ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

NFPA 1, 2015

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
The storage, handling, and use of flammable and combustible liquids, including waste liquids, as herein defined and classified, shall comply with this chapter; NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, and Sections 60.1 through 60.4 of this Code.
Where the provisions of this chapter or NFPA 30 conflict with the provisions of Chapter 60, the provisions of this chapter and NFPA 30 shall apply.
This chapter shall not apply to the following:
  1. *Any liquid that has a melting point of 100°F (37.8°C) or greater
  2. *Any liquid that does not meet the criteria for fluidity given in the definition of liquid in 3.3.30 of NFPA 30 and Chapter 4 of NFPA 30
  3. Any cryogenic fluid or liquefied gas, as defined in 3.3.135.8
  4. *Any liquid that does not have a flash point, but which is capable of burning under certain conditions
  5. *Any aerosol product
  6. Any mist, spray, or foam
  7. *Transportation of flammable and combustible liquids as governed by the U.S. Department of Transportation
  8. *Storage, handling, and use of fuel oil tanks and containers connected with oil-burning equipment
  9. *Use and installation of alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) dispensers. (See 60.5.2.) [30:1.1.2]
Installations made in accordance with the applicable requirements of the following standards shall be deemed to be in compliance with this Code.
  1. NFPA 20, Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection
  2. NFPA 30A, Code for Motor Fuel Dispensing Facilities and Repair Garages
  3. NFPA 31, Standard for the Installation of Oil-Burning Equipment
  4. NFPA 32, Standard for Drycleaning Plants
  5. NFPA 33, Standard for Spray Application Using Flammable or Combustible Materials
  6. NFPA 34, Standard for Dipping, Coating, and Printing Processes Using Flammable or Combustible Liquids
  7. NFPA 35, Standard for the Manufacture of Organic Coatings
  8. NFPA 36, Standard for Solvent Extraction Plants
  9. NFPA 37, Standard for the Installation and Use of Stationary Combustion Engines and Gas Turbines
  10. NFPA 45, Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals
  11. NFPA 99, Health Care Facilities Code
  12. NFPA 101, Life Safety Code [30:1.5.3]
Permits, where required, shall comply with Section 1.12.
Any vessel of 119 gal (450 L) or less capacity used for transporting or storing liquids. [30, 2012]
For the purposes of this chapter, a building or portion of a building within which flammable and combustible liquids are allowed to be stored, dispensed, and used or handled in quantities that do not exceed the maximum allowable quantity (MAQ). [30, 2012]
Material presenting dangers beyond the fire problems relating to flash point and boiling point. [30, 2012]
Contents that present a deflagration hazard or a hazard from accelerated burning. For the purposes of this chapter, this includes Class I, Class II, or Class IIIA liquids that are used or stored in normally open containers or systems, or in closed containers or systems at gauge pressures 15 psi (103 kPa) or greater. [30, 2012]
Contents that readily support combustion or that present a physical hazard. For the purposes of this chapter, this includes Class I, Class II, or Class IIIA liquids that are used or stored in normally closed containers or in closed systems at gauge pressures of less than 15 psi (103 kPa). [30, 2012]
A storage tank designed to withstand an internal pressure above a gauge pressure of 1.0 psig (6.9 kPa) but not more than a gauge pressure of 15 psi (103 kPa) measured at the top of the tank. [30, 2012]
A portable tank, as herein defined, constructed of plastic, fiber, or a material other than metal. [30, 2012]
Those components of a vapor processing system designed to process vapors or liquids captured during transfer or filling operations. [30, 2012]
For the purposes of this chapter, the terms in this subsection shall have the definitions given. [30:4.2]
Any liquid within the scope of this Code and subject to the requirements of this Code shall be classified in accordance with this chapter. [30:4.3]
Flammable liquids, as defined in 3.3.164.2 and 66.4.1.3, shall be classified as Class I liquids and shall be further subclassified in accordance with the following:
  1. Class IA Liquid — Any liquid that has a flash point below 73°F (22.8°C) and a boiling point below 100°F (37.8°C)
  2. Class IB Liquid — Any liquid that has a flash point below 73°F (22.8°C) and a boiling point at or above 100°F (37.8°C)
  3. Class IC Liquid — Any liquid that has a flash point at or above 73°F (22.8°C), but below 100°F (37.8°C) [30:4.3.1]
Combustible liquids, as defined in 3.3.164.1 and 66.4.1.2, shall be classified in accordance with the following:
  1. Class II Liquid — Any liquid that has a flash point at or above 100°F (37.8°C) and below 140°F (60°C)
  2. Class III Liquid — Any liquid that has a flash point at or above 140°F (60°C)
    1. Class IIIA Liquid — Any liquid that has a flash point at or above 140°F (60°C), but below 200°F (93°C)
    2. Class IIIB Liquid — Any liquid that has a flash point at or above 200°F (93°C) [30:4.3.2]
The flash point of a liquid shall be determined according to the methods specified in 66.4.3.1 through 66.4.3.4. [30:4.4]
Except as specified in 66.4.3.1.1, the flash point of a liquid having a viscosity below 5.5 centiStokes at 104°F (40°C) or below 9.5 centiStokes at 77°F (25°C) shall be determined in accordance with ASTM D 56, Standard Test Method for Flash Point by Tag Closed Cup Tester. [30:4.4.1]
Cut-back asphalts, liquids that tend to form a surface film, and liquids that contain suspended solids shall not be tested in accordance with ASTM D 56, even if they otherwise meet the viscosity criteria. Such liquids shall be tested in accordance with 66.4.3.2. [30:4.4.1.1]
The flash point of a liquid having a viscosity of 5.5 centiStokes or more at 104°F (40°C) or 9.5 centiStokes or more at 77°F (25°C) or a flash point of 200°F (93.4°C) or higher shall be determined in accordance with ASTM D 93, Standard Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester. [30:4.4.2]
As an alternative, ASTM D 3278, Standard Test Method for Flash Point of Liquids by Small Scale Closed Cup Apparatus, shall be permitted to be used for paints, enamels, lacquers, varnishes, and related products and their components that have flash points between 32°F (0°C) and 230°F (110°C) and viscosities below 150 Stokes at 77°F (25°C). [30:4.4.3]
As an alternative, ASTM D 3828, Standard Test Methods for Flash Point by Small Scale Closed Cup Tester, shall be permitted to be used for materials other than those for which ASTM D 3278 is specifically required. [30:4.4.4]
This section shall apply to the hazards associated with storage processing, handling, and use of liquids. This section shall also apply when specifically referenced by another section. [30:6.1]
This chapter shall apply to the management methodology used to identify, evaluate, and control the hazards involved in the processing and handling of flammable and combustible liquids. These hazards include, but are not limited to, preparation, separation, purification, and change of state, energy content, or composition. [30:6.3]
Operations involving flammable and combustible liquids shall be reviewed to ensure that fire and explosion hazards are addressed by fire prevention, fire control, and emergency action plans.

Exception No. 1: Operations where liquids are used solely for on-site consumption as fuels.

Exception No. 2: Operations where Class II or Class III liquids are stored in atmospheric tanks or transferred at temperatures below their flash points.

