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Adopts With Amendments:

International Building Code 2015 (IBC 2015)

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
User note: Code change proposals to sections preceded by the designation [F] will be considered by the International Fire Code Development Committee during the 2016 (Group B) Code Development Cycle. See explanation on page iv.

1001.1 General

Diagram
Buildings or portions thereof shall be provided with a means of egress system as required by this chapter. The provisions of this chapter shall control the design, construction and arrangement of means of egress components required to provide an approved means of egress from structures and portions thereof.
It shall be unlawful to alter a building or structure in a manner that will reduce the number of exits or the minimum width or required capacity of the means of egress to less than required by this code.
Means of egress shall be maintained in accordance with the International Fire Code.
Fire safety and evacuation plans shall be provided for all occupancies and buildings where required by the International Fire Code. Such fire safety and evacuation plans shall comply with the applicable provisions of Sections 401.2 and 404 of the International Fire Code.
The general requirements specified in Sections 1003 through 1015 shall apply to all three elements of the means of egress system, in addition to those specific requirements for the exit access, the exit and the exit discharge detailed elsewhere in this chapter.
The means of egress shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches (2286 mm).
Exceptions:
  1. Sloped ceilings in accordance with Section 1208.2.
  2. Ceilings of dwelling units and sleeping units within residential occupancies in accordance with Section 1208.2.
  3. Allowable projections in accordance with Section 1003.3.
  4. Stair headroom in accordance with Section 1011.3.
  5. Door height in accordance with Section 1010.1.1.
  6. Ramp headroom in accordance with Section 1012.5.2.
  7. The clear height of floor levels in vehicular and pedestrian traffic areas of public and private parking garages in accordance with Section 406.4.1.
  8. Areas above and below mezzanine floors in accordance with Section 505.2.
Protruding objects on circulation paths shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1003.3.1 through 1003.3.4.
Protruding objects are permitted to extend below the minimum ceiling height required by Section 1003.2 where a minimum headroom of 80 inches (2032 mm) is provided over any walking surface, including walks, corridors, aisles and passageways. Not more than 50 percent of the ceiling area of a means of egress shall be reduced in height by protruding objects.
Exception: Door closers and stops shall not reduce headroom to less than 78 inches (1981 mm).

A barrier shall be provided where the vertical clearance is less than 80 inches (2032 mm) high. The leading edge of such a barrier shall be located 27 inches (686 mm) maximum above the floor.
A free-standing object mounted on a post or pylon shall not overhang that post or pylon more than 4 inches (102 mm) where the lowest point of the leading edge is more than 27 inches (686 mm) and less than 80 inches (2032 mm) above the walking surface. Where a sign or other obstruction is mounted between posts or pylons and the clear distance between the posts or pylons is greater than 12 inches (305 mm), the lowest edge of such sign or obstruction shall be 27 inches (686 mm) maximum or 80 inches (2032 mm) minimum above the finished floor or ground.
Exception: These requirements shall not apply to sloping portions of handrails between the top and bottom riser of stairs and above the ramp run.
Objects with leading edges more than 27 inches (685 mm) and not more than 80 inches (2030 mm) above the floor shall not project horizontally more than 4 inches (102 mm) into the circulation path.
Exception: Handrails are permitted to protrude 41/2 inches (114 mm) from the wall.
Protruding objects shall not reduce the minimum clear width of accessible routes.
Walking surfaces of the means of egress shall have a slip-resistant surface and be securely attached.
Where changes in elevation of less than 12 inches (305 mm) exist in the means of egress, sloped surfaces shall be used. Where the slope is greater than one unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope), ramps complying with Section 1012 shall be used. Where the difference in elevation is 6 inches (152 mm) or less, the ramp shall be equipped with either handrails or floor finish materials that contrast with adjacent floor finish materials.
Exceptions:
  1. A single step with a maximum riser height of 7 inches (178 mm) is permitted for buildings with occupancies in Groups F, H, R-2, R-3, S and U at exterior doors not required to be accessible by Chapter 11.

  2. A stair with a single riser or with two risers and a tread is permitted at locations not required to be accessible by Chapter 11 where the risers and treads comply with Section 1011.5, the minimum depth of the tread is 13 inches (330 mm) and not less than one handrail complying with Section 1014 is provided within 30 inches (762 mm) of the centerline of the normal path of egress travel on the stair.
  3. A step is permitted in aisles serving seating that has a difference in elevation less than 12 inches (305 mm) at locations not required to be accessible by Chapter 11, provided that the risers and treads comply with Section 1029.13 and the aisle is provided with a handrail complying with Section 1029.15.
Throughout a story in a Group I-2 occupancy, any change in elevation in portions of the means of egress that serve nonambulatory persons shall be by means of a ramp or sloped walkway.
The path of egress travel along a means of egress shall not be interrupted by a building element other than a means of egress component as specified in this chapter. Obstructions shall not be placed in the minimum width or required capacity of a means of egress component except projections permitted by this chapter. The minimum width or required capacity of a means of egress system shall not be diminished along the path of egress travel.
Elevators, escalators and moving walks shall not be used as a component of a required means of egress from any other part of the building.
Exception: Elevators used as an accessible means of egress in accordance with Section 1009.4.

1003.8 Security Device

Amendment
This section has been amended by the state, county, or city.
Any security device or system that emits any medium that could obscure a means of egress in any building, structure or premises shall be prohibited.
In determining means of egress requirements, the number of occupants for whom means of egress facilities are provided shall be determined in accordance with this section.
Where the path of egress travel includes intervening rooms, areas or spaces, cumulative occupant loads shall be determined in accordance with this section.
Where occupants egress from one or more rooms, areas or spaces through others, the design occupant load shall be the combined occupant load of interconnected accessory or intervening spaces. Design of egress path capacity shall be based on the cumulative portion of occupant loads of all rooms, areas or spaces to that point along the path of egress travel.
That portion of the occupant load of a mezzanine with required egress through a room, area or space on an adjacent level shall be added to the occupant load of that room, area or space.
Other than for the egress components designed for convergence in accordance with Section 1005.6, the occupant load from separate stories shall not be added.

1004.1.2 Areas Without Fixed Seating

Amendment
This section has been amended by the state, county, or city.
Diagram
The number of occupants shall be computed at the rate of one occupant per unit of area as prescribed in Table 1004.1.2. For areas without fixed seating, the occupant load shall be not less than the number determined by dividing the floor area under consideration by the occupant load factor assigned to the function of the space as set forth in Table 1004.1.2. Where an intended function is not listed in Table 1004.1.2, the building official shall establish a function based on a listed function that most nearly resembles the intended function.



TABLE 1004.1.2 MAXIMUM FLOOR AREA ALLOWANCES PER OCCUPANT

FUNCTION OF SPACE OCCUPANT LOAD FACTORa
Accessory storage areas, mechanical
equipment room
300 gross
Agricultural building 300 gross
Aircraft hangars 500 gross
Airport terminal
Baggage claim 20 gross
Baggage handling 300 gross
Concourse 100 gross
Waiting areas 15 gross
Assembly
Gaming floors (keno, slots, etc.) 11 gross
Exhibit gallery and museum 30 net
Assembly with fixed seats See Section 1004.4
Assembly without fixed seats
Concentrated
(chairs only—not fixed)
7 net
Standing space 5 net
Unconcentrated (tables and chairs) 15 net
Bowling centers, allow 5 persons for
each lane including 15 feet of runway,
and for additional areas
7 net
Business areas 100 gross
Courtrooms—other than fixed seating
areas
40 net
Day care 35 net
Dormitories 50 gross
Educational
Classroom area 20 net
Shops and other vocational room
areas
50 net
Exercise rooms 50 gross
Group H-5 Fabrication and manufac-
turing areas
200 gross
Industrial areas 100 gross
Institutional areas
Inpatient treatment areas 240 gross
Outpatient areas 100 gross
Sleeping areas 120 gross
Kitchens, commercial 200 gross
Library
Reading rooms 50 net
Stack area 100 gross
Locker rooms 50 gross
Mall buildings—covered and open See Section 402.8.2
Mercantile 60 gross
Storage, stock, shipping areas 300 gross
Parking garages 200 gross
Residential 200 gross
Skating rinks, swimming pools
Rink and pool 50 gross
Decks 15 gross
Stages and platforms 15 net
Warehouses 500 gross

For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. Floor area in square feet per occupant.
The occupant load permitted in any building, or portion thereof, is permitted to be increased from that number established for the occupancies in Table 1004.1.2, provided that all other requirements of the code are met based on such modified number and the occupant load does not exceed one occupant per 7 square feet (0.65 m2) of occupiable floor space. Where required by the building official, an approved aisle, seating or fixed equipment diagram substantiating any increase in occupant load shall be submitted. Where required by the building official, such diagram shall be posted.
Every room or space that is an assembly occupancy shall have the occupant load of the room or space posted in a conspicuous place, near the main exit or exit access doorway from the room or space. Posted signs shall be of an approved legible permanent design and shall be maintained by the owner or the owner's authorized agent.
For areas having fixed seats and aisles, the occupant load shall be determined by the number of fixed seats installed therein. The occupant load for areas in which fixed seating is not installed, such as waiting spaces, shall be determined in accordance with Section 1004.1.2 and added to the number of fixed seats.

The occupant load of wheelchair spaces and the associated companion seat shall be based on one occupant for each wheelchair space and one occupant for the associated companion seat provided in accordance with Section 1108.2.3.

For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms, the occupant load shall be not less than the number of seats based on one person for each 18 inches (457 mm) of seating length.

