CODES

ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Building Code 2015 (IBC 2015)

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 Use and Occupancy Classification

Chapter 4 Special Detailed Requirements Based on Use and Occupancy

Chapter 5 General Building Heights and Areas

Chapter 6 Types of Construction

Chapter 7 Fire and Smoke Protection Features

Chapter 8 Interior Finishes

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Accessibility

Chapter 12 Interior Environment

Chapter 13 Energy Efficiency

Chapter 14 Exterior Walls

Chapter 15 Roof Assemblies and Rooftop Structures

Chapter 16 Structural Design

Chapter 17 Special Inspections and Tests

Chapter 18 Soils and Foundations

Chapter 19 Concrete

Chapter 20 Aluminum

Chapter 21 Masonry

Chapter 22 Steel

Chapter 23 Wood

Chapter 24 Glass and Glazing

Chapter 25 Gypsum Board, Gypsum Panel Products and Plaster

Chapter 26 Plastic

Chapter 27 Electrical

Chapter 28 Mechanical Systems

Chapter 29 Plumbing Systems

Chapter 30 Elevators and Conveying Systems

Chapter 31 Special Construction

Chapter 32 Encroachments Into the Public Right-Of-Way

Chapter 33 Safeguards During Construction

Chapter 34 Reserved

Chapter 35 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Employee Qualifications

Appendix B Board of Appeals

Appendix C GROUP U—AGRICULTURAL BUILDINGS

Appendix D Fire Districts

Appendix E Supplementary Accessibility Requirements

Appendix F Rodentproofing

Appendix G Flood-Resistant Construction

Appendix H Signs

Appendix I Patio Covers

Appendix J Grading

Appendix K Administrative Provisions

Appendix L Earthquake Recording Instrumentation

Appendix M Tsunami-Generated Flood Hazard

Appendix N MUNICIPALITY – SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL DESIGN PARAMETERS

The provisions of this chapter shall govern special building construction including membrane structures, temporary structures, pedestrian walkways and tunnels, automatic vehicular gates, awnings and canopies, marquees, signs, and towers and antennas.

3102.1 General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
The provisions of Sections 3102.1 through 3102.8 this section shall apply to air-supported, air-inflated, membrane-covered-cable, and membrane-covered-frame and tensile membrane structures, collectively known as membrane structures, erected for a period of 180 days or longer. Those erected for a shorter period of time shall comply with the International Fire Code Section 3103.5. Membrane structures covering water storage facilities, water clarifiers, water treatment plants, sewage treatment plants, greenhouses and similar facilities not used for human occupancy, are required to meet only the requirements of Sections 3102.3.1 and 3102.7. Membrane structures erected on a building, balcony, deck or other structure for any period of time shall comply with this section.
Tensile membrane structures, including permanent and temporary structures, shall be designed and constructed in accordance with ASCE 55. The provisions in Sections 3102.3 through 3102.6 shall apply.
Noncombustible membrane structures shall be classified as Type IIB construction. Noncombustible frame or cable-supported structures covered by an approved membrane in accordance with Section 3102.3.1 shall be classified as Type IIB construction. Heavy timber frame-supported structures covered by an approved membrane in accordance with Section 3102.3.1 shall be classified as Type IV construction. Other membrane structures shall be classified as Type V construction.

Exception: Plastic less than 30 feet (9144 mm) above any floor used in greenhouses, where occupancy by the general public is not authorized, and for aquaculture pond covers is not required to meet the fire propagation performance criteria of Test Method 1 or Test Method 2, as appropriate, of NFPA 701.
Membranes and interior liners shall be either noncombustible as set forth in Section 703.5 or meet the fire propagation performance criteria of Test Method 1 or Test Method 2, as appropriate, of NFPA 701 and the manufacturer's test protocol.

Exception: Plastic less than 20 mil (0.5 mm) in thickness used in greenhouses, where occupancy by the general public is not authorized, and for aquaculture pond covers is not required to meet the fire propagation performance criteria of Test Method 1 or Test Method 2, as appropriate, of NFPA 701.

3102.3.1.1 Label

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Tents and membrane structures shall have a permanently affixed label which shall identify the size of the structure and the fabric or material type.

3102.3.1.2 Certification

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An affidavit or affirmation shall be submitted to the building official. The affidavit or affirmation shall attest to the following information relative to the flame resistance of the fabric:
  1. Names and addresses of the owners of the tent, canopy or membrane structure.
  2. Date the fabric was last treated with flame-resistant solution.
  3. Trade name or kind of chemical used in the treatment.
  4. Name of person or firm treating the material.
  5. Name of testing agency and test standard by which the fabric was tested.
The area of a membrane structure shall not exceed the limitations specified in Section 506.
Membrane structures shall not exceed one story nor shall such structures exceed the height limitations in feet specified in Section 504.3.