Exception No. 3: Mercantile occupancies, crude petroleum exploration, drillings, and well servicing operations, and normally unoccupied facilities in remote locations. [30:6.4.1]

The extent of fire prevention and control that is provided shall be determined in consultation with the AHJ or by means of an engineering evaluation of the operation and application of sound fire protection and process engineering principles. This evaluation shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
  1. Analysis of the fire and explosion hazards of the operation
  2. Analysis of emergency relief from process vessels, taking into consideration the properties of the materials used and the fire protection and control measures taken
  3. Analysis of applicable facility design requirements in Chapters 17, 18, 19, 28, and 29 of NFPA 30
  4. Analysis of applicable requirements for liquid handling, transfer, and use, as covered in Chapters 17, 18, 19, 28, and 29 of NFPA 30
  5. Analysis of local conditions, such as exposure to and from adjacent properties and exposure to floods, earthquakes, and windstorms
  6. Analysis of the emergency response capabilities of the local emergency services [30:6.4.1.1]
Storage, processing, handling, and use of Class II and Class III liquids heated at or above their flash point shall follow the requirements for Class I liquids, unless an engineering evaluation conducted in accordance with Section 66.6 justifies following the requirements for some other liquid class. [30:6.4.1.2]
The hazards analysis shall be repeated whenever the hazards leading to a fire or explosion change significantly. Conditions that might require repeating a review shall include, but are not limited to, the following:
  1. When changes occur in the materials in process
  2. When changes occur in process equipment
  3. When changes occur in process control
  4. When changes occur in operating procedures or assignments [30:6.4.2]
Precautions shall be taken to prevent the ignition of flammable vapors by sources such as the following:
  1. Open flames
  2. Lightning
  3. Hot surfaces
  4. Radiant heat
  5. Smoking
  6. Cutting and welding
  7. Spontaneous ignition
  8. *Frictional heat or sparks
  9. Static electricity
  10. Electrical sparks
  11. Stray currents
  12. Ovens, furnaces, and heating equipment [30:6.5.1]
Smoking shall be permitted only in designated and identified areas. [30:6.5.2]
Welding, cutting, and similar spark-producing operations shall not be permitted in areas containing flammable liquids until a written permit authorizing such work has been issued. [30:6.5.3.1]
The permit shall be issued by a person in authority following inspection of the area to ensure that permit requirements have been implemented and will be followed until the job is completed. [30:6.5.3.2]
All equipment such as tanks, machinery, and piping shall be designed and operated to prevent electrostatic ignitions. [30:6.5.4.1]
All metallic equipment such as tanks, machinery, and piping where the potential exists for an ignitible mixture to be present shall be bonded and grounded. [30:6.5.4.2]
The bond and ground shall be physically applied or shall be inherently present by the nature of the installation. [30:6.5.4.3]
Any electrically isolated section of metallic piping or equipment shall be bonded and grounded to prevent hazardous accumulation of static electricity. [30:6.5.4.4]
All nonmetallic equipment and piping where the potential exists for an ignitable mixture to be present shall be designed and operated to prevent electrostatic ignition. [30:6.5.4.5]
Design, selection, and installation of electrical wiring and electrical utilization equipment shall meet the requirements of Section 66.7. [30:6.5.5]
An approved means for prompt notification of fire or emergency to those within the plant and to the available public or mutual aid fire department shall be provided. [30:6.6.1]
Those areas, including buildings, where a potential exists for a flammable liquid spill shall be monitored as appropriate. The following methods shall be permitted to be used:
  1. Personnel observation or patrol
  2. Process-monitoring equipment that would indicate a spill or leak could have occurred
  3. Provision of gas detectors to continuously monitor the area where facilities are unattended [30:6.6.2]
This section identifies recognized fire protection and fire suppression systems and methods used to prevent or minimize the loss from fire or explosion in liquid-processing facilities. The application of one or a combination of these systems and methods as well as the use of fire-resistive materials shall be determined in accordance with this chapter. [30:6.7.1]
A reliable water supply or other suitable fire control agent shall be available in pressure and quantity to meet the fire demands indicated by the specific hazards of liquids processing operations, storage, or exposure. [30:6.7.2]
Permanent connections between the fire water system and any process system shall be prohibited, to prevent contamination of fire water with process fluids. [30:6.7.3]
Where required by this chapter, hydrants, with or without fixed monitor nozzles, shall be provided in accordance with this Code and NFPA 24, Standard for the Installation of Private Fire Service Mains and Their Appurtenances. The number and placement shall depend on the hazards of the facility. [30:6.7.4]
Where the need is indicated by the hazards of liquid processing, storage, or exposure as determined by 66.6.4, fixed protection shall be provided. [30:6.7.5]
Where provided, fire control systems shall be designed, installed, and maintained in accordance with this Code and the following NFPA standards, as applicable:
  1. NFPA 11, Standard for Low-, Medium-, and High-Expansion Foam
  2. NFPA 12, Standard on Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems
  3. NFPA 12A, Standard on Halon 1301 Fire Extinguishing Systems
  4. NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems
  5. NFPA 15, Standard for Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire Protection
  6. NFPA 16, Standard for the Installation of Foam-Water Sprinkler and Foam-Water Spray Systems
  7. NFPA 17, Standard for Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems
  8. NFPA 750, Standard on Water Mist Fire Protection Systems
  9. NFPA 2001, Standard on Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems [30:6.7.6]
Where required by this chapter, standpipe and hose systems shall be installed in accordance with Section 13.2 and NFPA 14, Standard for the Installation of Standpipe and Hose Systems, or hose connections from sprinkler systems using combination spray and straight stream nozzles shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13. [30:6.7.7]
Where required by this chapter, listed portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in such quantities, sizes, and types as are needed for the specific hazards of operation and storage. [30:6.7.8]
Where provided, mobile foam apparatus and supplies of foam concentrate shall be appropriate to the specific hazards. [30:6.7.9]
A written emergency action plan that is consistent with available equipment and personnel shall be established to respond to fires and related emergencies. This plan shall include the following:
  1. Procedures to be followed in case of fire or release of liquids or vapors, such as sounding the alarm, notifying the fire department, evacuating personnel, and controlling and extinguishing the fire
  2. Procedures and schedules for conducting drills of these procedures
  3. Appointment and training of personnel to carry out assigned duties, including review at the time of initial assignment, as responsibilities or response actions change, and whenever anticipated duties change
  4. Procedures for maintenance and operation of (a) fire protection equipment and systems, (b) drainage and containment systems, and (c) dispersion and ventilation equipment and systems
  5. Procedures for shutting down or isolating equipment to reduce, mitigate, or stop the release of liquid or vapors, including assigning personnel responsible for maintaining critical plant functions or shutdown of plant processes and safe start-up following isolation or shutdown
  6. Alternate measures for the safety of occupants [30:6.8.1]
Personnel responsible for the use and operation of fire protection equipment shall be trained in the use of that equipment. Refresher training shall be conducted at least annually. [30:6.8.2]
Planning of effective fire control measures shall be coordinated with local emergency response agencies. [30:6.8.3]
Procedures shall be established to provide for safe shutdown of operations under emergency conditions and for safe start-up following cessation of emergencies. Provisions shall be made for training of personnel in shutdown and start-up procedures, and in activation, use, and deactivation of associated alarms, interlocks, and controls. Procedures shall also be established and provisions shall also be made for inspection and testing of associated alarms, interlocks, and controls. [30:6.8.4]
The emergency procedures shall be kept readily available in the operating areas and shall be updated when conditions change, as identified in 66.6.4.2. [30:6.8.5]
Where premises are likely to be unattended for considerable periods of time, a summary of the emergency plan shall be posted or located in a strategic and accessible location. [30:6.8.5.1]
All fire protection equipment shall be properly maintained, and periodic inspections and tests shall be done in accordance with both standard practice and the equipment manufacturers recommendations. Water-based fire protection systems shall be inspected, tested, and maintained in accordance with this Code and NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems. [30:6.9.1]
Maintenance and operating practices shall be established and implemented to control leakage and prevent spillage of flammable and combustible liquids. [30:6.9.2]
Combustible waste material and residues in operating areas shall be kept to a minimum, stored in covered metal containers, and disposed of daily. [30:6.9.3]
Ground areas around facilities where liquids are stored, handled, or used shall be kept free of weeds, trash, or other unnecessary combustible materials. [30:6.9.4]
Aisles established for movement of personnel shall be kept clear of obstructions to permit orderly evacuation and ready access for manual fire-fighting activities. [30:6.9.5]
[30:6.10.1]
This section shall apply to the management methodology used to identify, evaluate, and control the security hazards involved in the processing and handling of flammable and combustible liquids. [30:6.10.1.1]
These hazards include, but are not limited to, vulnerability to terrorist or other malicious attacks. [30:6.10.1.2]
The methodology used shall incorporate a risk-based approach to site security and shall have the following objectives:
  1. Identification and evaluation of security risks
  2. Evaluation of the security performance of the facility
  3. Evaluation of protection for employees, the facility itself, the surrounding communities, and the environment (See Annex G of NFPA 30 for more detailed information.) [30:6.10.2]
Operations involving flammable and combustible liquids shall be reviewed to ensure that security vulnerabilities identified during the security vulnerability analysis (SVA) are addressed in a facility security program, with corresponding fire prevention and emergency action plans and drills. [30:6.10.3.1]
The balance of physical, electronic, and personnel techniques used to respond to the SVA shall be determined by means of an engineering evaluation of the operation and application of sound security principles. This evaluation shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
  1. Assessing overall facility
  2. Evaluating vulnerabilities
  3. Assessing threats/consequences
  4. Assessing physical factors/attractiveness
  5. Identifying mitigation factors
  6. Conducting security assessment or gap analysis [30:6.10.3.2]
A written emergency action plan that is consistent with available equipment and personnel shall be established to respond to fires, security, and related emergencies. This plan shall include the following:
  1. Procedures to be followed such as initiating alarms, notifying appropriate agencies, evacuating personnel, and controlling and extinguishing the fire
  2. Procedures and schedules for conducting drills of these procedures
  3. Appointment and training of personnel to carry out assigned duties
  4. Maintenance of fire protection and response equipment
  5. Procedures for shutting down or isolating equipment to reduce the release of liquid
  6. Alternate measures for the safety of occupants [30:6.10.3.3]
Specific duties of personnel shall be reviewed at the time of initial assignment, as responsibilities or response actions change, and whenever anticipated duties change. [30:6.10.3.4]
The security management review conducted in accordance with this section shall be repeated under the following conditions:
  1. For an initial review of all new relevant facilities and assets
  2. When substantial changes to the threat or process occur
  3. After a significant security incident
  4. For periodic revalidation of the SVA [30:6.10.3.5]
This chapter shall apply to areas where Class I liquids are stored or handled and to areas where Class II or Class III liquids are stored or handled at or above their flash points. [30:7.1]
Electrical utilization equipment and wiring shall not constitute a source of ignition for any ignitible vapor that might be present under normal operation or because of a spill. Compliance with 66.7.3.2 through 66.7.3.7.1 shall be deemed as meeting the requirements of this section. [30:7.3.1]
All electrical utilization equipment and wiring shall be of a type specified by and installed in accordance with NFPA 70, National Electrical Code. [30:7.3.2]
Table 66.7.3.3 shall be used to delineate and classify areas for the purpose of installation of electrical utilization equipment and wiring under normal operating conditions. [30:7.3.3]