The occupant load of seating booths shall be based on one person for each 24 inches (610 mm) of booth seat length measured at the backrest of the seating booth.
Yards, patios, courts and similar outdoor areas accessible to and usable by the building occupants shall be provided with means of egress as required by this chapter. The occupant load of such outdoor areas shall be assigned by the building official in accordance with the anticipated use. Where outdoor areas are to be used by persons in addition to the occupants of the building, and the path of egress travel from the outdoor areas passes through the building, means of egress requirements for the building shall be based on the sum of the occupant loads of the building plus the outdoor areas.
Exceptions:
  1. Outdoor areas used exclusively for service of the building need only have one means of egress.
  2. Both outdoor areas associated with Group R-3 and individual dwelling units of Group R-2.
Where a building contains two or more occupancies, the means of egress requirements shall apply to each portion of the building based on the occupancy of that space. Where two or more occupancies utilize portions of the same means of egress system, those egress components shall meet the more stringent requirements of all occupancies that are served.
All portions of the means of egress system shall be sized in accordance with this section.
Exception: Aisles and aisle accessways in rooms or spaces used for assembly purposes complying with Section 1029.
The minimum width, in inches (mm), of any means of egress components shall be not less than that specified for such component, elsewhere in this code.
The required capacity, in inches (mm), of the means of egress for any room, area, space or story shall be not less than that determined in accordance with Sections 1005.3.1 and 1005.3.2:

1005.3.1 Stairways

Amendment
This section has been amended by the state, county, or city.
Diagram
The capacity, in inches (mm), of the means of egress stairways shall be calculated by multiplying the occupant load served by such stairway by a means of egress capacity factor of 0.3 inch (7.6 mm) per occupant. Where stairways serve more than one story, only the occupant load of each story considered individually shall be used in calculating the required capacity of the stairways serving that story.

Exceptions:
  1. Facilities with smoke-protected assembly seating shall be permitted to use the capacity factors in Table 1029.6.2 indicated for stepped aisles for exit access or exit stairways where the entire path for means of egress from the seating to the exit discharge is provided with a smoke control system complying with Section 909.
  2. Facilities with outdoor smoke-protected assembly seating shall be permitted to the capacity factors in Section 1029.6.3 indicated for stepped aisles for exit access or exit stairways where the entire path for means of egress from the seating to the exit discharge is open to the outdoors.

1005.3.2 Other Egress Components

Amendment
This section has been amended by the state, county, or city.
Diagram
The capacity, in inches (mm), of means of egress components other than stairways shall be calculated by multiplying the occupant load served by such component by a means of egress capacity factor of 0.2 inch (5.1 mm) per occupant.

Exceptions:
  1. Facilities with smoke-protected assembly seating shall be permitted to use the capacity factors in Table 1029.6.2 indicated for level or ramped aisles for means of egress components other than stairways where the entire path for means of egress from the seating to the exit discharge is provided with a smoke control system complying with Section 909.
  2. Facilities with outdoor smoke-protected assembly seating shall be permitted to the capacity factors in Section 1029.6.3 indicated for level or ramped aisles for means of egress components other than stairways where the entire path for means of egress from the seating to the exit discharge is open to the outdoors.
The minimum width or required capacity of the means of egress required from any story of a building shall not be reduced along the path of egress travel until arrival at the public way.
Where more than one exit, or access to more than one exit, is required, the means of egress shall be configured such that the loss of any one exit, or access to one exit, shall not reduce the available capacity or width to less than 50 percent of the required capacity or width.
Where the means of egress from stories above and below converge at an intermediate level, the capacity of the means of egress from the point of convergence shall be not less than the largest minimum width or the sum of the required capacities for the stairways or ramps serving the two adjacent stories, whichever is larger.

1005.7 Encroachment

Diagram
Encroachments into the required means of egress width shall be in accordance with the provisions of this section.

1005.7.1 Doors

Diagram
Doors, when fully opened, shall not reduce the required width by more than 7 inches (178 mm). Doors in any position shall not reduce the required width by more than one-half.
Exceptions:
  1. Surface-mounted latch release hardware shall be exempt from inclusion in the 7-inch maximum (178 mm) encroachment where both of the following conditions exist:
    1. The hardware is mounted to the side of the door facing away from the adjacent wall where the door is in the open position.
    2. The hardware is mounted not less than 34 inches (865 mm) nor more than 48 inches (1219 mm) above the finished floor.
  2. The restrictions on door swing shall not apply to doors within individual dwelling units and sleeping units of Group R-2 occupancies and dwelling units of Group R-3 occupancies.
Handrail projections shall be in accordance with the provisions of Section 1014.8. Other nonstructural projections such as trim and similar decorative features shall be permitted to project into the required width not more than 11/2 inches (38 mm) on each side.
Exception: Projections are permitted in corridors within Group I-2 Condition 1 in accordance with Section 407.4.3.
Protruding objects shall comply with the applicable requirements of Section 1003.3.

1006.1 General

Amendment
This section has been amended by the state, county, or city.
The number of exits or exit access doorways required within the means of egress system shall comply with the provisions of Section 1006.2 for spaces, including mezzanines, and Section 1006.3 for stories.

Exception: Buildings of Group R-1 bed and breakfast establishments shall only be required to have one exit.

1006.2 Egress From Spaces

Rooms, areas or spaces, including mezzanines, within a story or basement shall be provided with the number of exits or access to exits in accordance with this section.
Two exits or exit access doorways from any space shall be provided where the design occupant load or the common path of egress travel distance exceeds the values listed in Table 1006.2.1.
Exceptions:
  1. In Group R-2 and R-3 occupancies, one means of egress is permitted within and from individual dwelling units with a maximum occupant load of 20 where the dwelling unit is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and the common path of egress travel does not exceed 125 feet (38 100 mm).
  2. Care suites in Group I-2 occupancies complying with Section 407.4.
TABLE 1006.2.1
SPACES WITH ONE EXIT OR EXIT ACCESS DOORWAY
OCCUPANCY MAXIMUM OCCUPANT
LOAD OF SPACE
MAXIMUM COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL DISTANCE (feet)
Without Sprinkler System
(feet)
With Sprinkler System
(feet)
Occupant Load
OL ≤ 30 OL > 30
Ac, E, M 49 75 75 75a
B 49 100 75 100a
F 49 75 75 100a
H-1, H-2, H-3 3 NP NP 25b
H-4, H-5 10 NP NP 75b
I-1, I-2d, I-4 10 NP NP 75a
I-3 10 NP NP 100a
R-1 10 NP NP 75a
R-2 10 NP NP 125a
R-3e 10 NP NP 125a
R-4e 10 75 75 125a
Sf 29 100 75 100a
U 49 100 75 75a
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. NP = Not Permitted.
  1. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. See Section 903 for occupancies where automatic sprinkler systems are permitted in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2.
  2. Group H occupancies equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.2.5.
  3. For a room or space used for assembly purposes having fixed seating, see Section 1029.8.
  4. For the travel distance limitations in Group I-2, see Section 407.4.
  5. The length of common path of egress travel distance in a Group R-3 occupancy located in a mixed occupancy building or within a Group R-3 or R-4 congregate living facility.
  6. The length of common path of egress travel distance in a Group S-2 open parking garage shall be not more than 100 feet.
Three exits or exit access doorways shall be provided from any space with an occupant load of 501 to 1,000. Four exits or exit access doorways shall be provided from any space with an occupant load greater than 1,000.
The numbers of exits or access to exits shall be provided in the uses described in Sections 1006.2.2.1 through 1006.2.2.5.
Two exit access doorways are required in boiler, incinerator and furnace rooms where the area is over 500 square feet (46 m2) and any fuel-fired equipment exceeds 400,000 British thermal units (Btu) (422 000 KJ) input capacity. Where two exit access doorways are required, one is permitted to be a fixed ladder or an alternating tread device. Exit access doorways shall be separated by a horizontal distance equal to one-half the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the room.
Machinery rooms larger than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) shall have not less than two exits or exit access doorways. Where two exit access doorways are required, one such doorway is permitted to be served by a fixed ladder or an alternating tread device. Exit access doorways shall be separated by a horizontal distance equal to one-half the maximum horizontal dimension of the room.

All portions of machinery rooms shall be within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of an exit or exit access doorway. An increase in exit access travel distance is permitted in accordance with Section 1017.1.

Doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel, regardless of the occupant load served. Doors shall be tight fitting and self-closing.
Rooms or spaces having a floor area larger than 1,000 square feet (93 m2), containing a refrigerant evaporator and maintained at a temperature below 68°F (20°C), shall have access to not less than two exits or exit access doorways.

Exit access travel distance shall be determined as specified in Section 1017.1, but all portions of a refrigerated room or space shall be within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of an exit or exit access doorway where such rooms are not protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system. Egress is allowed through adjoining refrigerated rooms or spaces.
Exception: Where using refrigerants in quantities limited to the amounts based on the volume set forth in the International Mechanical Code.

1006.2.2.4 Day Care Means of Egress

Amendment
This section has been amended by the state, county, or city.
Day care facilities, rooms or spaces where care is provided for more than 10 children who are 3 years of age or younger shall have access to not less than two exits or exit access doorways.
Vehicular ramps shall not be considered as an exit access ramp unless pedestrian facilities are provided.

