The provisions of this chapter shall govern the general regulations regarding the installation of plumbing not specific to other chapters.
Plumbing shall be installed with due regard to preservation of the strength of structural members and prevention of damage to walls and other surfaces through fixture usage.
Plumbing fixtures, drains, appurtenances and appliances used to receive or discharge liquid waste or sewage shall be directly connected to the sanitary drainage system of the building or premises, in accordance with the requirements of this code. This section shall not be construed to prevent indirect waste systems required by Chapter 8.
Unless otherwise indicated, the pipe, tube and fitting sizes specified in this code are expressed in nominal or standard sizes as designated in the referenced material standards.
In instances where conflicts occur between this code and the manufacturer's installation instructions, the more restrictive provisions shall apply.
Ashes, cinders or rags; flammable, poisonous or explosive liquids or gases; oil, grease or any other insoluble material capable of obstructing, damaging or overloading the building drainage or sewer system, or capable of interfering with the normal operation of the sewage treatment processes, shall not be deposited, by any means, into such systems.
Waste products from manufacturing or industrial operations shall not be introduced into the public sewer until it has been determined by the code official or other authority having jurisdiction that the introduction thereof will not damage the public sewer system or interfere with the functioning of the sewage treatment plant.
All materials used shall be installed in strict accordance with the standards under which the materials are accepted and approved. In the absence of such installation procedures, the manufacturer's instructions shall be followed. Where the requirements of referenced standards or manufacturer's installation instructions do not conform to minimum provisions of this code, the provisions of this code shall apply.
All plastic pipe, fittings and components shall be third-party certified as conforming to NSF 14.
All strainer plates on drain inlets shall be designed and installed so that all openings are not greater than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) in least dimension.
In or on structures where openings have been made in walls, floors or ceilings for the passage of pipes, the annular space between the pipe and the sides of the opening shall be sealed with caulking materials or closed with gasketing systems compatible with the piping materials and locations.
Pipes passing through concrete or cinder walls and floors or other corrosive material shall be protected against external corrosion by a protective sheathing or wrapping or other means that will withstand any reaction from the lime and acid of concrete, cinder or other corrosive material. Sheathing or wrapping shall allow for movement including expansion and contraction of piping. The wall thickness of the material shall be not less than 0.025 inch (0.64 mm).
Any pipe that passes through a foundation wall shall be provided with a relieving arch, or a pipe sleeve pipe shall be built into the foundation wall. The sleeve shall be two pipe sizes greater than the pipe passing through the wall.
A water, soil or waste pipe shall not be installed outside of a building, or concealed in outside walls or in any place subjected to freezing temperature, unless adequate provision is made to protect such pipe from freezing by insulation or heat or both. Water service pipe shall be installed not less than 48 inches deep.
In concealed locations where piping, other than cast-iron or galvanized steel, is installed through holes or notches in studs, joists, rafters or similar members less than 11/2 inches (38 mm) from the nearest edge of the member, the pipe shall be protected by steel shield plates. Such shield plates shall have a thickness of not less than 0.0575 inch (1.463 mm) (No. 16 gage). Such plates shall cover the area of the pipe where the member is notched or bored, and shall extend not less than 2 inches (51 mm) above sole plates and below top plates.
Buried piping shall be supported throughout its entire length.
Where trenches are excavated such that the bottom of the trench forms the bed for the pipe, solid and continuous load-bearing support shall be provided between joints. Bell holes, hub holes and coupling holes shall be provided at points where the pipe is joined. Such pipe shall not be supported on blocks to grade. In instances where the materials manufacturer's installation instructions are more restrictive than those prescribed by the code, the material shall be installed in accordance with the more restrictive requirement.
Where trenches are excavated below the installation level of the pipe such that the bottom of the trench does not form the bed for the pipe, the trench shall be backfilled to the installation level of the bottom of the pipe with sand or fine gravel placed in layers not greater than 6 inches (152 mm) in depth and such backfill shall be compacted after each placement.
Where rock is encountered in trenching, the rock shall be removed to not less than 3 inches (76 mm) below the installation level of the bottom of the pipe, and the trench shall be backfilled to the installation level of the bottom of the pipe with sand tamped in place so as to provide uniform load-bearing support for the pipe between joints. The pipe, including the joints, shall not rest on rock at any point.
If soft materials of poor load-bearing quality are found at the bottom of the trench, stabilization shall be achieved by overexcavating not less than two pipe diameters and backfilling to the installation level of the bottom of the pipe with fine gravel, crushed stone or a concrete foundation. The concrete foundation shall be bedded with sand tamped into place so as to provide uniform load-bearing support for the pipe between joints.
