ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

NFPA 1, 2015

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
Means of egress in new and existing buildings shall comply with this Code and NFPA 101, Life Safety Code.
Corridors used as exit access and serving an area having an occupant load exceeding 30 shall be separated from other parts of the building by walls having not less than a 1-hour fire resistance rating in accordance with Section 12.7, unless otherwise permitted by the following:
  1. This requirement shall not apply to existing buildings, provided that the occupancy classification does not change.
  2. This requirement shall not apply where otherwise provided in Chapters 11 through 43 of NFPA 101.

[101: 7.1.3.1]

Where this Code requires an exit to be separated from other parts of the building, the separating construction shall meet the requirements of Section 8.2 of NFPA 101 and the following:
  1. *The separation shall have a minimum 1-hour fire resistance rating where the exit connects three or fewer stories.
  2. The separation specified in 14.3.1(1), other than an existing separation, shall be supported by construction having not less than a 1-hour fire resistance rating.
  3. *The separation shall have a minimum 2-hour fire resistance rating where the exit connects four or more stories, unless one of the following conditions exists:
    1. In existing non-high-rise buildings, existing exit stair enclosures shall have a minimum 1-hour fire resistance rating.
    2. In existing buildings protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3, existing exit stair enclosures shall have a minimum 1-hour fire resistance rating.
    3. The minimum 1-hour enclosures in accordance with 28.2.2.1.2, 29.2.2.1.2, 30.2.2.1.2, and 31.2.2.1.2 of NFPA 101 shall be permitted as an alternative to the requirement of 14.3.1(3).
  4. Reserved.
  5. The minimum 2-hour fire resistance-rated separation required by 14.3.1(3) shall be constructed of an assembly of noncombustible or limited-combustible materials and shall be supported by construction having a minimum 2-hour fire resistance rating, unless otherwise permitted by 14.3.1(7).
  6. *Structural elements, or portions thereof, that support exit components and either penetrate into a fire resistance-rated assembly or are installed within a fire resistance-rated wall assembly shall be protected, as a minimum to the fire resistance rating required by 14.3.1(1) or 14.3.1(3).
  7. In Type III, Type IV, and Type V construction, as defined in NFPA 220, Standard on Types of Building Construction (see 8.2.1.2 of NFPA 101), fire-retardant-treated wood enclosed in noncombustible or limited-combustible materials shall be permitted.
  8. Openings in the separation shall be protected by fire door assemblies equipped with door closers complying with 14.5.4.
  9. *Openings in exit enclosures shall be limited to door assemblies from normally occupied spaces and corridors and door assemblies for egress from the enclosure, unless one of the following conditions exists:
    1. Vestibules that separate normally unoccupied spaces from an exit enclosure shall be permitted provided the vestibule is separated from adjacent spaces by corridor walls and related opening protectives as required for the occupancy involved but not less than a smoke partition in accordance with Section 8.4 of NFPA 101.
    2. In buildings of Type I or Type II construction as defined in NFPA 220, Standard on Types of Building Construction (see 8.2.1.2 of NFPA 101), fire protection-rated door assemblies to normally unoccupied building service equipment support areas as addressed in Section 7.13 of NFPA 101 shall be permitted, provided the space is separated from the exit enclosure by fire barriers as required by 14.3.1(3).
    3. Openings in exit passageways in mall buildings as provided in Chapters 36 and 37 of NFPA 101 shall be permitted.
    4. In buildings of Type I or Type II construction, as defined in NFPA 220, Standard on Types of Building Construction (see 8.2.1.2 of NFPA 101), existing fire protection-rated door assemblies to interstitial spaces shall be permitted, provided that such spaces meet all of the following criteria:
      1. The space is used solely for distribution of pipes, ducts, and conduits.
      2. The space contains no storage.
      3. The space is separated from the exit enclosure in accordance with Section 12.7.
    5. Existing openings to mechanical equipment spaces protected by approved existing fire protection-rated door assemblies shall be permitted, provided that the following criteria are met:
      1. The space is used solely for non-fuel-fired mechanical equipment.
      2. The space contains no storage of combustible materials.
      3. The building is protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3.
  10. Penetrations into, and openings through, an exit enclosure assembly shall be limited to the following:
    1. Door assemblies permitted by 14.3.1(9)
    2. *Electrical conduit serving the stairway
    3. Required exit doors
    4. Ductwork and equipment necessary for independent stair pressurization
    5. Water or steam piping necessary for the heating or cooling of the exit enclosure
    6. Sprinkler piping
    7. Standpipes
    8. Existing penetrations protected in accordance with 12.7.5
    9. Penetrations for fire alarm circuits, where the circuits are installed in metal conduit and the penetrations are protected in accordance with 12.7.5
  11. Penetrations or communicating openings shall be prohibited between adjacent exit enclosures.
  12. Membrane penetrations shall be permitted on the exit access side of the exit enclosure and shall be protected in accordance with 12.7.5.6.

[101: 7.1.3.2.1]

An exit enclosure shall provide a continuous protected path of travel to an exit discharge. [101: 7.1.3.2.2]
An exit enclosure shall not be used for any-purpose that has the potential to interfere with its use as an exit and, if so designated, as an area of refuge. (See also 14.6.3.) [101: 7.1.3.2.3]
Means of egress shall be continuously maintained free of all obstructions or impediments to full instant use in the case of fire or other emergency. [101: 7.1.10.1]
No furnishings, decorations, or other objects shall obstruct exits or their access thereto, egress therefrom, or visibility thereof. [101: 7.1.10.2.1]
No obstruction by railings, barriers, or gates shall divide the means of egress into sections appurtenant to individual rooms, apartments, or other occupied spaces. Where the AHJ finds the required path of travel to be obstructed by furniture or other movable objects, the authority shall be permitted to require that such objects be secured out of the way or shall be permitted to require that railings or other permanent barriers be installed to protect the path of travel against encroachment. [101:71.10.2.2]
Mirrors shall not be placed on exit door leaves. Mirrors shall not be placed in or adjacent to any exit in such a manner as to confuse the direction of egress. [101: 7.1.10.2.3]
Every door opening and every principal entrance that is required to serve as an exit shall be designed and constructed so that the path of egress travel is obvious and direct. Windows that, because of their physical configuration or design and the materials used in their construction, have the potential to be mistaken for door openings shall be made inaccessible to the occupants by barriers or railings. [101: 7.2.1.1.2]
Any device or alarm installed to restrict the improper use of a means of egress shall be designed and installed so that it cannot, even in case of failure, impede or prevent emergency use of such means of egress unless otherwise provided in 14.5.3 and Chapters 18, 19, 22, and 23 of NFPA 101. [101: 7.1.9]
Any door assembly in a means of egress shall be of the side-hinged or pivoted-swinging type, and shall be installed to be capable of swinging from any position to the full required width of the opening in which it is installed, unless otherwise specified as follows:
  1. Door assemblies in dwelling units, as provided in Chapter 24 of NFPA 101, shall be permitted.
  2. Door assemblies in residential board and care occupancies, as provided in Chapters 32 and 33 of NFPA 101, shall be permitted.
  3. Where permitted in Chapters 11 through 43 of NFPA 101, horizontal-sliding or vertical-rolling security grilles or door assemblies that are part of the required means of egress shall be permitted, provided that all of the following criteria are met:
    1. Such grilles or door assemblies shall remain secured in the fully open position during the period of occupancy by the general public.
    2. On or adjacent to the grille or door opening, there shall be a readily visible, durable sign in letters not less than 1 in. (25 mm) high on a contrasting background that reads as follows: THIS DOOR TO REMAIN OPEN WHEN THE SPACE IS OCCUPIED.
    3. Door leaves or grilles shall not be brought to the closed position when the space is occupied.
    4. Door leaves or grilles shall be operable from within the space without the use of any special knowledge or effort.
    5. Where two or more means of egress are required, not more than half of the means of egress shall be equipped with horizontal-sliding or vertical-rolling grilles or door assemblies.
  4. Horizontal-sliding door assemblies shall be permitted under any of the following conditions:
    1. Horizontal-sliding door assemblies in detention and correctional occupancies, as provided in Chapters 22 and 23 of NFPA 101, shall be permitted.
    2. Special purpose horizontally sliding accordion or folding door assemblies complying with 7.2.1.14 of NFPA 101 shall be permitted.
    3. Unless prohibited by Chapters 11 through 43 of NFPA 101, horizontal-sliding door assemblies serving a room or area with an occupant load of fewer than 10 shall be permitted, provided that all of the following criteria are met:
      1. The area served by the door assembly has no high hazard contents.
      2. The door assembly is readily operable from either side without special knowledge or effort.
      3. The force required to operate the door assembly in the direction of door leaf travel is not more than 30 lbf (133 N) to set the door leaf in motion and is not more than 15 lbf (67 N) to close the door assembly or open it to the minimum required width.
      4. The door assembly complies with any required fire protection rating, and, where rated, is self-closing or automatic-closing by means of smoke detection in accordance with 14.5.4 and is installed in accordance with NFPA 80, Standard for Fire Doors and Other Opening Protectives.
      5. Corridor door assemblies required to be self-latching shall have a latch or other mechanism that ensures that the door leaf will not rebound into a partially open position if forcefully closed.
    4. Where private garages, business areas, industrial areas, and storage areas with an occupant load not exceeding 10 contain only low or ordinary hazard contents, door openings to such areas and private garages shall be permitted to be horizontal-sliding door assemblies.
  5. Where private garages, business areas, industrial areas, and storage areas with an occupant load not exceeding 10 contain only low or ordinary hazard contents, door openings to such areas and private garages shall be permitted to be vertical-rolling door assemblies.
  6. Revolving door assemblies complying with 7.2.1.10 of NFPA 101 shall be permitted.
  7. Existing fusible link-operated horizontal-sliding or vertical-rolling fire door assemblies shall be permitted to be used as provided in Chapters 39, 40, and 42 of NFPA 101.