1006.3 Egress From Stories or Occupied Roofs

The means of egress system serving any story or occupied roof shall be provided with the number of exits or access to exits based on the aggregate occupant load served in accordance with this section. The path of egress travel to an exit shall not pass through more than one adjacent story.
Each story and occupied roof shall have the minimum number of independent exits, or access to exits, as specified in Table 1006.3.1. A single exit or access to a single exit shall be permitted in accordance with Section 1006.3.2. The required number of exits, or exit access stairways or ramps providing access to exits, from any story or occupied roof shall be maintained until arrival at the exit discharge or a public way.
TABLE 1006.3.1
MINIMUM NUMBER OF EXITS OR ACCESS TO EXITS PER STORY
OCCUPANT LOAD
PER STORY
MINIMUM NUMBER OF EXITS OR
ACCESS TO EXITS FROM STORY
1-500 2
501-1,000 3
More than 1,000 4
A single exit or access to a single exit shall be permitted from any story or occupied roof where one of the following conditions exists:
  1. The occupant load, number of dwelling units and common path of egress travel distance does not exceed the values in Table 1006.3.2(1) or 1006.3.2(2).
  2. Rooms, areas and spaces complying with Section 1006.2.1 with exits that discharge directly to the exterior at the level of exit discharge, are permitted to have one exit or access to a single exit.
  3. Parking garages where vehicles are mechanically parked shall be permitted to have one exit or access to a single exit.
  4. Group R-3 and R-4 occupancies shall be permitted to have one exit or access to a single exit.
  5. Individual single-story or multistory dwelling units shall be permitted to have a single exit or access to a single exit from the dwelling unit provided that both of the following criteria are met:
    1. The dwelling unit complies with Section 1006.2.1 as a space with one means of egress.
    2. Either the exit from the dwelling unit discharges directly to the exterior at the level of exit discharge, or the exit access outside the dwelling unit's entrance door provides access to not less than two approved independent exits.
TABLE 1006.3.2(1)
STORIES WITH ONE EXIT OR ACCESS TO ONE EXIT FOR R-2 OCCUPANCIES
STORY OCCUPANCY MAXIMUM NUMBER OF
DWELLING UNITS
MAXIMUM COMMON PATH OF
EGRESS TRAVEL DISTANCE
Basement, first, second or third story above grade plane R-2a, b 4 dwelling units 125 feet
Fourth story above grade plane and higher NP NA NA

For SI: 1 foot = 3048 mm.
NP = Not Permitted.
NA = Not Applicable.
  1. Buildings classified as Group R-2 equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and provided with emergency escape and rescue openings in accordance with Section 1030.
  2. This table is used for R-2 occupancies consisting of dwelling units. For R-2 occupancies consisting of sleeping units, use Table 1006.3.2(2).
TABLE 1006.3.2(2)
STORIES WITH ONE EXIT OR ACCESS TO ONE EXIT FOR OTHER OCCUPANCIES
STORY OCCUPANCY MAXIMUM OCCUPANT
LOAD PER STORY
MAXIMUM COMMON PATH OF
EGRESS TRAVEL DISTANCE
(feet)
First story above or below grade plane A, Bb, E Fb, M, U 49 75
H-2, H-3 3 25
H-4, H-5, I, R-1, R-2a, c, R-4 10 75
Sb, d 29 75
Second story above grade plane B, F, M, Sd 29 75
Third story above grade plane and higher NP NA NA


For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
NP = Not Permitted.
NA = Not Applicable.
  1. Buildings classified as Group R-2 equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and provided with emergency escape and rescue openings in accordance with Section 1030.
  2. Group B, F and S occupancies in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 shall have a maximum exit access travel distance of 100 feet.
  3. This table is used for R-2 occupancies consisting of sleeping units. For R-2 occupancies consisting of dwelling units, use Table 1006.3.2(1).
  4. The length of exit access travel distance in a Group S-2 open parking garage shall be not more than 100 feet.
Where one exit, or exit access stairway or ramp providing access to exits at other stories, is permitted to serve individual stories, mixed occupancies shall be permitted to be served by single exits provided each individual occupancy complies with the applicable requirements of Table 1006.3.2(1) or 1006.3.2(2) for that occupancy. Where applicable, cumulative occupant loads from adjacent occupancies shall be considered in accordance with the provisions of Section 1004.1. In each story of a mixed occupancy building, the maximum number of occupants served by a single exit shall be such that the sum of the ratios of the calculated number of occupants of the space divided by the allowable number of occupants indicated in Table 1006.3.2(2) for each occupancy does not exceed one. Where dwelling units are located on a story with other occupancies, the actual number of dwelling units divided by four plus the ratio from the other occupancy does not exceed one.

1007.1 General

Diagram
Exits, exit access doorways, and exit access stairways and ramps serving spaces, including individual building stories, shall be separated in accordance with the provisions of this section.
Where two exits, exit access doorways, exit access stairways or ramps, or any combination thereof, are required from any portion of the exit access, they shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than one-half of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area to be served measured in a straight line between them. Interlocking or scissor stairways shall be counted as one exit stairway.
Exceptions:
  1. Where interior exit stairways or ramps are interconnected by a 1-hour fire-resistance-rated corridor conforming to the requirements of Section 1020, the required exit separation shall be measured along the shortest direct line of travel within the corridor.
  2. Where a building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the separation distance shall be not less than one-third of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the area served.
The separation distance required in Section 1007.1.1 shall be measured in accordance with the following:
  1. The separation distance to exit or exit access doorways shall be measured to any point along the width of the doorway.
  2. The separation distance to exit access stairways shall be measured to the closest riser.
  3. The separation distance to exit access ramps shall be measured to the start of the ramp run.
Where access to three or more exits is required, not less than two exit or exit access doorways shall be arranged in accordance with the provisions of Section 1007.1.1. Additional required exit or exit access doorways shall be arranged a reasonable distance apart so that if one becomes blocked, the others will be available.
Where two exit access stairways or ramps provide the required means of egress to exits at another story, the required separation distance shall be maintained for all portions of such exit access stairways or ramps.
Where more than two exit access stairways or ramps provide the required means of egress, not less than two shall be arranged in accordance with Section 1007.1.3.
Illumination shall be provided in the means of egress in accordance with Section 1008.2. Under emergency power, means of egress illumination shall comply with Section 1008.3.

1008.2 Illumination Required

Amendment
This section has been amended by the state, county, or city.
The means of egress, including the exit discharge, shall be illuminated at all times the building space served by the means of egress is occupied.

Exceptions:
  1. Occupancies in Group U.
  2. Aisle accessways in Group A.
  3. Within dwelling units and sleeping units in Groups R-1, R-2 and R-3.
  4. Within sleeping units of Group I occupancies.
  5. In Group R-1 bed and breakfast establishments when illumination of the means of egress is initiated upon initiation of a fire alarm.
The means of egress illumination level shall be not less than 1 footcandle (11 lux) at the walking surface.
Exception: For auditoriums, theaters, concert or opera halls and similar assembly occupancies, the illumination at the walking surface is permitted to be reduced during performances by one of the following methods provided that the required illumination is automatically restored upon activation of a premises' fire alarm system:
  1. Externally illuminated walking surfaces shall be permitted to be illuminated to not less than 0.2 footcandle (2.15 lux).
  2. Steps, landings and the sides of ramps shall be permitted to be marked with self-luminous materials in accordance with Sections 1025.2.1, 1025.2.2 and 1025.2.4 by systems listed in accordance with UL 1994.
In Group I-2 occupancies where two or more exits are required, on the exterior landings required by Section 1010.1.6, means of egress illumination levels for the exit discharge shall be provided such that failure of any single lighting unit shall not reduce the illumination level on that landing to less than 1 footcandle (11 lux).

1008.2.3 Arrangement of Illumination

Amendment
This section has been amended by the state, county, or city.
Required illumination shall be arranged so that the failure of any single lamp does not result in an illumination level of less than 0.2 foot-candle (2.15 lux) at the floor level.
The power supply for means of egress illumination shall normally be provided by the premises' electrical supply.
In the event of power supply failure in rooms and spaces that require two or more means of egress, an emergency electrical system shall automatically illuminate all of the following areas:
  1. Aisles.
  2. Corridors.
  3. Exit access stairways and ramps.
In the event of power supply failure in buildings that require two or more means of egress, an emergency electrical system shall automatically illuminate all of the following areas:
  1. Interior exit access stairways and ramps.
  2. Interior and exterior exit stairways and ramps.
  3. Exit passageways.
  4. Vestibules and areas on the level of discharge used for exit discharge in accordance with Section 1028.1.
  5. Exterior landings as required by Section 1010.1.6 for exit doorways that lead directly to the exit discharge.

1008.3.3 Other Areas Rooms and Spaces

Amendment
This section has been amended by the state, county, or city.
In the event of power supply failure, an emergency electrical system shall automatically illuminate all of the following areas:

  1. Electrical equipment rooms.
  2. Fire command centers.
  3. Fire pump rooms.
  4. Generator rooms.
  5. Public restrooms with an area greater than 300 square feet (27.87 m2).
  6. Means of egress components, other than those within sleeping rooms, of Group R-1 bed and breakfast establishments.
The emergency power system shall provide power for a duration of not less than 90 minutes and shall consist of storage batteries, unit equipment or an on-site generator. The installation of the emergency power system shall be in accordance with Section 2702.
Emergency lighting facilities shall be arranged to provide initial illumination that is not less than an average of 1 footcandle (11 lux) and a minimum at any point of 0.1 footcandle (1 lux) measured along the path of egress at floor level. Illumination levels shall be permitted to decline to 0.6 footcandle (6 lux) average and a minimum at any point of 0.06 footcandle (0.6 lux) at the end of the emergency lighting time duration. A maximum-to-minimum illumination uniformity ratio of 40 to 1 shall not be exceeded. In Group I-2 occupancies, failure of any single lighting unit shall not reduce the illumination level to less than 0.2 foot-candle (2.2 lux).

