The provisions of this chapter shall govern safety during construction and the protection of adjacent public and private properties.
Construction equipment and materials shall be stored and placed so as not to endanger the public, the workers or adjoining property for the duration of the construction project.
Required exits, existing structural elements, fire protection devices and sanitary safeguards shall be maintained at all times during alterations, repairs or additions to any building or structure.
1. Where such required elements or devices are being altered or repaired, adequate substitute provisions shall be made.
2. Maintenance of such elements and devices is not required when the existing building is not occupied.
Waste materials shall be removed in a manner which prevents injury or damage to persons, adjoining properties and public rights-of-way.
Fire safety during construction shall comply with the applicable requirements of this code and the applicable provisions of Chapter 33 of the International Fire Code.
Construction documents and a schedule for demolition shall be submitted where required by the building official. Where such information is required, no work shall be done until such construction documents or schedule, or both, are approved. Prior to the commencement of any demolition or raze work, a permit shall be obtained as required by Section 105 of the Building Code. Demolition under the Construction Codes includes (a) interior demolition; and (b) partial demolition. Construction documents and a schedule for demolition or raze shall be submitted where required by the code official. Where a permit is required, no work shall be done until such permit is obtained.
Props, posts, braces, stages, platforms and scaffolding necessary to provide sufficient strength and rigidity to the portions of the structure being demolished or razed shall be provided.
No structure, or portion thereof, being demolished or razed shall be pulled or blasted, unless specific approval is given by the code official.
The work of demolishing any building shall not be commenced until pedestrian protection is in place as required by this chapter.
After razing of a structure, the vacant lot shall be filled to the existing grade and maintained in accordance with the Property Maintenance Code, the vacant property maintenance standard set forth in D.C. Official Code § 42-3131.12 (2012 Supp.), and any other applicable laws and regulations.
All walls of a building or other structure being razed, including foundation and interior basement walls (but not including party walls on lot lines), and all exterior walls being demolished in a partial demolition shall be reduced to a level below that of final grade.
Exception: Where inconsistent with party wall or historic preservation requirements.
All vaults (including the walls of vaults) projecting into public space which are to be abandoned as a part of the demolition or razing project, shall be removed in their entirety and the depression filled in accordance with the requirements of DDOT.
After razing of a structure, all driveways in public space shall be removed in their entirety and new curbs and pavement constructed in accordance with DDOT specifications. The cost of the removal of the driveways and replacement of the curbs and pavement shall be the responsibility of the person executing the raze.
After razing of a structure, excavations, holes, and depressions shall be filled and leveled to a final grade which will provide good drainage.
No materials other than Class 1, Class 2 or Class 3 fill material shall be used in filling depressions and grading the site. All depressions shall be filled; all excess earth, all building materials, and all debris shall be removed from the site; and the premises shall be left in a safe, clean and sanitary condition. All work shall be done in accordance with the Standards and Specifications of DDOE and, where applicable, DDOT.
Deferral, for a period of not more than six months, of the provisions for site treatment after removal or razing of an existing structure, shall be permitted if a new structure is to be constructed thereon and the new construction is started at the site within six months of completion of the removal or raze. If site treatment is deferred, the site shall be completely fenced and maintained so as to exclude the public from access to the site during the period between (i) the removal or raze and (ii) the new construction.
Where a structure or a portion of the structure has been demolished or razed, site treatment shall comply with the provisions of the Construction Codes and other applicable District of Columbia laws and regulations.
Provision shall be made to prevent the accumulation of water or damage to any foundations on the premises or the adjoining property.
Service utility connections shall be discontinued and capped in accordance with the approved rules and the requirements of the applicable governing authority.
Fire safety during demolition shall comply with the applicable requirements of this code and the applicable provisions of Chapter 56 of the International Fire Code.
Demolition and razing shall comply with the applicable requirements set forth in regulations governing lead-based paint promulgated, or as may be promulgated, by the District’s Department of the Environment (DDOE) or the federal Environmental Protection Agency, and in conformance with all pertinent lead abatement requirements in D.C. Official Code § 8-231.01 et seq. (2012 Repl. and 2013 Supp.), including all pertinent implementing regulations.
