.2 Air Leakage Testing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Each dwelling unit shall comply with Table R402.4.1.2. Testing shall be conducted in accordance with ASTM E 779 or ASTM E 1827 and reported at a pressure of 0.2 inch w.g. (50 Pascals). Testing shall be conducted by an approved third party. A written report of the results of the test shall be signed by the approved third party conducting the test and provided to the code official before issuance of the certificate of occupancy or final inspection. Testing shall be performed at any time after creation of all penetrations of the building thermal envelope. Approved sampling protocols approved by the code official may be used.
TABLE R402.4.1.2
MAXIMUM ALLOWED AIR LEAKAGE RATES
New construction Level 3 Alteration affecting 80% or more of the aggregate work of the building (Gut Rehabilitation)
Single family detached, two family attached (duplex), townhouses, flats 3 ACH50 3 ACH50
Dwelling units in Multifamily buildings 3 stories and less .30 CFM50/SF enclosure area of each unit or 3 ACH50 .30 CFM50/SF enclosure area of each unit or 3 ACH50
New wood-burning fireplaces shall have tight-fitting flue dampers or doors, and outdoor combustion air. Where using tight-fitting doors on factory-built fireplaces listed and labeled in accordance with UL 127, the doors shall be tested and listed for the fireplace. Where using tight-fitting doors on masonry fireplaces, the doors shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 907.
Windows, skylights and sliding glass doors shall have an air infiltration rate of no more than 0.3 cfm per square foot (1.5 L/s/m2), and swinging doors no more than 0.5 cfm per square foot (2.6 L/s/m2), when tested according to NFRC 400 or AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440 by an accredited, independent laboratory and listed and labeled by the manufacturer.

Exception: Site-built windows, skylights and doors.

R402.4.4 Rooms Containing Fuel-Burning Appliances

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R402.4.4 Fuel Burning Appliances and Equipment

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
For new construction, all new fuel burning appliances and equipment located inside the building envelope must be sealed combustion.
Existing buildings undertaking a Level 3 alteration at 80% of aggregate area must comply with one of the following:
  1. New equipment and appliances shall be sealed combustion; or
  2. Locate open combustion appliances and equipment outside the building thermal envelope or enclosed in a room, isolated from the thermal envelope. Such rooms shall be sealed and insulated in accordance with the envelope requirements of Table R402.1.2, where the walls, floors and ceilings shall meet not less than the basement wall R-value requirement. The door into the room shall be fully gasketed and any water lines and ducts in the room insulated in accordance with Section R403. The combustion air duct shall be insulated where it passes through conditioned space to a minimum of R-8.
In an existing building Level 3 alteration at 80% of aggregate area that contains open combustion equipment or appliances, a "worst-case testing of atmospheric venting systems" shall be conducted by an approved party in accordance with Appendix RA. Testing reports shall be provided to the code official. If the building fails the test in accordance with Appendix RA, the existing equipment must comply with either option 1 or 2.
Exceptions:
  1. Power-vented equipment and appliances.
  2. Fireplaces and stoves complying with Section R402.4.2 and Section R1006 of the Residential Code.
Recessed luminaires installed in the building thermal envelope shall be sealed to limit air leakage between conditioned and unconditioned spaces. All recessed luminaires shall be IC-rated and labeled as having an air leakage rate not more than 2.0 cfm (0.944 L/s) when tested in accordance with ASTM E 283 at a 1.57 psf (75 Pa) pressure differential. All recessed luminaires shall be sealed with a gasket or caulk between the housing and the interior wall or ceiling covering.

R402.5 Maximum Fenestration U-factor and SHGC (Mandatory)

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The area-weighted average maximum fenestration U-factor permitted using tradeoffs from Section R402.1.5 or R406 shall be 0.40 for vertical fenestration, and 0.75 for skylights. .

