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Fire department access and water supplies shall comply with this chapter.
This chapter shall apply to public and privately owned fire apparatus access roads.
Plans for fire apparatus access roads shall be submitted to the fire department for review and approval prior to construction.
The provisions of 18.104.22.168 through 22.214.171.124.2.1 shall be permitted to be modified by the AHJ where any of the following conditions exists:
- One- and two-family dwellings protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.1
- Existing one- and two-family dwellings
- Private garages having an area not exceeding 400 ft2
- Carports having an area not exceeding 400 ft2
- Agricultural buildings having an area not exceeding 400 ft2
- Sheds and other detached buildings having an area not exceeding 400 ft2
A fire department access road shall extend to within 50 ft (15 m) of at least one exterior door that can be opened from the outside and that provides access to the interior of the building.
Fire department access roads shall be provided such that any portion of the facility or any portion of an exterior wall of the first story of the building is located not more than 150 ft (46 m) from fire department access roads as measured by an approved route around the exterior of the building or facility.
Fire department access roads shall have an unobstructed width of not less than 20 ft (6.1 m).
Fire department access roads shall have an unobstructed vertical clearance of not less than 13 ft 6 in. (4.1 m).
Vertical clearances or widths shall be increased when vertical clearances or widths are not adequate to accommodate fire apparatus.
Fire department access roads shall be designed and maintained to support the imposed loads of fire apparatus and shall be provided with an all-weather driving surface.
The bridge shall be designed for a live load sufficient to carry the imposed loads of fire apparatus.
The required width of a fire department access road shall not be obstructed in any manner, including by the parking of vehicles.
Minimum required widths and clearances established under 126.96.36.199 shall be maintained at all times.
Public officers acting within their scope of duty shall be permitted to access restricted property identified in 188.8.131.52.1.
Locks, gates, doors, barricades, chains, enclosures, signs, tags, or seals that have been installed by the fire department or by its order or under its control shall not be removed, unlocked, destroyed, tampered with, or otherwise vandalized in any manner.
An approved water supply capable of supplying the required fire flow for fire protection shall be provided to all premises upon which facilities, buildings, or portions of buildings are hereafter constructed or moved into the jurisdiction. The approved water supply shall be in accordance with Section 18.4.
The fire flow area of a building constructed of Type I (443), Type I (332), and Type II (222) construction shall be the area of the three largest successive floors.
Where one- and two-family dwellings are proposed to be constructed in areas where water distribution systems providing fire flow were designed and installed prior to the effective date of this Code, the AHJ shall be authorized to accept the previously designed system fire flow where the one- and two-family dwellings are provided with approved automatic sprinkler systems.
A reduction in fire flow shall be permitted for building separation distance in accordance with 184.108.40.206.4 and Table 220.127.116.11.4.
|Separation Distance Between Buildings on a Single Lot||Separation Distance to Lot Line or Easementa||Permitted Fire Flow Reduction|
|>30 and ≤50||>9.1 and ≤15.2||>15 and ≤25||>4.6 and ≤7.6||25%|
Where multiple buildings are located on a single lot, the building separation distance shall be the distance between the buildings.
Where a building abuts a lot line, the building separation distance shall be the distance between the building and the lot line.
Where a building is contiguous to a public right of way or no-build easement, the separation distance shall be the distance between the building to the opposite side of the right of way or no-build easement.
Where multiple buildings are located on a single lot and abut a lot line, the building separation distance for determining fire flow reduction shall be the smallest of the two distances.
Fire flow and flow duration for dwellings having a fire flow area in excess of 5000 ft2 (464.5 m2) shall not be less than that specified in Table 18.104.22.168.1.
|Fire Flow Area ft2 (× 0.0929 for m2)||Fire Flow gpm†
(× 3.785 for L/min)
|I(443), I(332), II(222)*||II(111), III(211)*||IV(2HH), V(111)*||II(000), III(200)*||V(000)*|
|Greater than 295,900||Greater than 166,500||106,501-115,800||77,001-83,700||47,401-51,500||6000|
|Greater than 191,400||Greater than 138,300||Greater than 85,100||8000|
*Types of construction are based on NFPA 220.
†Measured at 20 psi (139.9 kPa).
Required fire flow for open parking structures that are not protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system shall be reduced by 75 percent where all of the following conditions are met:
- The structure complies with the building code.
- The structure is of Type I or Type II construction.
- The structure is provided with a Class I standpipe system in accordance with NFPA 14. Class I standpipe systems of the manual dry type shall be permitted.
- The resulting fire flow is not less than 1000 gpm (3785 L/min).
Where fire department access roads are provided with median dividers incapable of being crossed by fire apparatus, or where fire department access roads have traffic counts of more than 30,000 vehicles per day, hydrants shall be placed on both sides of the fire department access road on an alternating basis, and the distances specified by Section 18.5 shall be measured independently of the hydrants on the opposite side of the fire department access road.
Fire hydrants shall be provided for detached one- and two-family dwellings in accordance with both of the following:
Fire hydrants shall be provided for buildings other than detached one- and two-family dwellings in accordance with both of the following:
The maximum fire flow capacity for which a fire hydrant shall be credited shall be as specified by Table 22.214.171.124. Capacities exceeding the values specified in Table 126.96.36.199 shall be permitted when local fire department operations have the ability to accommodate such values as determined by the fire department.
|Distance to Buildinga||Maximum Capacityb|
|> 250 and ≤ 500||> 76 and ≤ 152||1000||3785|
|> 500 and ≤ 1000||> 152 and ≤ 305||750||2839|
bMinimum 20 psi (139.9 kPa) residual pressure.
A clear space of not less than 60 in. (1524 mm) shall be provided in front of each hydrant connection having a diameter greater than 21/2 in. (64 mm).