Exception: Noncombustible membrane structures serving as roofs only.
Membrane structures shall be permitted to be utilized as specified in this section as a portion of buildings of other types of construction. Height and area limits shall be as specified for the type of construction and occupancy of the building.
A noncombustible membrane shall be permitted for use as the roof or as a skylight of any building or atrium of a building of any type of construction provided the membrane is not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) above any floor, balcony or gallery.
A membrane meeting the fire propagation performance criteria of Test Method 1 or Test Method 2, as appropriate, of NFPA 701 shall be permitted to be used as the roof or as a skylight on buildings of Type IIB, III, IV and V construction, provided the membrane is not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) above any floor, balcony or gallery.
The structure shall be designed and constructed to sustain dead loads; loads due to tension or inflation; live loads including wind, snow or flood and seismic loads and in accordance with Chapter 16.
For membrane-covered frame structures, the membrane shall not be considered to provide lateral restraint in the calculation of the capacities of the frame members.
Air-supported and air-inflated structures shall be provided with primary and auxiliary inflation systems to meet the minimum requirements of Sections 3102.8.1 through 3102.8.3.
This inflation system shall consist of one or more blowers and shall include provisions for automatic control to maintain the required inflation pressures. The system shall be so designed as to prevent overpressurization of the system.
In addition to the primary inflation system, in buildings larger than 1,500 square feet (140 m2) in area, an auxiliary inflation system shall be provided with sufficient capacity to maintain the inflation of the structure in case of primary system failure. The auxiliary inflation system shall operate automatically when there is a loss of internal pressure and when the primary blower system becomes inoperative.
Blower equipment shall meet all of the following requirements:

1. Blowers shall be powered by continuous-rated motors at the maximum power required for any flow condition as required by the structural design.

2. Blowers shall be provided with inlet screens, belt guards and other protective devices as required by the building official to provide protection from injury.

3. Blowers shall be housed within a weather-protecting structure.

4. Blowers shall be equipped with backdraft check dampers to minimize air loss when inoperative.

5. Blower inlets shall be located to provide protection from air contamination. The location of inlets shall be approved.
Wherever an auxiliary inflation system is required, an approved standby power-generating system shall be provided. The system shall be equipped with a suitable means for automatically starting the generator set upon failure of the normal electrical service and for automatic transfer and operation of all of the required electrical functions at full power within 60 seconds of such service failure. Standby power shall be capable of operating independently for not less than 4 hours.
A system capable of supporting the membrane in the event of deflation shall be provided for in air-supported and air-inflated structures having an occupant load of 50 or more or where covering a swimming pool regardless of occupant load. The support system shall be capable of maintaining membrane structures used as a roof for Type I construction not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) above floor or seating areas. The support system shall be capable of maintaining other membranes not less than 7 feet (2134 mm) above the floor, seating area or surface of the water.

3102.9 Spot lighting

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Spot or effect lighting shall only be by electricity, and all combustible construction located within 6 feet (1829 mm) of such equipment shall be protected with approved noncombustible insulation not less than 9 1/4 inches (235 mm) thick.

3102.10 Heating and cooking equipment

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Heating and cooking equipment shall be in accordance with Section 3104.15 of the 2018 Connecticut State Fire Safety Code.

3102.11 LP-gas

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
The storage, handling and use of LP-gas and LP-gas equipment shall be in accordance with Section 3104.16 of the 2018 Connecticut State Fire Safety Code.

3102.12 Flammable and combustible liquids

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
The use of flammable-fuel-fired equipment shall be in accordance with Section 3104.17 of the 2018 Connecticut State Fire Safety Code.

3102.13 Separation of generators

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Generators and other internal combustion power sources shall be separated from tents or membrane structures by a minimum of 20 feet (6096 mm) and shall be isolated from contact with the public by fencing, enclosure or other approved means.