Table 66.7.3.3 Electrical Area Classifications

Location NEC Class I Extent of Classified Area
Division Zone
Indoor equipment installed in accordance with 66.7.3 where flammable vapor-air mixtures can exist under normal operation 1 0 The entire area associated with such equipment where flammable gases or vapors are present continuously or for long periods of time
1 1 Area within 5 ft of any edge of such equipment, extending in all directions
2 2 Area between 5 ft and 8 ft of any edge of such equipment, extending in all directions; also, space up to 3 ft above floor or grade level within 5 ft to 25 ft horizontally from any edge of such equipment1
Outdoor equipment of the type covered in 66.7.3 where flammable vapor-air mixtures can exist under normal operation 1 0 The entire area associated with such equipment where flammable gases or vapors are present continuously or for long periods of time
1 1 Area within 3 ft of any edge of such equipment, extending in all directions
2 2 Area between 3 ft and 8 ft of any edge of such equipment, extending in all directions; also, space up to 3 ft above floor or grade level within 3 ft to 10 ft horizontally from any edge of such equipment
Tank storage installations inside buildings 1 1 All equipment located below grade level
2 2 Any equipment located at or above grade level
Tank — aboveground, fixed roof 1 0 Inside fixed-roof tank
1 1 Area inside dike where dike height is greater than the distance from the tank to the dike for more than 50 percent of the tank circumference
2 2 Within 10 ft from shell, ends, or roof of tank; also, area inside dike up to top of dike wall
1 0 Area inside of vent piping or vent opening
1 1 Within 5 ft of open end of vent, extending in all directions
2 2 Area between 5 ft and 10 ft from open end of vent, extending in all directions
Tank — aboveground, floating roof With fixed outer roof 1 0 Area between the floating and fixed-roof sections and within the shell
With no fixed outer roof 1 1 Area above the floating roof and within the shell
Tank vault — interior 1 1 Entire interior volume, if Class I liquids are stored within
Underground tank fill opening 1 1 Any pit, box, or space below grade level, if any part is within a Division 1 or 2 or Zone 1 or 2 classified location
2 2 Up to 18 in. above grade level within a horizontal radius of 10 ft from a loose fill connection and within a horizontal radius of 5 ft from a tight fill connection
Vent — discharging upward 1 0 Area inside of vent piping or opening
1 1 Within 3 ft of open end of vent, extending in all directions
2 2 Area between 3 ft and 5 ft of open end of vent, extending in all directions
Drum and container filling — outdoors or indoors 1 0 Area inside the drum or container
1 1 Within 3 ft of vent and fill openings, extending in all directions
2 2 Area between 3 ft and 5 ft from vent or fill opening, extending in all directions; also, up to 18 in. above floor or grade level within a horizontal radius of 10 ft from vent or fill opening
Pumps, bleeders, withdrawal fittings Indoor 2 2 Within 5 ft of any edge of such devices, extending in all directions; also, up to 3 ft above floor or grade level within 25 ft horizontally from any edge of such devices
Outdoor 2 2 Within 3 ft of any edge of such devices, extending in all directions; also, up to 18 in. above grade level within 10 ft horizontally from any edge of such devices
Pits and sumps Without mechanical ventilation 1 1 Entire area within a pit or sump if any part is within a Division 1 or 2 or Zone 1 or 2 classified location
With adequate mechanical ventilation 2 2 Entire area within a pit or sump if any part is within a Division 1 or 2 or Zone 1 or 2 classified location
Containing valves, fittings, or piping, and not within a Division 1 or 2 or Zone 1 or 2 classified location 2 2 Entire pit or sump
Drainage ditches, separators, impounding basins
Outdoor 2 2 Area up to 18 in. above ditch, separator, or basin; also, area up to 18 in. above grade within 15 ft horizontally from any edge
Indoor Same as pits and sumps
Tank vehicle and tank car2 Loading through open dome 1 0 Area inside of the tank
1 1 Within 3 ft of edge of dome, extending in all directions
2 2 Area between 3 ft and 15 ft from edge of dome, extending in all directions
Loading through bottom connections with atmospheric venting 1 0 Area inside of the tank
1 1 Within 3 ft of point of venting to atmosphere, extending in all directions
2 2 Area between 3 ft and 15 ft from point of venting to atmosphere, extending in all directions; also, up to 18 in. above grade within a horizontal radius of 10 ft from point of loading connection
Loading through closed dome with atmospheric venting 1 1 Within 3 ft of open end of vent, extending in all directions
2 2 Area between 3 ft and 15 ft from open end of vent, extending in all directions; also, within 3 ft of edge of dome, extending in all directions
Loading through closed dome with vapor control 2 2 Within 3 ft of point of connection of both fill and vapor lines, extending in all directions
Bottom loading with vapor control or any bottom unloading 2 2 Within 3 ft of point of connections, extending in all directions; also, tip to 18 in. above grade within a horizontal radius of 10 ft from point of connections
Storage and repair garage for tank vehicles 1 1 All pits or spaces below floor level vehicles
2 2 Area up to 18 in. above floor or grade level for entire storage or repair garage
Garages for other than tank vehicles Ordinary If there is any opening to these rooms within the extent of an outdoor classified location, the entire room shall be classified the same as the area classification at the point of the opening
Outdoor drum storage Ordinary
Inside rooms or storage lockers used for the storage of Class I liquids 2 2 Entire room or locker
Indoor warehousing where there is no flammable liquid transfer Ordinary If there is any opening to these rooms within the extent of an indoor classified location, the classified location shall extend through the opening to the same extent as if the wall, curb, or partition did not exist
Office and rest rooms Ordinary If there is any opening to these rooms within the extent of an indoor classified location, the room shall be classified the same as if the wall, curb, or partition did not exist
Piers and wharves See Figure 29.3.22 of NFPA 30.

