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This article provides requirements for the following:
  1. Identification of terminals
  2. Grounded conductors in premises wiring systems
  3. Identification of grounded conductors
Grounded conductors shall comply with 200.2(A) and (B).
The grounded conductor, if insulated, shall have insulation that is (1) suitable, other than color, for any ungrounded conductor of the same circuit for systems of 1000 volts or less, or impedance grounded neutral systems of over 1000 volts, or (2) rated not less than 600 volts for solidly grounded neutral systems of over 1000 volts as described in 250.184(A).
The continuity of a grounded conductor shall not depend on a connection to a metallic enclosure, raceway, or cable armor.
Informational Note: See 300.13(B) for the continuity of grounded conductors used in multiwire branch circuits.
Grounded conductors of premises wiring systems shall be electrically connected to the supply system grounded conductor to ensure a common, continuous grounded system. For the purpose of this section, electrically connected shall mean making a direct electrical connection capable of carrying current, as distinguished from induced currents.
Exception: Listed interactive inverters identified for use in distributed resource generation systems such as photovoltaic and fuel cell power systems shall be permitted to be connected to premises wiring without a grounded conductor if the connected premises wiring or utility system includes a grounded conductor.
Neutral conductors shall be installed in accordance with 200.4(A) and (B).
Neutral conductors shall not be used for more than one branch circuit, for more than one multiwire branch circuit, or for more than one set of ungrounded feeder conductors unless specifically permitted elsewhere in this Code.
Where more than one neutral conductor associated with different circuits is in an enclosure, grounded circuit conductors of each circuit shall be identified or grouped to correspond with the ungrounded circuit conductor(s) by wire markers, cable ties, or similar means in at least one location within the enclosure.
Exception No. 1: The requirement for grouping or identifying shall not apply if the branch-circuit or feeder conductors enter from a cable or a raceway unique to the circuit that makes the grouping obvious.
Exception No. 2: The requirement for grouping or identifying shall not apply where branch-circuit conductors pass through a box or conduit body without a loop as described in 314.16(B)(1) or without a splice or termination.
An insulated grounded conductor of 6 AWG or smaller shall be identified by one of the following means:
  1. The insulated conductor shall have a continuous white outer finish.
  2. The insulated conductor shall have a continuous gray outer finish.
  3. The insulated conductor shall have three continuous white or gray stripes along the conductor's entire length on other than green insulation.
  4. Insulated conductors that have their outer covering finished to show a white or gray color but have colored tracer threads in the braid identifying the source of manufacture are acceptable means of identification.
  5. A single-conductor, sunlight-resistant, outdoor-rated cable used as a solidly grounded conductor in photovoltaic power systems, as permitted by 690.41, shall be identified at the time of installation by markings at terminations in accordance with 200.6(A)(1) through (A)(4).
  6. The grounded conductor of a mineral-insulated, metal-sheathed cable (Type MI) shall be identified at the time of installation by distinctive marking at its terminations.
  7. Fixture wire shall comply with the requirements for grounded conductor identification as specified in 402.8.
  8. For aerial cable, the identification shall comply with one of the methods in 200.6(A)(1) through (A)(5), or by means of a ridge located on the exterior of the cable so as to identify it.
An insulated grounded conductor 4 AWG or larger shall be identified by one of the following means:
  1. A continuous white outer finish.
  2. A continuous gray outer finish.
  3. Three continuous white or gray stripes along the conductor's entire length on other than green insulation.
  4. At the time of installation, by a distinctive white or gray marking at its terminations. This marking shall encircle the conductor or insulation.
An insulated conductor that is intended for use as a grounded conductor, where contained within a flexible cord, shall be identified by a white or gray outer finish or by methods permitted by 400.22.
Where grounded conductors of different systems are installed in the same raceway, cable, box, auxiliary gutter, or other type of enclosure, each grounded conductor shall be identified by system. Identification that distinguishes each system grounded conductor shall be permitted by one of the following means:
  1. One system grounded conductor shall have an outer covering conforming to 200.6(A) or (B).
  2. The grounded conductor(s) of other systems shall have a different outer covering conforming to 200.6(A) or 200.6(B) or by an outer covering of white or gray with a readily distinguishable colored stripe other than green running along the insulation.
  3. Other and different means of identification allowed by 200.6(A) or (B) shall distinguish each system grounded conductor.
The means of identification shall be documented in a manner that is readily available or shall be permanently posted where the conductors of different systems originate.
The insulated grounded conductor(s) in a multiconductor cable shall be identified by a continuous white or gray outer finish or by three continuous white or gray stripes on other than green insulation along its entire length. For conductors that are 4 AWG or larger in cables, identification of the grounded conductor shall be permitted to comply with 200.6(B). For multiconductor flat cable with conductors that are 4 AWG or larger, an external ridge shall be permitted to identify the grounded conductor.
Exception No. 1: Conductors within multiconductor cables shall be permitted to be re-identified at their terminations at the time of installation by a distinctive white or gray marking or other equally effective means.
Exception No. 2: The grounded conductor of a multiconductor varnished-cloth-insulated cable shall be permitted to be identified at its terminations at the time of installation by a distinctive white marking or other equally effective means.
Informational Note: The color gray may have been used in the past as an ungrounded conductor. Care should be taken when working on existing systems.
The following shall be used only for the grounded circuit conductor, unless otherwise permitted in 200.7(B) and (C):
  1. A conductor with continuous white or gray covering
  2. A conductor with three continuous white or gray stripes on other than green insulation
  3. A marking of white or gray color at the termination
A conductor with white or gray color insulation or three continuous white stripes or having a marking of white or gray at the termination for circuits of less than 50 volts shall be required to be grounded only as required by 250.20(A).
The use of insulation that is white or gray or that has three continuous white or gray stripes for other than a grounded conductor for circuits of 50 volts or more shall be permitted only as in (1) and (2).
  1. If part of a cable assembly that has the insulation permanently reidentified to indicate its use as an ungrounded conductor by marking tape, painting, or other effective means at its termination and at each location where the conductor is visible and accessible. Identification shall encircle the insulation and shall be a color other than white, gray, or green. If used for single-pole, 3-way or 4-way switch loops, the reidentified conductor with white or gray insulation or three continuous white or gray stripes shall be used only for the supply to the switch, but not as a return conductor from the switch to the outlet.
  2. A flexible cord having one conductor identified by a white or gray outer finish or three continuous white or gray stripes, or by any other means permitted by 400.22, that is used for connecting an appliance or equipment permitted by 400.10. This shall apply to flexible cords connected to outlets whether or not the outlet is supplied by a circuit that has a grounded conductor.
Informational Note: The color gray may have been used in the past as an ungrounded conductor. Care should be taken when working on existing systems.
In devices or utilization equipment with polarized connections, identification of terminals to which a grounded conductor is to be connected shall be substantially white or silver in color. The identification of other terminals shall be of a readily distinguishable different color.
Exception: Where the conditions of maintenance and supervision ensure that only qualified persons service the installations, terminals for grounded conductors shall be permitted to be permanently identified at the time of installation by a distinctive white marking or other equally effective means.
All devices, excluding panelboards, provided with terminals for the attachment of conductors and intended for connection to more than one side of the circuit shall have terminals properly marked for identification, unless the electrical connection of the terminal intended to be connected to the grounded conductor is clearly evident.
Exception: Terminal identification shall not be required for devices that have a normal current rating of over 30 amperes, other than polarized attachment plugs and polarized receptacles for attachment plugs as required in 200.10(B).
Receptacles, polarized attachment plugs, and cord connectors for plugs and polarized plugs shall have the terminal intended for connection to the grounded conductor identified as follows:
  1. Identification shall be by a metal or metal coating that is substantially white or silver in color or by the word "white" or the letter "W" located adjacent to the identified terminal.
  2. If the terminal is not visible, the conductor entrance hole for the connection shall be colored white or marked with the word "white" or the letter "W."
Informational Note: See 250.126 for identification of wiring device equipment grounding conductor terminals.
For devices with screw shells, the terminal for the grounded conductor shall be the one connected to the screw shell.
For screw shell devices with attached leads, the conductor attached to the screw shell shall have a white or gray finish. The outer finish of the other conductor shall be of a solid color that will not be confused with the white or gray finish used to identify the grounded conductor.
Informational Note: The color gray may have been used in the past as an ungrounded conductor. Care should be taken when working on existing systems.
Appliances that have a single-pole switch or a single-pole overcurrent device in the line or any line-connected screw shell lampholders, and that are to be connected by (1) a permanent wiring method or (2) field-installed attachment plugs and cords with three or more wires (including the equipment grounding conductor), shall have means to identify the terminal for the grounded circuit conductor (if any).
No grounded conductor shall be attached to any terminal or lead so as to reverse the designated polarity.
This article provides the general requirements for branch circuits.
Table 210.3 lists references for specific equipment and applications not located in Chapters 5, 6, and 7 that amend or supplement the requirements of this article.
Table 210.3 Specific-Purpose Branch Circuits
Equipment Article Section
Air-conditioning and refrigerating equipment 440.6, 440.31, 440.32
Busways 368.17
Central heating equipment other than fixed electric space-heating equipment 422.12
Fixed electric heating equipment for pipelines and vessels 427.4
Fixed electric space-heating equipment 424.3
Fixed outdoor electrical deicing and snow-melting equipment 426.4
Infrared lamp industrial heating equipment 422.48, 424.3
Motors, motor circuits, and controllers 430
Switchboards and panelboards 408.52
Branch circuits recognized by this article shall be permitted as multiwire circuits. A multiwire circuit shall be permitted to be considered as multiple circuits. All conductors of a multiwire branch circuit shall originate from the same panelboard or similar distribution equipment.
Informational Note No. 1: A 3-phase, 4-wire, wye-connected power system used to supply power to nonlinear loads may necessitate that the power system design allow for the possibility of high harmonic currents on the neutral conductor.
Informational Note No. 2: See 300.13(B) for continuity of grounded conductors on multiwire circuits.
Each multiwire branch circuit shall be provided with a means that will simultaneously disconnect all ungrounded conductors at the point where the branch circuit originates.
Informational Note: See 240.15(B) for information on the use of single-pole circuit breakers as the disconnecting means.
Multiwire branch circuits shall supply only line-to-neutral loads.
Exception No. 1: A multiwire branch circuit that supplies only one utilization equipment.
Exception No. 2: Where all ungrounded conductors of the multiwire branch circuit are opened simultaneously by the branch-circuit overcurrent device.
The ungrounded and grounded circuit conductors of each multiwire branch circuit shall be grouped in accordance with 200.4(B).
Ungrounded conductors shall be identified in accordance with 210.5(C)(1) or (2), as applicable.
Where the premises wiring system has branch circuits supplied from more than one nominal voltage system, each ungrounded conductor of a branch circuit shall be identified by phase or line and by system voltage class at all termination, connection, and splice points in compliance with 210.5(C)(1)(a) and (b). Different systems within the same premises that have the same system voltage class shall be permitted to use the same identification.
(a) Means of Identification. The means of identification shall be permitted to be by separate color coding, marking tape, tagging, or other approved means.
(b) Posting of Identification Means. The method utilized for conductors originating within each branch-circuit panelboard or similar branch-circuit distribution equipment shall be documented in a manner that is readily available or shall be permanently posted at each branch-circuit panelboard or similar branch-circuit distribution equipment. The label shall be of sufficient durability to withstand the environment involved and shall not be handwritten.
Exception: In existing installations where a voltage system(s) already exists and a different voltage system is being added, it shall be permissible to mark only the new system voltage. Existing unidentified systems shall not be required to be identified at each termination, connection, and splice point in compliance with 210.5(C)(1)(a) and (b). Labeling shall be required at each voltage system distribution equipment to identify that only one voltage system has been marked for a new system(s). The new system label(s) shall include the words "other unidentified systems exist on the premises."
Where a branch circuit is supplied from a dc system operating at more than 60 volts, each ungrounded conductor of 4 AWG or larger shall be identified by polarity at all termination, connection, and splice points by marking tape, tagging, or other approved means; each ungrounded conductor of 6 AWG or smaller shall be identified by polarity at all termination, connection, and splice points in compliance with 210.5(C)(2)(a) and (b). The identification methods utilized for conductors originating within each branch-circuit panelboard or similar branch-circuit distribution equipment shall be documented in a manner that is readily available or shall be permanently posted at each branch-circuit panelboard or similar branch-circuit distribution equipment.