R402.6 Cool Roof Requirements

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Roof coverings for roof slopes less than or equal to two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (17 percent slope or less) for buildings and covered parking shall conform to this section. A minimum of 75 percent of the entire roof surface not used for roof penetrations, renewable energy power systems (e.g., photovoltaics or solar thermal collectors), harvesting systems for rainwater to be used on-site, or green roofing systems shall be covered with products that comply with one or both of the following:
  1. Have a minimum three-year-aged Solar Reflective Index (SRI) of 64.
  2. Comply with the criteria for roof products as defined in "ENERGY STAR® Program Requirements, Product Specification for Roof Products, Eligibility Criteria."
Exceptions:
  1. Building projects where an annual energy analysis simulation demonstrates that the total annual building energy consumption with the proposed roof is 2 percent less than it would be with a roof having a three-year-aged SRI of 64.
  2. Roofs used to shade or cover parking and roofs over semi-heated spaces or used as outdoor recreation space by the occupants of the building shall be permitted to be either landscaped or have a minimum initial SRI of 29. A default SRI value of 35 for new concrete without added color pigment is allowed to be used in lieu of measurements.
  3. Terraces on setbacks comprising less than 25 percent of the area of the largest floor plate in the building.
  4. Green roofs shall be permitted to comprise part or all of the 75 percent required area coverage.

R402.6.1 Solar Reflective Index

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Initial and aged values of the SRI shall be calculated in accordance with ASTM E1980 for medium-speed wind conditions, using a convection coefficient of [2.1 BTU/(h • ft2 • °F)] or the metric equivalent [12 W/(m2 • K)]. The SRI shall be based upon solar reflectance as measured in accordance with ASTM E1918 or ASTM C1549, and the thermal emittance as measured in accordance with ASTM E408 or ASTM C1371. For roofing products, the values for solar reflectance and thermal emittance shall be determined by a laboratory accredited by a nationally recognized accreditation organization, such as the Cool Roof Rating Council CRRC-1 Product Rating Program, and shall be labeled and certified by the manufacturer.

R403.1 Controls (Mandatory)

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Supply and return ducts outside of the building thermal envelope shall be insulated to a minimum of R-8.
Exception: Where ducts are less than 3 inches (76mm) in diameter, a minimum of R6 is allowed.
The thermostat controlling the primary heating or cooling system of the dwelling unit shall be capable of controlling the heating and cooling system on a daily schedule to maintain different temperature set points at different times of the day. This thermostat shall include the capability to set back or temporarily operate the system to maintain zone temperatures down to 55°F (13°C) or up to 85°F (29°C). The thermostat shall initially be programmed by the manufacturer with a heating temperature set point no higher than 70°F (21°C) and a cooling temperature set point no lower than 78°F (26°C).
Heat pumps having supplementary electric-resistance heat shall have controls that, except during defrost, prevent supplemental heat operation when the heat pump compressor can meet the heating load.
Hot water boilers that supply heat to the building through one- or two-pipe heating systems shall have an outdoor setback control that lowers the boiler water temperature based on the outdoor temperature.
Ducts and air handlers shall be in accordance with Sections R403.3.1 through R403.3.5.

R403.3.1 Insulation (PrescriptiveMandatory)

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Supply and return ducts outside of the building thermal envelope shall be insulated to a minimum of R-8.
Exception: Where ducts are less than 3 inches (76mm) in diameter, a minimum of R6 is allowed.
Ducts, air handlers and filter boxes shall be sealed. Joints and seams shall comply with either the International Mechanical Code or International Residential Code, as applicable.
Exceptions:
  1. Air-impermeable spray foam products shall be permitted to be applied without additional joint seals.
  2. For ducts having a static pressure classification of less than 2 inches of water column (500 Pa), additional closure systems shall not be required for continuously welded joints and seams, and locking-type joints and seams of other than the snap-lock and button-lock types.

R403.3.2.1 Sealed Air Handler

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Air handlers shall have a manufacturer's designation for an air leakage of no more than 2 percent of the design air flow rate when tested in accordance with ASHRAE 193.
Exception: ENERGY STAR-certified heating and cooling systems are deemed to be compliant.