3103.1 General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
The provisions of Sections 3103.1 through 3103.4 this section shall apply to structures, including tents and other membrane structures, erected for a period of less than 180 consecutive calendar days out of any 365 consecutive calendar days on a single premises. Tents and other membrane structures erected for a period of less than 180 days shall comply with the International Fire Code Section 3103.5. Those erected for a longer period of time shall comply with the applicable sections of this code.
Temporary structures and uses shall conform to the structural strength, fire safety, means of egress, accessibility, light, ventilation, and sanitary requirements of this code as necessary to ensure public health, safety, and general welfare.
Temporary structures that cover an area greater than 120 square feet (11.16 m2), including connecting areas or spaces with a common means of egress or entrance that are used or intended to be used for the gathering together of 10 or more persons, shall not be erected, operated or maintained for any purpose without obtaining a permit from the building official.
A permit application and construction documents shall be submitted for each installation of a temporary structure. The construction documents shall include a site plan indicating the location of the temporary structure and information delineating the means of egress and the occupant load.
Temporary structures shall be located in accordance with the requirements of Table 602 based on the fire-resistance rating of the exterior walls for the proposed type of construction.
Temporary structures shall conform to the means of egress requirements of Chapter 10 and shall have an exit access travel distance of 100 feet (30 480 mm) or less.

3103.5 Tents and other membrane structures

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
All temporary tents and membrane structures shall comply with this section.

3103.5.1 Permit required

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Tents and membrane structures having an area in excess of 400 square feet (37 m2) shall not be erected, operated or maintained for any purpose without obtaining a permit from the building official.

Exceptions:
  1. Tents used exclusively for recreational camping purposes.
  2. Tents open on all sides which comply with all of the following:

    1. Individual tents having a maximum size of 700 square feet (65 m2)
    2. The aggregate area of multiple tents placed side by side without a fire break clearance of 12 feet (3658 mm), not exceeding 700 square feet (65 m2) total.
    3. A minimum clearance of 12 feet (3658 mm) to all other structures and tents.
  3. Tents 900 square feet and smaller in total area when occupied by fewer than 50 persons, which have no heating appliances, no installed electrical service and are erected for fewer than 72 hours.

3103.5.2 Place of assembly

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
For the purposes of this section, a place of assembly shall include a circus, carnival, tent show, theater, skating rink, dance hall or other place of assembly in or under which persons gather for any purpose.

3103.5.3 Construction documents

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
A detailed site and floor plan for tents or membrane structures with an occupant load of 50 or more shall be provided with each application for approval. The tent or membrane structure floor plan shall indicate details of the means of egress facilities, seating capacity, arrangement of the seating and location and type of heating and electrical equipment.

3103.5.4 Location and parking

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
The location and parking for temporary tents and membrane structures shall be in accordance with this section.

3103.5.4.1 Location

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Tents or membrane structures shall not be located within 20 feet (6096 mm) of lot lines, buildings, other tents or membrane structures, parked vehicles or internal combustion engines. For the purpose of determining required distances, support ropes and guy wires shall be considered as part of the temporary membrane structure or tents.

Exceptions:
  1. Separation distance between membrane structures and tents not used for cooking is not required when the aggregate floor area does not exceed 15,000 square feet (1394 m2).
  2. Membrane structures or tents need not be separated from buildings when all of the following conditions are met:

    1. The aggregate floor area of the membrane structure or tent shall not exceed 10,000 square feet (929 m2).
    2. The aggregate floor area of the building and membrane structure or tent shall not exceed the allowable floor area including increases as indicated in this code.
    3. Required means of egress are provided for both the building and membrane structure or tent including travel distances.

3103.5.5 Location of structures in excess of 15,000 square feet in area

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Membrane structures having an area of 15,000 square feet (1394 m2) or more shall be located not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from any other tent or structure as measured from the sidewall of the tent or membrane structure unless joined together by a corridor.

3103.5.6 Connecting corridors

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Tents or membrane structures are allowed to be joined together by means of corridors. Exit doors shall be provided at each end of such corridor. On each side of such corridor and approximately opposite each other, there shall be provided openings not less than 12 feet (3658 mm) wide.

3103.5.7 Fire break

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An unobstructed fire break passageway or fire road not less than 12 feet (3658 mm) wide and free from guy ropes or other obstructions shall be maintained on all sides of all tents and membrane structures unless otherwise approved by the building official.

3103.5.8 Membrane material

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
The membrane material for all tents and membrane structures shall be of: approved non-combustible material as set forth in Section 703.5; flame-resistant material as determined in accordance with NFPA 701 and the manufacturer’s test protocol; or material treated in an approved manner to render the material flame-resistant.

3103.5.8.1 Label

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Tents and membrane structures shall have a permanently affixed label which shall identify the size of the structure and the fabric or material type.

3103.5.8.2 Certification

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An affidavit or affirmation shall be submitted to the building official and a copy retained on the premises on which the tent or membrane structure is located. The affidavit or affirmation shall attest to the following information relative to the flame resistance of the fabric:
  1. Names and addresses of the owners of the tent, canopy or membrane structure.
  2. Date the fabric was last treated with flame-resistant solution.
  3. Trade name or kind of chemical used in the treatment.
  4. Name of person or firm treating the material.
  5. Name of testing agency and test standard by which the fabric was tested.