Excavation and fill for buildings and structures shall be constructed or protected so as not to endanger life or property. Stumps and roots shall be removed from the soil to a depth of not less than 12 inches (305 mm) below the surface of the ground in the area to be occupied by the building. Wood forms which have been used in placing concrete, if within the ground or between foundation sills and the ground, shall be removed before a building is occupied or used for any purpose. Before completion, loose or casual wood shall be removed from direct contact with the ground under the building.
Slopes for permanent fill shall be not steeper than one unit vertical in two units horizontal (50-percent slope). Cut slopes for permanent excavations shall be not steeper than one unit vertical in two units horizontal (50-percent slope). Deviation from the foregoing limitations for cut slopes shall be permitted only upon the presentation of a soil investigation report acceptable to the building official.
No fill or other surcharge loads shall be placed adjacent to any building or structure unless such building or structure is capable of withstanding the additional loads caused by the fill or surcharge. Existing footings or foundations which can be affected by any excavation shall be underpinned adequately or otherwise protected against settlement and shall be protected against lateral movement.
Sanitary facilities shall be provided during construction, remodeling or demolition activities in accordance with the International Plumbing Code.
Pedestrians shall be protected during construction, remodeling and demolition activities as required by this chapter and Table 3306.1. Signs shall be provided to direct pedestrian traffic.
PROTECTION OF PEDESTRIANS
|HEIGHT OF |
|DISTANCE FROM CONSTRUCTION TO LOT LINE||TYPE OF PROTECTION REQUIRED|
|8 feet or less||Less than 5 feet||Construction railings|
|5 feet or more||None|
|More than 8 feet||Less than 5 feet||Barrier and covered walkway|
|5 feet or more, but not more than one-fourth the height of construction||Barrier and covered walkway|
|5 feet or more, but between one-fourth and one-half the height of construction||Barrier|
|5 feet or more, but exceeding one-half the height of construction||None|
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
A walkway shall be provided for pedestrian travel in front of every construction and demolition site unless the applicable governing authority authorizes the sidewalk to be fenced or closed. Walkways shall be of sufficient width to accommodate the pedestrian traffic, but in no case shall they be less than 4 feet (1219 mm) in width. Walkways shall be provided with a durable walking surface. Walkways shall be accessible in accordance with Chapter 11 and shall be designed to support all imposed loads and in no case shall the design live load be less than 150 pounds per square foot (psf) (7.2 kN/m2).
Construction railings shall be not less than 42 inches (1067 mm) in height and shall be sufficient to direct pedestrians around construction areas.
Barriers shall be not less than 8 feet (2438 mm) in height and shall be placed on the side of the walkway nearest the construction. Barriers shall extend the entire length of the construction site. Openings in such barriers shall be protected by doors which are normally kept closed.
Barriers shall be designed to resist loads required in Chapter 16 unless constructed as follows:
1. Barriers shall be provided with 2-inch by 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) top and bottom plates.
2. The barrier material shall be boards not less than 3/4-inch (19.1 mm) thick or wood structural panels not less than 1/4-inch (6.4 mm) thick.
3. Wood structural use panels shall be bonded with an adhesive identical to that for exterior wood structural use panels.
4. Wood structural use panels 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) or 5/16 inch (23.8 mm) in thickness shall have studs spaced not more than 2 feet (610 mm) on center (o.c.).
5. Wood structural use panels 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) or 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) in thickness shall have studs spaced not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) on center provided a 2-inch by 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) stiffener is placed horizontally at midheight where the stud spacing is greater than 2 feet (610 mm) on center.
6. Wood structural use panels 5/8 inch (15.9 mm) or thicker shall not span over 8 feet (2438 mm).
Covered walkways shall have a clear height of not less than 8 feet (2438 mm) as measured from the floor surface to the canopy overhead. Adequate lighting shall be provided at all times. Covered walkways shall be designed to support all imposed loads. In no case shall the design live load be less than 150 psf (7.2 kN/m2) for the entire structure.
Exception: Roofs and supporting structures of covered walkways for new, light-frame construction not exceeding two stories above grade plane are permitted to be designed for a live load of 75 psf (3.6kN/m2) or the loads imposed on them, whichever is greater. In lieu of such designs, the roof and supporting structure of a covered walkway are permitted to be constructed as follows:
1. Footings shall be continuous 2-inch by 6-inch (51 mm by 152 mm) members.
2. Posts not less than 4 inches by 6 inches (102 mm by 152 mm) shall be provided on both sides of the roof and spaced not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) on center.