[101: 7.2.1.4.1]

Door leaves required to be of the side-hinged or pivoted-swinging type shall swing in the direction of egress travel under any of the following conditions:
  1. Where serving a room or area with an occupant load of 50 or more, except under the following conditions:
    1. Door leaves in horizontal exits shall not be required to swing in the direction of egress travel where permitted by 7.2.4.3.8.1 or 7.2.4.3.8.2 of NFPA 101.
    2. Door leaves in smoke barriers shall not be required to swing in the direction of egress travel in existing health care occupancies, as provided in Chapter 19 of NFPA 101.
  2. Where the door assembly is used in an exit enclosure, unless the door opening serves an individual living unit that opens directly into an exit enclosure
  3. Where the door opening serves a high hazard contents area

[101: 7.2.1.4.2]

During its swing, any door leaf in a means of egress shall leave not less than one-half of the required width of an aisle, a corridor, a passageway, or a landing unobstructed, unless both of the following conditions are met:
  1. The door opening provides access to a stair in an existing building.
  2. The door opening meets the requirement of 14.5.1.3.2.

[101: 7.2.1.4.3.1]

When fully open, any door leaf in a means of egress shall not project more than 7 in. (180 mm) into the required width of an aisle, a corridor, a passageway, or a landing, unless the door leaf is equipped with an approved self-closing device and is not required by the provisions of 14.5.1.2 to swing in the direction of egress travel. [101: 7.2.1.4.3.3]
Surface-mounted latch release hardware on the door leaf shall be exempt from being included in the maximum 7 in. (180 mm) projection requirement of 14.5.1.3.2, provided that both of the following criteria are met:
  1. The hardware is mounted to the side of the door leaf that faces the aisle, corridor, passageway, or landing when the door leaf is in the open position.
  2. The hardware is mounted not less than 34 in. (865 mm), and not more than 48 in. (1220 mm), above the floor.

[101: 7.2.1.4.3.2]

Screen door assemblies and storm door assemblies used in a means of egress shall be subject to the requirements for direction of swing that are applicable to other door assemblies used in a means of egress. [101: 7.2.1.4.4]
The forces required to fully open any door leaf manually in a means of egress shall not exceed 15 lbf (67 N) to release the latch, 30 lbf (133 N) to set the leaf in motion, and 15 lbf (67 N) to open the leaf to the minimum required width, unless otherwise specified as follows:
  1. The opening forces for interior side-hinged or pivoted-swinging door leaves without closers shall not exceed 5 lbf (22 N).
  2. The opening forces for existing door leaves in existing buildings shall not exceed 50 lbf (222 N) applied to the latch stile.
  3. The opening forces for horizontal-sliding door leaves in detention and correctional occupancies shall be as provided in Chapters 22 and 23 of NFPA 101.
  4. The opening forces for power-operated door leaves shall be as provided in 7.2.1.9 of NFPA 101.

[101: 7.2.1.4.5.1]

The forces specified in 14.5.1.5 shall be applied to the latch stile. [101: 7.2.1.4.5.2]
Door leaves shall be arranged to be opened readily from the egress side whenever the building is occupied. [101: 7.2.1.5.1]
The requirement of 14.5.2.1 shall not apply to door leaves of listed fire door assemblies after exposure to elevated temperature in accordance with the listing, based on laboratory fire test procedures. [101: 7.2.1.5.2]
Locks, if provided, shall not require the use of a key, a tool, or special knowledge or effort for operation from the egress side. [101: 7.2.1.5.3]
The requirements of 14.5.2.1 and 14.5.2.3 shall not apply where otherwise provided in Chapters 18 through 23 of NFPA 101. [101: 7.2.1.5.4]
Exterior door assemblies shall be permitted to have key-operated locks from the egress side, provided that all of the following criteria are met:
  1. This alternative is permitted in Chapters 11 through 43 of NFPA 101 for the specific occupancy.
  2. A readily visible, durable sign in letters not less than 1 in. (25 mm) high on a contrasting background that reads as follows is located on or adjacent to the door: THIS DOOR TO REMAIN UNLOCKED WHEN THE BUILDING IS OCCUPIED
  3. The locking device is of a type that is readily distinguishable as locked.
  4. A key is immediately available to any occupant inside the building when it is locked.

[101: 7.2.1.5.5.1]

The alternative provisions of 14.5.2.5.1 shall be permitted to be revoked by the AHJ for cause. [101: 7.2.1.5.5.2]
Door assemblies in the means of egress shall be permitted to be electrically locked if equipped with approved, listed hardware that incorporates a built-in switch, provided that all of the following conditions are met:
  1. The hardware for occupant release of the lock is affixed to the door leaf.
  2. The hardware has an obvious method of operation that is readily operated in the direction of egress.
  3. The hardware is capable of being operated with one hand in the direction of egress.
  4. Operation of the hardware interrupts the power supply directly to the electric lock and unlocks the door assembly in the direction of egress.
  5. Loss of power to the hardware automatically unlocks the door assembly in the direction of egress.
  6. Hardware for new installations is listed in accordance with ANSI/UL 294.

[101: 7.2.1.5.6]

Where permitted in Chapters 11 through 43 of NFPA 101, key operation shall be permitted, provided that the key cannot be removed when the door leaf is locked from the side from which egress is to be made. [101: 7.2.1.5.7]
Every door assembly in a stair enclosure serving more than four stories, unless permitted by 14.5.2.8.2, shall meet one of the following conditions:
  1. Re-entry from the stair enclosure to the interior of the building shall be provided.
  2. An automatic release that is actuated with the initiation of the building fire alarm system shall be provided to unlock all stair enclosure door assemblies to allow re-entry.
  3. Selected re-entry shall be provided in accordance with 14.5.2.8.1.

[101: 7.2.1.5.8]

Door assemblies on stair enclosures shall be permitted to be equipped with hardware that prevents re-entry into the interior of the building, provided that the following criteria are met:
  1. There shall be not less than two levels where it is possible to leave the stair enclosure to access another exit.
  2. There shall be not more than four stories intervening between stories where it is possible to leave the stair enclosure to access another exit.
  3. Re-entry shall be possible on the top story or next-to-top story served by the stair enclosure, and such story shall allow access to another exit.
  4. Door assemblies allowing re-entry shall be identified as such on the stair side of the door leaf.
  5. Door assemblies not allowing re-entry shall be provided with a sign on the stair side indicating the location of the nearest door opening, in each direction of travel, that allows re-entry or exit.

[101: 7.2.1.5.8.1]

The requirements of 14.5.2.8, except as provided in 14.5.2.8.3, shall not apply to the following:
  1. Existing installations in buildings that are not high-rise buildings as permitted in Chapters 11 through 43 of NFPA 101.
  2. Existing installations in high-rise buildings as permitted in Chapters 11 through 43 of NFPA 101 where the occupancy is within a building protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3.
  3. Existing approved stairwell re-entry installations as permitted by Chapters 11 through 43 of NFPA 101.
  4. Stair enclosures serving a building permitted to have a single exit in accordance with Chapters 11 through 43 of NFPA 101.
  5. Stair enclosures in health care occupancies where otherwise provided in Chapter 18 of NFPA 101.
  6. Stair enclosures in detention and correctional occupancies where otherwise provided in Chapter 22 of NFPA 101.

[101: 7.2.1.5.8.2]

When the provisions of 14.5.2.8.2 are used, signage on the stair door leaves shall be required as follows:
  1. Door assemblies allowing re-entry shall be identified as such on the stair side of the door leaf.
  2. Door assemblies not allowing re-entry shall be provided with a sign on the stair side indicating the location of the nearest door opening, in each direction of travel, that allows re-entry or exit.