3103.5.9 Anchorage required

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Tents or membrane structures and their appurtenances shall be adequately roped, braced and anchored to withstand the elements of weather and prevent against collapsing. Documentation of structural stability shall be furnished to the building official upon request.

3103.5.9.1 Tents and membrane structures exceeding one story

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Tents and membrane structures exceeding one story shall be designed and constructed to comply with Chapter 16.

3103.5.10 Temporary air-supported and air-inflated membrane structures

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
In addition to other applicable requirements of Section 3103.5, temporary air-supported and air-inflated membrane structures shall be in accordance with Sections 3103.10.1 to 3103.10.4, inclusive.

3103.5.10.1 Door operation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
In high winds greater than 50 miles per hour (22 m/s) or in snow conditions, the use of doors in air-supported structures shall be controlled to avoid excessive air loss. Doors shall not be left open under any condition.

3103.5.10.2 Fabric envelope design and construction

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Air-supported and air-inflated structures shall have the design and construction of the fabric envelope and the method of anchoring in accordance with Architecture Fabric Institute ASI 77.

3103.5.10.2.1 Inflation pressure

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Operating pressure in air-supported and air-inflated structures shall be maintained at the design pressure specified by the manufacturer to assure stability and to avoid excessive distortion during high wind or snow loads.

3103.5.10.3 Blowers

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An air-supported structure used as a place of assembly shall be furnished with not less than two blowers, each of which has adequate capacity to maintain full inflation pressure with normal leakage. The design of the blower shall be so as to provide integral limiting pressure at the design pressure specified by the manufacturer.

3103.5.10.4 Auxiliary power

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Places of assembly for more than 200 occupants shall be furnished with either a fully automatic auxiliary engine-generator set capable of powering one blower continuously for 4 hours, or a supplementary blower powered by an internal combustion engine that shall be automatic in operation.

3103.5.11 Seating arrangements

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Seating in tents and membrane structures shall be in accordance with Chapter 10.

3103.5.12 Means of egress

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Means of egress for temporary tents and membrane structures shall be in accordance with Sections 3103.12.1 to 3103.12.8, inclusive.

3103.5.12.1 Distribution

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Exits shall be spaced at approximately equal intervals around the perimeter of the tent or membrane structure, and shall be located such that all points are 100 feet (30 480 mm) or less from an exit.

3103.5.12.2 Number

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Tents, or membrane structures or a usable portion thereof, shall have at least one exit and not less than the number of exits required by Table 3103.12.2. The total width of means of egress in inches (mm) shall not be less than the total occupant load served by a means of egress multiplied by 0.2 inches (5 mm) per person.

TABLE 3103.12.2
MINIMUM NUMBER OF MEANS OF EGRESS AND MEANS OF
EGRESS WIDTHS FROM TEMPORARY MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AND TENTS


Occupant load Minimum Number
of Means of Egress
Minimum Width of Each Means of Egress
Tents Membrane Structures
10 to 199 2 72 36
200 to 499 3 72 72
500 to 999 4 96 72
1,000 to 1,999 5 120 96
2,000 to 2,999 6 120 96
Over 3,000a 7 120 96


a. When the occupant load exceeds 3,000, the total width of means of egress (in inches) shall not be less than the total occupant load multiplied by 0.2 inches per person.

3103.5.12.3 Exit openings from tents

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Exit openings from tents shall remain open unless covered by a flame-resistant curtain. The curtain shall comply with the following requirements:
  1. Curtains shall be free sliding on a metal support. The support shall be a minimum of 80 inches (2032 mm) above the floor level at the exit. The curtains shall be arranged so that, when open, no part of the curtain obstructs the exit.
  2. Curtains shall be of a color, or colors, that contrasts with the color of the tent.

3103.5.12.4 Doors

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Exit doors shall swing in the direction of exit travel. To avoid hazardous air and pressure loss in air-supported membrane structures, such doors shall be automatic closing against operating pressures. Opening force at the door edge shall not exceed 15 pounds (67 N).

3103.5.12.5 Aisle

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
The width of aisles without fixed seating shall be in accordance with the following:
  1. In areas serving employees only, the minimum width shall be 24 inches (610 mm) or not less than the width required by the number of employees served.
  2. In public areas, smooth-surfaced, unobstructed aisles having a minimum width of not less than 44 inches (1118 mm) shall be provided from seating areas, and aisles shall be progressively increased in width to provide, at all points, not less than 1 foot (305 mm) of aisle width for each 50 persons served by such aisle at that point.