3. Stringers not less than 4 inches by 12 inches (102 mm by 305 mm) shall be placed on edge upon the posts.
4. Joists resting on the stringers shall be not less than 2 inches by 8 inches (51 mm by 203 mm) and shall be spaced not more than 2 feet (610 mm) on center.
5. The deck shall be planks not less than 2 inches (51 mm) thick or wood structural panels with an exterior exposure durability classification not less than 23/32 inch (18.3 mm) thick nailed to the joists.
6. Each post shall be knee braced to joists and stringers by members not less than 2-inch by 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm); 4 feet (1219 mm) in length.
7. A curb which is not less than 2-inch by 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) shall be set on edge along the outside edge of the deck.
Pedestrian protection required by this chapter shall be maintained in place and kept in good order for the entire length of time pedestrians are subject to being endangered. The owner or the owner’s agent, upon the completion of the construction activity, shall immediately remove walkways, debris and other obstructions and leave such public property in as good a condition as it was before such work was commenced.
Every excavation on a site located 5 feet (1524 mm) or less from the street lot line shall be enclosed with a barrier not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) in height. Where located more than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the street lot line, a barrier shall be erected where required by the building official. Barriers shall be of adequate strength to resist wind pressure as specified in Chapter 16.
Adjoining public and private property shall be protected from damage during construction, remodeling and demolition work. Protection shall be provided for footings, foundations, party walls, chimneys, skylights and roofs. Provisions shall be made to control water runoff and erosion during construction or demolition activities. The person making or causing an excavation to be made shall provide written notice to the owners of adjoining buildings advising them that the excavation is to be made and that the adjoining buildings should be protected. Said notification shall be delivered not less than 10 days prior to the scheduled starting date of the excavation. alteration, repair, demolition or raze of a premises at the expense of the person causing the work. Protection must be provided for lots, and for all elements of a building or other structure, including, but not limited to, footings, foundations, party walls, chimneys, skylights, and roofs. Provisions shall be made to control water runoff and erosion during construction or demolition or raze activities.
Without limiting the protection requirement specified in Section 3307.1, where an owner (or the owner’s authorized agent) seeks to undertake work on its premises that involves (a) the need to install structural support of an adjoining building or structure, including underpinning or (b) the need to support an adjacent premises (not including a public way), where excavation is to take place on the owner’s premises, the owner seeking to undertake the work shall provide written notice to the owners of adjoining premises in accordance with this Section 3307.2.1 advising each owner of an adjacent premises of the proposed work and the need for specific measures to be undertaken to protect the adjoining premises, and, if applicable, requesting access to the adjoining premises to install structural support or to provide support for the excavation on the requesting owner’s premises.
The owner undertaking the work shall notify the owner of the adjoining premises by personal delivery, courier or express mail service, with a copy to the code official not less than 30 days prior to permit issuance. This notification shall include a copy of all construction documents which relate to the structural support of the adjoining building or other structure or to the structural support of the excavation, including any updates or amendments to the work plan that have been submitted with the permit application(s). The home or business address of the owner of the adjoining premises shall be determined by the District’s real property tax records.
The owner of adjoining premises shall have 30 days from the date that a notification complying with Section 3307.2.1 is delivered to object in writing to the owner seeking to undertake the work on the grounds that the proposed work plan will not protect the adjoining premises. The objection shall include technical support for the objecting owner’s conclusions that the proposed work plan will not protect the adjoining premises. A copy of the objection of the owner of the adjoining premises, with supporting technical documentation, shall be provided to the code official by the owner seeking to undertake the work. The code official is authorized, but not required, to grant a reasonable extension of time to the owner receiving a notification under Section 3307.2, if necessary to complete the evaluation of the proposed work plan.
Within the same 30- day period, the owner of adjoining premises shall indicate whether or not access to the adjoining premises is authorized, if such access is requested, and the conditions, if any, of such access.