[101: 7.2.1.5.8.3]

If a stair enclosure allows access to the roof of the building, the door to the roof either shall be kept locked or shall allow re-entry from the roof. [101: 7.2.1.5.9]
A latch or other fastening device on a door leaf shall be provided with a releasing device that has an obvious method of operation and that is readily operated under all lighting conditions. [101: 7.2.1.5.10]
The releasing mechanism for any latch shall be located as follows:
  1. Not less than 34 in. (865 mm) above the finished floor for other than existing installations
  2. Not more than 48 in. (1220 mm) above the finished floor

[101: 7.2.1.5.10.1]

The releasing mechanism shall open the door leaf with not more than one releasing operation, unless otherwise specified in 14.5.2.10.3 and 14.5.2.10.4 or 14.5.2.10.6. [101: 7.2.1.5.10.2]
Egress door assemblies from individual living units and guest rooms of residential occupancies shall be permitted to be provided with devices, including automatic latching devices, that require not more than one additional releasing operation, provided that such device is operable from the inside without the use of a key or tool and is mounted at a height not exceeding 48 in. (1220 mm) above the finished floor. [101: 7.2.1.5.10.3]
Existing security devices permitted by 14.5.2.10.3 shall be permitted to have two additional releasing operations. [101: 7.2.1.5.10.4]
Existing security devices permitted by 14.5.2.10.3, other than automatic latching devices, shall be located not more than 60 in. (1525 mm) above the finished floor. [101: 7.2.1.5.10.5]
Two releasing operations shall be permitted for existing hardware on a door leaf serving an area having an occupant load not exceeding three, provided that releasing does not require simultaneous operations. [101: 7.2.1.5.10.6]
Where pairs of door leaves are required in a means of egress, one of the following criteria shall be met:
  1. Each leaf of the pair shall be provided with a releasing device that does not depend on the release of one leaf before the other.
  2. Approved automatic flush bolts shall be used and arranged such that the following criteria are met:
    1. The door leaf equipped with the automatic flush bolts shall have no doorknob or surface-mounted hardware.
    2. Unlatching of any leaf shall not require more than one operation.

[101: 7.2.1.5.11]

Devices shall not be installed in connection with any door assembly on which panic hardware or fire exit hardware is required where such devices prevent or are intended to prevent the free use of the leaf for purposes of egress, unless otherwise provided in 14.5.3. [101: 7.2.1.5.12]
Approved, listed, delayed-egress locking systems shall be permitted to be installed on door assemblies serving low and ordinary hazard contents in buildings protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 13.7 or an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3, and where permitted in Chapters 11 through 43 of NFPA 101, provided that the following criteria are met:
  1. The door leaves shall unlock upon actuation of one of the following:
    1. Approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3
    2. Not more than one heat detector of an approved, supervised automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 13.7
    3. Not more than two smoke detectors of an approved, supervised automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 13.7
  2. The door leaves shall unlock upon loss of power controlling the lock or locking mechanism.
  3. *An irreversible process shall release the lock within 15 seconds, or 30 seconds where approved by the authority having jurisdiction, upon application of a force to the release device required in 14.5.2.10 under all of the following conditions:
    1. The force shall not be required to exceed 15 lbf (67 N).
    2. The force shall not be required to be continuously applied for more than 3 seconds.
    3. The initiation of the release process shall activate an audible signal in the vicinity of the door opening.
    4. Once the lock has been released by the application of force to the releasing device, relocking shall be by manual means only.
  4. *A readily visible, durable sign in letters not less than 1 in. (25 mm) high and not less than 1/8 in. (3.2 mm) in stroke width on a contrasting background shall be located on the door adjacent to the release device in the direction of egress, and shall read as follows:
    1. PUSH UNTIL ALARM SOUNDS, DOOR CAN BE OPENED IN 15 SECONDS, for doors that swing in one direction of egress travel
    2. PULL UNTIL ALARM SOUNDS, DOOR CAN BE OPENED IN 15 SECONDS, for doors that swing against the direction of egress travel
  5. The egress side of doors equipped with delayed-egress locks shall be provided with emergency lighting in accordance with Section 7.9 of NFPA 101.

[101: 7.2.1.6.1.1]

The provisions of 14.5.3.2 for access-controlled egress door assemblies shall not apply to door assemblies with delayed-egress locking systems. [101: 7.2.1.6.1.2]
Where permitted in Chapters 11 through 43 of NFPA 101, door assemblies in the means of egress shall be permitted to be equipped with an approved entrance and egress access control system, provided that all of the following criteria are met:
  1. A sensor shall be provided on the egress side, arranged to unlock the door leaf in the direction of egress upon detection of an approaching occupant.
  2. Door leaves shall automatically unlock in the direction of egress upon loss of power to the sensor or to the part of the access control system that locks the door leaves.
  3. Door locks shall be arranged to unlock in the direction of egress from a manual release device complying with all of the following criteria:
    1. The manual release device shall be located on the egress side, 40 in. to 48 in. (1015 mm to 1220 mm) vertically above the floor, and within 60 in. (1525 mm) of the secured door openings.
    2. The manual release device shall be readily accessible and clearly identified by a sign that reads as follows: PUSH TO EXIT.
    3. When operated, the manual release device shall result in direct interruption of power to the lock — independent of the locking system electronics — and the lock shall remain unlocked for not less than 30 seconds.
  4. Activation of the building fire-protective signaling system, if provided, shall automatically unlock the door leaves in the direction of egress, and the door leaves shall remain unlocked until the fire-protective signaling system has been manually reset.
  5. The activation of manual fire alarm boxes that activate the building fire-protective signaling system specified in 14.5.3.2(4) shall not be required to unlock the door leaves.
  6. Activation of the building automatic sprinkler or fire detection system, if provided, shall automatically unlock the door leaves in the direction of egress, and the door leaves shall remain unlocked until the fire-protective signaling system has been manually reset.
  7. The egress side of access-controlled egress doors, other than existing access-controlled egress doors, shall be provided with emergency lighting in accordance with Section 14.13.

[101: 7.2.1.6.2]

Where permitted in Chapters 11 through 43 of NFPA 101, door assemblies separating the elevator lobby from the exit access required by 14.9.1.6.1 shall be permitted to be electronically locked, provided that all the following criteria are met:
  1. The lock is listed in accordance with ANSI/UL 294, Standard for Access Control System Units.
  2. The building is protected throughout by a fire alarm system in accordance with Section 13.7.
  3. The building is protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3.
  4. Waterflow in the sprinkler system required by 14.5.3.3(3) is arranged to initiate the building fire alarm system.
  5. The elevator lobby is protected by an approved, supervised smoke detection system in accordance with Section 13.7.
  6. Detection of smoke by the detection system required by 14.5.3.3(5) is arranged to initiate the building fire alarm system and notify building occupants.
  7. Initiation of the building fire alarm system by other than manual fire alarm boxes unlocks the elevator lobby door assembly.
  8. Loss of power to the elevator lobby electronic lock system unlocks the elevator lobby door assemblies.
  9. Once unlocked, the elevator lobby door assemblies remain unlocked until the building fire alarm system has been manually reset.
  10. Where the elevator lobby door assemblies remain latched after being unlocked, latch-releasing hardware in accordance with 14.5.2.10 is affixed to the door leaves.
  11. A two-way communication system is provided for communication between the elevator lobby and a central control point that is constantly staffed.
  12. The central control point staff required by 14.5.3.3(11) is capable, trained, and authorized to provide emergency assistance.
  13. The provisions of 14.5.3.1 for delayed-egress locking systems are not applied to the elevator lobby door assemblies.
  14. *The provisions of 14.5.3.2 for access-controlled egress door assemblies are not applied to the elevator lobby door assemblies.

[101: 7.2.1.6.3]

Where a door assembly is required to be equipped with panic or fire exit hardware, such hardware shall meet all of the following criteria:
  1. It shall consist of a cross bar or a push pad, the actuating portion of which extends across not less than one-half of the width of the door leaf.
  2. It shall be mounted as follows:
    1. New installations shall be not less than 34 in. (865 mm), nor more than 48 in. (1220 mm), above the floor.
    2. Existing installations shall be not less than 30 in. (760 mm), nor more than 48 in. (1220 mm), above the floor.
  3. It shall be constructed so that a horizontal force not to exceed 15 lbf (66 N) actuates the cross bar or push pad and latches.

[101: 7.2.1.7.1]

Only approved fire exit hardware shall be used on fire-rated door assemblies. New panic hardware and new fire exit hardware shall comply with ANSI/UL 305 and ANSI/ BHMAA156.3. [101: 7.2.1.7.2]
Required panic hardware and fire exit hardware, in other than detention and correctional occupancies as otherwise provided in Chapters 22 and 23 of NFPA 101, shall not be equipped with any locking device, set screw, or other arrangement that prevents the release of the latch when pressure is applied to the releasing device. [101: 7.2.1.7.3]
Devices that hold the latch in the retracted position shall be prohibited on fire exit hardware, unless such devices are listed and approved for such a purpose. [101: 7.2.1.7.4]
A door leaf normally required to be kept closed shall not be secured in the open position at any time and shall be self-closing or automatic-closing in accordance with 14.5.4.2, unless otherwise permitted by 14.5.4.3. [101: 7.2.1.8.1]
In any building of low or ordinary hazard contents, as defined in 3.3.142.2 and 3.3.142.3, or where approved by the AHJ, doors shall be permitted to be automatic-closing, provided that all of the following criteria are met:
  1. Upon release of the hold-open mechanism, the leaf becomes self-closing.
  2. The release device is designed so that the leaf instantly releases manually and, upon release, becomes self-closing, or the leaf can be readily closed.
  3. The automatic releasing mechanism or medium is activated by the operation of approved smoke detectors installed in accordance with the requirements for smoke detectors for door leaf release service in NFPA 72.
  4. Upon loss of power to the hold-open device, the hold-open mechanism is released and the door leaf becomes self-closing.
  5. The release by means of smoke detection of one door leaf in a stair enclosure results in closing all door leaves serving that stair.