1008.3.6 Activation

Amendment
This section has been amended by the state, county, or city.
The emergency means of egress illumination system shall be arranged to provide the required illumination automatically in the event of any interruption of normal lighting due to any of the following:
  1. Failure of a public utility or other outside electrical power supply.
  2. Opening of a circuit breaker or fuse.
  3. Manual acts, including accidental opening of a switch controlling normal lighting facilities.
Accessible means of egress shall comply with this section. Accessible spaces shall be provided with not less than one accessible means of egress. Where more than one means of egress are required by Section 1006.2 or 1006.3 from any accessible space, each accessible portion of the space shall be served by not less than two accessible means of egress.
Exceptions:
  1. Accessible means of egress are not required to be provided in existing buildings.
  2. One accessible means of egress is required from an accessible mezzanine level in accordance with Section 1009.3, 1009.4 or 1009.5.
  3. In assembly areas with ramped aisles or stepped aisles, one accessible means of egress is permitted where the common path of egress travel is accessible and meets the requirements in Section 1029.8.
Each required accessible means of egress shall be continuous to a public way and shall consist of one or more of the following components:
  1. Accessible routes complying with Section 1104.
  2. Interior exit stairways complying with Sections 1009.3 and 1023.
  3. Exit access stairways complying with Sections 1009.3 and 1019.3 or 1019.4.
  4. Exterior exit stairways complying with Sections 1009.3 and 1027 and serving levels other than the level of exit discharge.
  5. Elevators complying with Section 1009.4.
  6. Platform lifts complying with Section 1009.5.
  7. Horizontal exits complying with Section 1026.
  8. Ramps complying with Section 1012.
  9. Areas of refuge complying with Section 1009.6.
  10. Exterior areas for assisted rescue complying with Section 1009.7 serving exits at the level of exit discharge.
In buildings where a required accessible floor is four or more stories above or below a level of exit discharge, not less than one required accessible means of egress shall be an elevator complying with Section 1009.4.
Exceptions:
  1. In buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the elevator shall not be required on floors provided with a horizontal exit and located at or above the levels of exit discharge.
  2. In buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the elevator shall not be required on floors provided with a ramp conforming to the provisions of Section 1012.

1009.3 Stairways

Diagram
In order to be considered part of an accessible means of egress, a stairway between stories shall have a clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) minimum between handrails and shall either incorporate an area of refuge within an enlarged floor-level landing or shall be accessed from an area of refuge complying with Section 1009.6. Exit access stairways that connect levels in the same story are not permitted as part of an accessible means of egress.
Exceptions:
  1. Exit access stairways providing means of egress from mezzanines are permitted as part of an accessible means of egress.
  2. The clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) between handrails is not required in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
  3. The clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) between handrails is not required for stairways accessed from a refuge area in conjunction with a horizontal exit.
  4. Areas of refuge are not required at exit access stairways where two-way communication is provided at the elevator landing in accordance with Section 1009.8.
  5. Areas of refuge are not required at stairways in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
  6. Areas of refuge are not required at stairways serving open parking garages.
  7. Areas of refuge are not required for smoke-protected assembly seating areas complying with Section 1029.6.2.
  8. Areas of refuge are not required at stairways in Group R-2 occupancies.
  9. Areas of refuge are not required for stairways accessed from a refuge area in conjunction with a horizontal exit.
In order to be considered part of an accessible means of egress, an elevator shall comply with the emergency operation and signaling device requirements of Section 2.27 of ASME A17.1/CSA B44. Standby power shall be provided in accordance with Chapter 27 and Section 3003. The elevator shall be accessed from an area of refuge complying with Section 1009.6.
Exceptions:
  1. Areas of refuge are not required at the elevator in open parking garages.
  2. Areas of refuge are not required in buildings and facilities equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
  3. Areas of refuge are not required at elevators not required to be located in a shaft in accordance with Section 712.
  4. Areas of refuge are not required at elevators serving smoke-protected assembly seating areas complying with Section 1029.6.2.
  5. Areas of refuge are not required for elevators accessed from a refuge area in conjunction with a horizontal exit.
Platform lifts shall be permitted to serve as part of an accessible means of egress where allowed as part of a required accessible route in Section 1109.8 except for Item 10. Standby power for the platform lift shall be provided in accordance with Chapter 27.
Every required area of refuge shall be accessible from the space it serves by an accessible means of egress.
The maximum travel distance from any accessible space to an area of refuge shall not exceed the exit access travel distance permitted for the occupancy in accordance with Section 1017.1.
Every required area of refuge shall have direct access to a stairway complying with Sections 1009.3 and 1023 or an elevator complying with Section 1009.4.
Each area of refuge shall be sized to accommodate one wheelchair space of 30 inches by 48 inches (762 mm by 1219 mm) for each 200 occupants or portion thereof, based on the occupant load of the area of refuge and areas served by the area of refuge. Such wheelchair spaces shall not reduce the means of egress minimum width or required capacity. Access to any of the required wheelchair spaces in an area of refuge shall not be obstructed by more than one adjoining wheelchair space.
Each area of refuge shall be separated from the remainder of the story by a smoke barrier complying with Section 709 or a horizontal exit complying with Section 1026. Each area of refuge shall be designed to minimize the intrusion of smoke.
Exceptions:
  1. Areas of refuge located within an enclosure for interior exit stairways complying with Section 1023.
  2. Areas of refuge in outdoor facilities where exit access is essentially open to the outside.
Areas of refuge shall be provided with a two-way communication system complying with Sections 1009.8.1 and 1009.8.2.
Exterior areas for assisted rescue shall be accessed by an accessible route from the area served.

Where the exit discharge does not include an accessible route from an exit located on the level of exit discharge to a public way, an exterior area of assisted rescue shall be provided on the exterior landing in accordance with Sections 1009.7.1 through 1009.7.4.
Each exterior area for assisted rescue shall be sized to accommodate wheelchair spaces in accordance with Section 1009.6.3.
Exterior walls separating the exterior area of assisted rescue from the interior of the building shall have a minimum fire-resistance rating of 1 hour, rated for exposure to fire from the inside. The fire-resistance-rated exterior wall construction shall extend horizontally 10 feet (3048 mm) beyond the landing on either side of the landing or equivalent fire-resistance-rated construction is permitted to extend out perpendicular to the exterior wall 4 feet (1220 mm) minimum on the side of the landing. The fire-resistance-rated construction shall extend vertically from the ground to a point 10 feet (3048 mm) above the floor level of the area for assisted rescue or to the roof line, whichever is lower. Openings within such fire-resistance-rated exterior walls shall be protected in accordance with Section 716.
The exterior area for assisted rescue shall be open to the outside air. The sides other than the separation walls shall be not less than 50 percent open, and the open area shall be distributed so as to minimize the accumulation of smoke or toxic gases.
Stairways that are part of the means of egress for the exterior area for assisted rescue shall provide a clear width of 48 inches (1220 mm) between handrails.
Exception: The clear width of 48 inches (1220 mm) between handrails is not required at stairways serving buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
A two-way communication system complying with Sections 1009.8.1 and 1009.8.2 shall be provided at the landing serving each elevator or bank of elevators on each accessible floor that is one or more stories above or below the level of exit discharge.
Exceptions:
  1. Two-way communication systems are not required at the landing serving each elevator or bank of elevators where the two-way communication system is provided within areas of refuge in accordance with Section 1009.6.5.
  2. Two-way communication systems are not required on floors provided with ramps conforming to the provisions of Section 1012.
  3. Two-way communication systems are not required at the landings serving only service elevators that are not designated as part of the accessible means of egress or serve as part of the required accessible route into a facility.
  4. Two-way communication systems are not required at the landings serving only freight elevators.
  5. Two-way communication systems are not required at the landing serving a private residence elevator.
Two-way communication systems shall provide communication between each required location and the fire command center or a central control point location approved by the fire department. Where the central control point is not a constantly attended location, a two-way communication system shall have a timed automatic telephone dial-out capability to a monitoring location or 9-1-1. The two-way communication system shall include both audible and visible signals.
Directions for the use of the two-way communication system, instructions for summoning assistance via the two-way communication system and written identification of the location shall be posted adjacent to the two-way communication system. Signage shall comply with the ICC A117.1 requirements for visual characters.

1009.9 Signage

Diagram
Signage indicating special accessibility provisions shall be provided as shown:
  1. Each door providing access to an area of refuge from an adjacent floor area shall be identified by a sign stating: AREA OF REFUGE.
  2. Each door providing access to an exterior area for assisted rescue shall be identified by a sign stating: EXTERIOR AREA FOR ASSISTED RESCUE.

    Signage shall comply with the ICC A117.1 requirements for visual characters and include the International Symbol of Accessibility. Where exit sign illumination is required by Section 1013.3, the signs shall be illuminated. Additionally, visual characters, raised character and braille signage complying with ICC A117.1 shall be located at each door to an area of refuge and exterior area for assisted rescue in accordance with Section 1013.4.
Directional signage indicating the location of all other means of egress and which of those are accessible means of egress shall be provided at the following:
  1. At exits serving a required accessible space but not providing an approved accessible means of egress.
  2. At elevator landings.
  3. Within areas of refuge.
In areas of refuge and exterior areas for assisted rescue, instructions on the use of the area under emergency conditions shall be posted. Signage shall comply with the ICC A117.1 requirements for visual characters. The instructions shall include all of the following:
  1. Persons able to use the exit stairway do so as soon as possible, unless they are assisting others.
  2. Information on planned availability of assistance in the use of stairs or supervised operation of elevators and how to summon such assistance.
  3. Directions for use of the two-way communication system where provided.