(a) Positive Polarity, Sizes 6 AWG or Smaller. Where the positive polarity of a dc system does not serve as the connection point for the grounded conductor, each positive ungrounded conductor shall be identified by one of the following means:
  1. A continuous red outer finish
  2. A continuous red stripe durably marked along the conductor's entire length on insulation of a color other than green, white, gray, or black
  3. Imprinted plus signs (+) or the word POSITIVE or POS durably marked on insulation of a color other than green, white, gray, or black and repeated at intervals not exceeding 610 mm (24 in.) in accordance with 310.8(B)
  4. An approved permanent marking means such as sleeving or shrink-tubing that is suitable for the conductor size, at all termination, connection, and splice points, with imprinted plus signs (+) or the word POSITIVE or POS durably marked on insulation of a color other than green, white, gray, or black
(b) Negative Polarity, Sizes 6 AWG or Smaller. Where the negative polarity of a dc system does not serve as the connection point for the grounded conductor, each negative ungrounded conductor shall be identified by one of the following means:
  1. A continuous black outer finish
  2. A continuous black stripe durably marked along the conductor's entire length on insulation of a color other than green, white, gray, or red
  3. Imprinted minus signs (—) or the word NEGATIVE or NEG durably marked on insulation of a color other than green, white, gray, or red and repeated at intervals not exceeding 610 mm (24 in.) in accordance with 310.8(B)
  4. An approved permanent marking means such as sleeving or shrink-tubing that is suitable for the conductor size, at all termination, connection, and splice points, with imprinted minus signs (—) or the word NEGATIVE or NEG durably marked on insulation of a color other than green, white, gray, or red
The nominal voltage of branch circuits shall not exceed the values permitted by 210.6(A) through (E).
In dwelling units and guest rooms or guest suites of hotels, motels, and similar occupancies, the voltage shall not exceed 120 volts, nominal, between conductors that supply the terminals of the following:
  1. Luminaires
  2. Cord-and-plug-connected loads 1440 volt-amperes, nominal, or less or less than 1/4 hp
Circuits not exceeding 120 volts, nominal, between conductors shall be permitted to supply the following:
  1. The terminals of lampholders applied within their voltage ratings
  2. Auxiliary equipment of electric-discharge lamps
    Informational Note: See 410.137 for auxiliary equipment limitations.
  3. Cord-and-plug-connected or permanently connected utilization equipment
Circuits exceeding 120 volts, nominal, between conductors but not exceeding 277 volts, nominal, to ground shall be permitted to supply cord-and-plug-connected or permanently connected utilization equipment, or the following types of listed luminaires:
  1. Electric-discharge luminaires with integral ballasts
  2. LED luminaires with LED drivers between the branch circuit and the lampholders
  3. Incandescent or LED luminaires, equipped with medium-base or smaller screw shell lampholders, where the lampholders are supplied at 120 volts or less from the output of a stepdown autotransformer, LED driver, or other type of power supply that is an integral component of the luminaire
    Informational Note: See 410.90 for requirements regarding the connection of screw shell lampholders to grounded conductors.
  4. Luminaires equipped with mogul-base screw shell lampholders
  5. Luminaires equipped with lampholders, other than the screw shell type, when used within their voltage ratings of their lampholders
  6. Luminaires without lampholders
    Informational Note: Luminaires with nonserviceable LEDs are examples of luminaires without lampholders.
  7. Auxiliary equipment of electric-discharge or LED-type lamps
    Informational Note: See 410.137 for auxiliary equipment limitations.
  8. Luminaires converted with listed retrofit kits incorporating integral LED light sources or accepting LED lamps that also conforms with 210.6(C)(1), (C)(2), (C)(3), (C)(4), or (C)(5)
Circuits exceeding 277 volts, nominal, to ground and not exceeding 600 volts, nominal, between conductors shall be permitted to supply the following:
  1. The auxiliary equipment of electric-discharge lamps mounted in permanently installed luminaires where the luminaires are mounted in accordance with one of the following:
    1. Not less than a height of 6.7 m (22 ft) on poles or similar structures for the illumination of outdoor areas such as highways, roads, bridges, athletic fields, or parking lots
    2. Not less than a height of 5.5 m (18 ft) on other structures such as tunnels
    Informational Note: See 410.137 for auxiliary equipment limitations.
  2. Cord-and-plug-connected or permanently connected utilization equipment other than luminaires
  3. Luminaires powered from direct-current systems where either of the following apply:
    1. The luminaire contains a listed, dc-rated ballast that provides isolation between the dc power source and the lamp circuit and protection from electric shock when changing lamps.
    2. The luminaire contains a listed, dc-rated ballast and has no provision for changing lamps.
Exception No. 1 to (B), (C), and (D): For lampholders of infrared industrial heating appliances as provided in 425.14.
Exception No. 2 to (B), (C), and (D): For railway properties as described in 110.19.
Circuits exceeding 600 volts, nominal, between conductors shall be permitted to supply utilization equipment in installations where conditions of maintenance and supervision ensure that only qualified persons service the installation.
Where two or more branch circuits supply devices or equipment on the same yoke or mounting strap, a means to simultaneously disconnect the ungrounded supply conductors shall be provided at the point at which the branch circuits originate.
Ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection for personnel shall be provided as required in 210.8(A) through (F). The ground-fault circuit interrupter shall be installed in a readily accessible location.
Informational Note No. 1: See 215.9 for ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection for personnel on feeders.
Informational Note No. 2: See 422.5(A) for GFCI requirements for appliances.
Informational Note No. 3: See 555.9 for GFCI requirements for boat hoists.
Informational Note No. 4: Additional GFCI requirements for specific circuits and equipment are contained in Chapters 4, 5, and 6.
For the purposes of this section, when determining the distance from receptacles the distance shall be measured as the shortest path the supply cord of an appliance connected to the receptacle would follow without piercing a floor, wall, ceiling, or fixed barrier, or the shortest path without passing through a window.
All 125-volt through 250-volt receptacles installed in the locations specified in 210.8(A)(1) through (A)(11) and supplied by single-phase branch circuits rated 150 volts or less to ground shall have ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection for personnel.
  1. Bathrooms
  2. Garages and also accessory buildings that have a floor located at or below grade level not intended as habitable rooms and limited to storage areas, work areas, and areas of similar use
  3. Outdoors
    Exception to (3): Receptacles that are not readily accessible and are supplied by a branch circuit dedicated to electric snow-melting, deicing, or pipeline and vessel heating equipment shall be permitted to be installed in accordance with 426.28 or 427.22, as applicable.
  4. Crawl spaces — at or below grade level
  5. Basements
    Exception to (5): A receptacle supplying only a permanently installed fire alarm or burglar alarm system shall not be required to have ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection.
    Informational Note: See 760.41(B) and 760.121(B) for power supply requirements for fire alarm systems.
    Receptacles installed under the exception to 210.8(A)(5) shall not be considered as meeting the requirements of 210.52(G).
  6. Kitchens — where the receptacles are installed to serve the countertop surfaces
  7. Sinks — where receptacles are installed within 1.8 m (6 ft) from the top inside edge of the bowl of the sink
  8. Boathouses
  9. Bathtubs or shower stalls — where receptacles are installed within 1.8 m (6 ft) of the outside edge of the bathtub or shower stall
  10. Laundry areas
    Exception to (1) through (3), (5) through (8), and (10): Listed locking support and mounting receptacles utilized in combination with compatible attachment fittings installed for the purpose of serving a ceiling luminaire or ceiling fan shall not be required to be ground-fault circuit-interrupter protected. If a general-purpose convenience receptacle is integral to the ceiling luminaire or ceiling fan, GFCI protection shall be provided.
  11. Indoor damp and wet locations
Upcodes Diagrams
All 125-volt through 250-volt receptacles supplied by single-phase branch circuits rated 150 volts or less to ground, 50 amperes or less, and all receptacles supplied by three-phase branch circuits rated 150 volts or less to ground, 100 amperes or less, installed in the locations specified in 210.8(B)(1) through (B)(12) shall have ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection for personnel.
  1. Bathrooms
  2. Kitchens or areas with a sink and permanent provisions for either food preparation or cooking
  3. Rooftops
    Exception: Receptacles on rooftops shall not be required to be readily accessible other than from the rooftop.
  4. Outdoors
    Exception No. 1 to (3) and (4): Receptacles that are not readily accessible and are supplied by a branch circuit dedicated to electric snow-melting, deicing, or pipeline and vessel heating equipment shall be permitted to be installed in accordance with 426.28 or 427.22, as applicable.
    Exception No. 2 to (4): In industrial establishments only, where the conditions of maintenance and supervision ensure that only qualified personnel are involved, an assured equipment grounding conductor program as specified in 590.6(B)(2) shall be permitted for only those receptacle outlets used to supply equipment that would create a greater hazard if power is interrupted or having a design that is not compatible with GFCI protection.
  5. Sinks — where receptacles are installed within 1.8 m (6 ft) from the top inside edge of the bowl of the sink
    Exception No. 1 to (5): In industrial laboratories, receptacles used to supply equipment where removal of power would introduce a greater hazard shall be permitted to be installed without GFCI protection.
    Exception No. 2 to (5): Receptacles located in patient bed locations of Category 2 (general care) or Category 1 (critical care) spaces of health care facilities shall be permitted to comply with 517.21.
  6. Indoor damp and wet locations
  7. Locker rooms with associated showering facilities
  8. Garages, accessory buildings, service bays, and similar areas other than vehicle exhibition halls and showrooms
  9. Crawl spaces — at or below grade level
  10. Unfinished areas of basements
    Exception to (1) through (5), (8), and (10): Listed locking support and mounting receptacles utilized in combination with compatible attachment fittings installed for the purpose of serving a ceiling luminaire or ceiling fan shall not be required to be ground-fault circuit-interrupter protected. If a general-purpose convenience receptacle is integral to the ceiling luminaire or ceiling fan, GFCI protection shall be provided.
  11. Laundry areas
  12. Bathtubs and shower stalls — where receptacles are installed within 1.8 m (6 ft) of the outside edge of the bathtub or shower stall
GFCI protection shall be provided for lighting outlets not exceeding 120 volts installed in crawl spaces.
Unless GFCI protection is provided in accordance with 422.5(B)(3) through (B)(5), the outlets supplying the appliances specified in 422.5(A) shall have GFCI protection in accordance with 422.5(B)(1) or (B)(2).
Where the appliance is a vending machine as specified in 422.5(A)(5) and GFCI protection is not provided in accordance with 422.5(B)(3) or (B)(4), branch circuits supplying vending machines shall have GFCI protection in accordance with 422.5(B)(1) or (B)(2).
GFCI protection shall be provided for the receptacles required by 210.63.
All outdoor outlets for dwellings, other than those covered in 210.8(A)(3), Exception to (3), that are supplied by single-phase branch circuits rated 150 volts to ground or less, 50 amperes or less, shall have ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection for personnel.
Exception No. 1: Ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection shall not be required on lighting outlets other than those covered in 210.8(C).
Exception No. 2: Ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection shall not be required for listed HVAC equipment. This exception shall expire September 1, 2026.
Upcodes Diagrams
Branch circuits shall not be derived from autotransformers unless the circuit supplied has a grounded conductor that is electrically connected to a grounded conductor of the system supplying the autotransformer.
Exception No. 1: An autotransformer shall be permitted without the connection to a grounded conductor where transforming from a nominal 208 volts to a nominal 240-volt supply or similarly from 240 volts to 208 volts.
Exception No. 2: In industrial occupancies, where conditions of maintenance and supervision ensure that only qualified persons service the installation, autotransformers shall be permitted to supply nominal 600-volt loads from nominal 480-volt systems, and 480-volt loads from nominal 600-volt systems, without the connection to a similar grounded conductor.
Two-wire dc circuits and ac circuits of two or more ungrounded conductors shall be permitted to be tapped from the ungrounded conductors of circuits that have a grounded neutral conductor. Switching devices in each tapped circuit shall have a pole in each ungrounded conductor. All poles of multipole switching devices shall manually switch together where such switching devices also serve as a disconnecting means as required by the following:
  1. 410.93 for double-pole switched lampholders
  2. 410.104(B) for electric-discharge lamp auxiliary equipment switching devices
  3. 422.31(B) for an appliance
  4. 424.20 for a fixed electric space-heating unit
  5. 426.51 for electric deicing and snow-melting equipment
  6. 430.85 for a motor controller
  7. 430.103 for a motor
Branch circuits for lighting and for appliances, including motor-operated appliances, shall be provided to supply the loads calculated in accordance with 220.10. In addition, branch circuits shall be provided for specific loads not covered by 220.10 where required elsewhere in this Code and for dwelling unit loads as specified in 210.11(C).
The minimum number of branch circuits shall be determined from the total calculated load and the size or rating of the circuits used. In all installations, the number of circuits shall be sufficient to supply the load served. In no case shall the load on any circuit exceed the maximum specified by 220.18.
Where the load is calculated on the basis of volt-amperes per square meter or per square foot, the wiring system up to and including the branch-circuit panelboard(s) shall be provided to serve not less than the calculated load. This load shall be evenly proportioned among multioutlet branch circuits within the panelboard(s). Branch-circuit overcurrent devices and circuits shall be required to be installed only to serve the connected load.
In addition to the number of branch circuits required by other parts of this section, two or more 20-ampere small-appliance branch circuits shall be provided for all receptacle outlets specified by 210.52(B).
In addition to the number of branch circuits required by other parts of this section, at least one additional 20-ampere branch circuit shall be provided to supply the laundry receptacle outlet(s) required by 210.52(F). This circuit shall have no other outlets.
In addition to the number of branch circuits required by other parts of this section, one or more 120-volt, 20-ampere branch circuit shall be provided to supply bathroom(s) receptacle outlet(s) required by 210.52(D) and any countertop and similar work surface receptacle outlets. Such circuits shall have no other outlets.
Exception: Where the 20-ampere circuit supplies a single bathroom, outlets for other equipment within the same bathroom shall be permitted to be supplied in accordance with 210.23(A)(1) and (A)(2).