[101: 7.2.1.8.2]

The elevator car doors and the associated hoistway enclosure doors at the floor level designated for recall in accordance with the requirements of 11.3.1 shall be permitted to remain open during Phase I Emergency Recall Operation. [101: 7.2.1.8.3]
All inside stairs serving as an exit or exit component shall be enclosed in accordance with Section 14.3. [101: 7.2.2.5.1.1]
Inside stairs, other than those serving as an exit or exit component, shall be protected in accordance with Section 8.6 of NFPA 101. [101: 7.2.2.5.1.2]
In existing buildings, where a two-story exit enclosure connects the story of exit discharge with an adjacent story, the exit shall be permitted to be enclosed only on the story of exit discharge, provided that not less than 50 percent of the number and capacity of exits on the story of exit discharge are independent of such enclosures. [101: 7.2.2.5.1.3]
Where nonrated walls or unprotected openings enclose the exterior of a stairway, other than an existing stairway, and the walls or openings are exposed by other parts of the building at an angle of less than 180 degrees, the building enclosure walls within 10 ft (3050 mm) horizontally of the nonrated wall or unprotected opening shall be constructed as required for stairway enclosures, including opening protectives. [101: 7.2.2.5.2.1]
Construction shall extend vertically from the ground to a point 10 ft (3050 mm) above the topmost landing of the stairs or to the roofline, whichever is lower. [101: 7.2.2.5.2.2]
The fire resistance rating of the separation extending 10 ft (3050 mm) from the stairs shall not be required to exceed 1 hour where openings have not less than a 3/4-hour fire protection rating. [101: 7.2.2.5.2.3]
Enclosed, usable spaces, within exit enclosures shall be prohibited, including under stairs, unless otherwise permitted by 14.6.3.2. [101: 7.2.2.5.3]
Open space within the exit enclosure shall not be used for any purpose that has the potential to interfere with egress. [101: 7.2.2.5.3.1]
Enclosed, usable space shall be permitted under stairs, provided that both of the following criteria are met:
  1. The space shall be separated from the stair enclosure by the same fire resistance as the exit enclosure.
  2. Entrance to the enclosed, usable space shall not be from within the stair enclosure. (See also 14.3.3.)

[101: 7.2.2.5.3.2]

Exit passageways used as exit components shall conform to the general requirements of Section 7.1 of NFPA 101 and to the special requirements of Section 14.7. [101: 7.2.6.1]
An exit passageway shall be separated from other parts of the building as specified in Section 14.3, and the following alternatives shall be permitted:
  1. Fire windows in accordance with 12.7.3 shall be permitted to be installed in the separation in a building protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3.
  2. Existing fixed wired glass panels in steel sash shall be permitted to be continued in use in the separation in buildings protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3.

[101: 7.2.6.2]

An exit passageway that serves as a discharge from a stair enclosure shall have not less than the same fire resistance rating and opening protective fire protection rating as those required for the stair enclosure. [101: 7.2.6.3]
The width of an exit passageway shall be sized to accommodate the aggregate required capacity of all exits that discharge through it, unless one of the following conditions applies:
  1. *Where an exit passageway serves occupants of the level of exit discharge as well as other stories, the capacity shall not be required to be aggregated.
  2. As provided in Chapters 36 and 37 of NFPA 101, an exit passageway in a mall building shall be permitted to accommodate occupant loads independently from the mall and the tenant spaces. (See 36.2.2.7.2 and 37.2.2.7.2 of NFPA 101.) [101: 7.2.6.4.1]

In new construction, the minimum width of any exit passageway into which an exit stair discharges, or that serves as a horizontal transfer within an exit stair system, shall meet the following criteria:

  1. The minimum width of the exit passageway shall be not less than two-thirds of the width of the exit stair.
  2. Where stairs are credited with egress capacity in accordance with 14.8.3.2, the exit passageway width shall be sized to accommodate the same capacity as the stair, with such capacity determined by use of the capacity factors in Table 14.8.3.1.

[101: 7.2.6.4.2]

The total capacity of the means of egress for any story, balcony, tier, or other occupied space shall be sufficient for the occupant load thereof. [101: 7.3.1.1.1]
For other than existing means of egress, where more than one means of egress is required, the means of egress shall be of such width and capacity that the loss of any one means of egress leaves available not less than 50 percent of the required capacity. [101: 7.3.1.1.2]
The occupant load in any building or portion thereof shall be not less than the number of persons determined by dividing the floor area assigned to that use by the occupant load factor for that use as specified in Table 14.8.1.2, Figure 14.8.1.2(a), and Figure 14.8.1.2(b). Where both gross and net area figures are given for the same occupancy, calculations shall be made by applying the gross area figure to the gross area of the portion of the building devoted to the use for which the gross area figure is specified and by applying the net area figure to the net area of the portion of the building devoted to the use for which the net area figure is specified. [101: 7.3.1.2]

Table 14.8.1.2 Occupant Load Factor

Use (ft2[per] person)a (m2[per] person)b
Assembly Use - -
Concentrated use, without fixed seating 7 net 0.65 net
Less concentrated use, without fixed seating 15 net 1.4 net
Bench-type seating 1 person/18 linear in. 1 person/455 linear mm
Fixed seating Use number of fixed seats Use number of fixed seats
Waiting spaces See 12.1.7.2 and 13.1.7.2 of NFPA 101 See 12.1.7.2 and 13.1.7.2 of NFPA 101
Kitchens 100 9.3
Library stack areas 100 9.3
Library reading rooms 50 net 4.6 net
Swimming pools 50 (water surface) 4.6 (water surface)
Swimming pool decks 30 2.8
Exercise rooms with equipment 50 4.6
Exercise rooms without equipment 15 1.4
Stages 15 net 1.4 net
Lighting and access catwalks, galleries, gridirons 100 net 9.3 net
Casinos and similar gaming areas 11 1
Skating rinks 50 4.6
Business Use (other than below) 100 9.3
Concentrated Business Usef 50 4.6
Air traffic control tower observation levels 40 3.7
Day-Care Use 35 net 3.3 net
Detention and Correctional Use 120 11.1
Educational Use - -
Classrooms 20 net 1.9 net
Shops, laboratories, vocational rooms 50 net 4.6 net
Health Care Use - -
Inpatient treatment departments 240 22.3
Sleeping departments 120 11.1
Ambulatory health care 150 13
Industrial Use - -
General and high hazard industrial 100 9.3
Special-purpose industrial NA NA
Mercantile Use - -
Sales area on street floorb,c 30 2.8
Sales area on two or more street floorsc 40 3.7
Sales area on floor below street floorc 30 2.8
Sales area on floors above street floorc 60 5.6
Floors or portions of floors used only for offices See business use. See business use.
Floors or portions of floors used only for storage, receiving, and shipping, and not open to general public 300 27.9
Mall buildingsd Per factors applicable to use of spacec  
Residential Use - -
Hotels and dormitories 200 18.6
Apartment buildings 200 18.6
Board and care, large 200 18.6
Storage Use - -
In storage occupancies NA NA
In mercantile occupancies 300 27.9
In other than storage and mercantile occupancies 500 46.5

NA: Not applicable. The occupant load is the maximum probable number of occupants present at any time.

aAll factors are expressed in gross area unless marked "net."

bFor the purpose of determining occupant load in mercantile occupancies where, due to differences in the finished ground level of streets on different sides, two or more floors directly accessible from streets (not including alleys or similar back streets) exist, each such floor is permitted to be considered a street floor. The occupant load factor is one person for each 40 ft2 (3.7 m2) of gross floor area of sales space.

cFor the purpose of determining occupant load in mercantile occupancies with no street floor, as defined in 3.3.250, but with access directly from the street by stairs or escalators, the floor at the point of entrance to the mercantile occupancy is considered the street floor.

dFor any food court or other assembly use areas located in the mall that are not included as a portion of the gross leasable area of the mall building, the occupant load is calculated based on the occupant load factor for that use as specified in Table 14.8.1.2. The remaining mall area is not required to be assigned an occupant load.

eThe portions of the mall that are considered a pedestrian way and not used as gross leasable area are not required to be assessed an occupant load based on Table 14.8.1.2. However, means of egress from a mall pedestrian way are required to be provided for an occupant load determined by dividing the gross leasable area of the mall building (not including anchor stores) by the appropriate lowest whole number occupant load factor from Figure 14.8.1.2(a) or Figure 14.8.1.2(b).

Each individual tenant space is required to have means of egress to the outside or to the mall based on occupant loads calculated by using the appropriate occupant load factor from Table 14.8.1.2.

Each individual anchor store is required to have means of egress independent of the mall.

fSee A.14.8.1.2.

