- Type and design of underground and aboveground liquid storage tanks
- Quantity and types of liquids to be stored
- Location and design of the fuel dispensers and dispenser nozzles
- Distances from dispensers to tanks, property lines, and buildings
- Vehicle access
- Fire appliances
- Vehicle impact protection
- Method of storage and dispensing
- Overfill prevention
- Spill containment
- Vapor recovery
- Other equipment and accessories
- Seismic design in accordance with the building code
- Secondary containment
- Design and specifications for related piping, valves, and fittings
- Location and classification of electrical equipment, including emergency fuel shutdown devices
- Specifications for fuel storage and venting components
- Other information as required by the AHJ
- Approved closed containers that do not exceed 60 gal (227 L) capacity and are located outside buildings
- Tanks or approved closed containers located inside motor fuel dispensing facilities or repair garages
- Aboveground tanks, underground tanks, and containers in accordance with the requirements of 42.3.3
- Tanks supplying marine service stations in accordance with 42.9.2. [30A:4.2.1]
|Tank Type||Individual Tank Capacity (gal)a||Minimum Distance (ft)|
|From the Nearest Important Building on the Same Property||From Nearest Fuel Dispensing Deviceb||From Lot Line That Is or Can Be Built Uponc||From the Nearest Side of Any Public Way||Between Tanks|
|Tanks in vaultsd||0—15,000||0||0||0||0||Separate compartments required for each tank|
|Protected aboveground tanks||Less than or equal to 6,000||5||0||15||5||3|
|Other tanks meeting the requirements of NFPA 30||0—12,000||50||50||100||50||3|
For SI units, 1 ft = 0.30 m; 1 gal = 3.8 L.
cIncluding the opposite side of a public way.
dThe separation distances given for vaults are measured from the outer perimeter of the vault. [30A:Table 22.214.171.124]
- An inspection of the premises and operations has been made and approval has been granted by the AHJ.
- The tank is safeguarded against collision, spillage, and overfill to the satisfaction of the AHJ.
- The tank system is listed or approved for such aboveground use.
- The tank complies with requirements for emergency relief venting, the tank and dispensing system meet the electrical classification requirements of NFPA 30A, and the tank complies with the provisions of 126.96.36.199.
- The tank storage complies with Chapter 22 of NFPA 30. [30A:188.8.131.52]
- The construction that provides the required fire-resistive protection shall reduce the heat transferred to the primary tank in order to limit the temperature of the primary tank to an average maximum rise of 800°F (430°C) and a single point maximum rise of 1000°F (540°C) and to prevent release of liquid, failure of the primary tank, failure of the supporting structure, and impairment of venting for a period of not less than 2 hours when tested using the fire exposure specified in UL 2080.
- Reduction in sizing of the emergency vents in accordance with 184.108.40.206 of NFPA 30 shall not be permitted. [30:22.9.2]
- The construction that provides the required fire-resistive protection shall reduce the heat transferred to the primary tank in order to limit the temperature of the primary tank to an average maximum rise of260°F (144°C) and a single point maximum rise of 400°F (204°C) and to prevent release of liquid, failure of the primary tank, failure of the supporting structure, and impairment of venting for a period of not less than 2 hours when tested using the fire exposure specified in ANSI/UL 2085.
- Reduction in sizing of the emergency vents in accordance with 220.127.116.11 of NFPA 30 shall not be permitted. [30:22.10.2]
- They shall be constructed of steel not less than 4 in. (100 mm) in diameter and shall be filled with concrete.
- They shall be spaced not more than 4 ft (1.2 m) on center.
- They shall be set not less than 3 ft (0.9 m) deep in a concrete footing of not less than 15 in. (380 mm) diameter. [30A:18.104.22.168]
- Approval of the AHJ shall be required prior to bringing the tank to a site in the jurisdiction. In reviewing a proposed installation, the condition of the tank, the site where the tank will be located, installation and testing procedures, and operational procedures shall be evaluated prior to approval.