In addition to the number of branch circuits required by other parts of this section, at least one 120-volt, 20-ampere branch circuit shall be installed to supply receptacle outlets required by 210.52(G)(1) for attached garages and in detached garages with electric power. This circuit shall have no other outlets.
Exception: This circuit shall be permitted to supply readily accessible outdoor receptacle outlets.
Arc-fault circuit-interrupter protection shall be provided as required in 210.12(A), (B), (C), and (D). The arc-fault circuit interrupter shall be installed in a readily accessible location.
All 120-volt, single-phase, 15- and 20-ampere branch circuits supplying outlets or devices installed in dwelling unit kitchens, family rooms, dining rooms, living rooms, parlors, libraries, dens, bedrooms, sunrooms, recreation rooms, closets, hallways, laundry areas, or similar rooms or areas shall be protected by any of the means described in 210.12(A)(1) through (6):
  1. A listed combination-type arc-fault circuit interrupter installed to provide protection of the entire branch circuit
  2. A listed branch/feeder-type AFCI installed at the origin of the branch-circuit in combination with a listed outlet branch-circuit-type arc-fault circuit interrupter installed at the first outlet box on the branch circuit. The first outlet box in the branch circuit shall be marked to indicate that it is the first outlet of the circuit.
  3. A listed supplemental arc protection circuit breaker installed at the origin of the branch circuit in combination with a listed outlet branch-circuit-type arc-fault circuit interrupter installed at the first outlet box on the branch circuit where all of the following conditions are met:
    1. The branch-circuit wiring shall be continuous from the branch-circuit overcurrent device to the outlet branch-circuit arc-fault circuit interrupter.
    2. The maximum length of the branch-circuit wiring from the branch-circuit overcurrent device to the first outlet shall not exceed 15.2 m (50 ft) for a 14 AWG conductor or 21.3 m (70 ft) for a 12 AWG conductor.
    3. The first outlet box in the branch circuit shall be marked to indicate that it is the first outlet of the circuit.
  4. A listed outlet branch-circuit-type arc-fault circuit interrupter installed at the first outlet on the branch circuit in combination with a listed branch-circuit overcurrent protective device where all of the following conditions are met:
    1. The branch-circuit wiring shall be continuous from the branch-circuit overcurrent device to the outlet branch-circuit arc-fault circuit interrupter.
    2. The maximum length of the branch-circuit wiring from the branch-circuit overcurrent device to the first outlet shall not exceed 15.2 m (50 ft) for a 14 AWG conductor or 21.3 m (70 ft) for a 12 AWG conductor.
    3. The first outlet box in the branch circuit shall be marked to indicate that it is the first outlet of the circuit.
    4. The combination of the branch-circuit overcurrent device and outlet branch-circuit AFCI shall be identified as meeting the requirements for a system combination-type AFCI and shall be listed as such.
  5. If metal raceway, metal wireways, metal auxiliary gutters, or Type MC, or Type AC cable meeting the applicable requirements of 250.118, with metal boxes, metal conduit bodies, and metal enclosures are installed for the portion of the branch circuit between the branch-circuit overcurrent device and the first outlet, it shall be permitted to install a listed outlet branch-circuit-type AFCI at the first outlet to provide protection for the remaining portion of the branch circuit.
  6. Where a listed metal or nonmetallic conduit or tubing or Type MC cable is encased in not less than 50 mm (2 in.) of concrete for the portion of the branch circuit between the branch-circuit overcurrent device and the first outlet, it shall be permitted to install a listed outlet branch-circuit-type AFCI at the first outlet to provide protection for the remaining portion of the branch circuit.
Exception: AFCI protection shall not be required for an individual branch circuit supplying a fire alarm system installed in accordance with 760.41(B) or 760.121(B). The branch circuit shall be installed in a metal raceway, metal auxiliary gutter, steel-armored cable, Type MC or Type AC, meeting the applicable requirements of 250.118, with metal boxes, conduit bodies, and enclosures.
Informational Note No. 1: For information on combination-type and branch/feeder-type arc-fault circuit interrupters, see UL 1699-2011, Standard for Arc-Fault Circuit Interrupters. For information on outlet branch-circuit type arc-fault circuit interrupters, see UL Subject 1699A, Outline of Investigation for Outlet Branch Circuit Arc-Fault Circuit-Interrupters. For information on system combination AFCIs, see UL Subject 1699C, Outline of Investigation for System Combination Arc-Fault Circuit Interrupters.
Informational Note No. 2: See 29.6.3(5) of NFPA 72-2013, National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code, for information related to secondary power-supply requirements for smoke alarms installed in dwelling units.
Informational Note No. 3: See 760.41(B) and 760.121(B) for power-supply requirements for fire alarm systems.
All 120-volt, single-phase, 15- and 20-ampere branch circuits supplying outlets and devices installed in dormitory unit bedrooms, living rooms, hallways, closets, bathrooms, and similar rooms shall be protected by any of the means described in 210.12(A)(1) through (6).
All 120-volt, single-phase, 15- and 20-ampere branch circuits supplying outlets and devices installed in guest rooms and guest suites of hotels and motels and patient sleeping rooms in nursing homes and limited-care facilities shall be protected by any of the means described in 210.12(A)(1) through (6).
Where branch circuit wiring for any of the areas specified in 210.12(A), (B), or (C) is modified, replaced, or extended, the branch circuit shall be protected by one of the following:
  1. By any of the means described in 210.12(A)(1) through (A)(6)
  2. A listed outlet branch-circuit-type AFCI located at the first receptacle outlet of the existing branch circuit
Exception: AFCI protection shall not be required where the extension of the existing branch circuit conductors is not more than 1.8 m (6 ft) and does not include any additional outlets or devices, other than splicing devices. This measurement shall not include the conductors inside an enclosure, cabinet, or junction box.
Each branch-circuit disconnect rated 1000 A or more and installed on solidly grounded wye electrical systems of more than 150 volts to ground, but not exceeding 600 volts phase-to-phase, shall be provided with ground-fault protection of equipment in accordance with 230.95.
Informational Note: For buildings that contain health care occupancies, see the requirements of 517.17.
Exception No. 1: This section shall not apply to a disconnecting means for a continuous industrial process where a nonorderly shutdown will introduce additional or increased hazards.
Exception No. 2: This section shall not apply if ground-fault protection of equipment is provided on the supply side of the branch circuit and on the load side of any transformer supplying the branch circuit.
The following shall not be reconditioned:
  1. Equipment that provides ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection for personnel
  2. Equipment that provides arc-fault circuit-interrupter protection
  3. Equipment that provides ground-fault protection of equipment
Guest rooms and guest suites that are provided with permanent provisions for cooking shall have branch circuits installed to meet the rules for dwelling units.
Branch circuits recognized by this article shall be rated in accordance with the maximum permitted ampere rating or setting of the overcurrent device. The rating for other than individual branch circuits shall be 15, 20, 30, 40, and 50 amperes. Where conductors of higher ampacity are used for any reason, the ampere rating or setting of the specified overcurrent device shall determine the circuit rating.
Exception: Multioutlet branch circuits greater than 50 amperes shall be permitted to supply nonlighting outlet loads on industrial premises where conditions of maintenance and supervision ensure that only qualified persons service the equipment.
Informational Note No. 1: See 310.14 for ampacity and temperature limitations of conductors.
Informational Note No. 2: See Part II of Article 430 for minimum rating of motor branch-circuit conductors.
Informational Note No. 3: Conductors for branch circuits as defined in Article 100, sized to prevent a voltage drop exceeding 3 percent at the farthest outlet of power, heating, and lighting loads, or combinations of such loads, and where the maximum total voltage drop on both feeders and branch circuits to the farthest outlet does not exceed 5 percent, provide reasonable efficiency of operation. See Informational Note No. 2 of 215.2(A)(1) for voltage drop on feeder conductors.
Branch-circuit conductors shall have an ampacity not less than the larger of 210.19(A)(1)(a) or (A)(1)(b) and comply with 110.14(C) for equipment terminations.
(a) Where a branch circuit supplies continuous loads or any combination of continuous and noncontinuous loads, the minimum branch-circuit conductor size shall have an ampacity not less than the noncontinuous load plus 125 percent of the continuous load in accordance with 310.14.
(b) The minimum branch-circuit conductor size shall have an ampacity not less than the maximum load to be served after the application of any adjustment or correction factors in accordance with 310.15.
Exception No. 1 to (1)(a): If the assembly, including the overcurrent devices protecting the branch circuit(s), is listed for operation at 100 percent of its rating, the ampacity of the branch-circuit conductors shall be permitted to be not less than the sum of the continuous load plus the noncontinuous load in accordance with 110.14(C).
Exception No. 2 to (1)(a) and (1)(b): Where a portion of a branch circuit is connected at both its supply and load ends to separately installed pressure connections as covered in 110.14(C)(2), it shall be permitted to have an allowable ampacity, in accordance with 310.15, not less than the sum of the continuous load plus the noncontinuous load. No portion of a branch circuit installed under this exception shall extend into an enclosure containing either the branch-circuit supply or the branch-circuit load terminations.
Conductors of branch circuits supplying more than one receptacle for cord-and-plug-connected portable loads shall have an ampacity of not less than the rating of the branch circuit.
Branch-circuit conductors supplying household ranges, wall-mounted ovens, counter-mounted cooking units, and other household cooking appliances shall have an ampacity not less than the rating of the branch circuit and not less than the maximum load to be served. For ranges of 83/4 kW or more rating, the minimum branch-circuit rating shall be 40 amperes.
Exception No. 1: Conductors tapped from a branch circuit not exceeding 50 amperes supplying electric ranges, wall-mounted electric ovens, and counter-mounted electric cooking units shall have an ampacity of not less than 20 amperes and shall be sufficient for the load to be served. These tap conductors include any conductors that are a part of the leads supplied with the appliance that are smaller than the branch-circuit conductors. The taps shall not be longer than necessary for servicing the appliance.
Exception No. 2: The neutral conductor of a 3-wire branch circuit supplying a household electric range, a wall-mounted oven, or a counter-mounted cooking unit shall be permitted to be smaller than the ungrounded conductors where the maximum demand of a range of 83/4 kW or more rating has been calculated according to Column C of Table 220.55, but such conductor shall have an ampacity of not less than 70 percent of the branch-circuit rating and shall not be smaller than 10 AWG.
Branch-circuit conductors that supply loads other than those specified in 210.3 and other than cooking appliances as covered in 210.19(A)(3) shall have an ampacity sufficient for the loads served and shall not be smaller than 14 AWG.
Exception No. 1: Tap conductors shall have an ampacity sufficient for the load served. In addition, they shall have an ampacity of not less than 15 for circuits rated less than 40 amperes and not less than 20 for circuits rated at 40 or 50 amperes and only where these tap conductors supply any of the following loads:
  1. Individual lampholders or luminaires with taps extending not longer than 450 mm (18 in.) beyond any portion of the lampholder or luminaire
  2. A luminaire having tap conductors as provided in 410.117
  3. Individual outlets, other than receptacle outlets, with taps not over 450 mm (18 in.) long
  4. Infrared lamp industrial heating appliances
  5. Nonheating leads of deicing and snow-melting cables and mats
Exception No. 2: Fixture wires and flexible cords shall be permitted to be smaller than 14 AWG as permitted by 240.5.
The ampacity of conductors shall be in accordance with 310.14 and 311.60, as applicable. Branch-circuit conductors over 600 volts shall be sized in accordance with 210.19(B)(1) or (B)(2).
The ampacity of branch-circuit conductors shall not be less than 125 percent of the designed potential load of utilization equipment that will be operated simultaneously.
For supervised installations, branch-circuit conductor sizing shall be permitted to be determined by qualified persons under engineering supervision. Supervised installations are defined as those portions of a facility where both of the following conditions are met:
  1. Conditions of design and installation are provided under engineering supervision.
  2. Qualified persons with documented training and experience in over 600-volt systems provide maintenance, monitoring, and servicing of the system.
Branch-circuit conductors and equipment shall be protected by overcurrent protective devices that have a rating or setting that complies with 210.20(A) through (D).
Where a branch circuit supplies continuous loads or any combination of continuous and noncontinuous loads, the rating of the overcurrent device shall not be less than the noncontinuous load plus 125 percent of the continuous load.
Exception: Where the assembly, including the overcurrent devices protecting the branch circuit(s), is listed for operation at 100 percent of its rating, the ampere rating of the overcurrent device shall be permitted to be not less than the sum of the continuous load plus the noncontinuous load.
Conductors shall be protected in accordance with 240.4. Flexible cords and fixture wires shall be protected in accordance with 240.5.
The rating or setting of the overcurrent protective device shall not exceed that specified in the applicable articles referenced in Table 240.3 for equipment.
The rating or setting shall not exceed that specified in 210.21 for outlet devices.
Outlet devices shall have an ampere rating that is not less than the load to be served and shall comply with 210.21(A) and (B).
Where connected to a branch circuit having a rating in excess of 20 amperes, lampholders shall be of the heavy-duty type. A heavy-duty lampholder shall have a rating of not less than 660 watts if of the admedium type, or not less than 750 watts if of any other type.
A single receptacle installed on an individual branch circuit shall have an ampere rating not less than that of the branch circuit.