Backfill shall be free from discarded construction material and debris. Loose earth free from rocks, broken concrete and frozen chunks shall be placed in the trench in 6-inch (152 mm) layers and tamped in place until the crown of the pipe is covered by 12 inches (305 mm) of tamped earth. The backfill under and beside the pipe shall be compacted for pipe support. Backfill shall be brought up evenly on both sides of the pipe so that the pipe remains aligned. In instances where the manufacturer's instructions for materials are more restrictive than those prescribed by the code, the material shall be installed in accordance with the more restrictive requirement.
Where pipe is to be installed by tunneling, jacking or a combination of both, the pipe shall be protected from damage during installation and from subsequent uneven loading. Where earth tunnels are used, adequate supporting structures shall be provided to prevent future settling or caving.
In the process of installing or repairing any part of a plumbing and drainage installation, the finished floors, walls, ceilings, tile work or any other part of the building or premises that must be changed or replaced shall be left in a safe structural condition in accordance with the requirements of the International Building Code.
Penetrations of floor/ceiling assemblies and assemblies required to have a fire-resistance rating shall be protected in accordance with the International Building Code.
Truss members and components shall not be cut, drilled, notched, spliced or otherwise altered in any way without written concurrence and approval of a registered design professional. Alterations resulting in the addition of loads to any member (e.g., HVAC equipment, water heater) shall not be permitted without verification that the truss is capable of supporting such additional loading.
Trenching installed parallel to footings and walls shall not extend into the bearing plane of a footing or wall. The upper boundary of the bearing plane is a line that extends downward, at an angle of 45 degrees (0.79 rad) from horizontal, from the outside bottom edge of the footing or wall.
Hangers and anchors shall be attached to the building construction in an approved manner.
Pipe shall be supported in accordance with Table 308.5.
Exception: The interval of support for piping systems designed to provide for expansion/contraction shall conform to the engineered design in accordance with Section 316.1.
|PIPING MATERIAL|| MAXIMUM
styrene (ABS) pipe
|Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride
(CPVC) pipe and tubing, 1
inch and smaller
|Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride
(CPVC) pipe and tubing,11/4
inches and larger
|Copper or copper-alloy pipe||12||10|
|Copper or copper-alloy tubing,
11/4-inch diameter and
|Copper or copper-alloy tubing,
11/2-inch diameter and
|Polyethylene of raised
temperature (PE-RT) pipe
|Polypropylene (PP) pipe or
tubing 1 inch and smaller
|Polypropylene (PP) pipe or
tubing, 11/4 inches and larger
|Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe||4||10b|
|Stainless steel drainage
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
- The maximum horizontal spacing of cast-iron pipe hangers shall be increased to 10 feet where 10-foot lengths of pipe are installed.
- For sizes 2 inches and smaller, a guide shall be installed midway between required vertical supports. Such guides shall prevent pipe movement in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the pipe.
Rigid support sway bracing shall be provided at changes in direction greater than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) for pipe sizes 4 inches (102 mm) and larger.
For pipe sizes greater than 4 inches (102 mm), restraints shall be provided for drain pipes at all changes in direction and at all changes in diameter greater than two pipe sizes. Braces, blocks, rodding and other suitable methods as specified by the coupling manufacturer shall be utilized.
For structures located in flood hazard areas, the following systems and equipment shall be located and installed as required by Section 1612 of the International Building Code.
- Water service pipes.
- Pump seals in individual water supply systems where the pump is located below the design flood elevation.
- Covers on potable water wells shall be sealed, except where the top of the casing well or pipe sleeve is elevated to not less than 1 foot (305 mm) above the design flood elevation.
- Sanitary drainage piping.
- Storm drainage piping.
- Manhole covers shall be sealed, except where elevated to or above the design flood elevation.
- Other plumbing fixtures, faucets, fixture fittings, piping systems and equipment.
- Water heaters.
- Vents and vent systems.
Exception: The systems listed in this section are permitted to be located below the elevation required by Section 1612 of the International Building Code for utilities and attendant equipment, provided that the systems are designed and installed to prevent water from entering or accumulating within their components and the systems are constructed to resist hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and stresses, including the effects of buoyancy, during the occurrence of flooding up to such elevation.
The permit holder shall make the applicable tests prescribed in Sections 312.2 through 312.10 to determine compliance with the provisions of this code. The permit holder shall give reasonable advance notice to the code official when the plumbing work is ready for tests. The equipment, material, power and labor necessary for the inspection and test shall be furnished by the permit holder and he or she shall be responsible for determining that the work will withstand the test pressure prescribed in the following tests. All plumbing system piping shall be tested with either water or, for piping systems other than plastic, by air. After the plumbing fixtures have been set and their traps filled with water, the entire drainage system shall be submitted to final tests. The code official shall require the removal of any cleanouts if necessary to ascertain whether the pressure has reached all parts of the system.