- The approval shall include a definite time limit after which the tank shall be removed from the site and relocated to an approved location.
- The tank shall comply with 42.3.3 and all other applicable provisions of NFPA 30A and NFPA 30.
- A tank containing liquid shall not be moved unless it has been specifically investigated and approved for movement while full or partially full. [30A:4.3.10]
Exception No. 1: Where dispensing is from a floating structure or pier, approved oil-resistant flexible hose shall be permitted to be used between shore piping and the piping on the floating structure or pier and between separate sections of the floating structure to accommodate changes in water level or shoreline, provided that the hose is either resistant to or shielded from damage by fire.
Exception No. 2: Low melting point rigid piping shall be permitted to be used between underground shore piping and a floating structure or pier and on the floating structure or pier itself, provided that the piping is protected from physical damage a nd stresses arising from impact, settlement, vibration, expansion, contraction, or tidal action and provided that the hose is either resistant to or shielded from damage by fire exposure. [30A:5.2.1]
- Belowgrade underground tank sumps that are fitted with a cover
- Belowgrade piping connection sumps that are fitted with a cover
- Containment sumps, under the following conditions:
- The sump is monitored to detect any leaks.
- Any leaks can be controlled.
- The components are either resistant to or shielded from damage by fire exposure.
- Containment sumps, provided the piping components can successfully pass the test procedures described in API 607, Fire Test for Soft-Seated Quarter-Turn Valves [30A:5.2.7]
- 10 ft (3 m) or more from property lines
- 10 ft (3 m) or more from buildings, other than canopies, having combustible exterior wall surfaces or buildings having noncombustible exterior wall surfaces that are not a part of a 1 hr fire-resistive assembly
- Such that all parts of the vehicle being served will be on the premises of the service station
- Such that the nozzle, when the hose is fully extended, will not reach within 5 ft (1.5 m) of building openings [30A:6.2.1]
- Only persons knowledgeable in performing the required maintenance shall perform the work.
- All electrical power to the dispensing devices, to the pump serving the dispensing devices, and to all associated control circuits shall be shut off at the main electrical disconnect panel.
- The emergency shutoff valve at the dispenser, if installed, shall be closed.
- All vehicular traffic and unauthorized persons shall be prevented from coming within 20 ft (6 m) of the dispensing device. [30A:22.214.171.124]
Exception: As provided for in 126.96.36.199. [30A:6.3.9]
Exception: A leak detection device shall not be required if all piping is visible. [30A:6.4.2]
Exception: Such devices shall not be required at marine motor fuel dispensing facilities. [30A:6.5.3]
Exception: A listed, automatic closing-type hose nozzle valve with a latch-open device shall be permitted to be used if the hose nozzle valve will close automatically in the event the valve is released from a fill opening or upon impact. [30A:6.6.3]
Exception: Intrinsically safe electrical equipment need not meet this requirement. [30A:6.7]
Exception No. 1: No minimum separation distance shall be required for tanks that are filled by gravity.
188.8.131.52 Dispensing From a Tank That Does Not Exceed 120 gal (454 L) and From Containers Inside Buildings
WARNING: It is unlawful and dangerous to dispense gasoline into unapproved containers.
No filling of portable containers in or on a motor vehicle.
Place container on ground before filling.
Discharge your static electricity before fueling by touching a metal surface away from the nozzle.
Do not re-enter your vehicle while gasoline is pumping.
If a fire starts, do not remove nozzle — back away immediately.
Do not allow individuals under licensed age to use the pump. [30A:184.108.40.206]
Exception: As provided for in 220.127.116.11.3. [30A:18.104.22.168]
- Prevent the dispensing of Class I liquids into portable containers not in compliance with 22.214.171.124.1
- Prevent the use of hose nozzle valve latch-open devices that do not comply with 126.96.36.199
- Control sources of ignition
- Immediately activate emergency controls and notify the fire department of any fire or other emergency
- Handle accidental spills and fire extinguishers if needed [30A:9.4.3]
In case of fire or spill
(1) Use emergency stop button.