In situations where the owner of an adjoining premises objects pursuant to Section 3307.2.2, prior to permit issuance, the owner seeking to undertake the work shall elect:
- To modify the proposed work plan to incorporate any specific protective measures requested by the owner of the adjoining premises and amend the permit application(s) as necessary to update the work plan; or
- To request a determination by the code official whether the specific measures requested by the owner of the adjoining premises are reasonably practicable and supported by technical documentation.
If the protective work required pursuant to Section 3307.1 requires access to an adjoining property, the person causing the work shall obtain written permission from the owner of the adjoining premises to gain such access in accordance with this section, pursuant to the notification procedures set forth in this Section 3307.2.
If the owner of the adjoining premises fails to grant written permission (conditional or unconditional) for entry after appropriate notice in compliance with Section 3307.2, then any protective work requiring access to the adjoining premises shall be the responsibility of the owner of the adjoining premises, and shall execute such measures to make safe the premises without delay so as not to impede or materially delay the original construction, subject to the provisions of Sections 3307.2.3.3 and 3307.2.3.4. The owner of the adjoining premises.
If the owner of the adjoining premises does not respond within the 30 day period set forth in Section 3307.2.2, then the owner of the adjoining premises shall be deemed to have elected to make safe his, her or its premises, and shall execute such measures to make safe the premises without delay so as not to impede or materially delay the original construction, subject to the provisions of Sections 3307.2.3.3 and 3307.2.3.4.
Where the owner of the adjoining premises fails to grant access or to respond, as provided in Sections 3307.2.3.1 and 3307.2.3.2, said owner shall be deemed to have authorized limited access to his, her or its premises in the following circumstances.
- Where a wall or foundation located on a party line or on the premises requires underpinning as a result of the proposed work;
- Where the underpinning can be provided by the owner undertaking the work from said owner’s premises, even if the footing extends onto the adjoining owner’s property; and
- Where extension of the footing is required to stabilize and support the adjoining owner’s building, and to avoid unreasonable delay in excavation and development of the permitted project.
Where the owner of adjoining premises is responsible for protective work, as a result of a failure to grant access or to respond, under Section 3307.2.3.1 or 3307.2.3.2, and the protective work requires access to the site of the construction, excavation, alteration, repair, demolition or raze on the adjoining premises (the “Construction Site”), the owner of the adjoining premises shall obtain written permission to enter the Construction Site and to undertake such work as may be required to protect the adjoining owner’s property subject to reasonable conditions that may be imposed by the owner of the adjoining Construction Site.
Notwithstanding other provisions of this Section 3307, proper underpinning of existing adjoining or party walls which require underpinning shall be provided in accordance with applicable sections of this code.
In case of party walls erected in the original city of Washington (Squares 1–1170), or party walls erected with written consent of the adjoining owners, or both, the person causing the work that will impact the use or stability or structural support of the party wall shall notify the adjoining property owner, with a copy to the code official, not less than 30 days prior to the proposed starting date. This notification shall include a copy of all documents filed for necessary permits, including any updates or amendments to the proposed work plan that relate to the use or structural support of the party wall. The person causing such work need not obtain the written permission from the adjacent property owner to provide underpinning for the adjoining structure.
Where construction work occurs that could affect the structural integrity of a party wall, the person causing the work shall preserve the party wall from injury and ensure the structural stability of the party wall at said person’s own expense. The party wall shall be maintained weatherproof and structurally stable.
If the party wall is to remain exposed for 60 days or less, the exposed portions of the wall shall be protected from weather damage by tarpaulins, waterproof paper, or other temporary means approved for use by the code official. Such temporary protection shall be maintained in a weatherproof condition.
If the party wall is to remain exposed for more than 60 days, but less than 18 months, the exposed wall shall be restored and weatherproofed in accordance with the requirements for the particular type of construction involved. All plaster and other material not commonly used for exterior construction shall be removed; all holes shall be properly filled; and masonry party walls shall be repointed.
If the party wall is to remain exposed for 18 months or longer, the party walls shall be permanently restored and weatherproofed in accordance with the requirements for the particular type of construction involved. Party walls shall be faced with material commonly used for exterior finish, or restored as closely as practicable with the facing material and construction of the other exterior walls of the building left standing, and shall be painted or otherwise finished in a manner similar to other parts of the building.