Exception No. 1: A receptacle installed in accordance with 430.81(B).
Exception No. 2: A receptacle installed exclusively for the use of a cord- and-plug-connected arc welder shall be permitted to have an ampere rating not less than the minimum branch-circuit conductor ampacity determined by 630.11(A) for arc welders.
Informational Note: See the definition of receptacle in Article 100.
Where connected to a branch circuit supplying two or more receptacles or outlets, a receptacle shall not supply a total cord-and-plug-connected load in excess of the maximum specified in Table 210.21(B)(2).
Table 210.21(B)(2) Maximum Cord-and-Plug-Connected Load to Receptacle
Circuit Rating (Amperes) Receptacle Rating (Amperes) Maximum Load (Amperes)
15 or 20 15 12
20 20 16
30 30 24
Where connected to a branch circuit supplying two or more receptacles or outlets, receptacle ratings shall conform to the values listed in Table 210.21(B)(3), or, where rated higher than 50 amperes, the receptacle rating shall not be less than the branch-circuit rating.
Exception No. 1: Receptacles installed exclusively for the use of one or more cord-and-plug-connected arc welders shall be permitted to have ampere ratings not less than the minimum branch-circuit conductor ampacity determined by 630.11(A) or (B) for arc welders.
Exception No. 2: The ampere rating of a receptacle installed for electric discharge lighting shall be permitted to be based on 410.62(C).
Table 210.21(B)(3) Receptacle Ratings for Various Size Circuits
Circuit Rating (Amperes) Receptacle Rating (Amperes)
15 Not over 15
20 15 or 20
30 30
40 40 or 50
50 50
The ampere rating of a range receptacle shall be permitted to be based on a single range demand load as specified in Table 220.55.
An individual branch circuit shall be permitted to supply any load for which it is rated, but in no case shall the load exceed the branch-circuit ampere rating.
In no case shall the load exceed the branch-circuit ampere rating. A branch circuit supplying two or more outlets or receptacles shall supply only the loads specified according to its size as specified in 210.23(A) through (D) and as summarized in 210.24 and Table 210.24.
A 15- or 20-ampere branch circuit shall be permitted to supply lighting units or other utilization equipment, or a combination of both, and shall comply with 210.23(A)(1) and (A)(2).
Exception: The small-appliance branch circuits, laundry branch circuits, and bathroom branch circuits required in a dwelling unit(s) by 210.11(C)(1), (C)(2), and (C)(3) shall supply only the receptacle outlets specified in that section.
The rating of any one cord-and-plug-connected utilization equipment not fastened in place shall not exceed 80 percent of the branch-circuit ampere rating.
The total rating of utilization equipment fastened in place, other than luminaires, shall not exceed 50 percent of the branch-circuit ampere rating where lighting units, cord-and-plug-connected utilization equipment not fastened in place, or both, are also supplied.
A 30-ampere branch circuit shall be permitted to supply fixed lighting units with heavy-duty lampholders in other than a dwelling unit(s) or utilization equipment in any occupancy. A rating of any one cord-and-plug-connected utilization equipment shall not exceed 80 percent of the branch-circuit ampere rating.
A 40- or 50-ampere branch circuit shall be permitted to supply cooking appliances that are fastened in place in any occupancy. In other than dwelling units, such circuits shall be permitted to supply fixed lighting units with heavy-duty lampholders, infrared heating units, or other utilization equipment.
Branch circuits larger than 50 amperes shall supply only nonlighting outlet loads.
The requirements for circuits that have two or more outlets or receptacles, other than the receptacle circuits of 210.11(C)(1), (C)(2), and (C)(3), are summarized in Table 210.24. This table provides only a summary of minimum requirements. See 210.19, 210.20, and 210.21 for the specific requirements applying to branch circuits.
Table 210.24 Summary of Branch-Circuit Requirements
Circuit Rating 15 A 20 A 30 A 40 A 50 A
Conductors (min. size):          
Circuit wires1 Taps
14 12 10 8 6
Fixture wires and cords — see 240.5
14 14 14 12 12
Overcurrent Protection 15 A 20 A 30 A 40 A 50 A
Outlet devices:          
Lampholders permitted
Any type Any type Heavy duty Heavy duty Heavy duty
Receptacle rating2
15 max. A 15 or 20 A 30 A 40 or 50 A 50 A
Maximum Load 15 A 20 A 30 A 40 A 50 A
Permissible load See 210.23(A) See 210.23(A) See 210.23(B) See 210.23(C) See 210.23(C)
1These gauges are for copper conductors.
2For receptacle rating of cord-connected electric-discharge luminaires, see 410.62(C).
Branch circuits in each dwelling unit shall supply only loads within that dwelling unit or loads associated only with that dwelling unit.
Branch circuits installed for lighting, central alarm, signal, communications, or other purposes for public or common areas of a two-family dwelling, a multifamily dwelling, or a multi-occupancy building shall not be supplied from equipment that supplies an individual dwelling unit or tenant space.
Informational Note: Examples of public or common areas include, but are not limited to, lobbies, corridors, stairways, laundry rooms, roofs, elevators, washrooms, store rooms, driveways (parking), and mechanical rooms.
Receptacle outlets shall be installed as specified in 210.52 through 210.65.
Informational Note: See Informative Annex J for information regarding ADA accessibility design.
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A cord connector that is supplied by a permanently connected cord pendant shall be considered a receptacle outlet.
A receptacle outlet shall be installed wherever flexible cords with attachment plugs are used. Where flexible cords are permitted to be permanently connected, receptacles shall be permitted to be omitted for such cords.
Appliance receptacle outlets installed in a dwelling unit for specific appliances, such as laundry equipment, shall be installed within 1.8 m (6 ft) of the intended location of the appliance.
This section provides requirements for 125-volt, 15- and 20-ampere receptacle outlets. The receptacles required by this section shall be in addition to any receptacle that is as follows:
  1. Part of a luminaire or appliance, or
  2. Controlled by a listed wall-mounted control device in accordance with 210.70(A)(1), Exception No. 1, or
  3. Located within cabinets or cupboards, or
  4. Located more than 1.7 m (51/2 ft) above the floor
Permanently installed electric baseboard heaters equipped with factory-installed receptacle outlets or outlets provided as a separate assembly by the manufacturer shall be permitted as the required outlet or outlets for the wall space utilized by such permanently installed heaters. Such receptacle outlets shall not be connected to the heater circuits.
Informational Note: Listed baseboard heaters include instructions that may not permit their installation below receptacle outlets.
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In every kitchen, family room, dining room, living room, parlor, library, den, sunroom, bedroom, recreation room, or similar room or area of dwelling units, receptacle outlets shall be installed in accordance with the general provisions specified in 210.52(A)(1) through (A)(4).
Receptacles shall be installed such that no point measured horizontally along the floor line of any wall space is more than 1.8 m (6 ft) from a receptacle outlet.
As used in this section, a wall space shall include the following:
  1. Any space 600 mm (2 ft) or more in width (including space measured around corners) and unbroken along the floor line by doorways and similar openings, fireplaces, and fixed cabinets that do not have countertops or similar work surfaces
  2. The space occupied by fixed panels in walls, excluding sliding panels
  3. The space afforded by fixed room dividers, such as freestanding bar-type counters or railings
Receptacle outlets in or on floors shall not be counted as part of the required number of receptacle outlets unless located within 450 mm (18 in.) of the wall.
Receptacles installed for countertop and similar work surfaces as specified in 210.52(C) shall not be considered as the receptacle outlets required by 210.52(A).
In the kitchen, pantry, breakfast room, dining room, or similar area of a dwelling unit, the two or more 20-ampere small-appliance branch circuits required by 210.11(C)(1) shall serve all wall and floor receptacle outlets covered by 210.52(A), all countertop outlets covered by 210.52(C), and receptacle outlets for refrigeration equipment.
Exception No. 1: In addition to the required receptacles specified by 210.52, switched receptacles supplied from a general-purpose 15- or 20-ampere branch circuit as required in 210.70(A)(1), Exception No. 1, shall be permitted.
Exception No. 2: In addition to the required receptacles specified by 210.52, a receptacle outlet to serve a specific appliance shall be permitted to be supplied from an individual branch circuit rated 15 amperes or greater.
The two or more small-appliance branch circuits specified in 210.52(B)(1) shall have no other outlets.
Exception No. 1: A receptacle installed solely for the electrical supply to and support of an electric clock in any of the rooms specified in 210.52(B)(1).
Exception No. 2: Receptacles installed to provide power for supplemental equipment and lighting on gas-fired ranges, ovens, or counter-mounted cooking units.
Receptacles installed in a kitchen to serve countertop surfaces shall be supplied by not fewer than two small-appliance branch circuits, either or both of which shall also be permitted to supply receptacle outlets in the same kitchen and in other rooms specified in 210.52(B)(1). Additional small-appliance branch circuits shall be permitted to supply receptacle outlets in the kitchen and other rooms specified in 210.52(B)(1). No small-appliance branch circuit shall serve more than one kitchen.
In kitchens, pantries, breakfast rooms, dining rooms, and similar areas of dwelling units, receptacle outlets for countertop and work surfaces that are 300 mm (12 in.) or wider shall be installed in accordance with 210.52(C)(1) through (C)(3) and shall not be considered as the receptacle outlets required by 210.52(A).
For the purposes of this section, where using multioutlet assemblies, each 300 mm (12 in.) of multioutlet assembly containing two or more receptacles installed in individual or continuous lengths shall be considered to be one receptacle outlet.
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Receptacle outlets shall be installed so that no point along the wall line is more than 600 mm (24 in.) measured horizontally from a receptacle outlet in that space.
Exception: Receptacle outlets shall not be required directly behind a range, counter-mounted cooking unit, or sink in the installation described in Figure 210.52(C)(1).
FIGURE 210.52(C)(1) Determination of Area Behind a Range, Counter-Mounted Cooking Unit, or Sink.
Receptacle outlets shall be installed in accordance with 210.52(C)(2)(a) and (C)(2)(b).
(a) At least one receptacle shall be provided for the first 0.84 m2 (9 ft2), or fraction thereof, of the countertop or work surface. A receptacle outlet shall be provided for every additional 1.7 m2 (18 ft2), or fraction thereof, of the countertop or work surface.
(b) At least one receptacle outlet shall be located within 600 mm (2 ft) of the outer end of a peninsular countertop or work surface. Additional required receptacle outlets shall be permitted to be located as determined by the installer, designer, or building owner. The location of the receptacle outlets shall be in accordance with 210.52(C)(3).
A peninsular countertop shall be measured from the connected perpendicular wall.
Receptacle outlets shall be located in one or more of the following:
  1. On or above countertop or work surfaces: On or above, but not more than 500 mm (20 in.) above, the countertop or work surface.
  2. In countertop or work surfaces: Receptacle outlet assemblies listed for use in countertops or work surfaces shall be permitted to be installed in countertops or work surfaces.
  3. Below countertop or works surfaces: Not more than 300 mm (12 in.) below the countertop or work surface. Receptacles installed below a countertop or work surface shall not be located where the countertop or work surface extends more than 150 mm (6 in.) beyond its support base.
Receptacle outlets rendered not readily accessible by appliances fastened in place, appliance garages, sinks, or rangetops as covered in 210.52(C)(1), Exception, or appliances occupying assigned spaces shall not be considered as these required outlets.
Informational Note No. 1: See 406.5(E) and 406.5(G) for installation of receptacles in countertops and 406.5(F) and 406.5(G) for installation of receptacles in work surfaces. See 380.10 for installation of multioutlet assemblies.
Informational Note No. 2: See Annex J and ANSI/ICC A117.1-2009, Standard on Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities.
At least one receptacle outlet shall be installed in bathrooms within 900 mm (3 ft) of the outside edge of each basin. The receptacle outlet shall be located on a wall or partition that is adjacent to the basin or basin countertop, located on the countertop, or installed on the side or face of the basin cabinet. In no case shall the receptacle be located more than 300 mm (12 in.) below the top of the basin or basin countertop. Receptacle outlet assemblies listed for use in countertops shall be permitted to be installed in the countertop.
Informational Note: See 406.5(E) and 406.5(G) for requirements for installation of receptacles in countertops.
Outdoor receptacle outlets shall be installed in accordance with 210.52(E)(1) through (E)(3).
Informational Note: See 210.8(A)(3).
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For a one-family dwelling and each unit of a two-family dwelling that is at grade level, at least one receptacle outlet readily accessible from grade and not more than 2.0 m (61/2 ft) above grade level shall be installed at the front and back of the dwelling.
For each dwelling unit of a multifamily dwelling where the dwelling unit is located at grade level and provided with individual exterior entrance/egress, at least one receptacle outlet readily accessible from grade and not more than 2.0 m (61/2 ft) above grade level shall be installed.
Balconies, decks, and porches that are within 102 mm (4 in.) horizontally of the dwelling unit shall have at least one receptacle outlet accessible from the balcony, deck, or porch. The receptacle outlet shall not be located more than 2.0 m (61/2 ft) above the balcony, deck, or porch walking surface.
In dwelling units, at least one receptacle outlet shall be installed in areas designated for the installation of laundry equipment.
Exception No. 1: A receptacle for laundry equipment shall not be required in a dwelling unit of a multifamily building where laundry facilities are provided on the premises for use by all building occupants.