For SI units, 1 in. = 25 mm; 1 ft = 0.3 m.

1The release of Class I liquids can generate vapors to the extent that the entire building, and possibly an area surrounding it, should be considered a Class I, Division 2, or Zone 2 location.

2When classifying extent of area, consideration should be given to the fact that tank cars or tank vehicles can be spotted at varying points. Therefore, the extremities of the loading or unloading positions should be used. [30: Table 7.3.3]

A classified area shall not extend beyond a floor, wall, roof, or other solid partition that has no openings within the classified area. [30:7.3.4]
The designation of classes, divisions, and zones shall be as defined in Chapter 5 of NFPA 70. [30:7.3.5]
The area classifications listed in Table 66.7.3.3 are based on the premise that all applicable requirements of this Code have been met. If this is not the case, the AHJ shall have the authority to classify the extent of the area. [30:7.3.6]
Where the provisions of 66.7.3.1 through 66.7.3.6 require the installation of electrical equipment suitable for Class I, Division 1 or 2, or Zone 1 or 2 locations, ordinary electrical equipment, including switchgear, shall be permitted to be used if installed in a room or enclosure that is maintained under positive pressure with respect to the classified area. [30:7.3.7]
Ventilation make-up air shall be taken from an uncontaminated source. [30:7.3.7.1]
Area classification is used to assure that fixed electrical utilization equipment, electrical fixtures, and wiring are properly installed within Class I, Division 1; Class I, Zone 1; Class I, Division 2; or Class I, Zone 2 designated areas, as defined by Article 500 of NFPA 70, National Electrical Code. [30:7.4.1]
This section shall apply to the storage of flammable and combustible liquids in:
  1. Drums or other containers that do not exceed 119 gal (450 L) individual capacity
  2. Portable tanks that do not exceed 660 gal (2500 L) individual capacity
  3. Intermediate bulk containers that do not exceed 793 gal (3000 L) [30:9.1.1]
This section shall also apply to limited transfer of liquids incidental thereto. [30:9.1.2]
This section shall also apply to overpack drums when used for temporary containment of containers that do not exceed 60 gal (230 L) capacity. Such overpack containers shall be treated as containers as defined in 66.3.3.10. [30:9.1.3]
This section shall not apply to the following:
  1. Containers, intermediate bulk containers, and portable tanks that are used in operations areas, as covered by Section 66.17
  2. Liquids in the fuel tanks of motor vehicles, aircraft, boats, or portable or stationary engines
  3. Beverages where packaged in individual containers that do not exceed 1.3 gal (5 L) capacity
  4. Medicines, foodstuffs, cosmetics, and other consumer products that contain not more than 50 percent by volume of water-miscible flammable or combustible liquids, with the remainder of the product consisting of components that do not burn and where packaged in individual containers that do not exceed 1.3 gal (5 L) capacity
  5. Liquids that have no fire point when tested in accordance with ASTM D 92, Standard Test Method for Flash and Fire Points by Cleveland Open Cup, up to the boiling point of the liquid or up to a temperature at which the liquid shows an obvious physical change
  6. Liquids with a flash point greater than 95°F (35°C) in a water-miscible solution or water-miscible dispersion with a water and noncombustible solids content of more than 80 percent by weight, and which does not sustain combustion when tested in accordance with "Method of Testing for Sustained Combustibility," in accordance with Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 173, Appendix H, or the UN publication Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods
  7. Distilled spirits and wines in wooden barrels or casks [30:9.1.4]
The general requirements of this chapter shall be applicable to the storage of liquids in liquid storage areas as covered in Chapters 10 through 14 of NFPA 30, regardless of the quantities being stored.

Exception: Where more stringent requirements are set forth in Chapters 10 through 14 of NFPA 30, those requirements shall take precedence. [30:9.3.1]