R403.3.3 Duct Testing (Mandatory)

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Testing shall be conducted by an approved third party. A written report of the result of the test shall be signed by the party conducting the test and provided to the code official before issuance of the certificate of occupancy or final inspection. Ducts shall be pressure tested to determine air leakage by one of the following methods:
  1. Rough-in test: Total leakage shall be measured with a pressure differential of 0.1 inch w.g. (25 Pa) across the system, including the manufacturer's air handler enclosure if installed at the time of the test. All registers shall be taped or otherwise sealed during the test.
  2. Postconstruction test: Total leakage shall be measured with a pressure differential of 0.1 inch w.g. (25 Pa) across the entire system, including the manufacturer's air handler enclosure. Registers shall be taped or otherwise sealed during the test.
Exception:
  1. Where the ducts and air handlers are located entirely within the building thermal envelope.
  2. Where ducts from an existing heating and cooling system are extended to an addition, duct systems with less than 40 linear feet (12.19 m) in unconditioned spaces.
The total leakage of the ducts, where measured in accordance with Section R403.3.3, shall be as follows:
  1. Rough-in test: The total leakage shall be less than or equal to 4 cubic feet per minute (113.3 L/min) per 100 square feet (9.29 m2) of conditioned floor area where the air handler is installed at the time of the test. Where the air handler is not installed at the time of the test, the total leakage shall be less than or equal to 3 cubic feet per minute (85 L/min) per 100 square feet (9.29 m2) of conditioned floor area.
  2. Postconstruction test: Total leakage shall be less than or equal to 4 cubic feet per minute (113.3 L/min) per 100 square feet (9.29 m2) of conditioned floor area.
Building framing cavities shall not be used as ducts or plenums.
Mechanical system piping capable of carrying fluids above 105°F (41°C) or below 55°F (13°C) shall be insulated to a minimum of R-3.
Piping insulation exposed to weather shall be protected from damage, including that caused by sunlight, moisture, equipment maintenance and wind, and shall provide shielding from solar radiation that can cause degradation of the material. Adhesive tape shall not be permitted.
Energy conservation measures for service hot water systems shall be in accordance with Sections R403.5.1 through R403.5.4.
Heated water circulation systems shall be in accordance with Section R403.5.1.1. Heat trace temperature maintenance systems shall be in accordance with Section R403.5.1.2. Automatic controls, temperature sensors and pumps shall be accessible. Manual controls shall be readily accessible.
Heated water circulation systems shall be provided with a circulation pump. The system return pipe shall be a dedicated return pipe or a cold water supply pipe. Gravity and thermo-syphon circulation systems shall be prohibited. Controls for circulating hot water system pumps shall start the pump based on the identification of a demand for hot water within the occupancy. The controls shall automatically turn off the pump when the water in the circulation loop is at the desired temperature and when there is no demand for hot water.
Electric heat trace systems shall comply with IEEE 515.1 or UL 515. Controls for such systems shall automatically adjust the energy input to the heat tracing to maintain the desired water temperature in the piping in accordance with the times when heated water is used in the occupancy.
A water distribution system having one or more recirculation pumps that pump water from a heated water supply pipe back to the heated water source through a cold water supply pipe shall be a demand recirculation water system. Pumps shall have controls that comply with both of the following:
  1. The control shall start the pump upon receiving a signal from the action of a user of a fixture or appliance, sensing the presence of a user of a fixture or sensing the flow of hot or tempered water to a fixture fitting or appliance.
  2. The control shall limit the temperature of the water entering the cold water piping to 104°F (40°C).

R403.5.3 Hot Water Pipe Insulation (PrescriptiveMandatory)

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Insulate hot water pipe with a minimum thermal resistance (R-value) of R-3.

R403.5.4 Drain Water Heat Recovery Units

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R403.6 Mechanical Ventilation (Mandatory)

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The building shall be provided with ventilation that meets the requirements of the Residential Code or the Mechanical Code, as applicable. Outdoor air intakes and exhausts shall have automatic or gravity dampers that close when the ventilation system is not operating.

R403.6.1 Whole-House Mechanical Ventilation System Fan Efficacy

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Mechanical ventilation system fans shall meet the efficacy requirements of Table R403.6.1 or be certified to the most current version of ENERGY STAR.
Exception: Where mechanical ventilation fans are integral to tested and listed HVAC equipment, they shall be powered by an electronically commutated motor.
TABLE R403.6.1
WHOLE-HOUSE MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM FAN EFFICACYa
FAN LOCATION AIR FLOW RATE MINIMUM
(CFM)
MINIMUM EFFICACY
(CFM/WATT)
AIR FLOW RATE MAXIMUM
(CFM)
Range hoods Any 2.8 cfm/watt Any
In-line fan Any 2.8 cfm/watt Any
Bathroom or utility room 10 1.4 cfm/watt < 90
Bathroom or utility room 90 2.8 cfm/watt Any
For SI: 1 cfm = 28.3 L/min.
  1. When tested in accordance with HVI Standard 916.