(2) Report accident by calling (specify local fire number). Report location.
Exception No. 2: When both the gaseous fuel storage and dispensing equipment are at least 50 ft (15 m) from any other aboveground motor fuel storage or dispensing equipment, the requirements of NFPA 52 or NFPA 58, whichever is applicable, shall apply. [30A:12.3.4]
- At least 10 ft (3 m) from any dispensing device for Class I liquids
- At least 5 ft (1.5 m) from any dispensing device for Class I liquids where the following conditions exist:
|Dispensing Devices||Extent of Classified Area|
|Class I, |
|Compressed natural gas (CNG)||Entire space within the dispenser enclosure||5 ft (1.5 m) in all directions from dispenser enclosure|
|Liquefied natural gas (LNG)||Entire space within the dispenser enclosure and 5 ft (1.5 m) in all directions from the dispenser enclosure||10 ft (3 in) in all directions from the dispenser enclosure|
|Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas)||Entire space within the dispenser enclosure; 18 in. (46 cm) from the exterior surface of the dispenser enclosure to an elevation of 4 ft (1.22 m) above the base of the dispenser; the entire pit or open space beneath the dispenser and within 20 ft (6 m) horizontally from any edge of the dispenser when the pit or trench is not mechanically ventilated||Up to 18 in. (46 cm) above ground and within 20 ft (6 m) horizontally from any edge of the dispenser enclosure, including pits or trenches within this area when provided with adequate mechanical ventilation|
[30A: Table 12.6.2]
- Bulk plant or terminal loading and unloading facilities
- Transfer of liquids utilizing a flange-to-flange closed transfer piping system
- Marine motor fuel dispensing facilities where liquids used as fuels are stored and dispensed into the fuel tanks of marine craft of 300 gross tons (272 metric tons) or more [30A:11.1.2]
Exception: Tanks shall be permitted with the approval of the AHJ to be located on a pier, provided the installation meets all applicable requirements of Chapters 4 and 5 of NFPA 30A and 21.6.2 of NFPA 30 and the quantity stored does not exceed 1100 gal (4164 L) aggregate capacity. [30A:11.2.2]
- Prevent the dispensing of Class I liquids into portable containers that do not comply with 188.8.131.52
- Be familiar with the dispensing system and emergency shutoff controls
- Ensure that the vessel is properly moored and that all connections are made
- Be within 15 ft (4.6 m) of the dispensing controls during the fueling operation and maintain a direct, clear, unobstructed view of both the vessel fuel filler neck and the emergency fuel shutoff control [30A:11.10.1]
- The fill cap shall be tightly secured.
- Any spillage shall be wiped up immediately.
- If Class I liquid has been delivered, the entire vessel or marine craft shall remain open.
- Bilge blowers shall be turned on and allowed to run for at least 5 minutes before starting any engines or lighting galley fires. If bilge blowers are not available, 10 minutes of ventilation shall be required. [30A:11.10.5]
- The tanks being filled are properly vented to dissipate vapors to the outside atmosphere, and the fuel systems are liquidtight and vaportight with respect to all interiors.
- All fuel systems are designed, installed, and maintained in compliance with the specifications of the manufacturer of the vessel or marine craft.
- Communication has been established between the fueling attendant and the person in control of the vessel or craft receiving the fuel so as to determine the vessel's fuel capacity, the amount of fuel on board, and the amount of fuel to be taken on board.
- The electrical bonding and grounding systems of the vessel or craft have been maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications. [30A:11.10.7]
(1) Stop all engines and auxiliaries.
(2) Shut off all electricity, open flames, and heat sources.
(3) Check all bilges for fuel vapors.
(5) Close access fittings and openings that could allow fuel vapors to enter enclosed spaces of the vessel.
(1) Maintain nozzle contact with fill pipe.