For the purposes of Sections 66.9 through 66.16, unstable liquids shall be treated as Class IA liquids. [30:9.3.2]
Means of egress shall meet applicable requirements of NFPA 101, Life Safety Code. [30:9.3.3]
Storage of liquids shall not physically obstruct a means of egress. [30:9.3.3.1]
For the purposes of this section and Chapters 10, 12, and 16 of NFPA 30, protected storage shall mean storage installed after January 1, 1997 that is protected in accordance with Section 66.16. All other storage shall be considered to be unprotected storage unless an alternate means of protection has been approved by the AHJ. [30:9.3.4]
Wood of at least 1 in. (25 mm) nominal thickness shall be permitted to be used for shelving, racks, dunnage, scuffboards, floor overlay, and similar installations. [30:9.3.5]
Class I liquids shall not be permitted to be stored in basements as defined in 3.3.23. [30:9.3.6]
Class II and Class IIIA liquids shall be permitted to be stored in basements as defined in 3.3.23, provided the basement is protected in accordance with Section 3.3.23. [30:9.3.7]
Class IIIB liquids shall be permitted to be stored in basements as defined in 3.3.23. [30:9.3.8]
Where containers, intermediate bulk containers, or portable tanks are stacked, they shall be stacked so that stability is maintained and excessive stress on container walls is prevented. [30:9.3.9]
Portable tanks and intermediate bulk containers stored more than one high shall be designed to stack securely, without the use of dunnage. [30:9.3.9.1]
Materials-handling equipment shall be capable of handling containers, portable tanks, and intermediate bulk containers that are stored at all storage levels. [30:9.3.9.2]
Power-operated industrial trucks used to move Class I liquids shall be selected, operated, and maintained in accordance with NFPA 505, Fire Safety Standard for Powered Industrial Trucks Including Type Designations, Areas of Use, Conversions, Maintenance, and Operations. [30:9.3.9.3]
Containers, intermediate bulk containers, and portable tanks in unprotected liquid storage areas shall not be stored closer than 36 in. (915 mm) to the nearest beam, chord, girder, or other roof or ceiling member. [30:9.3.10]
Liquids used for building maintenance, painting, or other similar infrequent maintenance purposes shall be permitted to be stored in closed containers outside of storage cabinets or inside liquid storage areas, if limited to an amount that does not exceed a 10-day supply at anticipated rates of use. [30:9.3.11]
Storage, handling, and use of Class II and Class III liquids heated at or above their flash point shall follow the requirements for Class I liquids, unless an engineering evaluation conducted in accordance with Section 66.6 justifies following the requirements for some other liquid class. (See 66.6.4.1.2 and A.66.6.4.1.2.) [30:9.3.12]
Only the following approved containers, intermediate bulk containers, and portable tanks shall be used for Class I, Class II, and Class IIIA liquids:
  1. Metal containers, metal intermediate bulk containers, and metal portable tanks meeting the requirements of and containing products authorized by the U.S. Department of Transportation Hazardous Materials Regulations in Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 100—199, or by Part 6 of the UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods
  2. Plastic or metal consumer-use containers meeting the requirements of, and used within the scope of, one or more of the following specifications:
    1. ASTM F 852, Standard Specification for Portable Gasoline Containers for Consumer Use
    2. ASTM F 976, Standard Specification for Portable Kerosene and Diesel Containers for Consumer Use
  3. Nonmetallic or metallic commercial/industrial safety cans meeting the requirements of, and used with the scope of, one or more of the following specifications:
    1. ANSI/UL 30, Standard for Metal Safety Cans
    2. ANSI/UL 1313, Standard for Nonmetallic Safety Cans for Petroleum Products
    3. FM Global Approval Standard for Safety Containers and Filling, Supply, and Disposal Containers Class Number 6051 and 6052
  4. Plastic containers that meet requirements set by and contain products authorized by the following:
    1. The U. S. Department of Transportation Hazardous Materials Regulations in Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 100—199, or by Part 6 of the UN publication Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods
    2. Items 256 or 258 of the National Motor Freight Classification (NMFC) for liquids that are not classified as hazardous by the U.S. Department of Transportation Hazardous Materials Regulations in Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 100—199, or by Part 6 of the UN publication Recommendations on the Transport, of Dangerous Goods
  5. Fiber drums that meet the following:
    1. Requirements of Items 294 and 296 of the National Motor Freight Classification (NMFC), or Rule 51 of the Uniform Freight Classification (UFC), for Types 2A, 3A, 3B-H, 3B-L, or 4A
    2. Requirements of, and containing liquid products authorized by, either the U.S. Department of Transportation Hazardous Materials Regulations in Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter I, or by U.S. Department of Transportation exemption
  6. *Rigid nonmetallic intermediate bulk containers that meet requirements set by and contain products authorized by the following:
    1. The U.S. Department of Transportation Hazardous Materials Regulations in Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 100—199, or by Part 6 of the UN publication Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, for Classes 31H1, 31H2, and 31HZ1
    2. The National Motor Freight Classification (NMFC), or the International Safe Transit Association for liquids that are not classified as hazardous by the U.S. Department of Transportation Hazardous Materials Regulations in Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 100-199, or by Part 6 of the UN publication Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods
  7. Glass containers up to the capacity limits stated in Table 66.9.4.3 and in accordance with U.S. Department of Transportation Hazardous Materials Regulations in Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 100-199 [30:9.4.1]
For protected storage, rigid nonmetallic intermediate bulk containers, as described in 66.9.4.1(5), shall be subjected to a standard fire test that demonstrates acceptable inside storage fire performance and shall be listed and labeled. [30:9.4.1.1]
Medicines, beverages, foodstuffs, cosmetics, and other common consumer products, where packaged according to commonly accepted practices for retail sales, shall be exempt from the requirements of 66.9.4.1 and 66.9.4.3. [30:9.4.1.2]
Each portable tank or intermediate bulk container shall be provided with one or more devices installed in the top with sufficient emergency venting capacity to limit internal pressure under fire exposure conditions to a gauge pressure of 10 psi (70 kPa) or 30 percent of the bursting pressure of the portable tank, whichever is greater. [30:9.4.2]
The total venting capacity shall be not less than that specified in 22.7.3.2 or 22.7.3.4 of NFPA 30. [30:9.4.2.1]
At least one pressure-actuated vent having a minimum capacity of 6000 ft3 (170 m3) of free air per hour at an absolute pressure of 14.7 psi (101 kPa) and 60°F (15.6°C) shall be used. It shall be set to open at not less than a gauge pressure of 5 psi (35 kPa). [30:9.4.2.2]
If fusible vents are used, they shall be actuated by elements that operate at a temperature not exceeding 300°F (150°C). Where plugging of a pressure-actuated vent can occur, such as when used for paints, drying oils, and similar materials, fusible plugs or venting devices that soften to failure at a maximum of 300°F (150°C) under fire exposure shall be permitted to be used for the entire emergency venting requirement. [30:9.4.2.3]
The maximum allowable size of a container, intermediate bulk container, or metal portable tank for Class I, Class II, and Class IIIA liquids shall not exceed that specified in Table 66.9.4.3.

Table 66.9.4.3 Maximum Allowable Size - Containers, Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBCs), and Portable Tanks

Container Type Flammable Liquids Combustible Liquids
Class IA Class IB Class IC Class II Class IIIA
Glass 1 pt (0.5 L) 1 qt (1 L) 1.3 gal (5 L) 1.3 gal (5 L) 5.3 gal (20 L)
Metal (other than drums) or approved plastic 1.3 gal (5 L) 5.3 gal (20 L) 5.3 gal (20 L) 5.3 gal (20 L) 5.3 gal (20 L)
Safety cans 2.6 gal (10 L) 5.3 gal (20 L) 5.3 gal (20 L) 5.3 gal (20 L) 5.3 gal (20 L)
Metal drum (e.g., UN 1A1/1A2) 119 gal (450 L) 119 gal (450 L) 119 gal (450 L) 119 gal (450 L) 119 gal (450 L)
Approved metal portable tanks and IBCs 793 gal (3000 L) 793 gal (3000 L) 793 gal (3000 I.) 793 gal (3000 L) 793 gal (3000 L)
Rigid plastic IBCs (UN 31H1 or 31H2) and composite IBCs with rigid inner receptacle (UN31HZ1) NP NP NP 793 gal (3000 L) 793 gal (3000 L)
Composite IBCs with flexible inner receptacle (UN31HZ2) and DOT/UN-approved flexible IBCs NP NP NP NP NP
Non-bulk Bag-in-Box NP NP NP NP NP
Polyethylene UN1H1 and UN1H2, or as authorized by DOT exemption 1.3 gal (5 L) 5.3 gal (20 L)* 5.3 gal (20 L)* 119 gal (450 L) 119 gal (450 L)
Fiber drum NMFC or UFC Type 2A; Types 3A, 3B-H, or 3B-L; or Type 4A NP NP NP 119 gal (450 L) 119 gal (450 L)
NP: Not permitted for the container categories so classified unless a fire protection system is provided that is developed in accordance with 66.16.3.6 and is approved for the specific container and protection against stauc electricity is provided in accordance with 66.6.5.4.
*See 66.9.4.3.1. [30: Table 9.4.3]

Exception: As provided for in 66.9.1, 66.9.4.3.1, 66.9.4.3.2, and 66.9.4.3.3. [30:9.4.3]