R403.7 Equipment Sizing and Efficiency Rating (Mandatory)

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Heating and cooling equipment shall be sized in accordance with ACCA Manual S based on building loads calculated in accordance with ACCA Manual J or other approved heating and cooling calculation methodologies. New or replacement heating and cooling equipment shall have an efficiency rating equal to or greater than the minimum required by federal law for the geographic location where the equipment is installed. If available equipment cannot satisfy the latent and sensible loads calculated while complying with ACCA Manual S, the next larger size may be selected.
Exceptions:
  1. Where the new cooling equipment utilizes multistage technology or variable refrigerant flow technology.
  2. Where the new heating and/or cooling equipment is 1.5 tons or less.
  3. Where ductwork is being extended from an existing equipment into an addition.
  4. Where there is a replacement in kind of an existing system, as long as the BTU's of the new system are equivalent or smaller to the new equipment and the building thermal envelope is not being altered.

R403.8 Systems Serving Multiple Dwelling Units (Mandatory)

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Systems serving multiple dwelling units shall comply with Sections6 and 7 of the Energy Conservation Code-Residential Provisions in lieu of Section R403.
Exception: Accessory Dwelling Unit (ADU) and flats are exempt.
Snow- and ice-melting systems, supplied through energy service to the building, shall include automatic controls capable of shutting off the system when the pavement temperature is above 50°F (10°C), and no precipitation is falling and an automatic or manual control that will allow shutoff when the outdoor temperature is above 40°F (4.8°C).
The energy consumption of pools and permanent spas shall be in accordance with Sections R403.10.1 through R403.10.3.
The electric power to heaters shall be controlled by a readily accessible on-off switch that is an integral part of the heater mounted on the exterior of the heater, or external to and within 3 feet (914 mm) of the heater. Operation of such switch shall not change the setting of the heater thermostat. Such switches shall be in addition to a circuit breaker for the power to the heater. Gas-fired heaters shall not be equipped with continuously burning ignition pilots.
Time switches or other control methods that can automatically turn off and on according to a preset schedule shall be installed for heaters and pump motors. Heaters and pump motors that have built-in time switches shall be in compliance with this section.

Exceptions:
  1. Where public health standards require 24-hour pump operation.
  2. Pumps that operate solar- and waste-heat-recovery pool heating systems.

R403.10.3 Covers

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Outdoor heated pools and outdoor permanent spas shall be provided with permanent, operable vapor-retardant cover or other approved vapor-retardant means.
Exception: Where more than 70 percent of the energy for heating, computed over an operation season, is from site-recovered energy, such as from a heat pump or solar energy source, covers or other vapor-retardant means shall not be required.
The energy consumption of electric-powered portable spas shall be controlled by the requirements of APSP-14.
Residential swimming pools and permanent residential spas that are accessory to detached one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses three stories or less in height above grade plane and that are available only to the household and its guests shall be in accordance with APSP-15.

R404.1 Lighting Equipment (Mandatory)

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Not less than 85 percent of the lamps in permanently installed lighting fixtures shall be high-efficacy lamps or not less than 85 percent of the permanently installed lighting fixtures shall contain only high-efficacy lamps. High efficacy lamps are either LED, compact fluorescent lamps (CFL's), T-8 or smaller diameter linear fluorescent lamps, or lamps with a minimum efficacy of:
  1. 60 lumens per watt for lamps over 40 watts;
  2. 50 lumens per watt for lamps over 15 watts to 40 watts; and
  3. 40 lumens per watt for lamps 15 watts or less.
Fuel gas lighting systems shall not have continuously burning pilot lights.