(2) Wipe up spills immediately.
(3) Avoid overfilling.
(4) Fuel filling nozzle must be attended at all times.
(1) Inspect bilges for leakage and fuel odors.
(2) Ventilate until odors are removed.
- Flexible connections are arranged above the liquid level of the tank in order to prevent gravity or siphon discharge in case of a break in the connection or piping.
- The cargo tank discharge valves required by 184.108.40.206.1 are arranged to be normally closed and to open only when the brakes are set and the pump is engaged. [407:220.127.116.11]
Exception: In an emergency resulting from the failure of an onboard auxiliary power unit on a jet aircraft and in the absence of suitable ground support equipment a jet engine mounted at the rear of the aircraft or on the wing on the side opposite the fueling point shall be permitted to be operated during fueling to provide power, provided that the operation follows written procedures approved by the AHJ. [407:5.5.1]
- Dispersal of the vehicles in the event of an emergency
- A minimum of 10 ft (3 m) of clear space between parked vehicles for accessibility for fire control purposes
- Prevention of any leakage from draining to an adjacent building or storm drain that is not suitably designed to handle fuel
- A minimum of 50 ft (15 m) from any parked aircraft and buildings other than maintenance facilities and garages for fuel servicing tank vehicles [407:5.18]
- Dispersal of the vehicles in the event of an emergency
- Prevention of any leakage from draining to an adjacent building or storm drain that is not suitably designed to handle fuel [407:5.19]
- An FAA-licensed helicopter pilot shall be at the aircraft controls during the entire fuel servicing process.
- *Passengers shall be deboarded to a safe location prior to rapid refueling operations. Where the pilot in command deems it necessary for passengers to remain onboard for safety reasons, the provisions of 18.104.22.168.1 shall apply.
- Passengers shall not board or deboard during rapid refueling operations.
- Only designated personnel, properly trained in rapid refueling operations, shall operate the equipment. Written procedures shall include the safe handling of the fuel and equipment.
- All doors, windows, and access points allowing entry to the interior of the helicopter that are adjacent to, or in the immediate vicinity of, the fuel inlet ports shall be closed and shall remain closed during refueling operations.
- Fuel shall be dispensed into an open port from approved deadman-type nozzles, with a flow rate not to exceed 60 gpm (227 L/min), or it shall be dispensed through close-coupled pressure fueling ports. Where fuel is dispensed from fixed piping systems, the hose cabinet shall not extend into the rotor space. A curb or other approved barrier shall be provided to restrict the fuel servicing vehicle from coming closer than within 10 ft (3 m) of any helicopter rotating components. If a curb or approved barrier cannot be provided, fuel servicing vehicles shall be kept 20 ft (6 m) away from any helicopter rotating components, and a trained person shall direct fuel servicing vehicle approach and departure. [407:5.21.2]
- The number of fuel cylinders on such a truck shall not exceed two.
- The use of industrial trucks in buildings frequented by the public, including those times when such buildings are occupied by the public, shall require the approval of the AHJ.
- The total water capacity of the fuel cylinders on an individual truck shall not exceed 105 lb (48 kg) [nominal 45 lb (20 kg) propane capacity].
- Trucks shall not be parked and left unattended in areas occupied by or frequented by the public without the approval of the AHJ. If left unattended with approval, the cylinder shutoff valve shall be closed.
- In no case shall trucks be parked and left unattended in areas of excessive heat or near sources of ignition. [58:22.214.171.124]
- The fuel system shall be leak-free.
- The container shall not be filled beyond the limits specified in Chapter 7 of NFPA 58.
- The container shutoff valve shall be closed when the vehicle or the engine is being repaired, except when the engine is required to operate. Containers equipped with an automatic shutoff valve as specified in 126.96.36.199 of NFPA 58 satisfy this requirement.
- The vehicle shall not be parked near sources of heat, open flames, or similar sources of ignition or near inadequately ventilated pits. [58:11.16]