Class IB and Class IC water-miscible liquids shall be permitted to be stored in plastic containers up to 60 gal (230 L) in size, if stored and protected in accordance with Table 66.16.5.2.7. [30:9.4.3.1]
Class IA and Class IB liquids shall be permitted to be stored in glass containers of not more than 1.3 gal (5 L) capacity if the required liquid purity (such as American Chemical Society analytical reagent grade or higher) would be affected by storage in metal containers or if the liquid can cause excessive corrosion of a metal container. [30:9.4.3.2]
Leaking or damaged containers up to 60 gal (230 L) capacity shall be permitted to be stored temporarily in accordance with this section and Chapters 10 through 12 of NFPA 30, provided they are enclosed in overpack containers. [30:9.4.3.3]
To be considered protected storage as defined in 66.9.3.4 and in accordance with Section 66.16, an overpack container shall be constructed of the same material as the leaking or damaged container. [30:9.4.3.3.1]
Metal overpack containers shall be considered nonrelieving style containers. [30:9.4.3.3.2]
The volume of Class I, Class II, and Class IIIA liquids stored in an individual storage cabinet shall not exceed 120 gal (460 L). [30:9.5.1]
The total aggregate volume of Class I, Class II, and Class IIIA liquids in a group of storage cabinets shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantity of flammable and combustible liquids per control area based on the occupancy where the cabinets are located. [30:9.5.2]
Storage cabinets that meet at least one of the following sets of requirements shall be acceptable for storage of liquids:
  1. Storage cabinets designed and constructed to limit the internal temperature at the center of the cabinet and 1 in. (25 mm) from the top of the cabinet to not more than 325°F (163°C), when subjected to a 10-minute fire test that simulates the fire exposure of the standard time-temperature curve specified in NFPA 251, Standard Methods of Tests of Fire Resistance of Building and Construction and Materials, shall be acceptable. All joints and seams shall remain tight and the door shall remain securely closed during the test.
  2. Metal storage cabinets constructed in the following manner shall be acceptable:
    1. The bottom, top, door, and sides of the cabinet shall be at least No. 18 gauge sheet steel and shall be double-walled, with 11/2 in. (38 mm) air space.
    2. Joints shall be riveted, welded, or made tight by some equally effective means.
    3. The door shall be provided with a three-point latch arrangement, and the door sill shall be raised at least 2 in. (50 mm) above the bottom of the cabinet to retain spilled liquid within the cabinet.
  3. Wooden cabinets constructed in the following manner shall be acceptable:
    1. The bottom, sides, and top shall be constructed of exterior grade plywood that is at least 1 in. (25 mm) thick and of a type that will not break down or delaminate under fire conditions.
    2. All joints shall be rabbetted and shall be fastened in two directions with wood screws.
    3. Where more than one door is used, there shall be a rabbetted overlap of not less than 1 in. (25 mm).
    4. Doors shall be equipped with a means of latching, and hinges shall be constructed and mounted in such a manner as to not lose their holding capacity when subjected to fire exposure.
    5. A raised sill or pan capable of containing a 2 in. (50 mm) depth of liquid shall be provided at the bottom of the cabinet to retain spilled liquid within the cabinet.
  4. Listed storage cabinets that have been constructed and tested in accordance with 66.9.5.3(1) shall be acceptable. [30:9.5.3]
Storage cabinets shall not be required by this Code to be ventilated for fire protection purposes. [30:9.5.4]
If not ventilated, storage cabinet vent openings shall be sealed with the bungs supplied with the cabinet or with bungs specified by the cabinet manufacturer. [30:9.5.4.1]
If a storage cabinet is ventilated for any reason, the vent openings shall be ducted directly to a safe location outdoors or to a treatment device designed to control volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and ignitible vapors in such a manner that will not compromise the specified performance of the cabinet and in a manner that is acceptable to the AHJ. [30:9.5.4.2]
Storage cabinets shall include the following marking: [30:9.5.5]

FLAMMABLE
KEEP FIRE AWAY

The minimum letter height for FLAMMABLE (signal word) shall be 2.0 in. (50 mm) and the minimum letter height for KEEP FIRE AWAY (message) shall be 1.0 in. (25 mm). [30:9.5.5.1]
All letters shall be uppercase and in contrasting color to the background. [30:9.5.5.2]
The marking shall be located on the upper portion of the cabinet's front door(s) or frame. [30:9.5.5.3]
Use of other languages, the international symbol for "flammable" (a flame in a triangle), the international symbol for "keep fire away" (a burning match in "no" circle) shall be permitted. [30:9.5.5.4]
The MAQs of liquids allowed in each control area shall not exceed the amounts specified in Table 66.9.6.1.

Table 66.9.6.1 MAQ of Flammable and Combustible Liquids per Control Area

  Liquid Class(es) Quantity Notes
gal L
Flammable liquids IA 30 115 1, 2
IB and IC 120 460 1, 2
IA, IB, IC combined 120 460 1, 2, 3
Combustible liquids II 120 460 1, 2
IIIA 330 1,265 1, 2
IIIB 13,200 50,600 1, 2, 4

Notes:

(1) Quantities are permitted to be increased 100 percent where stored in approved flammable liquids storage cabinets or in safety cans in accordance with this Code. Where Note 2 also applies, the increase for both notes is permitted to be applied accumulatively.

(2) Quantities are permitted to be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with NFPA 13. Where Note 1 also applies, the increase for both notes is permitted to be applied accumulatively.

(3) Containing not more than the maximum allowable quantity per control area of Class IA, Class IB, or Class IC flammable liquids, individually.

(4) Quantities are not limited in a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with NFPA 13 and designed in accordance with the protection criteria contained in Section 66.16 of this Code. [30: Table 9.6.1]

Exception: As modified by 66.9.6.2 and Chapters 10 through 14 of NFPA 30. [30:9.6.1]

For the following occupancies, the MAQs per control area shall not exceed the amounts specified in Table 66.9.6.2.1:
  1. Assembly
  2. Ambulatory health care
  3. Business
  4. Day care
  5. Detention and correctional
  6. Educational
  7. Health care
  8. Residential [30:9.6.2.1]

Table 66.9.6.2.1 MAQs — Special Occupancy Limits

Liquid Class(es) Quantity
gal L
I and II 10 38
IIIA 60 227
IIIB 120 454

[30: Table 9.6.2.1]

For the occupancies specified in 66.9.6.2.1, storage in excess of 10 gal (38 L) of Class I and Class II liquids combined or in excess of 60 gal (227 L) of Class IIIA liquids shall be permitted where stored in flammable liquids storage cabinets and where the total aggregate quantity does not exceed 180 gal (680 L). [30:9.6.2.2]
Fuel in the tanks of operating mobile equipment shall be permitted to exceed the quantities specified in Table 66.9.6.1, where the equipment is operated in accordance with this Code. [30:9.6.2.3]
For ambulatory health care day care, educational, and health care occupancies, the MAQ for Class IIIB liquids shall be permitted to be increased 100 percent if the building is protected throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 13.3 and NFPA 13. [30:9.6.2.4]
For the purpose of this Code, a control area shall be a space within a building where quantities of liquids that do not exceed the maximum quantities allowed by Table 66.9.6.1 or Table 66.9.6.2.1 are stored. [30:9.7.1]
Control areas shall be separated from each other by fire barriers in accordance with Table 66.9.7.2. [5000:34.2.5.1.1]

Table 66.9.7.2 Design and Number of Control Areas

Floor Level Maximum Allowable Quantity per Control Area (percent)* Number of Control Areas per Floor Fire Resistance Rating for Fire Barriers (hr)†
Above grade
>9 5 1 2
7—9 5 2 2
4—6 12.5 2 2
3 50 2 1
2 75 3 1
1 100 4 1
Below grade
1 75 3 1
2 50 2 1
Lower than 2 NP NP N/A

NP: Not permitted. N/A: Not applicable.

*Percentages represent the MAQ per control area shown in Table 66.9.6.1. with all of the increases permitted in the footnotes of that table.

†Fire barriers are required to include floors and walls, as necessary, to provide a complete separation from other control areas. [5000: Table 34.2.5.1.1]

Control areas located below grade that are considered basements, as defined in 3.3.22, shall not be utilized for the storage of Class I liquids. [30:9.7.3]
Buildings and portions of buildings where liquids are stored shall be classified as Protection Level 2 or Protection Level 3, as established in this section, when the MAQs per control area are exceeded. [30:9.8.1]
Buildings and portions thereof storing quantities of liquids that are considered as High-Hazard Level 2 liquids and that exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area shall be classified as Protection Level 2 occupancies. [30:9.8.1.1]
Buildings and portions thereof storing quantities of liquids that are considered as High-Hazard Level 3 liquids and that exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area shall be classified as Protection Level 3 occupancies. [30:9.8.1.2]
Liquids stored in Protection Level 2 or Protection Level 3 occupancies shall meet the applicable requirements for storage in a Liquid Storage Room or Liquid Warehouse as defined in this Code and in NFPA 5000, Building Construction and Safety Code. [30:9.8.2]
Storage areas shall be constructed to meet the fire resistance ratings specified in Table 66.9.9.1. Construction assemblies shall comply with the test specifications given in ASTME 119. [30:9.9.1]

Table 66.9.9.1 Fire Resistance Ratings for Liquid Storage Areas

Type of Storage Area Fire Resistance Rating (hr)
Interior Wallsa, Ceilings, Intermediate Floors Roofs Exterior Walls
Liquid storage room
Floor area ≤150 ft2 1
Floor area > 150 ft2, but ≤ 500 ft2 2
Liquid warehouseb,c,g 4d 2e, 4f

For SI units, 1 ft2 = 0.09 m2.

aBetween liquid storage areas and any adjacent areas not dedicated to liquid storage.

bFire resistance ratings for liquid warehouses storing only Class IIIB liquids, which are not heated above their flash point, are permitted to be reduced to 2 hours.

cFire resistance ratings for liquid warehouses protected in accordance with Section 66.16 are permitted to be reduced to 2 hours.

dThis shall be a fire wall as defined in NFPA 221, Standard for High Challenge Fire Walls, Fire Walls, and Fire Barrier Walls.

eFor exposing walls that are located more than 10 ft (3 m) but less than 50 ft (15 m) from an important building or line of adjoining property that can be built upon.

fFor exposing walls that are located 10 ft (3 m) or less from an important building or line of adjoining property that can be built upon.

gFor accessory use areas in protected liquid warehouses, such as offices and restrooms, whose combined area is less than 10 percent of the area of the warehouse, no fire resistance rating shall be required for the interior walls and ceilings.