Section R405 Simulated Performance Alternative (Performance)

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R405.1 Scope

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R405.2 Mandatory Requirements

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R405.3 Performance-Based Compliance

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R405.4 Documentation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R405.4.1 Compliance Software Tools

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R405.4.2 Compliance Report

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R405.4.2.1 Compliance Report for Permit Application

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R405.4.2.2 Compliance Report for Certificate of Occupancy

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R405.4.3 Additional Documentation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R405.5 Calculation Procedure

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R405.5.1 General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R405.5.2 Residence Specifications

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R405.6 Calculation Software Tools

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R405.6.1 Minimum Capabilities

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R405.6.2 Specific Approval

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R405.6.3 Input Values

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R405 Additional Efficiency Package

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R405.1 Requirements

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
 New buildings shall comply with at least one of the following:
  1. Enhanced HVAC performance in accordance with Section R405.2.
  2. Enhanced Building Envelope in accordance with Section R405.3.
  3. Enhanced Air Leakage and Heat Recovery Ventilation in accordance with Section R405.4.
  4. Enhanced Water Heating System in accordance with Section R405.5.
Exception: Alterations are exempt from Section R405.

R405.2 Efficient Heating and Cooling Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
All heating and cooling equipment shall meet the minimum efficiency requirements of Table R405.2.
TABLE R405.2
MINIMUM EFFICIENCY FOR HEATING AND COOLING EQUIPMENT
Equipment Type Efficiency
Split and Packaged Air Conditioners ≥ 15 SEERa
Split and Packaged Air Source Heat Pumps ≥ 15 SEERa,  ≥ 9.0 HSPFb
Gas-fired Furnace ≥ 90% AFUEc and Furnace Fan Efficiency ≤ 2.0%
Gas-fired Boiler ≥ 90% AFUEc
Ground Source Heat Pump ≥ 17.1 EERd and ≥ 3.6 COPe
  1. SEER - Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio
  2. HSPF — Heating Seasonal Performance Factor
  3. AFUE — Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency
  4. EER — Energy Efficiency Ratio
  5. COP — Coefficient of Performance

R405.3 Enhanced Building Thermal Envelope

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Building Thermal Envelope shall comply with Table R405.3 in addition to Table R402.1.2.
TABLE R405.3
INSULATION AND FENESTRATION REQUIREMENTS BY COMPONENT
FENESTRATION Windows = 0.24 U-Factor
ENERGY STAR Compliant Doors
SKYLIGHT U-FACTOR 0.45 U-Factor
GLAZED FENESTRATION SHGC 0.40 Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC)
CEILING R60
MASS WALL U-factor less than or equal to .035
or R-19 cavity + R-10 continuous,
or R-13 in cavity + R-15 continuous,
or R-25 continuous
WOOD FRAME U-factor less than or equal to .035
or R-19 cavity + R-10 continuous,
or R-13 in cavity + R-15 continuous,
or R-25 continuous
METAL FRAME WALL U-factor less than or equal to .035
CONTINUOUS SLAB INSULATION R10 continuous

R405.4 Enhanced Air Leakage and Heat Recovery Ventilation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Buildings shall meet the minimum air leakage requirements of Table R405.4 and install a heat or energy recovery ventilation system.
TABLE R405.4
AIR LEAKAGE TESTING REQUIREMENTS
  New construction
Single family detached, two family attached (duplex),
townhouses, flats
2 ACH50
Dwelling units in Multifamily buildings 3 stories and less .25 CFM50/SF enclosure
area of each unit or 2 ACH50

R405.5 Efficient Appliances and Water Heating

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
All refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, and ceiling fans must be ENERGY STAR Qualified, and water heater(s) shall meet the minimum efficiency requirements of Table R405.5.
TABLE R405.5
MINIMUM EFFICIENCY FOR WATER HEATERS
Equipment Type Efficiency
Gas Storage Water Heaters ≥ 0.90 Energy Factor (EF)
Tankless Water Heaters ≥ 0.95 Energy Factor (EF) with electronic ignition
Electric Water Heaters ≥ 2.2 Energy Factor (EF)
This section establishes criteria for compliance using an Energy Rating Index (ERI) analysis.