Where a structure involving a party wall is being demolished, the owner of the demolished or razed structure shall, at his or her own expense, bend over all wall anchors at the beam ends of the standing wall and shall brick up all open beam holes and otherwise maintain the safety and usefulness of the wall.
If any party wall or portion thereof which is left standing and exposed after a building is demolished or razed is deemed unsafe or dangerous by the code official, then the owner of the building that is being demolished or razed shall either remove and reconstruct, or anchor, brace, or buttress all of those portions of the party wall deemed unsafe or dangerous, and shall do all other work necessary to enclose properly the building or structure left standing.
Wherever a new building or structure is erected to greater or lesser heights than an adjoining building, the construction and extension of new or existing chimneys, soil stacks, vent stacks, and the location of window openings shall comply with applicable sections of this code.
Without excluding other repairs or protective measures that may be required pursuant to Section 3307, the owner undertaking the work shall repair and restore all flashing on any adjoining building or structure which has been broken or damaged during any construction, demolition or raze operations, and the owner of the adjoining premises shall be deemed to have authorized temporary access to his, her or its property to effectuate repairs to the extent that repairs are required under this section. The owner effecting the repairs shall also install such new flashing as may be required to protect any joints exposed by such owner’s operations. Where a new building is being constructed, or a demolition or raze of an existing building is being conducted, at a greater height, the roof, roof outlets and roof structures of adjoining buildings or other structures shall be protected against damage with adequate safeguards by the person doing the work.
The temporary use of streets or public property for the storage or handling of materials or of equipment required for construction or demolition, and the protection provided to the public shall comply with the provisions of the applicable governing authority and this chapter.
Construction materials and equipment shall not be placed or stored so as to obstruct access to fire hydrants, standpipes, fire or police alarm boxes, catch basins or manholes, nor shall such material or equipment be located within 20 feet (6096 mm) of a street intersection, or placed so as to obstruct normal observations of traffic signals or to hinder the use of public transit loading platforms.
Building materials, fences, sheds or any obstruction of any kind shall not be placed so as to obstruct free approach to any fire hydrant, fire department connection, utility pole, manhole, fire alarm box or catch basin, or so as to interfere with the passage of water in the gutter. Protection against damage shall be provided to such utility fixtures during the progress of the work, but sight of them shall not be obstructed.
All structures under construction, alteration or demolition shall be provided with no fewer than one approved portable fire extinguisher in accordance with Section 906 and sized for not less than ordinary hazard as follows:
1. At each stairway on all floor levels where combustible materials have accumulated.
2. In every storage and construction shed.
3. Additional portable fire extinguishers shall be provided where special hazards exist, such as the storage and use of flammable and combustible liquids.
The provisions of this code and the International Fire Code shall be strictly observed to safeguard against all fire hazards attendant upon construction operations.
Where a building has been constructed to a building height of 50 feet (15 240 mm) or four stories, or where an existing building exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm) in building height is altered, no fewer than one temporary lighted stairway shall be provided unless one or more of the permanent stairways are erected as the construction progresses.
In buildings required to have standpipes by Section 905.3.1, no fewer than one standpipe shall be provided for use during construction. Such standpipes shall be installed when the progress of construction is not more than 40 feet (12 192 mm) in height above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access. Such standpipe shall be provided with fire department hose connections at accessible locations adjacent to usable stairs. Such standpipes shall be extended as construction progresses to within one floor of the highest point of construction having secured decking or flooring.
Where a building is being demolished and a standpipe exists within such a building, such standpipe shall be maintained in an operable condition so as to be available for use by the fire department. Such standpipe shall be demolished with the building but shall not be demolished more than one floor below the floor being demolished.
Standpipes shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 9.
Exception: Standpipes shall be either temporary or permanent in nature, and with or without a water supply, provided that such standpipes conform to the requirements of Section 905 as to capacity, outlets and materials.Deleted
Operation of sprinkler control valves shall be permitted only by properly authorized personnel and shall be accompanied by notification of duly designated parties. When the sprinkler protection is being regularly turned off and on to facilitate connection of newly completed segments, the sprinkler control valves shall be checked at the end of each work period to ascertain that protection is in service.