[30: Table 9.9.1]

Openings in interior walls to adjacent rooms or buildings and openings in exterior walls with fire resistance ratings shall be provided with normally closed, listed fire doors with fire protection ratings that correspond to the fire resistance rating of the wall as specified in Table 66.9.9.2. [30:9.9.2]

Table 66.9.9.2 Protection Ratings for Fire Doors

Fire Resistance Rating of Wall as Required by Table 66.9.9.1 (hr) Fire Protection Rating of Door (hr)
1 3/4
2 11/2
4 3*

*One fire door required on each side of interior openings for attached liquid warehouses. [30: Table 9.9.2]

Such doors shall be permitted to be arranged to stay open during material-handling operations if the doors are designed to close automatically in a fire emergency by provision of listed closure devices. [30:9.9.2.1]
Fire doors shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 80, Standard for Fire Doors and Other Opening Protectives. [30:9.9.2.2]
Exterior walls shall be constructed to provide ready access for fire-fighting operations by means of access openings, windows, or lightweight, noncombustible wall panels.

Exception: This requirement does not apply to liquid storage rooms totally enclosed within a building. [30:9.9.3]

Fire protection requirements for protected storage shall meet the requirements of 66.9.10.2 and Section 66.16. [30:9.10.1]
Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with Section 13.6 and NFPA 10. [30:9.10.2.1]
Portable fire extinguishers shall meet the following requirements:
  1. At least one portable fire extinguisher having a capability of not less than 40:B shall be located outside of, but not more than 10 ft (3 m) from, the door opening into a liquid storage area.
  2. At least one portable fire extinguisher having a capability of not less than 40:B shall be located within 30 ft (9 m) of any Class I or Class II liquids located outside of a liquid storage area, or at least one portable fire extinguisher having a capacity of 80:B shall be located within 50 ft (15 m) of such a storage area. [30:9.10.2.2]
Where provided, hose connections supplied from sprinkler systems shall be installed in accordance with Section 13.3 and NFPA 13. [30:9.10.2.3]
Where provided, hose connections supplied by a standpipe system shall be installed in accordance with Section 13.2 and NFPA 14. [30:9.10.2.4]
Where provided, hose connections shall also meet the following requirements:
  1. Hose connections shall be provided in protected general-purpose warehouses and in protected liquid warehouses.
  2. Where preconnected hose is provided, it shall be either 11/2 in. (38 mm) lined fire hose or 1 in. (25 mm) hard rubber hose, using combination spray and straight stream nozzles. [30:9.10.2.5]
Where hose connections are provided, the water supply shall be sufficient to meet the fixed fire protection demand plus a total of at least 500 gpm (1900 L/min) for inside and outside hose connections for at least 2 hours, unless otherwise specified in Section 66.16. [30:9.10.2.6]
Electrical area classification shall not be required for liquid storage areas where all containers, intermediate bulk containers, and portable tanks are sealed and are not opened, except as provided for in 66.9.12.2. [30:9.12.1]
For liquid storage rooms that are totally enclosed within the building, electrical wiring and utilization equipment for Class I liquid storage shall be Class I, Division 2 (Zone 2), and electrical wiring and utilization equipment in inside rooms used for the storage of Class II and Class III liquids shall be suitable for ordinary purpose.

Exception: Class I, Division 2 (Zone 2) requirements shall apply to Class II and Class III liquids when stored at temperatures above their flashpoints. [30:9.12.2]

Storage areas shall be designed and operated to prevent the discharge of liquids to public waterways, public sewers, or adjoining property, unless such discharge has been specifically approved. [30:9.13.1]
Where the drainage system discharges to private or public sewers or waterways, the drainage system shall be equipped with traps and separators. [30:9.13.1.1]
Where individual containers exceed 10 gal (38 L), curbs, scuppers, drains, or other suitable means shall be provided to prevent flow of liquids under emergency conditions into adjacent building areas. [30:9.13.2]
Containment or drainage to an approved location shall be provided. [30:9.13.3]
Where a drainage system is used, it shall also have sufficient capacity to carry the expected discharge of water from fire protection systems. [30:9.13.3.1]
Where only Class IIIB liquids are stored, spill control, containment, and drainage shall not be required. [30:9.13.4]
Where only unsaturated polyester resins (UPRs) containing not more than 50 percent by weight of Class IC, Class II, or Class IIIA liquid constituents are stored and are protected in accordance with 66.16.5.2.11, spill control, containment, and drainage shall not be required. [30:9.13.5]
Where storage is protected in accordance with Section 66.16, spill control, containment, and drainage shall also meet the requirements of 66.16.8. [30:9.13.6]
Liquid storage areas where dispensing is conducted shall be provided with ventilation that meets the requirements of 66.18.6. [30:9.14]
Where Class IA liquids are stored in containers larger than 1 gal (4 L), areas shall be provided with a means of explosion control that meets the requirements of NFPA 69, Standard on Explosion Prevention Systems. An approved engineered damage limiting construction design shall also be permitted.

Exception: This shall not apply to a liquid storage room totally enclosed within a building. [30:9.16.1]