Gauges used for testing shall be as follows:
- Tests requiring a pressure of 10 pounds per square inch (psi) (69 kPa) or less shall utilize a testing gauge having increments of 0.10 psi (0.69 kPa) or less.
- Tests requiring a pressure of greater than 10 psi (69 kPa) but less than or equal to 100 psi (689 kPa) shall utilize a testing gauge having increments of 1 psi (6.9 kPa) or less.
- Tests requiring a pressure of greater than 100 psi (689 kPa) shall utilize a testing gauge having increments of 2 psi (14 kPa) or less.
A water test shall be applied to the drainage system either in its entirety or in sections. If applied to the entire system, all openings in the piping shall be tightly closed, except the highest opening, and the system shall be filled with water to the point of overflow. If the system is tested in sections, each opening shall be tightly plugged except the highest openings of the section under test, and each section shall be filled with water, but no section shall be tested with less than a 10-foot (3048 mm) head of water. In testing successive sections, at least the upper 10 feet (3048 mm) of the next preceding section shall be tested so that no joint or pipe in the building, except the uppermost 10 feet (3048 mm) of the system, shall have been submitted to a test of less than a 10-foot (3048 mm) head of water. This pressure shall be held for not less than 15 minutes. The system shall then be tight at all points.
Plastic piping shall not be tested using air. An air test shall be made by forcing air into the system until there is a uniform gauge pressure of 5 psi (34.5 kPa) or sufficient to balance a 10-inch (254 mm) column of mercury. This pressure shall be held for a test period of not less than 15 minutes. Any adjustments to the test pressure required because of changes in ambient temperatures or the seating of gaskets shall be made prior to the beginning of the test period.
The final test of the completed drainage and vent systems shall be visual and in sufficient detail to determine compliance with the provisions of this code. Where a smoke test is utilized, it shall be made by filling all traps with water and then introducing into the entire system a pungent, thick smoke produced by one or more smoke machines. When the smoke appears at stack openings on the roof, the stack openings shall be closed and a pressure equivalent to a 1-inch water column (248.8 Pa) shall be held for a test period of not less than 15 minutes.
Upon completion of a section of or the entire water supply system, the system, or portion completed, shall be tested and proved tight under a water pressure not less than the working pressure of the system; or, for piping systems other than plastic, by an air test of not less than 50 psi (344 kPa). This pressure shall be held for not less than 15 minutes. The water utilized for tests shall be obtained from a potable source of supply. The required tests shall be performed in accordance with this section and Section 107.
Where shower floors and receptors are made water tight by the application of materials required by Section 417.5.2, the completed liner installation shall be tested. The pipe from the shower drain shall be plugged water tight for the test. The floor and receptor area shall be filled with potable water to a depth of not less than 2 inches (51 mm) measured at the threshold. Where a threshold of at least 2 inches (51 mm) high does not exist, a temporary threshold shall be constructed to retain the test water in the lined floor or receptor area to a level not less than 2 inches (51 mm) deep measured at the threshold. The water shall be retained for a test period of not less than 15 minutes, and there shall not be evidence of leakage.
Required reduced pressure principle, double check, pressure vacuum breaker, reduced pressure detector fire protection, double check detector fire protection, and spill-proof vacuum breaker backflow preventer assemblies and hose connection backflow preventers shall be tested at the time of installation by individuals or agencies qualified to perform such inspections. It shall be the responsibility of the owner to have such tests performed and copies of test reports shall be given to the local building official. The testing procedure shall be performed in accordance with one of the following standards:
ASSE 5013, ASSE 5015, ASSE 5020, ASSE 5047, ASSE 5048,
ASSE 5052, ASSE 5056, CSA B64.10 or CSA B64.10.1.
ASSE 5052, ASSE 5056, CSA B64.10 or CSA B64.10.1.
Liquid combustion byproducts of condensing appliances shall be collected and discharged to an approved plumbing fixture or disposal area in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Condensate piping shall be of approved corrosion-resistant material and shall not be smaller than the drain connection on the appliance. Such piping shall maintain a horizontal slope in the direction of discharge of not less than one-eighth unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (1-percent slope).
Condensate from all cooling coils and evaporators shall be conveyed from the drain pan outlet to an approved place of disposal. Such piping shall maintain a horizontal slope in the direction of discharge of not less than one-eighth unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (1-percent slope). Condensate shall not discharge into a street, alley or other areas so as to cause a nuisance.