Exception No. 2: A receptacle for laundry equipment shall not be required in other than one-family dwellings where laundry facilities are not to be installed or permitted.
For one- and two-family dwellings, and multifamily dwellings, at least one receptacle outlet shall be installed in the areas specified in 210.52(G)(1) through (G)(3). These receptacles shall be in addition to receptacles required for specific equipment.
In each attached garage and in each detached garage with electric power, at least one receptacle outlet shall be installed in each vehicle bay and not more than 1.7 m (51/2 ft) above the floor.
Exception: Garage spaces not attached to an individual dwelling unit of a multifamily dwelling shall not require a receptacle outlet in each vehicle bay.
In each accessory building with electric power.
In each separate unfinished portion of a basement.
In dwelling units, hallways of 3.0 m (10 ft) or more in length shall have at least one receptacle outlet.
As used in this subsection, the hallway length shall be considered the length along the centerline of the hallway without passing through a doorway.
Foyers that are not part of a hallway in accordance with 210.52(H) and that have an area that is greater than 5.6 m2 (60 ft2) shall have a receptacle(s) located in each wall space 900 mm (3 ft) or more in width. Doorways, door-side windows that extend to the floor, and similar openings shall not be considered wall space.
Guest rooms or guest suites in hotels or motels, sleeping rooms in dormitory units, and similar occupancies shall have receptacle outlets installed in accordance with 210.52(A) and (D). Guest rooms or guest suites provided with permanent provisions for cooking shall have receptacle outlets installed in accordance with all of the applicable rules in 210.52.
The total number of receptacle outlets shall not be less than required in 210.52(A). These receptacle outlets shall be permitted to be located conveniently for permanent furniture layout. At least two receptacle outlets shall be readily accessible. Where receptacles are installed behind the bed, the receptacle shall be located to prevent the bed from contacting any attachment plug that may be installed or the receptacle shall be provided with a suitable guard.
At least one 125-volt, single-phase, 15- or 20-ampere-rated receptacle outlet shall be installed within 450 mm (18 in.) of the top of a show window for each 3.7 linear m (12 linear ft) or major fraction thereof of show window area measured horizontally at its maximum width.
A 125-volt, single-phase, 15- or 20-ampere-rated receptacle outlet shall be installed at an accessible location within 7.5 m (25 ft) of the equipment as specified in 210.63(A) and (B).
The required receptacle outlet shall be located on the same level as the heating, air-conditioning, and refrigeration equipment. The receptacle outlet shall not be connected to the load side of the equipment's branch-circuit disconnecting means.
Exception: A receptacle outlet shall not be required at one- and two-family dwellings for the service of evaporative coolers.
In other than one- and two-family dwellings, a receptacle outlet shall be located as specified in 210.63(B)(1) and (B)(2).
The required receptacle outlet shall be located within the same room or area as the service equipment.
Where equipment, other than service equipment, requires dedicated equipment space as specified in 110.26(E), the required receptacle outlet shall be located within the same room or area as the electrical equipment and shall not be connected to the load side of the equipment's branch-circuit disconnecting means.
Each meeting room of not more than 93 m2 (1000 ft2) in other than dwelling units shall have outlets for nonlocking-type, 125-volt, 15- or 20-ampere receptacles. The outlets shall be installed in accordance with 210.65(B). Where a room or space is provided with movable partition(s), each room size shall be determined with the partition in the position that results in the smallest size meeting room.
Informational Note No. 1: For the purposes of this section, meeting rooms are typically designed or intended for the gathering of seated occupants for such purposes as conferences, deliberations, or similar purposes, where portable electronic equipment such as computers, projectors, or similar equipment is likely to be used.
Informational Note No. 2: Examples of rooms that are not meeting rooms include auditoriums, schoolrooms, and coffee shops.
The total number of receptacle outlets, including floor outlets and receptacle outlets in fixed furniture, shall not be less than as determined in (1) and (2).
The required number of receptacle outlets shall be determined in accordance with 210.52(A)(1) through (A)(4). These receptacle outlets shall be permitted to be located as determined by the installer, designer, or building owner.
A meeting room with any floor dimension that is 3.7 m (12 ft) or greater in any direction and that has a floor area of at least 20 m2 (215 ft2) shall have at least one floor receptacle outlet, or at least one floor outlet to serve receptacle(s), located at a distance not less than 1.8 m (6 ft) from any fixed wall for each 20 m2 (215 ft2) or major portion of floor space.
Informational Note No. 1: See 314.27(B) for floor boxes used for receptacles located in the floor.
Informational Note No. 2: See Article 518 for assembly occupancies designed for 100 or more persons.
Lighting outlets shall be installed where specified in 210.70(A), (B), and (C).
In dwelling units, lighting outlets shall be installed in accordance with 210.70(A)(1), (A)(2), and (A)(3).
At least one lighting outlet controlled by a listed wall-mounted control device shall be installed in every habitable room, kitchen, and bathroom. The wall-mounted control device shall be located near an entrance to the room on a wall.
Exception No. 1: In other than kitchens and bathrooms, one or more receptacles controlled by a listed wall-mounted control device shall be permitted in lieu of lighting outlets.
Exception No. 2: Lighting outlets shall be permitted to be controlled by occupancy sensors that are (1) in addition to listed wall-mounted control devices or (2) located at a customary wall switch location and equipped with a manual override that will allow the sensor to function as a wall switch.
Additional lighting outlets shall be installed in accordance with the following:
  1. At least one lighting outlet controlled by a listed wall-mounted control device shall be installed in hallways, stairways, attached garages, and detached garages with electric power.
  2. For dwelling units, attached garages, and detached garages with electric power, at least one lighting outlet controlled by a listed wall-mounted control device shall be installed to provide illumination on the exterior side of outdoor entrances or exits with grade-level access. A vehicle door in a garage shall not be considered as an outdoor entrance or exit.
  3. Where one or more lighting outlet(s) are installed for interior stairways, there shall be a listed wall-mounted control device at each floor level and landing level that includes an entryway to control the lighting outlet(s) where the stairway between floor levels has six risers or more.
    Exception to (A)(2)(1), (A)(2)(2), and (A)(2)(3): In hallways, in stairways, and at outdoor entrances, remote, central, or automatic control of lighting shall be permitted.
  4. Lighting outlets controlled in accordance with 210.70(A)(2)(3) shall not be controlled by use of listed wall-mounted control devices unless they provide the full range of dimming control at each location.
In hotels, motels, or similar occupancies, guest rooms or guest suites shall have at least one lighting outlet controlled by a listed wall-mounted control device installed in every habitable room and bathroom.
Exception No. 1: In other than bathrooms and kitchens where provided, one or more receptacles controlled by a listed wall-mounted control device shall be permitted in lieu of lighting outlets.
Exception No. 2: Lighting outlets shall be permitted to be controlled by occupancy sensors that are (1) in addition to listed wall-mounted control devices or (2) located at a customary wall switch location and equipped with a manual override that allows the sensor to function as a wall switch.
For attics and underfloor spaces, utility rooms, and basements, at least one lighting outlet containing a switch or controlled by a wall switch or listed wall-mounted control device shall be installed where these spaces are used for storage or contain equipment requiring servicing. A point of control shall be at each entry that permits access to the attic and underfloor space, utility room, or basement. Where a lighting outlet is installed for equipment requiring service, the lighting outlet shall be installed at or near the equipment.
This article covers the installation requirements, overcurrent protection requirements, minimum size, and ampacity of conductors for feeders.
Exception: Feeders for electrolytic cells as covered in 668.3(C)(1) and (C)(4).
Feeder conductors shall have an ampacity not less than the larger of 215.2(A)(1)(a) or (A)(1)(b) and shall comply with 110.14(C).
(a) Where a feeder supplies continuous loads or any combination of continuous and noncontinuous loads, the minimum feeder conductor size shall have an ampacity not less than the noncontinuous load plus 125 percent of the continuous load.
Exception No. 1: If the assembly, including the overcurrent devices protecting the feeder(s), is listed for operation at 100 percent of its rating, the ampacity of the feeder conductors shall be permitted to be not less than the sum of the continuous load plus the noncontinuous load.
Exception No. 2: Where a portion of a feeder is connected at both its supply and load ends to separately installed pressure connections as covered in 110.14(C)(2), it shall be permitted to have an ampacity not less than the sum of the continuous load plus the noncontinuous load. No portion of a feeder installed under this exception shall extend into an enclosure containing either the feeder supply or the feeder load terminations, as covered in 110.14(C)(1).
Exception No. 3: Grounded conductors that are not connected to an overcurrent device shall be permitted to be sized at 100 percent of the continuous and noncontinuous load.
(b) The minimum feeder conductor size shall have an ampacity not less than the maximum load to be served after the application of any adjustment or correction factors in accordance with 310.14.
Informational Note No. 1: See Examples D1 through D11 in Informative Annex D.
Informational Note No. 2: Conductors for feeders, as defined in Article 100, sized to prevent a voltage drop exceeding 3 percent at the farthest outlet of power, heating, and lighting loads, or combinations of such loads, and where the maximum total voltage drop on both feeders and branch circuits to the farthest outlet does not exceed 5 percent, will provide reasonable efficiency of operation.
Informational Note No. 3: See 210.19(A), Informational Note No. 4, for voltage drop for branch circuits.
The size of the feeder circuit grounded conductor shall not be smaller than that required by 250.122, except that 250.122(F) shall not apply where grounded conductors are run in parallel.
Additional minimum sizes shall be as specified in 215.2(A)(3) under the conditions stipulated.
The feeder conductor ampacity shall not be less than that of the service conductors where the feeder conductors carry the total load supplied by service conductors with an ampacity of 55 amperes or less.
The ampacity of conductors shall be in accordance with 310.14 and 311.60 as applicable. Where installed, the size of the feeder-circuit grounded conductor shall not be smaller than that required by 250.122, except that 250.122(F) shall not apply where grounded conductors are run in parallel. Feeder conductors over 1000 volts shall be sized in accordance with 215.2(B)(1), (B)(2), or (B)(3).
The ampacity of feeder conductors shall not be less than the sum of the nameplate ratings of the transformers supplied when only transformers are supplied.
The ampacity of feeders supplying a combination of transformers and utilization equipment shall not be less than the sum of the nameplate ratings of the transformers and 125 percent of the designed potential load of the utilization equipment that will be operated simultaneously.
For supervised installations, feeder conductor sizing shall be permitted to be determined by qualified persons under engineering supervision in accordance with 310.14(B) or 311.60(B). Supervised installations are defined as those portions of a facility where all of the following conditions are met:
  1. Conditions of design and installation are provided under engineering supervision.
  2. Qualified persons with documented training and experience in over 1000-volt systems provide maintenance, monitoring, and servicing of the system.
Feeders shall be protected against overcurrent in accordance with Part I of Article 240. Where a feeder supplies continuous loads or any combination of continuous and noncontinuous loads, the rating of the overcurrent device shall not be less than the noncontinuous load plus 125 percent of the continuous load.
Exception: Where the assembly, including the overcurrent devices protecting the feeder(s), is listed for operation at 100 percent of its rating, the ampere rating of the overcurrent device shall be permitted to be not less than the sum of the continuous load plus the noncontinuous load.
Up to three sets of 3-wire feeders or two sets of 4-wire or 5-wire feeders shall be permitted to utilize a common neutral.
Where installed in a metal raceway or other metal enclosure, all conductors of all feeders using a common neutral conductor shall be enclosed within the same raceway or other enclosure as required in 300.20.
If required by the authority having jurisdiction, a diagram showing feeder details shall be provided prior to the installation of the feeders. Such a diagram shall show the area in square feet of the building or other structure supplied by each feeder, the total calculated load before applying demand factors, the demand factors used, the calculated load after applying demand factors, and the size and type of conductors to be used.
Where a feeder supplies branch circuits in which equipment grounding conductors are required, the feeder shall include or provide an equipment grounding conductor, to which the equipment grounding conductors of the branch circuits shall be connected. Where the feeder supplies a separate building or structure, the requirements of 250.32 shall apply.
Two-wire dc circuits and ac circuits of two or more ungrounded conductors shall be permitted to be tapped from the ungrounded conductors of circuits having a grounded neutral conductor. Switching devices in each tapped circuit shall have a pole in each ungrounded conductor.
Feeders shall be permitted to be protected by a ground-fault circuit interrupter installed in a readily accessible location in lieu of the provisions for such interrupters as specified in 210.8 and 590.6(A).
Each feeder disconnect rated 1000 amperes or more and installed on solidly grounded wye electrical systems of more than 150 volts to ground, but not exceeding 600 volts phase-to-phase, shall be provided with ground-fault protection of equipment in accordance with 230.95.
Informational Note: For buildings that contain health care occupancies, see 517.17.
Exception No. 1: This section shall not apply to a disconnecting means for a continuous industrial process where a nonorderly shutdown will introduce additional or increased hazards.
Exception No. 2: This section shall not apply if ground-fault protection of equipment is provided on the supply side of the feeder and on the load side of any transformer supplying the feeder.
Exception No. 3: If temporary feeder conductors are used to connect a generator to a facility for repair, maintenance, or emergencies, ground-fault protection of equipment shall not be required. Temporary feeders without ground-fault protection shall be permitted for the time period necessary but shall not exceed 90 days.