1010.1 Doors

Diagram
Means of egress doors shall meet the requirements of this section. Doors serving a means of egress system shall meet the requirements of this section and Section 1022.2. Doors provided for egress purposes in numbers greater than required by this code shall meet the requirements of this section.

Means of egress doors shall be readily distinguishable from the adjacent construction and finishes such that the doors are easily recognizable as doors. Mirrors or similar reflecting materials shall not be used on means of egress doors. Means of egress doors shall not be concealed by curtains, drapes, decorations or similar materials.
The required capacity of each door opening shall be sufficient for the occupant load thereof and shall provide a minimum clear width of 32 inches (813 mm). Clear openings of doorways with swinging doors shall be measured between the face of the door and the stop, with the door open 90 degrees (1.57 rad). Where this section requires a minimum clear width of 32 inches (813 mm) and a door opening includes two door leaves without a mullion, one leaf shall provide a clear opening width of 32 inches (813 mm). The maximum width of a swinging door leaf shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) nominal. Means of egress doors in a Group I-2 occupancy used for the movement of beds shall provide a clear width not less than 411/2 inches (1054 mm). The height of door openings shall be not less than 80 inches (2032 mm).
Exceptions:
  1. The minimum and maximum width shall not apply to door openings that are not part of the required means of egress in Group R-2 and R-3 occupancies.
  2. Door openings to resident sleeping units in Group I-3 occupancies shall have a clear width of not less than 28 inches (711 mm).
  3. Door openings to storage closets less than 10 square feet (0.93 m2) in area shall not be limited by the minimum width.
  4. Width of door leaves in revolving doors that comply with Section 1010.1.4.1 shall not be limited.
  5. Door openings within a dwelling unit or sleeping unit shall be not less than 78 inches (1981 mm) in height.
  6. Exterior door openings in dwelling units and sleeping units, other than the required exit door, shall be not less than 76 inches (1930 mm) in height.
  7. In other than Group R-1 occupancies, the minimum widths shall not apply to interior egress doors within a dwelling unit or sleeping unit that is not required to be an Accessible unit, Type A unit or Type B unit.
  8. Door openings required to be accessible within Type B units shall have a minimum clear width of 31.75 inches (806 mm).
  9. Doors to walk-in freezers and coolers less than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) in area shall have a maximum width of 60 inches (1524 mm).
  10. In Group R-1 dwelling units or sleeping units not required to be Accessible units, the minimum width shall not apply to doors for showers or saunas.
There shall not be projections into the required clear width lower than 34 inches (864 mm) above the floor or ground. Projections into the clear opening width between 34 inches (864 mm) and 80 inches (2032 mm) above the floor or ground shall not exceed 4 inches (102 mm).
Exception: Door closers and door stops shall be permitted to be 78 inches (1980 mm) minimum above the floor.

1010.1.1.2 Bed and Breakfast Establishments

Amendment
This section has been amended by the state, county, or city.
Doors within and accessing Group R-1 bed and breakfast establishments shall have a minimum clear width of 28 inches (711 mm). Doors within and accessing bathrooms shall have a minimum clear width of 24 inches (610 mm).
Egress doors shall be of the pivoted or side-hinged swinging type.
Exceptions:
  1. Private garages, office areas, factory and storage areas with an occupant load of 10 or less.
  2. Group I-3 occupancies used as a place of detention.
  3. Critical or intensive care patient rooms within suites of health care facilities.
  4. Doors within or serving a single dwelling unit in Groups R-2 and R-3.
  5. In other than Group H occupancies, revolving doors complying with Section 1010.1.4.1.
  6. In other than Group H occupancies, special purpose horizontal sliding, accordion or folding door assemblies complying with Section 1010.1.4.3.
  7. Power-operated doors in accordance with Section 1010.1.4.2.
  8. Doors serving a bathroom within an individual sleeping unit in Group R-1.
  9. In other than Group H occupancies, manually operated horizontal sliding doors are permitted in a means of egress from spaces with an occupant load of 10 or less.

1010.1.2.1 Direction of Swing

Amendment
This section has been amended by the state, county, or city.
Diagram
Doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel where serving a room or area containing an occupant load of 50 or more persons, an exit enclosure (unless the door serves an individual living unit that opens directly into an exit enclosure) or a Group H occupancy.
The force for pushing or pulling open interior swinging egress doors, other than fire doors, shall not exceed 5 pounds (22 N). These forces do not apply to the force required to retract latch bolts or disengage other devices that hold the door in a closed position. For other swinging doors, as well as sliding and folding doors, the door latch shall release when subjected to a 15-pound (67 N) force. The door shall be set in motion when subjected to a 30-pound (133 N) force. The door shall swing to a full-open position when subjected to a 15-pound (67 N) force.
Forces shall be applied to the latch side of the door.
Special doors and security grilles shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1010.1.4.1 through 1010.1.4.4.
Revolving doors shall comply with the following:
  1. Revolving doors shall comply with BHMA A156.27 and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
  2. Each revolving door shall be capable of breakout in accordance with BHMA A156.27 and shall provide an aggregate width of not less than 36 inches (914 mm).
  3. A revolving door shall not be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the foot or top of stairways or escalators. A dispersal area shall be provided between the stairways or escalators and the revolving doors.
  4. The revolutions per minute (rpm) for a revolving door shall not exceed the maximum rpm as specified in BHMA A156.27. Manual revolving doors shall comply with Table 1010.1.4.1(1). Automatic or power-operated revolving doors shall comply with Table 1010.1.4.1(2).
  5. An emergency stop switch shall be provided near each entry point of power or automatic operated revolving doors within 48 inches (1220 mm) of the door and between 24 inches (610 mm) and 48 inches (1220 mm) above the floor. The activation area of the emergency stop switch button shall be not less than 1 inch (25 mm) in diameter and shall be red.
  6. Each revolving door shall have a side-hinged swinging door that complies with Section 1010.1 in the same wall and within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the revolving door.
  7. Revolving doors shall not be part of an accessible route required by Section 1009 and Chapter 11.
TABLE 1010.1.4.1(1)
MAXIMUM DOOR SPEED MANUAL REVOLVING DOORS
REVOLVING DOOR MAXIMUM
NOMINAL DIAMETER (FT-IN)
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE
REVOLVING DOOR SPEED (RPM)
6-0 12
7-0 11
8-0 10
9-0 9
10-0 8
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

TABLE 1010.1.4.1(2)
MAXIMUM DOOR SPEED AUTOMATIC OR POWER-OPERATED REVOLVING DOORS
REVOLVING DOOR MAXIMUM
NOMINAL DIAMETER (FT-IN)
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE
REVOLVING DOOR SPEED (RPM)
8-0 7.2
9-0 6.4
10-0 5.7
11-0 5.2
12-0 4.8
12-6 4.6
14-0 4.1
16-0 3.6
17-0 3.4
18-0 3.2
20-0 2.9
24-0 2.4
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
A revolving door used as a component of a means of egress shall comply with Section 1010.1.4.1 and the following three conditions:
  1. Revolving doors shall not be given credit for more than 50 percent of the minimum width or required capacity.
  2. Each revolving door shall be credited with a capacity based on not more than a 50-person occupant load.
  3. Each revolving door shall provide for egress in accordance with BHMA A156.27 with a breakout force of not more than 130 pounds (578 N).
A revolving door used as other than a component of a means of egress shall comply with Section 1010.1.4.1. The breakout force of a revolving door not used as a component of a means of egress shall not be more than 180 pounds (801 N).
Exception: A breakout force in excess of 180 pounds (801 N) is permitted if the collapsing force is reduced to not more than 130 pounds (578 N) when not less than one of the following conditions is satisfied:
  1. There is a power failure or power is removed to the device holding the door wings in position.
  2. There is an actuation of the automatic sprinkler system where such system is provided.
  3. There is an actuation of a smoke detection system that is installed in accordance with Section 907 to provide coverage in areas within the building that are within 75 feet (22 860 mm) of the revolving doors.
  4. There is an actuation of a manual control switch, in an approved location and clearly identified, that reduces the breakout force to not more than 130 pounds (578 N).
Where means of egress doors are operated or assisted by power, the design shall be such that in the event of power failure, the door is capable of being opened manually to permit means of egress travel or closed where necessary to safeguard means of egress. The forces required to open these doors manually shall not exceed those specified in Section 1010.1.3, except that the force to set the door in motion shall not exceed 50 pounds (220 N). The door shall be capable of swinging open from any position to the full width of the opening in which such door is installed when a force is applied to the door on the side from which egress is made. Power-operated swinging doors, power-operated sliding doors and power-operated folding doors shall comply with BHMA A156.10. Power-assisted swinging doors and low-energy power-operated swinging doors shall comply with BHMA A156.19.