[101: Table 7.3.1.2]

FIGURE 14.8.1.2(a) Mall Building Occupant Load Factors (U.S. Customary Units). [101: Figure 7.3.1.2(a)]

FIGURE 14.8.1.2(b) Mall Building Occupant Load Factors (SI Units). [101: Figure 7.3.1.2(b)]

The occupant load in any building or portion thereof shall be permitted to be increased from the occupant load established for the given use in accordance with 14.8.1.2 where all other requirements of this Code are also met, based on such increased occupant load. [101: 7.3.1.3.1]
The AHJ shall be permitted to require an approved aisle, seating, or fixed equipment diagram to substantiate any increase in occupant load and shall be permitted to require that such a diagram be posted in an approved location. [101: 7.3.1.3.2]
Where an exit serves more than one story, only the occupant load of each story considered individually shall be used in computing the required capacity of the exit at that story, provided that the required egress capacity of the exit is not decreased in the direction of egress travel. [101: 7.3.1.4]
Where means of egress from a story above and a story below converge at an intermediate story, the capacity of the means of egress from the point of convergence shall be not less than the sum of the required capacity of the two means of egress. [101: 7.3.1.5]
Where any required egress capacity from a balcony or mezzanine passes through the room below, that required capacity shall be added to the required egress capacity of the room in which it is located. [101: 7.3.1.6]
The width of means of egress shall be measured in the clear at the narrowest point of the egress component under consideration, unless otherwise provided in 14.8.2.2 or 14.8.2.3. [101: 7.3.2.1]
Projections within the means of egress of not more than 41/2 in. (114 mm) on each side shall be permitted at a height of 38 in. (965 mm) and below. In the case of stair and landing handrails forming part of a guard, in accordance with 7.2.2.4.4.3 of NFPA 101, such projections shall be permitted at a height of 42 in. (1065 mm) and below. [101: 7.3.2.2]
In health care and ambulatory health care occupancies, projections shall be permitted in corridors in accordance with Chapters 18 through 21 of NFPA 101. [101: 7.3.2.3]

14.8.3 Egress Capacity

ILLUSTRATION
Egress capacity for approved components of means of egress shall be based on the capacity factors shown in Table 14.8.3.1, unless otherwise provided in 14.8.3.2. [101: 7.3.3.1]

Table 14.8.3.1 Capacity Factors

Area Stairways (width per person) Level Components and Ramps (width per person)
in. mm in. mm
Board and care 0.4 10 0.2 5
Health care, sprinklered 0.3 7.6 0.2 5
Health care, nonsprinklered 0.6 15 0.5 13
High hazard contents 0.7 18 0.4 10
All others 0.3 7.6 0.2 5

[101: Table 7.3.3.1]

For stairways wider than 44 in. (1120 mm) and subject to the 0.3 in. (7.6 mm) width per person capacity factor, the capacity shall be permitted to be increased using the following equation:

where:

C = capacity, in persons, rounded to the nearest integer
Wn = nominal width of the stair as permitted by 14.8.3.2 (in.) [101: 7.3.3.2]
The required capacity of a corridor shall be the occupant load that utilizes the corridor for exit access divided by the required number of exits to which the corridor connects, but the corridor capacity shall be not less than the required capacity of the exit to which the corridor leads. [101: 7.3.3.3]

14.8.3.4 Minimum Width

ILLUSTRATION
The width of any means of egress, unless otherwise provided in 14.8.3.4.1.1 through 14.8.3.4.1.3, shall be as follows:
  1. Not less than that required for a given egress component in this chapter or 7 or Chapters 11 through 43 of NFPA 101
  2. Not less than 36 in. (915 mm) where another part of this chapter and Chapters 11 through 43 of NFPA 101 do not specify a minimum width. [101: 7.3.4.1]
The width of exit access serving not more than six people, and having a length not exceeding 50 ft (15 m) shall meet both of the following criteria:
  1. The width shall be not less than 18 in. (455 mm), at and below a height of 38 in. (965 mm), and not less than 28 in. (710 mm) above a height of 38 in. (965 mm).
  2. A width of not less than 36 in. (915 mm) for new exit access, and not less than 28 in. (710 mm) for existing exit access, shall be capable of being provided without moving permanent walls.

[101: 7.3.4.1.1]

In existing buildings, the width of exit access shall be permitted to be not less than 28 in. (710 mm). [101: 7.3.4.1.2]

14.8.3.4.1.3

ILLUSTRATION
The requirement of 14.8.3.4.1 shall not apply to the following:
  1. Doors as otherwise provided for in 7.2.1.2 of NFPA 101
  2. Aisles and aisle accessways in assembly occupancies as otherwise provided in Chapters 12 and 13 of NFPA 101
  3. Industrial equipment access as otherwise provided in 40.2.5.2 of NFPA 101 [101: 7.3.4.1.3]
Where a single exit access leads to an exit, its capacity in terms of width shall be not less than the required capacity of the exit to which it leads. [101: 7.3.4.2]
Where more than one exit access leads to an exit, each shall have a width adequate for the number of persons it accommodates. [101: 7.3.4.3]
The number of means of egress from any balcony, mezzanine, story, or portion thereof shall be not less than two, except under one of the following conditions:
  1. A single means of egress shall be permitted where permitted in Chapters 11 through 43 of NFPA 101.
  2. A single means of egress shall be permitted for a mezzanine or balcony where the common path of travel limitations of Chapters 11 through 43 of NFPA 101 are met.

[101: 7.4.1.1]

The number of means of egress from any story or portion thereof, other than for existing buildings as permitted in Chapters 11 through 43 of NFPA 101, shall be as follows:
  1. Occupant load more than 500 but not more than 1000 — not less than 3
  2. Occupant load more than 1000 — not less than 4 [101:7.4.1.2]
Accessible means of egress in accordance with 14.10.4 that do not utilize elevators shall be permitted to serve as any or all of the required minimum number of means of egress. [101: 7.4.1.3]
The occupant load of each story considered individually shall be required to be used in computing the number of means of egress at each story, provided that the required number of means of egress is not decreased in the direction of egress travel. [101: 7.4.1.4]
Doors other than the hoistway door; the elevator car door; and doors that are readily openable from the car side without a key, a tool, special knowledge, or special effort, shall be prohibited at the point of access to an elevator car. [101: 7.4.1.5]
Each elevator landing and lobby shall have access to at least one exit. [101: 7.4.1.6.1]
The elevator landing and lobby exit access required by 14.9.1.6.1 shall not require the use of a key, a tool, special knowledge, or special effort, unless permitted by 14.9.1.6.3. [101: 7.4.1.6.2]
Doors separating the elevator lobby from the exit access required by 14.9.1.6.1 shall be permitted to be electronically locked in accordance with 14.5.3.3. [101: 7.4.1.6.3]
The minimum number of means of egress for working space about electrical equipment, other than existing electrical equipment, shall be in accordance with NFPA 70, Section 110.26(C). [101: 7.4.2.1]
The minimum number of means of egress for working space about electrical equipment, other than existing electrical equipment, shall be in accordance with NFPA 70, Section 110.33(A). [101: 7.4.2.2]
Exits shall be located and exit access shall be arranged so that exits are readily accessible at all times. [101: 7.5.1.1]
Where exits are not immediately accessible from an open floor area, continuous passageways, aisles, or corridors leading directly to every exit shall be maintained and shall be arranged to provide access for each occupant to not less than two exits by separate ways of travel, unless otherwise provided in 14.10.1.1.3 and 14.10.1.1.4. [101: 7.5.1.1.1]
Exit access corridors shall provide access to not less than two approved exits, unless otherwise provided in 14.10.1.1.3 and 14.10.1.1.4. [101: 7.5.1.1.2]
The requirements of 14.10.1.1.1 and 14.10.1.1.2 shall not apply where a single exit is permitted in Chapters 11 through 43 of NFPA 101. [101: 7.5.1.1.3]
Where common paths of travel are permitted for an occupancy in Chapters 11 through 43 of NFPA 101, such common paths of travel shall be permitted but shall not exceed the limit specified. [101: 7.5.1.1.4]
Corridors shall provide exit access without passing through any intervening rooms other than corridors, lobbies, and other spaces permitted to be open to the corridor, unless otherwise provided in 14.10.1.2.1 and 14.10.1.2.2. [101: 7.5.1.2]
Approved existing corridors that require passage through a room to access an exit shall be permitted to continue to be used, provided that the following criteria are met:
  1. The path of travel is marked in accordance with Section 14.14.
  2. Doors to such rooms comply with 7.2.1 of NFPA 101.
  3. Such arrangement is not prohibited by the applicable occupancy chapter in NFPA 101. [101: 7.5.1.2.1]
Corridors that are not required to be fire resistance rated shall be permitted to discharge into open floor plan areas. [101: 7.5.1.2.2]