Feeders shall not be derived from autotransformers unless the system supplied has a grounded conductor that is electrically connected to a grounded conductor of the system supplying the autotransformer.
Exception No. 1: An autotransformer shall be permitted without the connection to a grounded conductor where transforming from a nominal 208 volts to a nominal 240-volt supply or similarly from 240 volts to 208 volts.
Exception No. 2: In industrial occupancies, where conditions of maintenance and supervision ensure that only qualified persons service the installation, autotransformers shall be permitted to supply nominal 600-volt loads from nominal 480-volt systems, and 480-volt loads from nominal 600-volt systems, without the connection to a similar grounded conductor.
The grounded conductor of a feeder, if insulated, shall be identified in accordance with 200.6.
Ungrounded conductors shall be identified in accordance with 215.12(C)(1) or (C)(2), as applicable.
Where the premises wiring system has feeders supplied from more than one nominal voltage system, each ungrounded conductor of a feeder shall be identified by phase or line and system at all termination, connection, and splice points in compliance with 215.12(C)(1)(a) and (b).
(a) Means of Identification. The means of identification shall be permitted to be by separate color coding, marking tape, tagging, or other approved means.
(b) Posting of Identification Means. The method utilized for conductors originating within each feeder panelboard or similar feeder distribution equipment shall be documented in a manner that is readily available or shall be permanently posted at each feeder panelboard or similar feeder distribution equipment.
Where a feeder is supplied from a dc system operating at more than 60 volts, each ungrounded conductor of 4 AWG or larger shall be identified by polarity at all termination, connection, and splice points by marking tape, tagging, or other approved means; each ungrounded conductor of 6 AWG or smaller shall be identified by polarity at all termination, connection, and splice points in compliance with 215.12(C)(2)(a) and (b). The identification methods utilized for conductors originating within each feeder panelboard or similar feeder distribution equipment shall be documented in a manner that is readily available or shall be permanently posted at each feeder panelboard or similar feeder distribution equipment.
(a) Positive Polarity, Sizes 6 AWG or Smaller. Where the positive polarity of a dc system does not serve as the connection for the grounded conductor, each positive ungrounded conductor shall be identified by one of the following means:
  1. A continuous red outer finish
  2. A continuous red stripe durably marked along the conductor's entire length on insulation of a color other than green, white, gray, or black
  3. Imprinted plus signs (+) or the word POSITIVE or POS durably marked on insulation of a color other than green, white, gray, or black, and repeated at intervals not exceeding 610 mm (24 in.) in accordance with 310.8(B)
  4. An approved permanent marking means such as sleeving or shrink-tubing that is suitable for the conductor size, at all termination, connection, and splice points, with imprinted plus signs (+) or the word POSITIVE or POS durably marked on insulation of a color other than green, white, gray, or black
(b) Negative Polarity, Sizes 6 AWG or Smaller. Where the negative polarity of a dc system does not serve as the connection for the grounded conductor, each negative ungrounded conductor shall be identified by one of the following means:
  1. A continuous black outer finish
  2. A continuous black stripe durably marked along the conductor's entire length on insulation of a color other than green, white, gray, or red
  3. Imprinted minus signs (—) or the word NEGATIVE or NEG durably marked on insulation of a color other than green, white, gray, or red, and repeated at intervals not exceeding 610 mm (24 in.) in accordance with 310.8(B)
  4. An approved permanent marking means such as sleeving or shrink-tubing that is suitable for the conductor size, at all termination, connection, and splice points, with imprinted minus signs (—) or the word NEGATIVE or NEG durably marked on insulation of a color other than green, white, gray, or red
This article provides requirements for calculating branch-circuit, feeder, and service loads. Part I provides general requirements for calculation methods. Part II provides calculation methods for branch-circuit loads. Parts III and IV provide calculation methods for feeder and service loads. Part V provides calculation methods for farm loads.
Informational Note No. 1: See examples in Informative Annex D.
Informational Note No. 2: See Figure 220.1 for information on the organization of Article 220.
FIGURE 220.1 Branch-Circuit, Feeder, and Service Load Calculation Methods.
Table 220.3 shall provide references for specific-purpose calculation requirements not located in Chapters 5, 6, or 7 that amend or supplement the requirements of this article.
Table 220.3 Specific-Purpose Calculation References
Calculation Article Section (or Part)
Air-conditioning and refrigerating equipment, branch-circuit conductor sizing 440 Part IV
Fixed electric heating equipment for pipelines and vessels, branch-circuit sizing 427 427.4
Fixed electric space-heating equipment, branch-circuit sizing 424 424.3
Fixed outdoor electric deicing and snow-melting equipment, branch-circuit sizing 426 426.4
Motors, feeder demand factor 430 430.26
Motors, multimotor and combination-load equipment 430 430.25
Motors, several motors or a motor(s) and other load(s) 430 430.24
Over 600-volt branch-circuit calculations 210 210.19(B)
Over 600-volt feeder calculations 215 215.2(B)
Phase converters, conductors 455 455.6
Storage-type water heaters 422 422.11(E)
Unless other voltages are specified, for purposes of calculating branch-circuit and feeder loads, nominal system voltages of 120, 120/240, 208Y/120, 240, 347, 480Y/277, 480, 600Y/347, and 600 volts shall be used.
Calculations shall be permitted to be rounded to the nearest whole ampere, with decimal fractions smaller than 0.5 dropped.
Branch-circuit loads shall be calculated as shown in 220.12, 220.14, and 220.16.
The floor area for each floor shall be calculated from the outside dimensions of the building, dwelling unit, or other area involved. For dwelling units, the calculated floor area shall not include open porches, garages, or unused or unfinished spaces not adaptable for future use.
Table 220.12 General Lighting Loads by Non-Dwelling Occupancy
  Unit Load
Type of Occupancy Volt-amperes/m2 Volt-amperes/ft2
Automotive facility 16 1.5
Convention center 15 1.4
Courthouse 15 1.4
Dormitory 16 1.5
Exercise center 15 1.4
Fire station 14 1.3
Gymnasiuma 18 1.7
Health care clinic 17 1.6
Hospital 17 1.6
Hotels and motels, including apartment houses without provisions for cooking by tenantsb 18 1.7
Library 16 1.5
Manufacturing facilityc 24 2.2
Motion picture theater 17 1.6
Museum 17 1.6
Officed 14 1.3
Parking garagee 3 0.3
Penitentiary 13 1.2
Performing arts theater 16 1.5
Police station 14 1.3
Post office 17 1.6
Religious facility 24 2.2
Restaurantf 16 1.5
Retailg, h 20 1.9
School/university 33 3
Sports arena 33 3
Town hall 15 1.4
Transportation 13 1.2
Warehouse 13 1.2
Workshop 18 1.7
Note: The 125 percent multiplier for a continuous load as specified in 210.20(A) is included when using the unit loads in this table for calculating the minimum lighting load for a specified occupancy.
aArmories and auditoriums are considered gymnasium-type occupancies.
bLodge rooms are similar to hotels and motels.
cIndustrial commercial loft buildings are considered manufacturing-type occupancies.
dBanks are office-type occupancies.
eGarages — commercial (storage) are considered parking garage occupancies.
fClubs are considered restaurant occupancies.
gBarber shops and beauty parlors are considered retail occupancies.
hStores are considered retail occupancies.
A unit load of not less than that specified in Table 220.12 for non-dwelling occupancies and the floor area determined in 220.11 shall be used to calculate the minimum lighting load. Motors rated less than 1/8 HP and connected to a lighting circuit shall be considered general lighting load.
Informational Note: The unit values of Table 220.12 are based on minimum load conditions and 100 percent power factor and may not provide sufficient capacity for the installation contemplated.
Where the building is designed and constructed to comply with an energy code adopted by the local authority, the lighting load shall be permitted to be calculated using the unit values specified in the energy code where the following conditions are met:
  1. A power monitoring system is installed that will provide continuous information regarding the total general lighting load of the building.
  2. The power monitoring system will be set with alarm values to alert the building owner or manager if the lighting load exceeds the values set by the energy code. Automatic means to take action to reduce the connected load shall be permitted.
  3. The demand factors specified in 220.42 are not applied to the general lighting load.
  4. The continuous load multiplier of 125 percent shall be applied.
In all occupancies, the minimum load for each outlet for general-use receptacles and outlets not used for general illumination shall not be less than that calculated in 220.14(A) through (M), the loads shown being based on nominal branch-circuit voltages.
Exception: The loads of outlets serving switchboards and switching frames in telephone exchanges shall be waived from the calculations.
An outlet for a specific appliance or other load not covered in 220.14(B) through (M) shall be calculated based on the ampere rating of the appliance or load served.
Load calculations shall be permitted as specified in 220.54 for electric dryers and in 220.55 for electric ranges and other cooking appliances.
Loads for motor outlets shall be calculated in accordance with the requirements in 430.22, 430.24, and 440.6.
An outlet supplying luminaire(s) shall be calculated based on the maximum volt-ampere rating of the equipment and lamps for which the luminaire(s) is rated.
Outlets for heavy-duty lampholders shall be calculated at a minimum of 600 volt-amperes.
Sign and outline lighting outlets shall be calculated at a minimum of 1200 volt-amperes for each required branch circuit specified in 600.5(A).
Show windows shall be calculated in accordance with either of the following:
  1. The unit load per outlet as required in other provisions of this section
  2. At 200 volt-amperes per linear 300 mm (1 ft) of show window
Fixed multioutlet assemblies used in other than dwelling units or the guest rooms or guest suites of hotels or motels shall be calculated in accordance with (H)(1) or (H)(2). For the purposes of this section, the calculation shall be permitted to be based on the portion that contains receptacle outlets.
  1. Where appliances are unlikely to be used simultaneously, each 1.5 m (5 ft) or fraction thereof of each separate and continuous length shall be considered as one outlet of not less than 180 volt-amperes.
  2. Where appliances are likely to be used simultaneously, each 300 mm (1 ft) or fraction thereof shall be considered as an outlet of not less than 180 volt-amperes.
Except as covered in 220.14(J) and (K), receptacle outlets shall be calculated at not less than 180 volt-amperes for each single or for each multiple receptacle on one yoke. A single piece of equipment consisting of a multiple receptacle comprised of four or more receptacles shall be calculated at not less than 90 volt-amperes per receptacle. This provision shall not be applicable to the receptacle outlets specified in 210.11(C)(1) and (C)(2).
In one-family, two-family, and multifamily dwellings, the minimum unit load shall be not less than 33 volt-amperes/m2 (3 volt-amperes/ft2). The lighting and receptacle outlets specified in 220.14(J)(1), (J)(2), and (J)(3) are included in the minimum unit load. No additional load calculations shall be required for such outlets. The minimum lighting load shall be determined using the minimum unit load and the floor area as determined in 220.11 for dwelling occupancies. Motors rated less than 1/8 hp and connected to a lighting circuit shall be considered part of the minimum lighting load.
  1. All general-use receptacle outlets of 20-ampere rating or less, including receptacles connected to the circuits in 210.11(C)(3) and 210.11(C)(4)
  2. The receptacle outlets specified in 210.52(E) and (G)
  3. The lighting outlets specified in 210.70
In office buildings, the receptacle loads shall be calculated to be the larger of (1) or (2):
  1. The calculated load from 220.14(I) after all demand factors have been applied
  2. 11 volt-amperes/m2 or 1 volt-ampere/ft2
Other outlets not covered in 220.14(A) through (K) shall be calculated based on 180 volt-amperes per outlet.
In guest rooms or guest suites of hotels and motels, the lighting and receptacle outlets specified in 220.14(M)(1), (M)(2), and (M)(3) are included in the minimum unit load in Table 220.12. No additional load calculations shall be required for such outlets. The minimum lighting load shall be determined using the minimum unit load and the floor area as determined in 220.11 for hotel and motel occupancies.
  1. All general-use receptacle outlets of 20-ampere rating or less, including receptacles connected to the circuits in 210.11(C)(3) and 210.11(C)(4)
  2. The receptacle outlets specified in 210.52(E)(3)
  3. The lighting outlets specified in 210.70
Loads added to an existing dwelling unit(s) shall comply with the following as applicable:
  1. Loads for structural additions to an existing dwelling unit or for a previously unwired portion of an existing dwelling unit shall be calculated in accordance with 220.14.
  2. Loads for new circuits or extended circuits in previously wired dwelling units shall be calculated in accordance with 220.14.
Loads for new circuits or extended circuits in other than dwelling units shall be calculated in accordance with either 220.12 or 220.14, as applicable.
The total load shall not exceed the rating of the branch circuit, and it shall not exceed the maximum loads specified in 220.18(A) through (C) under the conditions specified therein.
Where a circuit supplies only motor-operated loads, Article 430 shall apply. Where a circuit supplies only air-conditioning equipment, refrigerating equipment, or both, Article 440 shall apply. For circuits supplying loads consisting of motor-operated utilization equipment that is fastened in place and has a motor larger than 1/8 hp in combination with other loads, the total calculated load shall be based on 125 percent of the largest motor load plus the sum of the other loads.
For circuits supplying lighting units that have ballasts, transformers, autotransformers, or LED drivers, the calculated load shall be based on the total ampere ratings of such units and not on the total watts of the lamps.