Exceptions:
  1. Occupancies in Group I-3.
  2. Horizontal sliding doors complying with Section 1010.1.4.3.
  3. For a biparting door in the emergency breakout mode, a door leaf located within a multiple-leaf opening shall be exempt from the minimum 32-inch (813 mm) single-leaf requirement of Section 1010.1.1, provided a minimum 32-inch (813 mm) clear opening is provided when the two biparting leaves meeting in the center are broken out.
In other than Group H occupancies, special purpose horizontal sliding, accordion or folding door assemblies permitted to be a component of a means of egress in accordance with Exception 6 to Section 1010.1.2 shall comply with all of the following criteria:
  1. The doors shall be power operated and shall be capable of being operated manually in the event of power failure.
  2. The doors shall be openable by a simple method from both sides without special knowledge or effort.
  3. The force required to operate the door shall not exceed 30 pounds (133 N) to set the door in motion and 15 pounds (67 N) to close the door or open it to the minimum required width.
  4. The door shall be openable with a force not to exceed 15 pounds (67 N) when a force of 250 pounds (1100 N) is applied perpendicular to the door adjacent to the operating device.
  5. The door assembly shall comply with the applicable fire protection rating and, where rated, shall be self-closing or automatic closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 716.5.9.3, shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 80 and shall comply with Section 716.
  6. The door assembly shall have an integrated standby power supply.
  7. The door assembly power supply shall be electrically supervised.
  8. The door shall open to the minimum required width within 10 seconds after activation of the operating device.
In Groups B, F, M and S, horizontal sliding or vertical security grilles are permitted at the main exit and shall be openable from the inside without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort during periods that the space is occupied. The grilles shall remain secured in the full-open position during the period of occupancy by the general public. Where two or more means of egress are required, not more than one-half of the exits or exit access doorways shall be equipped with horizontal sliding or vertical security grilles.
There shall be a floor or landing on each side of a door. Such floor or landing shall be at the same elevation on each side of the door. Landings shall be level except for exterior landings, which are permitted to have a slope not to exceed 0.25 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope).
Exceptions:
  1. Doors serving individual dwelling units in Groups R-2 and R-3 where the following apply:
    1. A door is permitted to open at the top step of an interior flight of stairs, provided the door does not swing over the top step.
    2. Screen doors and storm doors are permitted to swing over stairs or landings.
  2. Exterior doors as provided for in Section 1003.5, Exception 1, and Section 1022.2, which are not on an accessible route.
  3. In Group R-3 occupancies not required to be Accessible units, Type A units or Type B units, the landing at an exterior doorway shall be not more than 73/4 inches (197 mm) below the top of the threshold, provided the door, other than an exterior storm or screen door, does not swing over the landing.
  4. Variations in elevation due to differences in finish materials, but not more than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm).
  5. Exterior decks, patios or balconies that are part of Type B dwelling units, have impervious surfaces and that are not more than 4 inches (102 mm) below the finished floor level of the adjacent interior space of the dwelling unit.
  6. Doors serving equipment spaces not required to be accessible in accordance with Section 1103.2.9 and serving an occupant load of five or less shall be permitted to have a landing on one side to be not more than 7 inches (178 mm) above or below the landing on the egress side of the door.
Landings shall have a width not less than the width of the stairway or the door, whichever is greater. Doors in the fully open position shall not reduce a required dimension by more than 7 inches (178 mm). Where a landing serves an occupant load of 50 or more, doors in any position shall not reduce the landing to less than one-half its required width. Landings shall have a length measured in the direction of travel of not less than 44 inches (1118 mm).
Exception: Landing length in the direction of travel in Groups R-3 and U and within individual units of Group R-2 need not exceed 36 inches (914 mm).
Thresholds at doorways shall not exceed 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) in height above the finished floor or landing for sliding doors serving dwelling units or 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) above the finished floor or landing for other doors. Raised thresholds and floor level changes greater than 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) at doorways shall be beveled with a slope not greater than one unit vertical in two units horizontal (50-percent slope).

Exceptions:
  1. In occupancy Group R-2 or R-3, threshold heights for sliding and side-hinged exterior doors shall be permitted to be up to 73/4 inches (197 mm) in height if all of the following apply:
    1. The door is not part of the required means of egress.
    2. The door is not part of an accessible route as required by Chapter 11.
    3. The door is not part of an Accessible unit, Type A unit or Type B unit.
  2. In Type B units, where Exception 5 to Section 1010.1.5 permits a 4-inch (102 mm) elevation change at the door, the threshold height on the exterior side of the door shall not exceed 43/4 inches (120 mm) in height above the exterior deck, patio or balcony for sliding doors or 41/2 inches (114 mm) above the exterior deck, patio or balcony for other doors.
Space between two doors in a series shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) minimum plus the width of a door swinging into the space. Doors in a series shall swing either in the same direction or away from the space between the doors.
Exceptions:
  1. The minimum distance between horizontal sliding power-operated doors in a series shall be 48 inches (1219 mm).
  2. Storm and screen doors serving individual dwelling units in Groups R-2 and R-3 need not be spaced 48 inches (1219 mm) from the other door.
  3. Doors within individual dwelling units in Groups R-2 and R-3 other than within Type A dwelling units.
Except as specifically permitted by this section, egress doors shall be readily openable from the egress side without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort.
Door handles, pulls, latches, locks and other operating devices on doors required to be accessible by Chapter 11 shall not require tight grasping, tight pinching or twisting of the wrist to operate.
Door handles, pulls, latches, locks and other operating devices shall be installed 34 inches (864 mm) minimum and 48 inches (1219 mm) maximum above the finished floor. Locks used only for security purposes and not used for normal operation are permitted at any height.
Exception: Access doors or gates in barrier walls and fences protecting pools, spas and hot tubs shall be permitted to have operable parts of the release of latch on self-latching devices at 54 inches (1370 mm) maximum above the finished floor or ground, provided the self-latching devices are not also self-locking devices operated by means of a key, electronic opener or integral combination lock.
Locks and latches shall be permitted to prevent operation of doors where any of the following exist:

  1. Places of detention or restraint.
  2. In buildings in occupancy Group A having an occupant load of 300 or less, Groups B, F, M and S, and in places of religious worship, the main door or doors are permitted to be equipped with key-operated locking devices from the egress side provided:
    1. The locking device is readily distinguishable as locked.
    2. A readily visible durable sign is posted on the egress side on or adjacent to the door stating: THIS DOOR TO REMAIN UNLOCKED WHEN THIS SPACE IS OCCUPIED. The sign shall be in letters 1 inch (25 mm) high on a contrasting background.
    3. The use of the key-operated locking device is revocable by the building official for due cause.
  3. Where egress doors are used in pairs, approved automatic flush bolts shall be permitted to be used, provided that the door leaf having the automatic flush bolts does not have a doorknob or surface-mounted hardware.
  4. Doors from individual dwelling or sleeping units of Group R occupancies having an occupant load of 10 or less are permitted to be equipped with a night latch, dead bolt or security chain, provided such devices are openable from the inside without the use of a key or tool.
  5. Fire doors after the minimum elevated temperature has disabled the unlatching mechanism in accordance with listed fire door test procedures.
Manually operated flush bolts or surface bolts are not permitted.
Exceptions:
  1. On doors not required for egress in individual dwelling units or sleeping units.
  2. Where a pair of doors serves a storage or equipment room, manually operated edge- or surface-mounted bolts are permitted on the inactive leaf.
  3. Where a pair of doors serves an occupant load of less than 50 persons in a Group B, F or S occupancy, manually operated edge- or surface-mounted bolts are permitted on the inactive leaf. The inactive leaf shall not contain doorknobs, panic bars or similar operating hardware.
  4. Where a pair of doors serves a Group B, F or S occupancy, manually operated edge- or surface-mounted bolts are permitted on the inactive leaf provided such inactive leaf is not needed to meet egress capacity requirements and the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. The inactive leaf shall not contain doorknobs, panic bars or similar operating hardware.
  5. Where a pair of doors serves patient care rooms in Group I-2 occupancies, self-latching edge- or surface-mounted bolts are permitted on the inactive leaf provided that the inactive leaf is not needed to meet egress capacity requirements and the inactive leaf shall not contain doorknobs, panic bars or similar operating hardware.
The unlatching of any door or leaf shall not require more than one operation.
Exceptions:
  1. Places of detention or restraint.
  2. Where manually operated bolt locks are permitted by Section 1010.1.9.4.
  3. Doors with automatic flush bolts as permitted by Section 1010.1.9. 3, Item 3.
  4. Doors from individual dwelling units and sleeping units of Group R occupancies as permitted by Section 1010.1.9.3, Item 4.

1010.1.9.5.1 Closet and Bathroom Doors in Group R-4 Occupancies

Amendment
This section has been amended by the state, county, or city.
In Group R-4 occupancies, Group I-2 child care facilities, and Group I-4 day care facilities, closet doors that latch in the closed position shall be openable from inside the closet and bathroom doors that latch in the closed position shall be capable of being unlocked from the ingress side.
Electric locking systems, including electromechanical locking systems and electromagnetic locking systems, shall be permitted to be locked in the means of egress in Group I-1 or I-2 occupancies where the clinical needs of persons receiving care require their containment. Controlled egress doors shall be permitted in such occupancies where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or an approved automatic smoke or heat detection system installed in accordance with Section 907, provided that the doors are installed and operate in accordance with all of the following:
  1. The door locks shall unlock on actuation of the automatic sprinkler system or automatic fire detection system.
  2. The door locks shall unlock on loss of power controlling the lock or lock mechanism.
  3. The door locking system shall be installed to have the capability of being unlocked by a switch located at the fire command center, a nursing station or other approved location. The switch shall directly break power to the lock.
  4. A building occupant shall not be required to pass through more than one door equipped with a controlled egress locking system before entering an exit.
  5. The procedures for unlocking the doors shall be described and approved as part of the emergency planning and preparedness required by Chapter 4 of the International Fire Code.
  6. All clinical staff shall have the keys, codes or other means necessary to operate the locking systems.
  7. Emergency lighting shall be provided at the door.
  8. The door locking system units shall be listed in accordance with UL 294.
Exceptions:
  1. Items 1 through 4 shall not apply to doors to areas occupied by persons who, because of clinical needs, require restraint or containment as part of the function of a psychiatric treatment area.
  2. Items 1 through 4 shall not apply to doors to areas where a listed egress control system is utilized to reduce the risk of child abduction from nursery and obstetric areas of a Group I-2 hospital.
Delayed egress locking systems shall be permitted to be installed on doors serving any occupancy except Group A, E and H in buildings that are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or an approved automatic smoke or heat detection system installed in accordance with Section 907. The locking system shall be installed and operated in accordance with all of the following:
  1. The delay electronics of the delayed egress locking system shall deactivate upon actuation of the automatic sprinkler system or automatic fire detection system, allowing immediate, free egress.
  2. The delay electronics of the delayed egress locking system shall deactivate upon loss of power controlling the lock or lock mechanism, allowing immediate free egress.
  3. The delayed egress locking system shall have the capability of being deactivated at the fire command center and other approved locations.
  4. An attempt to egress shall initiate an irreversible process that shall allow such egress in not more than 15 seconds when a physical effort to exit is applied to the egress side door hardware for not more than 3 seconds. Initiation of the irreversible process shall activate an audible signal in the vicinity of the door. Once the delay electronics have been deactivated, rearming the delay electronics shall be by manual means only.
    Exception: Where approved, a delay of not more than 30 seconds is permitted on a delayed egress door.
  5. The egress path from any point shall not pass through more than one delayed egress locking system.
    Exception: In Group I-2 or I-3 occupancies, the egress path from any point in the building shall pass through not more than two delayed egress locking systems provided the combined delay does not exceed 30 seconds.
  6. A sign shall be provided on the door and shall be located above and within 12 inches (305 mm) of the door exit hardware:

    1. For doors that swing in the direction of egress, the sign shall read: PUSH UNTIL ALARM SOUNDS. DOOR CAN BE OPENED IN 15 [30] SECONDS.
    2. For doors that swing in the opposite direction of egress, the sign shall read: PULL UNTIL ALARM SOUNDS. DOOR CAN BE OPENED IN 15 [30] SECONDS.
    3. The sign shall comply with the visual character requirements in ICC A117.1.
      Exception: Where approved, in Group I occupancies, the installation of a sign is not required where care recipients who because of clinical needs require restraint or containment as part of the function of the treatment area.
  7. Emergency lighting shall be provided on the egress side of the door.
  8. The delayed egress locking system units shall be listed in accordance with UL 294.
The electric locks on sensor released doors located in a means of egress in buildings with an occupancy in Group A, B, E, I-1, I-2, I-4, M, R-1 or R- 2 and entrance doors to tenant spaces in occupancies in Group A, B, E, I-1, I-2, I-4, M, R-1 or R-2 are permitted where installed and operated in accordance with all of the following criteria:
  1. The sensor shall be installed on the egress side, arranged to detect an occupant approaching the doors. The doors shall be arranged to unlock by a signal from or loss of power to the sensor.
  2. Loss of power to the lock or locking system shall automatically unlock the doors.
  3. The doors shall be arranged to unlock from a manual unlocking device located 40 inches to 48 inches (1016 mm to 1219 mm) vertically above the floor and within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the secured doors. Ready access shall be provided to the manual unlocking device and the device shall be clearly identified by a sign that reads "PUSH TO EXIT." When operated, the manual unlocking device shall result in direct interruption of power to the lock—independent of other electronics—and the doors shall remain unlocked for not less than 30 seconds.
  4. Activation of the building fire alarm system, where provided, shall automatically unlock the doors, and the doors shall remain unlocked until the fire alarm system has been reset.
  5. Activation of the building automatic sprinkler system or fire detection system, where provided, shall automatically unlock the doors. The doors shall remain unlocked until the fire alarm system has been reset.
  6. The door locking system units shall be listed in accordance with UL 294.
Doors in the means of egress in buildings with an occupancy in Group A, B, E, I-1, I-2, I-4, M, R-1 or R-2 and doors to tenant spaces in Group A, B, E, I-1, I-2, I-4, M, R-1 or R-2 shall be permitted to be locked with an electromagnetic locking system where equipped with hardware that incorporates a built-in switch and where installed and operated in accordance with all of the following:
  1. The hardware that is affixed to the door leaf has an obvious method of operation that is readily operated under all lighting conditions.
  2. The hardware is capable of being operated with one hand.
  3. Operation of the hardware directly interrupts the power to the electromagnetic lock and unlocks the door immediately.
  4. Loss of power to the locking system automatically unlocks the door.
  5. Where panic or fire exit hardware is required by Section 1010.1.10, operation of the panic or fire exit hardware also releases the electromagnetic lock.
  6. The locking system units shall be listed in accordance with UL 294.
In occupancies in Groups A-2, A-3, A-4, B, E, F, I-2, I-3, M and S within correctional and detention facilities, doors in means of egress serving rooms or spaces occupied by persons whose movements are controlled for security reasons shall be permitted to be locked where equipped with egress control devices that shall unlock manually and by not less than one of the following means:
  1. Activation of an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  2. Activation of an approved manual fire alarm box.
  3. A signal from a constantly attended location.
Interior stairway means of egress doors shall be openable from both sides without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort.
Exceptions:
  1. Stairway discharge doors shall be openable from the egress side and shall only be locked from the opposite side.
  2. This section shall not apply to doors arranged in accordance with Section 403.5.3.
  3. In stairways serving not more than four stories, doors are permitted to be locked from the side opposite the egress side, provided they are openable from the egress side and capable of being unlocked simultaneously without unlatching upon a signal from the fire command center, if present, or a signal by emergency personnel from a single location inside the main entrance to the building.
  4. Stairway exit doors shall be openable from the egress side and shall only be locked from the opposite side in Group B, F, M and S occupancies where the only interior access to the tenant space is from a single exit stairway where permitted in Section 1006.3.2.
  5. Stairway exit doors shall be openable from the egress side and shall only be locked from the opposite side in Group R-2 occupancies where the only interior access to the dwelling unit is from a single exit stairway where permitted in Section 1006.3.2.
Doors serving a Group H occupancy and doors serving rooms or spaces with an occupant load of 50 or more in a Group A or E occupancy shall not be provided with a latch or lock other than panic hardware or fire exit hardware.
Exceptions:
  1. A main exit of a Group A occupancy shall be permitted to be locking in accordance with Section 1010.1.9.3, Item 2.
  2. Doors serving a Group A or E occupancy shall be permitted to be electromagnetically locked in accordance with Section 1010.1.9.9.
Electrical rooms with equipment rated 1,200 amperes or more and over 6 feet (1829 mm) wide, and that contain overcurrent devices, switching devices or control devices with exit or exit access doors, shall be equipped with panic hardware or fire exit hardware. The doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel.
Where panic or fire exit hardware is installed, it shall comply with the following:
  1. Panic hardware shall be listed in accordance with UL 305.
  2. Fire exit hardware shall be listed in accordance with UL 10C and UL 305.
  3. The actuating portion of the releasing device shall extend not less than one-half of the door leaf width.
  4. The maximum unlatching force shall not exceed 15 pounds (67 N).
If balanced doors are used and panic hardware is required, the panic hardware shall be the push-pad type and the pad shall not extend more than one-half the width of the door measured from the latch side.

1010.2 Gates

Diagram
Gates serving the means of egress system shall comply with the requirements of this section. Gates used as a component in a means of egress shall conform to the applicable requirements for doors.
Exception: Horizontal sliding or swinging gates exceeding the 4-foot (1219 mm) maximum leaf width limitation are permitted in fences and walls surrounding a stadium.
Panic hardware is not required on gates surrounding stadiums where such gates are under constant immediate supervision while the public is present, and where safe dispersal areas based on 3 square feet (0.28 m2) per occupant are located between the fence and enclosed space. Such required safe dispersal areas shall not be located less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the enclosed space. See Section 1028.5 for means of egress from safe dispersal areas.
Turnstiles or similar devices that restrict travel to one direction shall not be placed so as to obstruct any required means of egress.
Exception: Each turnstile or similar device shall be credited with a capacity based on not more than a 50-person occupant load where all of the following provisions are met:
  1. Each device shall turn free in the direction of egress travel when primary power is lost and on the manual release by an employee in the area.
  2. Such devices are not given credit for more than 50 percent of the required egress capacity or width.
  3. Each device is not more than 39 inches (991 mm) high.
  4. Each device has not less than 161/2 inches (419 mm) clear width at and below a height of 39 inches (991 mm) and not less than 22 inches (559 mm) clear width at heights above 39 inches (991 mm).
Where located as part of an accessible route, turnstiles shall have not less than 36 inches (914 mm) clear at and below a height of 34 inches (864 mm), not less than 32 inches (813 mm) clear width between 34 inches (864 mm) and 80 inches (2032 mm) and shall consist of a mechanism other than a revolving device.
Turnstiles more than 39 inches (991 mm) high shall meet the requirements for revolving doors.
Where serving an occupant load greater than 300, each turnstile that is not portable shall have a side-hinged swinging door that conforms to Section 1010.1 within 50 feet (15 240 mm).
Stairways serving occupied portions of a building shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1011.2 through 1011.13. Alternating tread devices shall comply with Section 1011.14. Ships ladders shall comply with Section 1011.15. Ladders shall comply with Section 1011.16.
Exception: Within rooms or spaces used for assembly purposes, stepped aisles shall comply with Section 1029.

1011.2 Width and Capacity

Diagram
The required capacity of stairways shall be determined as specified in Section 1005.1, but the minimum width shall be not less than 44 inches (1118 mm). See Section 1009.3 for accessible means of egress stairways.
Exceptions:
  1. Stairways serving an occupant load of less than 50 shall have a width of not less than 36 inches (914 mm).
  2. Spiral stairways as provided for in Section 1011.10.
  3. Where an incline platform lift or stairway chairlift is installed on stairways serving occupancies in Group R-3, or within dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2, a clear passage width not less than 20 inches (508 mm) shall be provided. Where the seat and platform can be folded when not in use, the distance shall be measured from the folded position.