3103.5.12.6 Exit signs

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Exits shall be clearly marked. Exit signs shall be installed at required exit doorways and where otherwise necessary to indicate clearly the direction of egress when the exit serves an occupant load of 50 or more.

3103.5.12.6.1 Exit sign illumination

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Exit signs shall be either listed and labeled in accordance with UL 924 as the internally illuminated type and used in accordance with the listing or shall be externally illuminated by luminaires supplied in the following manner:
  1. Two separate circuits, one of which shall be separated from all other circuits, or occupant loads of 300 or less; or
  2. Two separate sources of power, one of which shall be an approved emergency system, shall be provided when the occupant load exceeds 300. Emergency systems shall be supplied from storage batteries or from the on-site generator set, and the system shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 70. The emergency system provided shall have a minimum duration of 90 minutes when operated at full design demand.

3103.5.12.7 Means of egress illumination

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Means of egress shall be illuminated with light having an intensity of not less than 1 footcandle (11 lux) at floor level while the structure is occupied. Fixtures required for means of egress illumination shall be supplied from a separate circuit or source of power.

3103.5.12.8 Maintenance of means of egress

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
The required width of exits, aisles and passageways shall be maintained at all times to a public way. Guy wires, guy ropes and other support members shall not cross a means of egress at a height of not less than 8 feet (2438 mm). The surface of the means of egress shall be maintained in an approved manner.

3103.5.13 Spot lighting

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Spot or effect lighting shall only be by electricity, and all combustible construction located within 6 feet (1829 mm) of such equipment shall be protected with approved noncombustible insulation not less than 9 1/4 inches (235 mm) thick.

3103.5.14 Heating and cooking equipment

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Heating and cooking equipment shall be in accordance with Section 3104.15 of the 2018 Connecticut State Fire Safety Code.

3103.5.15 LP-gas

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
The storage, handling and use of LP-gas and LP-gas equipment shall be in accordance with Section 3104.16 of the 2018 Connecticut State Fire Safety Code.

3103.5.16 Flammable and combustible liquids

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
The use of flammable-fuel-fired equipment shall be in accordance with Section 3104.17 of the 2018 Connecticut State Fire Safety Code.

3103.5.17 Separation of generators

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Generators and other internal combustion power sources shall be separated from tents or membrane structures by a minimum of 20 feet (6096 mm) and shall be isolated from contact with the public by fencing, enclosure or other approved means.
This section shall apply to connections between buildings such as pedestrian walkways or tunnels, located at, above or below grade level, that are used as a means of travel by persons. The pedestrian walkway shall not contribute to the building area or the number of stories or height of connected buildings.
Pedestrian walkways shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Sections 3104.2 through 3104.9. Tunnels shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Sections 3104.2 and 3104.10.
Buildings connected by pedestrian walkways or tunnels shall be considered to be separate structures.

Exceptions:

1. Buildings that are on the same lot and considered as portions of a single building in accordance with Section 503.1.2.

2. For purposes of calculating the number of Type B units required by Chapter 11, structurally connected buildings and buildings with multiple wings shall be considered one structure.
The pedestrian walkway shall be of noncombustible construction.

Exceptions:

1. Combustible construction shall be permitted where connected buildings are of combustible construction.

2. Fire-retardant-treated wood, in accordance with Section 603.1, Item 1.3, shall be permitted for the roof construction of the pedestrian walkway where connected buildings are a minimum of Type I or II construction.
Only materials and decorations approved by the building official shall be located in the pedestrian walkway.
The connection of a pedestrian walkway to a building shall comply with Section 3104.5.1, 3104.5.2, 3104.5.3 or 3104.5.4.

Exception: Buildings that are on the same lot and considered as portions of a single building in accordance with Section 503.1.2.
Pedestrian walkways shall be separated from the interior of the building by not less than 2- hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 and Sections 3104.5.1.1 through 3104.5.1.3.
Exterior walls of buildings connected to pedestrian walkways shall be 2-hour fire-resistance-rated. This protection shall extend not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) in every direction surrounding the perimeter of the pedestrian walkway.
Openings in exterior walls required to be fire-resistance-rated in accordance with Section 3104.5.1.1 shall be equipped with opening protectives providing a not less than 3/4-hour fire protection rating in accordance with Section 716.
The fire barrier shall be supported by construction as required by Section 707.5.1.
The wall separating the pedestrian walkway and the building shall comply with Section 3104.5.2.1 or 3104.5.2.2 where:

1. The distance between the connected buildings is more than 10 feet (3048 mm).

2. The pedestrian walkway and connected buildings are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, and the roof of the walkway is not more than 55 feet (16 764 mm) above grade connecting to the fifth, or lower, story above grade plane, of each building.