It shall be permissible to apply demand factors for range loads in accordance with Table 220.55, including Note 4.
The calculated load of a feeder or service shall not be less than the sum of the loads on the branch circuits supplied, as determined by Part II of this article, after any applicable demand factors permitted by Part III or IV or required by Part V have been applied.
Informational Note: See Examples D1(a) through D10 in Informative Annex D. See 220.18(B) for the maximum load in amperes permitted for lighting units operating at less than 100 percent power factor.
The demand factors specified in Table 220.42 shall apply to that portion of the total branch-circuit load calculated for general illumination. They shall not be applied in determining the number of branch circuits for general illumination.
Table 220.42 Lighting Load Demand Factors
Type of Occupancy Portion of Lighting Load to Which Demand Factor Applies (Volt-Amperes) Demand Factor (%)
Dwelling units First 3000 at 100
From 3001 to 120,000 at 35
Remainder over 120,000 at 25
Hotels and motels, including apartment houses without provision for cooking by tenants* First 20,000 or less at 60
From 20,001 to 100,000 at 50
Remainder over 100,000 at 35
Warehouses (storage) First 12,500 or less at 100
Remainder over 12,500 at 50
All others Total volt-amperes 100
*The demand factors of this table shall not apply to the calculated load of feeders or services supplying areas in hotels and motels where the entire lighting is likely to be used at one time, as in ballrooms or dining rooms.
For show-window lighting, a load of not less than 660 volt-amperes/linear meter or 200 volt-amperes/linear foot shall be included for a show window, measured horizontally along its base.
Informational Note: See 220.14(G) for branch circuits supplying show windows.
For track lighting in other than dwelling units or guest rooms or guest suites of hotels or motels, an additional load of 150 volt-amperes shall be included for every 600 mm (2 ft) of lighting track or fraction thereof. Where multicircuit track is installed, the load shall be considered to be divided equally between the track circuits.
Exception: If the track lighting is supplied through a device that limits the current to the track, the load shall be permitted to be calculated based on the rating of the device used to limit the current.
Receptacle loads calculated in accordance with 220.14(H) and (I) shall be permitted to be made subject to the demand factors given in Table 220.42 or Table 220.44.
Table 220.44 Demand Factors for Non-Dwelling Receptacle Loads
Portion of Receptacle Load to Which Demand Factor Applies
(Volt-Amperes)
Demand Factor (%)
First 10 kVA or less at 100
Remainder over 10 kVA at 50
Motor loads shall be calculated in accordance with 430.24, 430.25, and 430.26 and with 440.6 for hermetic refrigerant motor-compressors.
Fixed electric space-heating loads shall be calculated at 100 percent of the total connected load. However, in no case shall a feeder or service load current rating be less than the rating of the largest branch circuit supplied.
Exception: Where reduced loading of the conductors results from units operating on duty-cycle, intermittently, or from all units not operating at the same time, the authority having jurisdiction may grant permission for feeder and service conductors to have an ampacity less than 100 percent, provided the conductors have an ampacity for the load so determined.
In each dwelling unit, the load shall be calculated at 1500 volt-amperes for each 2-wire small-appliance branch circuit as covered by 210.11(C)(1). Where the load is subdivided through two or more feeders, the calculated load for each shall include not less than 1500 volt-amperes for each 2-wire small-appliance branch circuit. These loads shall be permitted to be included with the general lighting load and subjected to the demand factors provided in Table 220.42.
Exception: The individual branch circuit permitted by 210.52(B)(1), Exception No. 2, shall be permitted to be excluded from the calculation required by 220.52.
A load of not less than 1500 volt-amperes shall be included for each 2-wire laundry branch circuit installed as covered by 210.11(C)(2). This load shall be permitted to be included with the general lighting load and shall be subjected to the demand factors provided in Table 220.42.
It shall be permissible to apply a demand factor of 75 percent to the nameplate rating load of four or more appliances rated 1/4 hp or greater, or 500 watts or greater, that are fastened in place, and that are served by the same feeder or service in a one-family, two-family, or multifamily dwelling. This demand factor shall not apply to:
  1. Household electric cooking equipment that is fastened in place
  2. Clothes dryers
  3. Space heating equipment
  4. Air-conditioning equipment
The load for household electric clothes dryers in a dwelling unit(s) shall be either 5000 watts (volt-amperes) or the nameplate rating, whichever is larger, for each dryer served. The use of the demand factors in Table 220.54 shall be permitted. Where two or more single-phase dryers are supplied by a 3-phase, 4-wire feeder or service, the total load shall be calculated on the basis of twice the maximum number connected between any two phases. Kilovolt-amperes (kVA) shall be considered equivalent to kilowatts (kW) for loads calculated in this section.
Table 220.54 Demand Factors for Household Electric Clothes Dryers
Number of Dryers Demand Factor (%)
1—4 100
5 85
6 75
7 65
8 60
9 55
10 50
11 47
12—23 47% minus 1% for each dryer exceeding 11
24—42 35% minus 0.5% for each dryer exceeding 23
43 and over 25%
The load for household electric ranges, wall-mounted ovens, counter-mounted cooking units, and other household cooking appliances individually rated in excess of 13/4 kW shall be permitted to be calculated in accordance with Table 220.55. Kilovolt-amperes (kVA) shall be considered equivalent to kilowatts (kW) for loads calculated under this section.
Where two or more single-phase ranges are supplied by a 3-phase, 4-wire feeder or service, the total load shall be calculated on the basis of twice the maximum number connected between any two phases.
Informational Note No. 1: See the examples in Informative Annex D.
Informational Note No. 2: See Table 220.56 for commercial cooking equipment.
Table 220.55 Demand Factors and Loads for Household Electric Ranges, Wall-Mounted Ovens, Counter-Mounted Cooking Units, and Other Household Cooking Appliances over 13/4 kW Rating (Column C to be used in all cases except as otherwise permitted in Note 3.)
Number of Appliances Demand Factor (%)(See Notes) Column C
Maximum Demand (kW) (See Notes) (Not over 12 kW Rating)
Column A
(Less than 31/2 kW Rating)
Column B
(31/2 kW through 83/4 kW Rating)
1 80 80 8
2 75 65 11
3 70 55 14
4 66 50 17
5 62 45 20
6 59 43 21
7 56 40 22
8 53 36 23
9 51 35 24
10 49 34 25
11 47 32 26
12 45 32 27
13 43 32 28
14 41 32 29
15 40 32 30
16 39 28 31
17 38 28 32
18 37 28 33
19 36 28 34
20 35 28 35
21 34 26 36
22 33 26 37
23 32 26 38
24 31 26 39
25 30 26 40
26—30 30 24 15 kW + 1 kW for each range
31—40 30 22
41—50 30 20 25 kW + 3/4 kW for each range
51—60 30 18
61 and over 30 16
Notes:
1. Over 12 kW through 27 kW ranges all of same rating. For ranges individually rated more than 12 kW but not more than 27 kW, the maximum demand in Column C shall be increased 5 percent for each additional kilowatt of rating or major fraction thereof by which the rating of individual ranges exceeds 12 kW.
2. Over 83/4 kW through 27 kW ranges of unequal ratings. For ranges individually rated more than 83/4 kW and of different ratings, but none exceeding 27 kW, an average value of rating shall be calculated by adding together the ratings of all ranges to obtain the total connected load (using 12 kW for any range rated less than 12 kW) and dividing by the total number of ranges. Then the maximum demand in Column C shall be increased 5 percent for each kilowatt or major fraction thereof by which this average value exceeds 12 kW.
3. Over 13/4 kW through 83/4 kW. In lieu of the method provided in Column C, it shall be permissible to add the nameplate ratings of all household cooking appliances rated more than 13/4 kW but not more than 83/4 kW and multiply the sum by the demand factors specified in Column A or Column B for the given number of appliances. Where the rating of cooking appliances falls under both Column A and Column B, the demand factors for each column shall be applied to the appliances for that column, and the results added together.
4. Branch-Circuit Load. It shall be permissible to calculate the branch-circuit load for one range in accordance with Table 220.55. The branch-circuit load for one wall-mounted oven or one counter-mounted cooking unit shall be the nameplate rating of the appliance. The branch-circuit load for a counter-mounted cooking unit and not more than two wall-mounted ovens, all supplied from a single branch circuit and located in the same room, shall be calculated by adding the nameplate rating of the individual appliances and treating this total as equivalent to one range.
5. This table shall also apply to household cooking appliances rated over 13/4 kW and used in instructional programs.
It shall be permissible to calculate the load for commercial electric cooking equipment, dishwasher booster heaters, water heaters, and other kitchen equipment in accordance with Table 220.56. These demand factors shall be applied to all equipment that has either thermostatic control or intermittent use as kitchen equipment. These demand factors shall not apply to space-heating, ventilating, or air-conditioning equipment.
However, in no case shall the feeder or service calculated load be less than the sum of the largest two kitchen equipment loads.
Table 220.56 Demand Factors for Kitchen Equipment — Other Than Dwelling Unit(s)
Number of Units of Equipment Demand Factor (%)
1 100
2 100
3 90
4 80
5 70
6 and over 65
Where it is unlikely that two or more noncoincident loads will be in use simultaneously, it shall be permissible to use only the largest load(s) that will be used at one time for calculating the total load of a feeder or service. Where a motor is part of the noncoincident load and is not the largest of the noncoincident loads, 125 percent of the motor load shall be used in the calculation if it is the largest motor.
The feeder or service neutral load shall be the maximum unbalance of the load determined by this article. The maximum unbalanced load shall be the maximum net calculated load between the neutral conductor and any one ungrounded conductor.
Exception: For 3-wire, 2-phase or 5-wire, 2-phase systems, the maximum unbalanced load shall be the maximum net calculated load between the neutral conductor and any one ungrounded conductor multiplied by 140 percent.
A service or feeder supplying the following loads shall be permitted to have an additional demand factor of 70 percent applied to the amount in 220.61(B)(1) or portion of the amount in 220.61(B)(2) determined by the following basic calculations:
  1. A feeder or service supplying household electric ranges, wall-mounted ovens, counter-mounted cooking units, and electric dryers, where the maximum unbalanced load has been determined in accordance with Table 220.55 for ranges and Table 220.54 for dryers
  2. That portion of the unbalanced load in excess of 200 amperes where the feeder or service is supplied from a 3-wire dc or single-phase ac system; or a 4-wire, 3-phase system; or a 3-wire, 2-phase system; or a 5-wire, 2-phase system
Informational Note: See Examples D1(a), D1(b), D2(b), D4(a), and D5(a) in Informative Annex D.
There shall be no reduction of the neutral or grounded conductor capacity applied to the amount in 220.61(C)(1), or portion of the amount in (C)(2), from that determined by the basic calculation:
  1. Any portion of a 3-wire circuit consisting of 2 ungrounded conductors and the neutral conductor of a 4-wire, 3-phase, wye-connected system
  2. That portion consisting of nonlinear loads supplied from a 4-wire, wye-connected, 3-phase system
Informational Note: A 3-phase, 4-wire, wye-connected power system used to supply power to nonlinear loads may necessitate that the power system design allow for the possibility of high harmonic neutral conductor currents.
Optional feeder and service load calculations shall be permitted in accordance with Part IV.
This section applies to a dwelling unit having the total connected load served by a single 120/240-volt or 208Y/120-volt set of 3-wire service or feeder conductors with an ampacity of 100 or greater. It shall be permissible to calculate the feeder and service loads in accordance with this section instead of the method specified in Part III of this article. The calculated load shall be the result of adding the loads from 220.82(B) and (C). Feeder and service-entrance conductors whose calculated load is determined by this optional calculation shall be permitted to have the neutral load determined by 220.61.
The general calculated load shall be not less than 100 percent of the first 10 kVA plus 40 percent of the remainder of the following loads:
  1. 33 volt-amperes/m2 or 3 volt-amperes/ft2 for general lighting and general-use receptacles. The floor area for each floor shall be calculated from the outside dimensions of the dwelling unit. The calculated floor area shall not include open porches, garages, or unused or unfinished spaces not adaptable for future use.
  2. 1500 volt-amperes for each 2-wire, 20-ampere small-appliance branch circuit and each laundry branch circuit covered in 210.11(C)(1) and (C)(2).
  3. The nameplate rating of the following:
    1. All appliances that are fastened in place, permanently connected, or located to be on a specific circuit
    2. Ranges, wall-mounted ovens, counter-mounted cooking units
    3. Clothes dryers that are not connected to the laundry branch circuit specified in item (2)
    4. Water heaters
  4. The nameplate ampere or kVA rating of all permanently connected motors not included in item (3).
The largest of the following six selections (load in kVA) shall be included:
  1. 100 percent of the nameplate rating(s) of the air conditioning and cooling.
  2. 100 percent of the nameplate rating(s) of the heat pump when the heat pump is used without any supplemental electric heating.
  3. 100 percent of the nameplate rating(s) of the heat pump compressor and 65 percent of the supplemental electric heating for central electric space-heating systems. If the heat pump compressor is prevented from operating at the same time as the supplementary heat, it does not need to be added to the supplementary heat for the total central space-heating load.