Where unstable liquids are stored, an approved engineered construction method that is designed to limit damage from a deflagration or detonation, depending on the liquid stored, shall be used. [30:9.16.2]
Except as provided for in 66.9.17.4, liquids shall be separated from incompatible materials where the stored materials are in containers having a capacity of more than 5 lb (2.268 kg) or 1/2 gal (1.89 L). [30:9.17.1]
Separation shall be accomplished by one of the following methods:
  1. Segregating incompatible materials storage by a distance of not less than 20 ft (6.1 m)
  2. Isolating incompatible materials storage by a noncombustible partition extending not less than 18 in. (460 mm) above and to the sides of the stored materials
  3. Storing liquid materials in flammable liquids storage cabinets in accordance with 66.9.5 [30:9.17.1.1]
Liquids shall be separated from Level 2 and Level 3 aerosols in accordance with Chapter 61 and NFPA 30B, Code for the Manufacture and Storage of Aerosol Products. [30:9.17.2]
The following shall apply where oxidizers are in segregated storage with flammable and combustible liquids:
  1. The oxidizer containers and flammable and combustible liquid containers shall be separated by at least 25 ft (7.6 m).
  2. The separation shall be maintained by dikes, drains, or floor slopes to prevent flammable liquid leakage from encroaching on the separation. [400:15.2.12.13.1]
Materials that are water-reactive, as described in NFPA 704, Standard System for the Identification of the Hazards of Materials for Emergency Response, shall not be stored in the same control area with liquids. [30:9.17.4]
Dispensing, handling, and use of liquids shall meet all applicable requirements of Section 66.18. [30:9.18.1]
Dispensing of Class I liquids or Class II and Class III liquids at temperatures at or above their flash points shall not be permitted in storage areas that exceed 1000 ft2 (93 m2) in floor area unless the dispensing area is separated from the storage areas in accordance with Table 66.9.9.1 and meets all other requirements of 66.9.9. [30:9.18.2]
Storage of liquids outside of buildings shall meet the requirements of Section 66.14 or 66.15, whichever is applicable. [30:9.19]
This section shall apply to the storage of liquids in movable, modular, prefabricated storage lockers, also known as hazardous materials storage lockers (hereinafter referred to as lockers), specifically designed and manufactured for storage of hazardous materials, in the following:
  1. Containers that do not exceed 119 gal (450 L) individual capacity
  2. Portable tanks that do not exceed 660 gal (2500 L) individual capacity
  3. Intermediate bulk containers that do not exceed 793 gal (3000 L) individual capacity [30:14.1]
Lockers that are used as liquid storage rooms shall meet the requirements of Section 66.9. [30:14.3.1]
Lockers that are located outside shall meet the requirements of Sections 14.4 through 14.6 of NFPA 30. [30:14.3.2]
The design and construction of a locker shall meet all applicable local, state, and federal regulations and requirements and shall be subject to the approval of the AHJ. [30:14.4.1]
Movable prefabricated structures that have been examined, listed, or labeled by an organization acceptable to the AHJ for use as a hazardous materials storage facility shall be acceptable. [30:14.4.2]
Lockers shall not exceed 1500 ft2 (140 m2) gross floor area. [30:14.4.3]
Vertical stacking of lockers shall not be permitted. [30:14.4.4]
Where electrical wiring and equipment are required, they shall comply with Section 66.7 and 66.9.12. [30:14.4.5]
Where dispensing or filling is permitted inside a locker, operations shall comply with the provisions of Section 66.18. [30:14.4.6]
Ventilation shall be provided in accordance with 66.18.6. [30:14.4.7]
Lockers shall include a spill containment system to prevent the flow of liquids from the structure under emergency conditions. [30:14.4.8]
The containment system shall have sufficient capacity to contain 10 percent of the volume of containers allowed in the locker or the volume of the largest container, whichever is greater. [30:14.4.8.1]
Lockers shall be located on a designated approved site on the property. [30:14.5.1]
The designated site shall be arranged to provide the minimum separation distances specified in Table 66.14.5.2 between individual lockers, from locker to property line that is or can be built upon, and from locker to nearest side of public ways or to important buildings on the same property. [30:14.5.2]

Table 66.14.5.2 Designated Sites

Minimum Separation Distance (ft)
Area of Designated Sitea (ft2) Between Individual Lockers From Locker to Property Line That Is or Can Be Built Uponb From Locker to Nearest Side of Public Way or to Important Buildings on Same Propertyb,c
≤100 5 10 5
>100 and ≤500 5 20 10
>500 and ≤1500d 5 30 20

For SI units, 1 ft = 0.3 m; 1 ft2 = 0.09 m2.

Note: If the locker is provided with a fire resistance rating of not less than 4 hours and deflagration venting is not required in accordance with 66.9.15, all distances required by Table 66.14.5.2 are permitted to be waived.

aSite area limits are intended to differentiate the relative size and thus the number of lockers that are permitted in one designated site.

bDistances apply to properties that have protection for exposures, as defined. If there are exposures and such protection for exposures does not exist, die distances should be doubled.

cWhen the exposed building has an exterior wall, facing the designated site, that has a fire resistance rating of at least 2 hours and has no openings to above grade areas within 10 ft (3 m) horizontally and no openings to below grade areas within 50 ft (15 m) horizontally of the designated area, the distances can be reduced to half of those shown in die table, except they should never be less than 5 ft (1.5 m).

dWhen a single locker has a gross single story floor area that will require a site area limit of greater than 1500 ft2 (140 m2) or when multiple units exceed the area limit of 1500 ft2 (140 m2), the AHJ should be consulted for approval of distances. [30: Table 14.5.2]

Once the designated site is approved, it shall not be changed without the approval of the AHJ. [30:14.5.3]
More than one locker shall be permitted on a designated site, provided that the separation distance between individual lockers is maintained in accordance with Table 66.14.5.2. [30:14.5.4]
Where the approved designated storage site is accessible to the general public, it shall be protected from tampering or trespassing. [30:14.5.5]
Containers of liquid in their original shipping packages shall be permitted to be stored either palletized or solid piled. [30:14.6.1]
Unpackaged containers shall be permitted to be stored on shelves or directly on the floor of the locker. [30:14.6.2]
Containers over 30 gal (114 L) capacity storing Class I or Class II liquids shall not be stored more than two containers high. [30:14.6.3]
In all cases, the storage arrangement shall provide unrestricted access to and egress from the locker. [30:14.6.4]
Miscellaneous combustible materials, including but not limited to idle pallets, excessive vegetation, and packing materials, shall not be permitted within 5 ft (1.5 m) of the designated site approved for lockers. [30:14.6.5]
Warning signs for lockers shall be in accordance with applicable local, state, and federal regulations or with NFPA 704. [30:14.6.6]
This section shall apply to the storage of liquids outdoors in the following:
  1. Drums or other containers that do not exceed 119 gal (450 L) individual capacity
  2. Portable tanks that do not exceed 660 gal (2500 L) individual capacity
  3. Intermediate bulk containers that do not exceed 793 gal (3000 L) individual capacity [30:15.1]
Outdoor storage of liquids in containers, intermediate bulk containers, and portable tanks shall comply with Table 66.15.3 and with all applicable requirements of this section. [30:15.3]

Table 66.15.3 Storage Limitations for Outside Storage

Liquid Class Containers Portable Tanks and Metal IBCs Rigid Plastic and Composite IBCs Minimum Separation Distance (ft)
Maximum Quantity per Pile (gal)a,b,c Maximum Storage Height (ft) Maximum Quantity per Pile (gal) Maximum Storage Height (ft) Maximum Quantity per Pile (gal)a,c Maximum Storage Height (ft) Between Piles or Rack Sections To Property Line That Is or Can Be Built Uponb,d To Street, Alley, or Public Wayb
IA 1,100 10 2,200 7 NP NP 5 50 10
IB 2,200 12 4,400 14 NP NP 5 50 10
IC 4,400 12 8,800 14 NP NP 5 50 10
II 8,800 12 17,600 14 8,800 14 5 25 5
III 22,000 18 44,000 14 22,000 18 5 10 5
For SI units, 1 ft = 0.3 m; 1 gal = 3.8 L.
NP: Not permitted.
aSee 66.15.3.1 regarding mixed-class storage.
bSee 66.15.3.4 for smaller pile sizes.
cFor storage in racks, the quantity limits per pile do not apply, but the rack arrangements should be limited to a maximum of 50 ft (15 m) in length and two rows or 9 ft (2.7 m) in depth.
dSee 66.15.3.3 regarding protection for exposures. [30: Table 15.3]
Where two or more classes of liquids are stored in a single pile, the maximum quantity permitted in that pile shall be that of the most hazardous class of liquid present. [30:15.3.1]
No container, intermediate bulk container, or portable tank in a pile shall be more than 200 ft (60 m) from a minimum 20 ft (6 m) wide access way to permit approach of fire control apparatus under all weather conditions. [30:15.3.2]
The distances specified in Table 66.15.3 shall apply to properties that have protection for exposures as defined. If there are exposures and protection for exposures does not exist, the distance to the property line that is or can be built upon shall be doubled. [30:15.3.3]
Where total quantity stored does not exceed 50 percent of the maximum quantity per pile, as specified in Table 66.15.3, the distances to a property line that is or can be built upon and to streets, alleys, or public ways shall be permitted to be reduced by 50 percent but in no case to less than 3 ft (0.9 m). [30:15.3.4]
The storage area shall be graded in a manner to divert possible spills away from buildings or other exposures or shall be surrounded by a curb at least 6 in. (150 mm) high. [30:15.3.5]
Where curbs are used, provisions shall be made to drain accumulations of groundwater or rainwater or spills of liquids. Drains shall terminate at a