Components of the condensate disposal system shall be cast iron, galvanized steel, copper, cross-linked polyethylene, polyethylene, ABS, CPVC or PVC or polypropylene pipe or tubing. All components shall be selected for the pressure and temperature rating of the installation. Joints and connections shall be made in accordance with the applicable provisions of Chapter 7 relative to the material type. Condensate waste and drain line size shall be not less than 3/4-inch (19.1 mm) internal diameter and shall not decrease in size from the drain pan connection to the place of condensate disposal. Where the drain pipes from more than one unit are manifolded together for condensate drainage, the pipe or tubing shall be sized in accordance with Table 314.2.2.
|EQUIPMENT CAPACITY||MINIMUM CONDENSATE PIPE DIAMETER (inch)|
|Up to 20 tons of refrigeration||3/4 inch|
|Over 20 tons to 40 tons of refrigeration||1 inch|
|Over 40 tons to 90 tons of refrigeration||11/4 inch|
|Over 90 tons to 125 tons of refrigeration||11/2 inch|
|Over 125 tons to 250 tons of refrigeration||2 inch|
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 ton of capacity = 3.517 kW.
In addition to the requirements of Section 314.2.1, where damage to any building components could occur as a result of overflow from the equipment primary condensate removal system, one of the following auxiliary protection methods shall be provided for each cooling coil or fuel-fired appliance that produces condensate:
- An auxiliary drain pan with a separate drain shall be provided under the coils on which condensation will occur. The auxiliary pan drain shall discharge to a conspicuous point of disposal to alert occupants in the event of a stoppage of the primary drain. The pan shall have a depth of not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm), shall be not less than 3 inches (76 mm) larger than the unit or the coil dimensions in width and length and shall be constructed of corrosion-resistant material. Galvanized sheet metal pans shall have a thickness of not less than 0.0236-inch (0.6010 mm) (No. 24 gage) galvanized sheet metal. Nonmetallic pans shall have a thickness of not less than 0.0625 inch (1.6 mm).
- A separate overflow drain line shall be connected to the drain pan provided with the equipment. Such overflow drain shall discharge to a conspicuous point of disposal to alert occupants in the event of a stoppage of the primary drain. The overflow drain line shall connect to the drain pan at a higher level than the primary drain connection.
- An auxiliary drain pan without a separate drain line shall be provided under the coils on which condensate will occur. Such pan shall be equipped with a water-level detection device conforming to UL 508 that will shut off the equipment served prior to overflow of the pan. The auxiliary drain pan shall be constructed in accordance with Item 1 of this section.
- A water-level detection device conforming to UL 508 shall be provided that will shut off the equipment served in the event that the primary drain is blocked. The device shall be installed in the primary drain line, the overflow drain line or in the equipment-supplied drain pan, located at a point higher than the primary drain line connection and below the overflow rim of such pan.
Exception: Fuel-fired appliances that automatically shut down operation in the event of a stoppage in the condensate drainage system.
On down-flow units and all other coils that do not have a secondary drain or provisions to install a secondary or auxiliary drain pan, a water-level monitoring device shall be installed inside the primary drain pan. This device shall shut off the equipment served in the event that the primary drain becomes restricted. Devices installed in the drain line shall not be permitted.
Where appliances, equipment or insulation are subject to water damage when auxiliary drain pans fill such portions of the appliances, equipment and insulation shall be installed above the flood level rim of the pan. Supports located inside of the pan to support the appliance or equipment shall be water resistant and approved.
Condensate drains shall be trapped as required by the equipment or appliance manufacturer.
The annular space between the outside of a pipe and the inside of a pipe sleeve or between the outside of a pipe and an opening in a building envelope wall, floor, or ceiling assembly penetrated by a pipe shall be sealed in an approved manner with caulking material, foam sealant or closed with a gasketing system. The caulking material, foam sealant or gasketing system shall be designed for the conditions at the penetration location and shall be compatible with the pipe, sleeve and building materials in contact with the sealing materials. Annular spaces created by pipes penetrating fire-resistance-rated assemblies or membranes of such assemblies shall be sealed or closed in accordance with Section 714 of the International Building Code.
An alternative engineered design shall conform to the intent of the provisions of this code and shall provide an equivalent level of quality, strength, effectiveness, fire resistance, durability and safety. Material, equipment or components shall be designed and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
The registered design professional shall submit to the code official two complete sets of signed and sealed construction documents for the alternative engineering design. The construction documents shall include floor plans and a riser diagram of the work. Where appropriate, the construction documents shall indicate the direction of flow, all pipe sizes, grade of horizontal piping, loading and location of fixtures and appliances.
Where the code official determines that the alternative engineered design conforms to the intent of this code, the plumbing system shall be approved. If the alternative engineered design is not approved, the code official shall notify the registered design professional in writing, stating the reasons thereof.