14.10.1.3

ILLUSTRATION
Remoteness shall be provided in accordance with 14.10.1.3.1 through 14.10.1.3.7. [101: 7.5.1.3]
Where more than one exit, exit access, or exit discharge is required from a building or portion thereof, such exits, exit accesses, or exit discharges shall be remotely located from each other and be arranged to minimize the possibility that more than one has the potential to be blocked by any one fire or other emergency condition. [101: 7.5.1.3.1]
Where two exits, exit accesses, or exit discharges are required, they shall be located at a distance from one another not less than one-half the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area to be served, measured in a straight line between the nearest edge of the exits, exit accesses, or exit discharges, unless otherwise provided in 14.10.1.3.3 through 14.10.1.3.5. [101: 7.5.1.3.2]
In buildings protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3, the minimum separation distance between two exits, exit accesses, or exit discharges, measured in accordance with 14.10.1.3.2, shall be not less than one-third the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area to be served. [101: 7.5.1.3.3]
In other than high-rise buildings, where exit enclosures are provided as the required exits specified in 14.10.1.3.2 or 14.10.1.3.3 and are interconnected by not less than a 1-hour fire resistance-rated corridor, exit separation shall be measured along the shortest line of travel within the corridor [101: 7.5.1.3.4]
In existing buildings, where more than one exit, exit access, or exit discharge is required, such exits, exit accesses, or exit discharges shall be exempt from the diagonal measurement separation distance criteria of 14.10.1.3.2 and 14.10.1.3.3, provided that such exits, exit accesses, or exit discharges are remotely located in accordance with 14.10.1.3.1. [101: 7.5.1.3.5]
In other than existing buildings, where more than two exits, exit accesses, or exit discharges are required, at least two of the required exits, exit accesses, or exit discharges shall be arranged to comply with the minimum separation distance requirement. [101: 7.5.1.3.6]
The balance of the exits, exit accesses, or exit discharges specified in 14.10.1.3.6 shall be located so that, if one becomes blocked, the others are available. [101: 7.5.1.3.7]
Interlocking or scissor stairs shall comply with 14.10.1.4.1 and 14.10.1.4.2. [101: 7.5.1.4]
New interlocking or scissor stairs shall be permitted to be considered only as a single exit. [ 101: 7.5.1.4.1]
Existing interlocking or scissor stairs shall be permitted to be considered separate exits, provided that they meet all of the following criteria:
  1. They are enclosed in accordance with Section 14.3.
  2. They are separated from each other by 2-hour fire resistance-rated noncombustible construction.
  3. No protected or unprotected penetrations or communicating openings exist between the stair enclosures.

[101: 7.5.1.4.2]

Exit access shall be arranged so that there are no dead ends in corridors, unless permitted by, and limited to the lengths specified in, Chapters 11 through 43 of NFPA 101. [101: 7.5.1.5]
Exit access from rooms or spaces shall be permitted to be through adjoining or intervening rooms or areas, provided that such rooms or areas are accessory to the area served. Foyers, lobbies, and reception rooms constructed as required for corridors shall not be construed as intervening rooms. Exit access shall be arranged so that it is not necessary to pass through any area identified under Protection from Hazards in Chapters 11 through 43 of NFPA 101. [101: 7.5.1.6]
See also 7.1.9 of NFPA 101, and 14.5.2. [101: 7.5.2]
Access to an exit shall not be through kitchens, storerooms other than as provided in Chapters 36 and 37 of NFPA 101, restrooms, closets, bedrooms or similar spaces, or other rooms or spaces subject to locking, unless passage through such rooms or spaces is permitted for the occupancy by Chapters 18, 19, 22, or 23 of NFPA 101. [101: 7.5.2.1]
Exit access and exit doors shall be designed and arranged to be clearly recognizable. [101: 7.5.2.2]
Hangings or draperies shall not be placed over exit doors or located so that they conceal or obscure any exit, unless otherwise provided in 14.10.2.2.2. [101: 7.5.2.2.1]
Curtains shall be permitted across means of egress openings in tent walls, provided that all of the following criteria are met:
  1. They are distinctly marked in contrast to the tent wall so as to be recognizable as means of egress.
  2. They are installed across an opening that is at least 6 ft (1830 mm) in width.
  3. They are hung from slide rings or equivalent hardware so as to be readily moved to the side to create an unobstructed opening in the tent wall that is of the minimum width required for door openings.

[101: 7.5.2.2.2]

Exit access shall be permitted to be by means of any exterior balcony, porch, gallery, or roof that conforms to the requirements of this chapter and Chapter 7 of NFPA 101. [101: 7.5.3.1]
The long side of the balcony, porch, gallery, or similar space shall be at least 50 percent open and shall be arranged to restrict the accumulation of smoke. [101: 7.5.3.2]
Exterior exit access balconies shall be separated from the interior of the building by walls and opening protectives as required for corridors, unless the exterior exit access balcony is served by at least two remote stairs that can be accessed without any occupant traveling past an unprotected opening to reach one of the stairs, or unless dead ends on the exterior exit access do not exceed 20 ft (6100 mm). [101: 7.5.3.3]

14.10.3.4

ILLUSTRATION
Exterior exit access shall be arranged so that there are no dead ends in excess of those permitted for dead-end corridors in Chapters 11 through 43 of NFPA 101. [101: 7.5.3.4]
Areas accessible to people with severe mobility impairment, other than in existing buildings, shall have not less than two accessible means of egress, unless otherwise provided in 14.10.4.1.2 through 14.10.4.1.4. [101: 7.5.4.1]
Access within the allowable travel distance shall be provided to not less than one accessible area of refuge or one accessible exit providing an accessible route to an exit discharge. [101: 7.5.4.1.1]
A single accessible means of egress shall be permitted from buildings or areas of buildings permitted to have a single exit. [101: 7.5.4.1.2]
Accessible means of egress shall not be required in health care occupancies protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3. [101: 7.5.4.1.3]
Exit access travel along the accessible means of egress shall be permitted to be common for the distances permitted as common paths of travel. [101: 7.5.4.1.4]
Where two accessible means of egress are required, the exits serving such means of egress shall be located at a distance from one another not less than one-half the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area to be served. This distance shall be measured in a straight line between the nearest edge of the exit doors or exit access doors, unless otherwise provided in 14.10.4.2.1 through 14.10.4.2.3. [101: 7.5.4.2]
Where exit enclosures are provided as the required exits specified in 14.10.4.2 and are interconnected by not less than a 1-hour fire resistance-rated corridor, exit separation shall be permitted to be measured along the line of travel within the corridor. [101: 7.5.4.2.1]
The requirement of 14.10.4.2 shall not apply to buildings protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3. [101: 7.5.4.2.2]
The requirement of 14.10.4.2 shall not apply where the physical arrangement of means of egress prevents the possibility that access to both accessible means of egress will be blocked by any one fire or other emergency condition as approved by the AHJ. [101: 7.5.4.2.3]
Each required accessible means of egress shall be continuous from each accessible occupied area to a public way or area of refuge in accordance with 7.2.12.2.2 of NFPA 101. [101: 7.5.4.3]

14.10.4.4

ILLUSTRATION
Where an exit stair is used in an accessible means of egress, it shall comply with 7.2.12 of NFPA 101 and either shall incorporate an area of refuge within an enlarged story-level landing or shall be accessed from an area of refuge. [101: 7.5.4.4]
To be considered part of an accessible means of egress, an elevator shall be in accordance with 7.2.12.2.4 of NFPA 101. [101: 7.5.4.5]
To be considered part of an accessible means of egress, a smoke barrier in accordance with Section 12.9 with not less than a 1-hour fire resistance rating, or a horizontal exit in accordance with 7.2.4 of NFPA 101, shall discharge to an area of refuge in accordance with 7.2.12 of NFPA 101. [101: 7.5.4.6]
Accessible stories that are four or more stories above or below a story of exit discharge shall have not less than one elevator complying with 14.10.4.5, except as modified in 14.10.4.8. [101: 7.5.4.7]
Where elevators are required by 14.10.4.7, the smokeproof enclosure required by 7.2.12.2.4 of NFPA 101 shall not be required in buildings protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 13. [101: 7.5.4.8]
An area of refuge used as part of a required accessible means of egress shall be in accordance with 7.2.12 of NFPA 101. [101: 7.5.4.9]
Exits shall terminate directly, at a public way or at an exterior exit discharge, unless otherwise provided in 14.11.1.2 through 14.11.1.4. [101:7.7.1]
Yards, courts, open spaces, or other portions of the exit discharge shall be of required width and size to provide all occupants with a safe access to a public way. [101: 7.7.1.1]
The requirement of 14.11.1 shall not apply to interior exit discharge as otherwise provided in 14.11.2. [101: 7.7.1.2]
The requirement of 14.11.1 shall not apply to rooftop exit discharge as otherwise provided in 14.11.6. [101: 7.7.1.3]
Means of egress shall be permitted to terminate in an exterior area of refuge for detention and correctional occupancies as otherwise provided in Chapters 22 and 23 of NFPA 101. [101: 7.7.1.4]
Exits shall be permitted to discharge through interior building areas, provided that all of the following are met:
  1. Not more than 50 percent of the required number of exit stairs serving normally occupied areas of each floor, and not. more than 50 percent of the exit stair capacity required for normally occupied areas of each floor, shall discharge through areas on any level of discharge, except as otherwise permitted by one of the following:
    1. One hundred percent of the exits shall be permitted to discharge through areas on any level of discharge in detention and correctional occupancies as otherwise provided in Chapters 22 and 23.
    2. In existing buildings, the 50 percent limit on egress capacity shall not apply if the 50 percent limit on the required number of exits is met.
  2. Each level of discharge shall discharge directly outside at the finished ground level or discharge directly outside and provide access to the finished ground level by outside stairs or outside ramps.
  3. The interior exit discharge shall lead to a free and unobstructed way to the exterior of the building, and such way shall be readily visible and identifiable from the point of discharge from the exit.
  4. The interior exit discharge shall be protected by one of the following methods:
    1. The level of discharge shall be protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3, or the portion of the level of discharge used for interior exit discharge shall be protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3 and shall be separated from the nonsprinklered portion of the floor by fire barriers with a fire resistance rating meeting the requirements for the enclosure of exits. (See 14.3.1.)
    2. The interior exit discharge area shall be in a vestibule or foyer that meets all of the following criteria:
      1. The depth from the exterior of the building shall be not more than 10 ft (3050 mm), and the length shall be not more than 30 ft (9.1 m).
      2. The foyer shall be separated from the remainder of the level of discharge by fire barriers with a minimum 1 -hour fire resistance rating, and existing installations of wired glass in steel frames shall be permitted to be continued in use.
      3. The foyer shall serve only as means of egress and shall include an exit directly to the outside.
  5. The entire area on the level of discharge shall be separated from areas below by construction having a fire resistance rating not less than that required for the exit enclosure, unless otherwise provided in 14.11.2(6).
  6. Levels below the level of discharge in an atrium shall be permitted to be open to the level of discharge where such level of discharge is protected in accordance with 8.6.7 of NFPA 101.