Exception: Open parking garages need not be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system.
The wall shall be capable of resisting the passage of smoke.
The wall shall be constructed of a tempered, wired or laminated glass wall and doors or glass separating the interior of the building from the pedestrian walkway. The glass shall be protected by an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 that, when actuated, shall completely wet the entire surface of interior sides of the wall or glass. Obstructions shall not be installed between the sprinkler heads and the wall or glass. The glass shall be in a gasketed frame and installed in such a manner that the framing system will deflect without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler operates.
Where the distance between the connected buildings is more than 10 feet (3048 mm), the walls at the intersection of the pedestrian walkway and each building need not be fire-resistance-rated provided both sidewalls of the pedestrian walkway are not less than 50 percent open with the open area uniformly distributed to prevent the accumulation of smoke and toxic gases. The roof of the walkway shall be located not more than 40 feet (12 160 mm) above grade plane, and the walkway shall only be permitted to connect to the third or lower story of each building.

Exception: Where the pedestrian walkway is protected with a sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the roof of the walkway shall be located not more than 55 feet (16 764 mm) above grade plane and the walkway shall only be permitted to connect to the fifth or lower story of each building.
Where exterior walls of connected buildings are required by Section 705 to have a fire-resistance rating greater than 2 hours, the walls at the intersection of the pedestrian walkway and each building need not be fire-resistance-rated provided:

1. The pedestrian walkway is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

2. The roof of the walkway is not located more than 55 feet (16 764 mm) above grade plane and the walkway connects to the fifth, or lower, story above grade plane of each building.
Access shall be provided at all times to a pedestrian walkway that serves as a required exit.
The unobstructed width of pedestrian walkways shall be not less than 36 inches (914 mm). The total width shall be not greater than 30 feet (9144 mm).
The length of exit access travel shall be 200 feet (60 960 mm) or less.

Exceptions:

1. Exit access travel distance on a pedestrian walkway equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 shall be 250 feet (76 200 mm) or less.

2. Exit access travel distance on a pedestrian walkway constructed with both sides not less than 50 percent open shall be 300 feet (91 440 mm) or less.

3. Exit access travel distance on a pedestrian walkway constructed with both sides not less than 50 percent open, and equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, shall be 400 feet (122 m) or less.
Separation between the tunneled walkway and the building to which it is connected shall be not less than 2-hour fire-resistant construction and openings therein shall be protected in accordance with Table 716.5.
Awnings and canopies shall comply with the requirements of Sections 3105.2 through 3105.4 and other applicable sections of this code.
The following term is defined in Chapter 2:

RETRACTABLE AWNING.

3105.3 Design and Construction

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Awnings and canopies shall be designed and constructed to withstand wind or other lateral loads, snow loads and live loads as required by Chapter 16 with due allowance for shape, open construction and similar features that relieve the pressures or loads. Structural members shall be protected to prevent deterioration. Awnings shall have frames of noncombustible material, fire-retardant-treated wood, wood of Type IV size, or 1-hour construction with combustible or noncombustible covers and shall be either fixed, retractable, folding or collapsible.

Exceptions:
  1. Fixed awnings shall not be required to be designed to resist nominal (Vasd) wind loads in excess of 90 mph.
  2. Retractable awnings shall not be required to be designed to resist wind or snow loads.
Awnings and canopies shall be provided with an approved covering that meets the fire propagation performance criteria of Test Method 1 or Test Method 2, as appropriate, of NFPA 701 or has a flame spread index not greater than 25 when tested in accordance with ASTM E84 or UL 723.

Exception: The fire propagation performance and flame spread index requirements shall not apply to awnings installed on detached one- and two-family dwellings.
Marquees shall comply with Sections 3106.2 through 3106.5 and other applicable sections of this code.
The height or thickness of a marquee measured vertically from its lowest to its highest point shall be not greater than 3 feet (914 mm) where the marquee projects more than two-thirds of the distance from the lot line to the curb line, and shall be not greater than 9 feet (2743 mm) where the marquee is less than two-thirds of the distance from the lot line to the curb line.
Where the roof or any part thereof is a skylight, the skylight shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 24. Every roof and skylight of a marquee shall be sloped to downspouts that shall conduct any drainage from the marquee in such a manner so as not to spill over the sidewalk.
Every marquee shall be so located as not to interfere with the operation of any exterior standpipe, and such that the marquee does not obstruct the clear passage of stairways or exit discharge from the building or the installation or maintenance of street lighting.
A marquee shall be supported entirely from the building and constructed of noncombustible materials. Marquees shall be designed as required in Chapter 16. Structural members shall be protected to prevent deterioration.