R406.2 Mandatory Requirements

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Compliance with this section requires that the provisions identified in Sections R401 through R404 labeled as "mandatory" be met. The building thermal envelope shall be greater than or equal to Table R406.2.
TABLE R406.2
INSULATION AND FENESTRATION REQUIREMENTS BY COMPONENTa
FENESTRATION U-FACTORb 0.35 U-Factor
SKYLIGHTb U-FACTOR 0.60 U-Factor
GLAZED
FENESTRATION SHGCb
No Requirement
CEILING R-38
WOOD FRAME WALL R-13
MASS WALL R-5 exterior continuous or R-10 interior continuous
FRAME FLOOR R-19
MASS FLOOR R-15
BASEMENT WALL R-10 continuous or R-13 in cavity
SLABc R-VALUE & DEPTH R-10 for the first 2 feet
CONDITIONED CRAWLSPACE WALL R-10 continuous or R-13 in cavity
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
  1. R-values are minimums. U-factors and SHGC are maximums. When insulation is installed in a cavity which is less than the label or design thickness of the insulation, the installed R-value of the insulation shall not be less than the R-value specified in the table.
  2. The fenestration U-factor column excludes skylights. The SHGC column applies to all glazed fenestration.
  3. R-5 shall be added to the required slab edge R-values for heated slabs.
The Energy Rating Index (ERI) shall be a numerical integer value that is based on a linear scale constructed such that the ERI reference design has an Index value of 100 and a residential building that uses no net purchased energy has an Index value of 0. Each integer value on the scale shall represent a 1-percent change in the total energy use of the rated design relative to the total energy use of the ERI reference design. The ERI shall consider all energy used in the residential building.
The ERI reference design shall be configured such that it meets the minimum requirements of the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code prescriptive requirements.

The proposed residential building shall be shown to have an annual total normalized modified load less than or equal to the annual total loads of the ERI reference design.

R406.4 ERI-Based Compliance

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Compliance based on an ERI analysis requires that the rated design be shown to have an ERI less than or equal to 54 when compared to the ERI reference design.

R406.4.1 Renewable Energy

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The use of renewable energy is not allowed to meet the minimum requirement of 54 as listed in R406.4.
Verification of compliance with Section R406 shall be completed by an approved third party.
Documentation of the software used to determine the ERI and the parameters for the residential building shall be in accordance with Sections R406.6.1 through R406.6.3.
Documentation verifying that the methods and accuracy of the compliance software tools conform to the provisions of this section shall be provided to the code official.
Compliance software tools shall generate a report that documents that the ERI of the rated design complies with Sections R406.3 and R406.4. The compliance documentation shall include the following information:
  1. Address or other identification of the residential building.
  2. An inspection checklist documenting the building component characteristics of the rated design. The inspection checklist shall show results for both the ERI reference design and the rated design, and shall document all inputs entered by the user necessary to reproduce the results.
  3. Name of individual completing the compliance report.
  4. Name and version of the compliance software tool.
Exception: Multiple orientations. Where an otherwise identical building model is offered in multiple orientations, compliance for any orientation shall be permitted by documenting that the building meets the performance requirements in each of the four (north, east, south and west) cardinal orientations.
The code official shall be permitted to require the following documents:
  1. Documentation of the building component characteristics of the ERI reference design.
  2. A certification signed by the builder providing the building component characteristics of the rated design.
  3. Documentation of the actual values used in the software calculations for the rated design.
Calculation software, where used, shall be in accordance with Sections R406.7.1 through R406.7.3.
Calculation procedures used to comply with this section shall be software tools capable of calculating the ERI as described in Section R406.3, and shall include the following capabilities:
  1. Computer generation of the ERI reference design using only the input for the rated design.

    The calculation procedure shall not allow the user to directly modify the building component characteristics of the ERI reference design.
  2. Calculation of whole building, as a single zone, sizing for the heating and cooling equipment in the ERI reference design residence in accordance with Section R403.7.
  3. Calculations that account for the effects of indoor and outdoor temperatures and part-load ratios on the performance of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning equipment based on climate and equipment sizing.
  4. Printed code official inspection checklist listing each of the rated design component characteristics determined by the analysis to provide compliance, along with their respective performance ratings.
Performance analysis tools meeting the applicable sections of Section R406 shall be approved. Tools are permitted to be approved based on meeting a specified threshold for a jurisdiction. The code official shall approve tools for a specified application or limited scope.
When calculations require input values not specified by Sections R402, R403, R404 and R405, those input values shall be taken from an approved source.
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