[101: 7.7.2]

Where more than one exit discharge is required, exit discharges shall be arranged to meet the remoteness criteria of 14.10.1.3. [101: 7.7.3.1]
The exit discharge shall be arranged and marked to make clear the direction of egress travel from the exit discharge to a public way. [101: 7.7.3.2]
Stairs and ramps that continue more than one-half story beyond the level of discharge shall be provided with an approved means to prevent or dissuade occupants from traveling past the level of discharge during emergency building evacuation. [101: 7.7.3.3]
Doors, stairs, ramps, corridors, exit passageways, bridges, balconies, escalators, moving walks, and other components of an exit discharge shall comply with the detailed requirements of this chapter for such components. [101: 7.7.4]
See 10.11.3. [101: 7.7.5]
Where approved by the AHJ, exits shall be permitted to discharge to roofs or other sections of the building or an adjoining building where all of the following criteria are met:
  1. The roof/ceiling assembly construction has a fire resistance rating not less than that required for the exit enclosure.
  2. A continuous and safe means of egress from the roof is available.

[101: 7.7.6]

Illumination of means of egress shall be provided in accordance with Section 14.12 for every building and structure where required in Chapters 11 through 43 of NFPA 101. For the purposes of this requirement, exit access shall include only designated stairs, aisles, corridors, ramps, escalators, and passageways leading to an exit. For the purposes of this requirement, exit discharge shall include only designated stairs, aisles, corridors, ramps, escalators, walkways, and exit passageways leading to a public way. [101: 7.8.1.1]
Illumination of means of egress shall be continuous during the time that the conditions of occupancy require that the means of egress be available for use, unless otherwise provided in 14.12.1.2.2. [101: 7.8.1.2]
Artificial lighting shall be employed at such locations and for such periods of time as are necessary to maintain the illumination to the minimum criteria values herein specified. [101: 7.8.1.2.1]
Unless prohibited by Chapters 11 through 43 of NFPA 101, automatic lighting control devices shall be permitted to temporarily turn off the illumination within the means of egress, provided that each lighting control device complies with all of the following:
  1. In new installations, the lighting control device is listed.
  2. The lighting control device is equipped to automatically energize the controlled lights upon loss of normal power and is evaluated for this purpose.
  3. Illumination timers are provided and are set for a minimum 15-minute duration.
  4. The lighting control device is activated by any occupant movement in the area served by the lighting units.
  5. In new installations, the lighting control device is activated by activation of the building fire alarm system, if provided.
  6. The lighting control device does not turn off any lights relied upon for activation of photoluminescent exit signs or path markers.
  7. The lighting control device does not turn off any battery-equipped emergency luminaires, unit equipment, or exit signs.

[101: 7.8.1.2.2]

Energy-saving sensors, switches, timers, or controllers shall be approved and shall not compromise the continuity of illumination of the means of egress required by 14.12.1.2. [101: 7.8.1.2.3]

14.12.1.3

ILLUSTRATION
The floors and other walking surfaces within an exit and within the portions of the exit access and exit discharge designated in 14.12.1.1 shall be illuminated as follows:
  1. During conditions of stair use, the minimum illumination for new stairs shall be at least 10 ft-candle (108 lux), measured at the walking surfaces.
  2. The minimum illumination for floors and other walking surfaces, other than new stairs during conditions of stair use, shall be to values of at least 1 ft-candle (10.8 lux), measured at the floor.
  3. In assembly occupancies, the illumination of the walking surfaces of exit access shall be at least 0.2 ft-candle (2.2 lux) during periods of performances or projections involving directed light.
  4. *The minimum illumination requirements shall not apply where operations or processes require low lighting levels.

[101: 7.8.1.3]

14.12.1.4*

ILLUSTRATION
Required illumination shall be arranged so that the failure of any single lighting unit does not result in an illumination level of less than 0.2 ft-candle (2.2 lux) in any designated area. [101: 7.8.1.4]
The equipment or units installed to meet the requirements of Section 14.14 also shall be permitted to serve the function of illumination of means of egress, provided that all requirements of Section 14.12 for such illumination are met. [101: 7.8.1.5]
Illumination of means of egress shall be from a source considered reliable by the AHJ. [101: 7.8.2.1]
Battery-operated electric lights and other types of portable lamps or lanterns shall not be used for primary illumination of means of egress. Battery-operated electric lights shall be permitted to be used as an emergency source to the extent permitted under Section 14.13. [101: 7.8.2.2]
Emergency lighting facilities for means of egress shall be provided in accordance with Section 14.13 for the following:
  1. Buildings or structures where required in Chapters 11 through 43 of NFPA 101
  2. Underground and limited access structures as addressed in Section 11.7 of NFPA 101
  3. High-rise buildings as required by NFPA 101
  4. Doors equipped with delayed-egress locks
  5. Stair shaft and vestibule of smokeproof enclosures, for which the following also apply:
    1. The stair shaft and vestibule shall be permitted to include a standby generator that is installed for the smokeproof enclosure mechanical ventilation equipment.
    2. The standby generator shall be permitted to be used for the stair shaft and vestibule emergency lighting power supply.
  6. New access-controlled egress doors in accordance with 14.5.3.2 [101: 7.9.1.1]
For the purposes of 14.13.1.1, exit access shall include only designated stairs, aisles, corridors, ramps, escalators, and passageways leading to an exit. For the purposes of 14.13.1.1, exit discharge shall include only designated stairs, ramps, aisles, walkways, and escalators leading to a public way. [101: 7.9.1.2]
Where maintenance of illumination depends on changing from one energy source to another, a delay of not more than 10 seconds shall be permitted. [101: 7.9.1.3]
Required emergency lighting systems shall be tested in accordance with one of the three options offered by 14.13.2.1.1, 14.13.2.1.2, or 14.13.2.1.3. [101: 7.9.3.1]
Testing of required emergency lighting systems shall be permitted to be conducted as follows:
  1. Functional testing shall be conducted monthly with a minimum of 3 weeks and a maximum of 5 weeks between tests, for not less than 30 seconds, except as otherwise permitted by 14.13.2.1.1(2).
  2. The test interval shall be permitted to be extended beyond 30 days with the approval of the AHJ.
  3. Functional testing shall be conducted annually for a minimum of 11/2 hours if the emergency lighting system is battery powered.
  4. The emergency lighting equipment shall be fully operational for the duration of the tests required by 14.13.2.1.1(1) and 14.13.2.1.1(3).
  5. Written records of visual inspections and tests shall be kept by the owner for inspection by the AHJ.

[101: 7.9.3.1.1]

Testing of required emergency lighting systems shall be permitted to be conducted as follows:
  1. Self-testing/self-diagnostic battery-operated emergency lighting equipment shall be provided.
  2. Not less than once every 30 days, self-testing/self-diagnostic battery-operated emergency lighting equipment shall automatically perform a test with a duration of a minimum of 30 seconds and a diagnostic routine.
  3. Self-testing/self-diagnostic battery-operated emergency lighting equipment shall indicate failures by a status indicator.
  4. A visual inspection shall be performed at intervals not exceeding 30 days.
  5. Functional testing shall be conducted annually for a minimum of 114 hours.
  6. Self-testing/self-diagnostic battery-operated emergency lighting equipment shall be fully operational for the duration of the 11/2 hour test.
  7. Written records of visual inspections and tests shall be kept by the owner for inspection by the AHJ.

[101: 7.9.3.1.2]

Testing of required emergency lighting systems shall be permitted to be conducted as follows:
  1. Computer-based, self-testing/self-diagnostic battery-operated emergency lighting equipment shall be provided.
  2. Not less than once every 30 days, emergency lighting equipment shall automatically perform a test with a duration of a minimum of 30 seconds and a diagnostic routine.
  3. The emergency lighting equipment shall automatically perform annually a test for a minimum of 114 hours.
  4. The emergency lighting equipment shall be fully operational for the duration of the tests required by 14.13.2.1.3(2) and 14.13.2.1.3(3).
  5. The computer-based system shall be capable of providing a report of the history of tests and failures at all times.