3107.1 General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Signs shall be designed, constructed and maintained in accordance with Appendix H of this code.
Towers shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of TIA-222. Towers shall be designed for seismic loads; exceptions related to seismic design listed in Section 2.7.3 of TIA-222 shall not apply. In Section 2.6.6.2 of TIA 222, the horizontal extent of Topographic Category 2, escarpments, shall be 16 times the height of the escarpment.

Exception: Single free-standing poles used to support antennas not greater than 75 feet (22 860 mm), measured from the top of the pole to grade, shall not be required to be noncombustible.
Towers shall be located such that guy wires and other accessories shall not cross or encroach upon any street or other public space, or over above-ground electric utility lines, or encroach upon any privately owned property without the written consent of the owner of the encroached-upon property, space or aboveground electric utility lines. Towers shall be equipped with climbing and working facilities in compliance with TIA-222. Access to the tower sites shall be limited as required by applicable OSHA, FCC and EPA regulations.

3109.1 General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
The design and construction of Swimming pools, spas and hot tubs shall comply with the International Swimming Pool and Spa Code requirements of Sections 3109.2 to 3109.9, inclusive, and other applicable sections of this code.

3109.1.1 Health Department regulations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
No person shall construct, substantially alter or reconstruct a swimming pool until the construction documents and water discharge provisions have been approved by the Department of Public Health, in accordance with the regulations adopted pursuant to section 19a-36 of the Connecticut General Statutes.

Exception: Swimming pools accessory to owner-occupied, detached one-, two- or three-family residences and swimming pools accessory to a single one-family townhouse where the pool is intended to be used exclusively by the owner and invited guests.

3109.2 Definition

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

SWIMMING POOL.

SPA, EXERCISE

3109.3 Public swimming pools

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Public swimming pools shall be completely enclosed by a barrier meeting the requirements of Section 3109.4.

3109.4 Swimming pool barriers

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Residential and public swimming pool barriers shall comply with Sections 3109.4.1 to 3109.4.3, inclusive.

Exception: A residential spa or hot tub with a safety cover complying with ASTM F 1346 need not comply with Section 3109.4.

3109.4.1 Barrier height and clearances

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
The top of the barrier shall be not less than 48 inches (1219 mm) above grade measured on the side of the barrier that faces away from the swimming pool. The vertical clearance between grade and the bottom of the barrier shall be not greater than 2 inches (51 mm) measured on the side of the barrier that faces away from the swimming pool. Where the top of the pool structure is above grade, the barrier is authorized to be at ground level or mounted on top of the pool structure, and the vertical clearance between the top of the pool structure and the bottom of the barrier shall be not greater than 4 inches (102 mm).

3109.4.1.1 Openings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Openings in residential swimming pool barriers as defined by the exception to Section 3109.1.1 shall not allow passage of a 4-inch-diameter (102 mm) sphere. Openings in public swimming pool barriers shall not allow passage of a 2-inch diameter (51 mm) sphere.

3109.4.1.2 Solid barrier surfaces

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Solid barriers which do not have openings shall not contain indentations or protrusions except for normal construction tolerances and tooled masonry joints.

3109.4.1.3 Closely spaced horizontal members

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Where the barrier is composed of horizontal and vertical members and the distance between the tops of the horizontal members is less than 45 inches (1143 mm), the horizontal members shall be located on the swimming pool side of the fence. Spacing between vertical members shall be not greater than 1 3/4 inches (44 mm) in width. Where there are decorative cutouts within vertical members, spacing within the cutouts shall be not greater than 1 3/4 inches (44 mm) in width.

3109.4.1.4 Widely spaced horizontal members

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Where the barrier is composed of horizontal and vertical members and the distance between the tops of the horizontal members is 45 inches (1143 mm) or more, spacing between vertical members in residential pools shall be not greater than 4 inches (102 mm) and spacing between vertical members in public pools shall be not greater than 2 inches (51 mm). Where there are decorative cutouts within vertical members, spacing within the cutouts shall not exceed 1 3/4 inches (44 mm) in width.

3109.4.1.5 Chain link dimensions

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Mesh size for chain link fences shall be not greater than a 2 1/4 -inch square (57 mm square) unless the fence is provided with slats fastened at the top or the bottom that reduce the openings to not more than 1 3/4 inches (44 mm).

3109.4.1.6 Diagonal members

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Where the barrier is composed of diagonal members, the opening formed by the diagonal members shall be not greater than 1 3/4 inches (44 mm).