1011.3 Headroom

Diagram
Stairways shall have a headroom clearance of not less than 80 inches (2032 mm) measured vertically from a line connecting the edge of the nosings. Such headroom shall be continuous above the stairway to the point where the line intersects the landing below, one tread depth beyond the bottom riser. The minimum clearance shall be maintained the full width of the stairway and landing.
Exceptions:
  1. Spiral stairways complying with Section 1011.10 are permitted a 78-inch (1981 mm) headroom clearance.
  2. In Group R-3 occupancies; within dwelling units in Group R-2 occupancies; and in Group U occupancies that are accessory to a Group R-3 occupancy or accessory to individual dwelling units in Group R-2 occupancies; where the nosings of treads at the side of a flight extend under the edge of a floor opening through which the stair passes, the floor opening shall be allowed to project horizontally into the required headroom not more than 43/4 inches (121 mm).
The walkline across winder treads shall be concentric to the direction of travel through the turn and located 12 inches (305 mm) from the side where the winders are narrower. The 12-inch (305 mm) dimension shall be measured from the widest point of the clear stair width at the walking surface of the winder. Where winders are adjacent within the flight, the point of the widest clear stair width of the adjacent winders shall be used.
Stair treads and risers shall comply with Sections 1011.5.1 through 1011.5.5.3.
For the purpose of this section, all dimensions are exclusive of carpets, rugs or runners.

1011.5.2 Riser Height and Tread Depth

Amendment
This section has been amended by the state, county, or city.
Diagram
Stair riser heights shall be 7 inches (178 mm) maximum and 4 inches (102 mm) minimum. The riser height shall be measured vertically between the nosings of adjacent treads. Rectangular tread depth shall be 11 inches (279 mm) minimum measured horizontally between the vertical planes of the foremost projection of adjacent treads and at right angle to the tread's nosing. Winder treads shall have a minimum tread depth of 11 inches (279 mm) between the vertical planes of the foremost projection of adjacent treads at the intersections with the walkline and a minimum tread depth of 10 inches (254 mm) within the clear width of the stair.
Exceptions:
  1. Alternating tread devices in accordance with Section 1011.14.
  2. Ship ladders in accordance with Section 1011.15.
  3. Spiral stairways in accordance with Section 1011.10.
  4. Aisle stairs in assembly seating areas where the stair pitch or slope is set, for sightline reasons, by the slope of the adjacent seating area in accordance with Section 1029.13.
  5. In Group R-1 bed and breakfast establishments; in Group R-3 occupancies; within dwelling units in Group R-2 occupancies; and in Group U occupancies that are accessory to Group R-3 occupancy, or accessory to individual dwelling units in Group R-2 occupancies; the maximum riser height shall be 8 1/4 inches (209.5 mm) and the minimum tread depth shall be 9 inches (229 mm); the minimum winder tread depth at the walkline shall be 10 inches (254 mm); and the minimum winder tread depth shall be 6 inches (152 mm). A nosing not less than 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) but not more than 1 1/4 inches (32 mm) shall be provided on stairways with solid risers where the tread depth is less than 11 inches (279 mm).
  6. The riser height and tread depth of existing stairways in buildings undergoing addition, alteration, repair, relocation or change of occupancy that involve the existing stairways shall be permitted to remain, provided the greatest riser height within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) and the greatest tread depth within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by 3/8 inch (9.5 mm).
  7. Any stairway replacing an existing stairway within a space where the pitch or slope cannot be reduced because of existing construction shall not be required to comply with the maximum riser height and minimum tread depth requirements.
  8. In Group I-3 facilities, stairways providing access to guard towers, observation stations and control rooms, not more than 250 square feet (23 m2) in area, shall be permitted to have a maximum riser height of 8 inches (203 mm) and a minimum tread depth of 9 inches (229 mm).

1011.5.3 Winders Treads

Amendment
This section has been amended by the state, county, or city.
Winder treads are not permitted in means of egress stairways except within a dwelling unit and within existing detached one- and two-family dwellings undergoing a change of occupancy to Group R-1 bed and breakfast establishments.

Exceptions:
  1. Curved stairways in accordance with Section 1011.9.
  2. Spiral stairways in accordance with Section 1011.10.
Stair treads and risers shall be of uniform size and shape. The tolerance between the largest and smallest riser height or between the largest and smallest tread depth shall not exceed 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) in any flight of stairs. The greatest winder tread depth at the walkline within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm).
Exceptions:
  1. Stairways connecting stepped aisles to cross aisles or concourses shall be permitted to comply with the dimensional nonuniformity in Section 1029.13.2.
  2. Consistently shaped winders, complying with Section 1011.5, differing from rectangular treads in the same flight of stairs.
  3. Nonuniform riser dimension complying with Section 1011.5.4.1.
Where the bottom or top riser adjoins a sloping public way, walkway or driveway having an established grade and serving as a landing, the bottom or top riser is permitted to be reduced along the slope to less than 4 inches (102 mm) in height, with the variation in height of the bottom or top riser not to exceed one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8-percent slope) of stair width. The nosings or leading edges of treads at such nonuniform height risers shall have a distinctive marking stripe, different from any other nosing marking provided on the stair flight. The distinctive marking stripe shall be visible in descent of the stair and shall have a slip-resistant surface. Marking stripes shall have a width of not less than 1 inch (25 mm) but not more than 2 inches (51 mm).
Nosings shall have a curvature or bevel of not less than 1/16 inch (1.6 mm) but not more than 9/16 inch (14.3 mm) from the foremost projection of the tread. Risers shall be solid and vertical or sloped under the tread above from the underside of the nosing above at an angle not more than 30 degrees (0.52 rad) from the vertical.
The leading edge (nosings) of treads shall project not more than 11/4 inches (32 mm) beyond the tread below.
Nosing projections of the leading edges shall be of uniform size, including the projections of the nosing's leading edge of the floor at the top of a flight.
Risers shall be solid.
Exceptions:
  1. Solid risers are not required for stairways that are not required to comply with Section 1009.3, provided that the opening between treads does not permit the passage of a sphere with a diameter of 4 inches (102 mm).
  2. Solid risers are not required for occupancies in Group I-3 or in Group F, H and S occupancies other than areas accessible to the public. There are no restrictions on the size of the opening in the riser.
  3. Solid risers are not required for spiral stairways constructed in accordance with Section 1011.10.
There shall be a floor or landing at the top and bottom of each stairway. The width of landings shall be not less than the width of stairways served. Every landing shall have a minimum width measured perpendicular to the direction of travel equal to the width of the stairway. Where the stairway has a straight run the depth need not exceed 48 inches (1219 mm). Doors opening onto a landing shall not reduce the landing to less than one-half the required width. When fully open, the door shall not project more than 7 inches (178 mm) into a landing. Where wheelchair spaces are required on the stairway landing in accordance with Section 1009.6.3, the wheelchair space shall not be located in the required width of the landing and doors shall not swing over the wheelchair spaces.
Exception: Where stairways connect stepped aisles to cross aisles or concourses, stairway landings are not required at the transition between stairways and stepped aisles constructed in accordance with Section 1029.
Stairways shall be built of materials consistent with the types permitted for the type of construction of the building, except that wood handrails shall be permitted for all types of construction.
The walking surface of treads and landings of a stairway shall not be sloped steeper than one unit vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-percent slope) in any direction. Stairway treads and landings shall have a solid surface. Finish floor surfaces shall be securely attached.
Exceptions:
  1. Openings in stair walking surfaces shall be a size that does not permit the passage of 1/2-inch-diameter (12.7 mm) sphere. Elongated openings shall be placed so that the long dimension is perpendicular to the direction of travel.
  2. In Group F, H and S occupancies, other than areas of parking structures accessible to the public, openings in treads and landings shall not be prohibited provided a sphere with a diameter of 11/8 inches (29 mm) cannot pass through the opening.

1011.7.2 Outdoor Conditions

Amendment
This section has been amended by the state, county, or city.
Diagram
Outdoor stairways and outdoor approaches to stairways shall be designed so that water will not accumulate on walking surfaces. In other than occupancies in Group R-3 and occupancies in Group U that are accessory to an occupancy in Group R-3, treads, platforms and landings that are part of exterior stairways in climates subject to snow and ice shall be protected to prevent the accumulation of same.
The walls and soffits within enclosed usable spaces under enclosed and unenclosed stairways shall be protected by 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction or the fire-resistance rating of the stairway enclosure, whichever is greater. Access to the enclosed space shall not be directly from within the stairway enclosure.
Exception: Spaces under stairways serving and contained within a single residential dwelling unit in Group R-2 or R-3 shall be permitted to be protected on the enclosed side with 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board.
There shall not be enclosed usable space under exterior exit stairways unless the space is completely enclosed in 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. The open space under exterior stairways shall not be used for any purpose.
A flight of stairs shall not have a vertical rise greater than 12 feet (3658 mm) between floor levels or landings.
Curved stairways with winder treads shall have treads and risers in accordance with Section 1011.5 and the smallest radius shall be not less than twice the minimum width or required capacity of the stairway.
Exception: The radius restriction shall not apply to curved stairways in Group R-3 and within individual dwelling units in Group R-2.
Spiral stairways are permitted to be used as a component in the means of egress only within dwelling units or from a space not more than 250 square feet (23 m2) in