[101: 7.9.3.1.3]

Means of egress shall be marked in accordance with Section 14.14 where required in Chapters 11 through 43 of NFPA 101. [101: 7.10.1.1]
Exits, other than main exterior exit doors that obviously and clearly are identifiable as exits, shall be marked by an approved sign that is readily visible from any direction of exit access. [101: 7.10.1.2.1]

14.14.1.2.2*

ILLUSTRATION
Horizontal components of the egress path within an exit enclosure shall be marked by approved exit or directional exit signs where the continuation of the egress path is not obvious. [101: 7.10.1.2.2]
Tactile signage shall be provided to meet the following criteria, unless otherwise provided in 14.14.1.4:
  1. Tactile signage shall be located at each exit door requiring an exit sign.
  2. Tactile signage shall read as follows: EXIT
  3. Tactile signage shall comply with ICC/ANSI A117.1, American National Standard for Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities.

[101: 7.10.1.3]

The requirements of 14.14.1.3 shall not apply to existing buildings, provided that the occupancy classification does not change. [101: 7.10.1.4]
Access to exits shall be marked by approved, readily visible signs in all cases where the exit or way to reach the exit is not readily apparent to the occupants. [101: 7.10.1.5.1]
New sign placement shall be such that no point in an exit access corridor is in excess of the rated viewing distance or 100 ft (30 m), whichever is less, from the nearest sign. [101: 7.10.1.5.2]
Where floor proximity exit signs are required in Chapters 11 through 43 of NFPA 101, such signs shall comply with 14.14.3, 14.14.4, 14.14.5, and 14.14.6 for externally illuminated signs and 14.14.7 for internally illuminated signs. Such signs shall be located near the floor level in addition to those signs required for doors or corridors. The bottom of the sign shall be not less than 6 in. (150 mm), but not more than 18 in. (455 mm), above the floor. For exit doors, the sign shall be mounted on the door or adjacent to the door, with the nearest edge of the sign within 4 in. (100 mm) of the doorframe. [101: 7.10.1.6]
Where floor proximity egress path marking is required in Chapters 11 through 43 of NFPA 101, an approved floor proximity egress path marking system that is internally illuminated shall be installed within 18 in. (455 mm) of the floor. Floor proximity egress path marking systems shall be listed in accordance with ANSI/UL 1994, Standard for Luminous Egress Path Marking Systems. The system shall provide a visible delineation of the path of travel along the designated exit access and shall be essentially continuous, except as interrupted by doorways, hallways, corridors, or other such architectural features. The system shall operate continuously or at any time the building fire alarm system is activated. The activation, duration, and continuity of operation of the system shall be in accordance with 7.9.2 of NFPA 101. The system shall be maintained in accordance with the product manufacturing listing. [101: 7.10.1.7]
Every sign required in Section 14.14 shall be located and of such size, distinctive color, and design that it is readily visible and shall provide contrast with decorations, interior finish, or other signs. No decorations, furnishings, or equipment that impairs visibility of a sign shall be permitted. No brightly illuminated sign (for other than exit purposes), display, or object in or near the line of vision of the required exit sign that could detract attention from the exit sign shall be permitted. [101: 7.10.1.8]
The bottom of new egress markings shall be located at a vertical distance of not more than 6 ft 8 in. (2030 mm) above the top edge of the egress opening intended for designation by that marking. Egress markings shall be located at a horizontal distance of not more than the required width of the egress opening, as measured from the edge of the egress opening intended for designation by that marking to the nearest edge of the marking. [101: 7.10.1.9]
A sign complying with 14.14.3 with a directional indicator showing the direction of travel shall be placed in every location where the direction of travel to reach the nearest exit is not apparent. [101: 7.10.2.1]
Directional exit signs shall be provided within horizontal components of the egress path within exit enclosures as required by 14.14.1.2.2. [101: 7.10.2.2]
Signs required by 14.14.1 and 14.14.2 shall read as follows in plainly legible letters, or other appropriate wording shall be used:

EXIT

[101: 7.10.3.1]

Where approved by the AHJ, pictograms in compliance with NFPA 170, Standard for Fire Safety and Emergency Symbols, shall be permitted. [101: 7.10.3.2]
Where emergency lighting facilities are required by the applicable provisions of Chapters 11 through 43 of NFPA 101 for individual occupancies, the signs, other than approved self-luminous signs and listed photoluminescent signs in accordance with 14.14.7.2, shall be illuminated by the emergency lighting facilities. The level of illumination of the signs shall be in accordance with 14.14.6.3 or 14.14.7 for the required emergency lighting duration as specified in 7.9.2.1 of NFPA 101. However, the level of illumination shall be permitted to decline to 60 percent at the end of the emergency lighting duration. [101: 7.10.4]
Every sign required by 14.14.1.2, 14.14.1.5, or 14.14.8.1, other than where operations or processes require low lighting levels, shall be suitably illuminated by a reliable light source. Externally and internally illuminated signs shall be legible in both the normal and emergency lighting mode. [101: 7.10.5.1]
Every sign required to be illuminated by 14.14.6.3, 14.14.7, and 14.14.8.1 shall be continuously illuminated as required under the provisions of Section 14.12, unless otherwise provided in 14.14.5.2.2. [101: 7.10.5.2.1]
Illumination for signs shall be permitted to flash on and off upon activation of the fire alarm system. [101: 7.10.5.2.2]
Externally illuminated signs required by 14.14.1 and 14.14.2, other than approved existing signs, unless otherwise provided in 14.14.6.1.2, shall read EXIT or shall use other appropriate wording in plainly legible letters sized as follows:
  1. For new signs, the letters shall be not less than 6 in. (150 mm) high, with the principal strokes of letters not less than 3/4 in. (19 mm) wide.
  2. For existing signs, the required wording shall be permitted to be in plainly legible letters not less than 4 in. (100 mm) high.
  3. The word EXIT shall be in letters of a width not less than 2 in. (51 mm), except the letter I, and the minimum spacing between letters shall be not less than 3/8 in. (9.5 mm).
  4. Sign legend elements larger than the minimum established in 14.14.6.1.1(1) through 14.14.6.1.1(3) shall use letter widths, strokes, and spacing in proportion to their height. [101: 7.10.6.1.1]
The requirements of 14.14.6.1.1 shall not apply to marking required by 14.14.1.3 and 14.14.1.7. [101: 7.10.6.1.2]
Directional indicators, unless otherwise provided in 14.14.6.2.2, shall comply with the following:
  1. The directional indicator shall be located outside of the EXIT legend, not less than 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) from any letter.
  2. The directional indicator shall be of a chevron type, as shown in Figure 14.14.6.2.1.
  3. The directional indicator shall be identifiable as a directional indicator at a distance of 40 ft (12 m).
  4. A directional indicator larger than the minimum established for compliance with 14.14.6.2.1(3) shall be proportionately increased in height, width, and stroke.
  5. The directional indicator shall be located at the end of the sign for the direction indicated. [101: 7.10.6.2.1]

FIGURE 14.14.6.2.1 Chevron-Type Indicator. [101: Figure 7.10.6.2.1]

The requirements of 14.14.6.2.1 shall not apply to approved existing signs. [101: 7.10.6.2.2]
Externally illuminated signs shall be illuminated by not less than 5 ft-candles (54 lux) at the illuminated surface and shall have a contrast ratio of not less than 0.5. [101: 7.10.6.3]
Internally illuminated signs shall be listed in accordance with ANSI/UL 924, Standard for Emergency Lighting and Power Equipment, unless they meet one of the following criteria:
  1. They are approved existing signs.
  2. They are existing signs having the required wording in legible letters not less than 4 in. (100 mm) high.
  3. They are signs that are in accordance with 14.14.1.3 and 14.14.1.6. [101: 7.10.7.1]
The face of a photoluminescent sign shall be continually illuminated while the building is occupied. The illumination levels on the face of the photoluminescent sign shall be in accordance with its listing. The charging illumination shall be a reliable light source as determined by the AHJ. The charging light source shall be of a type specified in the product markings. [101: 7.10.7.2]
Where required by other provisions of this Code, special signs shall be illuminated in accordance with 14.14.5, 14.14.6.3, and 14.14.7. [101: 7.10.8.1.1]
Where emergency lighting facilities are required by the applicable provisions of Chapters 11 through 43 of NFPA 101. the required illumination of special signs shall additionally be provided under emergency lighting conditions. [101: 7.10.8.1.2]
Special signs, where required by other provisions of this Code, shall comply with the visual character requirements of ICC/ANSI A117.1, American National Standard for Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities. [101: 7.10.8.2]
Any door, passage, or stairway that is neither an exit nor a way of exit access and that is located or arranged so that it is likely to be mistaken for an exit shall be identified by a sign that reads as follows:

NO
EXIT

[101: 7.10.8.3.1]

The NO EXIT sign shall have the word NO in letters 2 in. (51 mm) high, with a stroke width of 3/8 in. (9.5 mm), and the word EXIT in letters 1 in. (25 mm) high, with the word EXIT below the word NO, unless such sign is an approved existing sign. [101: 7.10.8.3.2]
Secondary means of escape shall comply with NFPA 101.
Where approved on secondary means of escape, security bars, grates, grilles, or similar devices shall be equipped with approved release mechanisms that are releasable from the inside without the use of a tool, a key, special knowledge, or force greater than that which it takes for normal operation of the door or window.
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