3109.4.1.7 Gates

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Access doors or gates shall comply with the requirements of Sections 3109.4.1.1 through 3109.4.1.6 and shall be equipped to accommodate a locking device. Pedestrian access doors or gates shall open outward away from the pool and shall be self-closing and have a self-latching device. Doors or gates other than pedestrian access doors or gates shall have a self-latching device. Release mechanisms shall be in accordance with Sections 1010.1.9 and 1109.13. Where the release mechanism of the self-latching device is located less than 54 inches (1372 mm) from the bottom of the door or gate, the release mechanism shall be located on the pool side of the door or gate 3 inches (76 mm) or more, below the top of the door or gate, and the door or gate and barrier shall be without openings greater than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) within 18 inches (457 mm) of the release mechanism.

3109.4.1.8 Dwelling wall as a barrier

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Where a wall of a dwelling serves as part of the barrier, one of the following shall apply:
  1. Doors with direct access to the pool through that wall shall be equipped with an alarm that produces an audible warning when the door and/or its screen, if present, are opened. The alarm shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 2017. In dwellings not required to be Accessible units, Type A units or Type B units, the deactivation switch shall be located 54 inches (1372 mm) or more above the threshold of the door. In dwelling units required to be Accessible units, Type A units or Type B units, the deactivation switch shall be located not higher than 54 inches (1372 mm) and not less than 48 inches (1219 mm) above the threshold of the door.
  2. The pool shall be equipped with a power safety cover which complies with ASTM F1346.
  3. All doors with direct access to the pool through that wall shall be equipped with a self-closing and self-latching device with the release mechanism located a minimum of 54 inches above the door threshold. Swinging doors shall open away from the pool area.

3109.4.1.9 Pool structure as a barrier

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Where an above-ground or on-ground pool structure is used as a barrier or where the barrier is mounted on top of the pool structure, and the means of access is a ladder or steps, then the ladder or steps shall be surrounded by a barrier that meets the requirements of Sections 3109.4.1.1 to 3109.4.1.8, inclusive.

Exception: A residential spa or hot tub with a safety cover complying with ASTM F1346.

3109.4.2 Indoor swimming pools

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Walls surrounding indoor swimming pools shall be required to comply with Section 3109.4.1.8.

3109.4.3 Prohibited locations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Barriers shall be located so as to prohibit permanent structures, equipment or similar objects from being used to climb the barriers.

3109.5 Entrapment avoidance

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Suction outlets shall be designed and installed in accordance with ANSI/APSP-7.

3109.6 Temporary enclosure

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
A temporary enclosure shall be installed prior to the electrical bonding inspection of any in-ground swimming pool unless the permanent barrier specified in Section 3109 is in place prior to the commencement of the installation. The temporary enclosure shall be a minimum of 4 feet in height, shall have no openings that will allow passage of a 4-inch sphere and shall be equipped with a positive latching device on any openings.

3109.7 Pool alarm

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Pursuant to section 29-265a of the Connecticut General Statues no building permit shall be issued for the construction or substantial alteration of a swimming pool at a residence occupied by, or being built for, one or more families unless a pool alarm is installed with the swimming pool. As used in this section, “pool alarm” means a device that emits a sound of at least 50 decibels when a person or an object weighing 15 pounds or more enters the water in a swimming pool.

Exception: Hot tubs and portable spas shall be exempt from this requirement.

3109.8 Accessibility

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Public swimming pools, when less than 50 meters in length, shall be provided with ramps or approved fixed or portable lifting equipment for the purpose of providing assisted access to the water for persons with disabilities. Public swimming pools, when 50 meters or more in length, shall be provided with ramps. All public swimming pools, pool decks, toilet facilities, showers, locker and dressing areas shall be accessible and located along accessible routes.

3109.8.1 Slopes and handrails

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
The slopes of ramps for accessibility, where required, shall not exceed one unit vertical to eight units horizontal (1:8) where located at least 24 inches below the water line and one unit vertical to 12 units horizontal (1:12) above that point. Ramps shall be provided with handrails on both sides in accordance with Section 1010.8.

3109.9 Pool structure

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
The pool structure shall be engineered and designed to withstand the expected forces to which the pool will be subjected.
Automatic vehicular gates shall comply with the requirements of Sections 3110.2 through 3110.4 and other applicable sections of this code.
The following term is defined in Chapter 2:

VEHICULAR GATE.
Vehicular gates intended for automation shall be designed, constructed and installed to comply with the requirements of ASTM F2200.
Vehicular gate openers, where provided, shall be listed in accordance with UL 325.
Photovoltaic panels and modules shall comply with the requirements of this code and the International Fire Code.
Photovoltaic panels and modules installed on a roof or as an integral part of a roof assembly shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 15 and the International Fire Code.
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