  4. 65 percent of the nameplate rating(s) of electric space-heating if less than four separately controlled units.
  5. 40 percent of the nameplate rating(s) of electric space-heating if four or more separately controlled units.
  6. 100 percent of the nameplate ratings of electric thermal storage and other heating systems where the usual load is expected to be continuous at the full nameplate value. Systems qualifying under this selection shall not be calculated under any other selection in 220.82(C).
This section shall be permitted to be used to determine if the existing service or feeder is of sufficient capacity to serve additional loads. Where the dwelling unit is served by a 120/240-volt or 208Y/120-volt, 3-wire service, it shall be permissible to calculate the total load in accordance with 220.83(A) or (B).
The following percentages shall be used for existing and additional new loads.
Load (kVA) Percent of Load
First 8 kVA of load at 100
Remainder of load at 40
Load calculations shall include the following:
  1. General lighting and general-use receptacles at 33 volt-amperes/m2 or 3 volt-amperes/ft2 as determined by 220.12
  2. 1500 volt-amperes for each 2-wire, 20-ampere small-appliance branch circuit and each laundry branch circuit covered in 210.11(C)(1) and (C)(2)
  3. The nameplate rating of the following:
    1. All appliances that are fastened in place, permanently connected, or located to be on a specific circuit
    2. Ranges, wall-mounted ovens, counter-mounted cooking units
    3. Clothes dryers that are not connected to the laundry branch circuit specified in item (2)
    4. Water heaters
The following percentages shall be used for existing and additional new loads. The larger connected load of air conditioning or space heating, but not both, shall be used.
Load Percent of Load
Air-conditioning equipment 100
Central electric space heating 100
Less than four separately controlled space-heating units 100
First 8 kVA of all other loads 100
Remainder of all other loads 40
Other loads shall include the following:
  1. General lighting and general-use receptacles at 33 volt-amperes/m2 or 3 volt-amperes/ft2 as determined by 220.12
  2. 1500 volt-amperes for each 2-wire, 20-ampere small-appliance branch circuit and each laundry branch circuit covered in 210.11(C)(1) and (C)(2)
  3. The nameplate rating of the following:
    1. All appliances that are fastened in place, permanently connected, or located to be on a specific circuit
    2. Ranges, wall-mounted ovens, counter-mounted cooking units
    3. Clothes dryers that are not connected to the laundry branch circuit specified in item (2)
    4. Water heaters
Table 220.84 Optional Calculations — Demand Factors for Three or More Multifamily Dwelling Units
Number of Dwelling Units Demand Factor (%)
3—5 45
6—7 44
8—10 43
11 42
12—13 41
14—15 40
16—17 39
18—20 38
21 37
22—23 36
24—25 35
26—27 34
28—30 33
31 32
32—33 31
34—36 30
37—38 29
39—42 28
43—45 27
46—50 26
51—55 25
56—61 24
62 and over 23
It shall be permissible to calculate the load of a feeder or service that supplies three or more dwelling units of a multifamily dwelling in accordance with Table 220.84 instead of Part III of this article if all the following conditions are met:
  1. No dwelling unit is supplied by more than one feeder.
  2. Each dwelling unit is equipped with electric cooking equipment.
    Exception: When the calculated load for multifamily dwellings without electric cooking in Part III of this article exceeds that calculated under Part IV for the identical load plus electric cooking (based on 8 kW per unit), the lesser of the two loads shall be permitted to be used.
  3. Each dwelling unit is equipped with either electric space-heating or air conditioning, or both. Feeders and service conductors whose calculated load is determined by this optional calculation shall be permitted to have the neutral load determined by 220.61.
House loads shall be calculated in accordance with Part III of this article and shall be in addition to the dwelling unit loads calculated in accordance with Table 220.84.
The calculated load to which the demand factors of Table 220.84 apply shall include the following:
  1. 33 volt-amperes/m2 or 3 volt-amperes/ft2 for general lighting and general-use receptacles
  2. 1500 volt-amperes for each 2-wire, 20-ampere small-appliance branch circuit and each laundry branch circuit covered in 210.11(C)(1) and (C)(2)
  3. The nameplate rating of the following:
    1. All appliances that are fastened in place, permanently connected, or located to be on a specific circuit
    2. Ranges, wall-mounted ovens, counter-mounted cooking units
    3. Clothes dryers that are not connected to the laundry branch circuit specified in item (2)
    4. Water heaters
  4. The nameplate ampere or kVA rating of all permanently connected motors not included in item (3)
  5. The larger of the air-conditioning load or the fixed electric space-heating load
Where two dwelling units are supplied by a single feeder and the calculated load under Part III of this article exceeds that for three identical units calculated under 220.84, the lesser of the two loads shall be permitted to be used.
The calculation of a feeder or service load for schools shall be permitted in accordance with Table 220.86 in lieu of Part III of this article where equipped with electric space-heating, air conditioning, or both. The connected load to which the demand factors of Table 220.86 apply shall include all of the interior and exterior lighting, power, water heating, cooking, other loads, and the larger of the air-conditioning load or space-heating load within the building or structure.
Feeders and service conductors whose calculated load is determined by this optional calculation shall be permitted to have the neutral load determined by 220.61. Where the building or structure load is calculated by this optional method, feeders within the building or structure shall have ampacity as permitted in Part III of this article; however, the ampacity of an individual feeder shall not be required to be larger than the ampacity for the entire building.
This section shall not apply to portable classroom buildings.
Table 220.86 Optional Method — Demand Factors for Feeders and Service Conductors for Schools
Connected Load Demand Factor (Percent)
First 33 VA/m2 Plus, (3 VA/ft2) at 100
Over 33 through 220 VA/m2 Plus, (3 through 20 VA/ft2) at 75
Remainder over 220 VA/m2 (20 VA/ft2) at 25
The calculation of a feeder or service load for existing installations shall be permitted to use actual maximum demand to determine the existing load under all of the following conditions:
  1. The maximum demand data is available for a 1-year period.
    Exception: If the maximum demand data for a 1-year period is not available, the calculated load shall be permitted to be based on the maximum demand (the highest average kilowatts reached and maintained for a 15-minute interval) continuously recorded over a minimum 30-day period using a recording ammeter or power meter connected to the highest loaded phase of the feeder or service, based on the initial loading at the start of the recording. The recording shall reflect the maximum demand of the feeder or service by being taken when the building or space is occupied and shall include by measurement or calculation the larger of the heating or cooling equipment load, and other loads that may be periodic in nature due to seasonal or similar conditions.
  2. The maximum demand at 125 percent plus the new load does not exceed the ampacity of the feeder or rating of the service.
  3. The feeder has overcurrent protection in accordance with 240.4, and the service has overload protection in accordance with 230.90.
Exception: If the feeder or service has any renewable energy system (i.e., solar photovoltaic systems or wind electric systems) or employs any form of peak load shaving, this calculation method shall not be permitted.
Calculation of a service or feeder load, where the feeder serves the total load, for a new restaurant shall be permitted in accordance with Table 220.88 in lieu of Part III of this article.
The overload protection of the service conductors shall be in accordance with 230.90 and 240.4.
Feeder conductors shall not be required to be of greater ampacity than the service conductors.
Service or feeder conductors whose calculated load is determined by this optional calculation shall be permitted to have the neutral load determined by 220.61.
Table 220.88 Optional Method — Permitted Load Calculations for Service and Feeder Conductors for New Restaurants
Total Connected Load (kVA) All Electric Restaurant Calculated Loads (kVA) Not All Electric Restaurant Calculated Loads (kVA)
0—200 80% 100%
201—325 10% (amount over 200) + 160.0 50% (amount over 200) + 200.0
326—800 50% (amount over 325) + 172.5 45% (amount over 325) + 262.5
Over 800 50% (amount over 800) + 410.0 20% (amount over 800) + 476.3
Note: Add all electrical loads, including both heating and cooling loads, to calculate the total connected load. Select the one demand factor that applies from the table, then multiply the total connected load by this single demand factor.
Farm loads shall be calculated in accordance with Part V.
Table 220.102 Method for Calculating Farm Loads for Other Than Dwelling Unit
Ampere Load at 240 Volts Maximum Demand Factor (%)
The greater of the following:
All loads that are expected to operate
simultaneously, or
100
125 percent of the full load current
of the largest motor, or
First 60 amperes of the load
Next 60 amperes of all other loads 50
Remainder of other loads 25


The feeder or service load of a farm dwelling unit shall be calculated in accordance with the provisions for dwellings in Part III or IV of this article. Where the dwelling has electric heat and the farm has electric grain-drying systems, Part IV of this article shall not be used to calculate the dwelling load where the dwelling and farm loads are supplied by a common service.
Where a feeder or service supplies a farm building or other load having two or more separate branch circuits, the load for feeders, service conductors, and service equipment shall be calculated in accordance with demand factors not less than indicated in Table 220.102.
Where supplied by a common service, the total load of the farm for service conductors and service equipment shall be calculated in accordance with the farm dwelling unit load and demand factors specified in Table 220.103. Where there is equipment in two or more farm equipment buildings or for loads having the same function, such loads shall be calculated in accordance with Table 220.102 and shall be permitted to be combined as a single load in Table 220.103 for calculating the total load.
Table 220.103 Method for Calculating Total Farm Load
Individual Loads Calculated in Accordance with Table 220.102 Demand Factor (%)
Largest load 100
Second largest load 75
Third largest load 65
Remaining loads 50
Note: To this total load, add the load of the farm dwelling unit calculated in accordance with Part III or IV of this article. Where the dwelling has electric heat and the farm has electric grain-drying systems, Part IV of this article shall not be used to calculate the dwelling load.
This article covers requirements for outside branch circuits and feeders run on or between buildings, structures, or poles on the premises; and electrical equipment and wiring for the supply of utilization equipment that is located on or attached to the outside of buildings, structures, or poles.
Informational Note: For additional information on wiring over 1000 volts, see ANSI/IEEE C2-2017, National Electrical Safety Code.
Application of other articles, including additional requirements to specific cases of equipment and conductors, is shown in Table 225.3.
Table 225.3 Other Articles
Equipment/Conductors Article
Branch circuits 210
Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3 remote-control, signaling, and power-limited circuits 725
Communications circuits 805
Community antenna television and radio distribution systems 820
Conductors for general wiring 310
Electrically driven or controlled irrigation machines 675
Electric signs and outline lighting 600
Feeders 215
Fire alarm systems 760
Fixed outdoor electric deicing and snow-melting equipment 426
Floating buildings 553
Grounding and bonding 250
Hazardous (classified) locations 500
Hazardous (classified) locations — specific 510
Marinas and boatyards 555
Medium-voltage conductors and cable 311
Messenger-supported wiring 396
Mobile homes, manufactured homes, and mobile home parks 550
Open wiring on insulators 398
Over 1000 volts, general 490
Overcurrent protection 240
Radio and television equipment 810
Services 230
Solar photovoltaic systems 690
Swimming pools, fountains, and similar installations 680
Use and identification of grounded conductors 200
Where within 3.0 m (10 ft) of any building or structure other than supporting poles or towers, open individual (aerial) overhead conductors shall be insulated for the nominal voltage. The insulation of conductors in cables or raceways, except Type MI cable, shall be of thermoset or thermoplastic type and, in wet locations, shall comply with 310.10(C). The insulation of conductors for festoon lighting shall be of the thermoset or thermoplastic type.
Exception: Equipment grounding conductors and grounded circuit conductors shall be permitted to be bare or covered as specifically permitted elsewhere in this Code.
The ampacity of outdoor branch-circuit and feeder conductors shall be in accordance with 310.14 based on loads as determined under 220.10 and Part III of Article 220.
Open individual conductors shall not be smaller than the following:
  1. For 1000 volts, nominal, or less, 10 AWG copper or 8 AWG aluminum for spans up to 15 m (50 ft) in length, and 8 AWG copper or 6 AWG aluminum for a longer span unless supported by a messenger wire
  2. For over 1000 volts, nominal, 6 AWG copper or 4 AWG aluminum where open individual conductors, and 8 AWG copper or 6 AWG aluminum where in cable
Overhead conductors for festoon lighting shall not be smaller than 12 AWG unless the conductors are supported by messenger wires. In all spans exceeding 12 m (40 ft), the conductors shall be supported by messenger wire. The messenger wire shall be supported by strain insulators. Conductors or messenger wires shall not be attached to any fire escape, downspout, or plumbing equipment.
For the supply of lighting equipment installed outdoors, the branch circuits shall comply with Article 210 and 225.7(B) through (D).
The ampacity of the neutral conductor shall not be less than the maximum net calculated load current between the neutral conductor and all ungrounded conductors connected to any one phase of the circuit.
Circuits exceeding 120 volts, nominal, between conductors and not exceeding 277 volts, nominal, to ground shall be permitted to supply luminaires for illumination of outdoor areas of industrial establishments, office buildings, schools, stores, and other commercial or public buildings.
Circuits exceeding 277 volts, nominal, to ground and not exceeding 1000 volts, nominal, between conductors shall be permitted to supply the auxiliary equipment of electric-discharge lamps in accordance with 210.6(D)(1).
The installation of outside wiring on surfaces of buildings (or other structures) shall be permitted for circuits not exceeding 1000 volts, nominal, as the following:
  1. Auxiliary gutters
  2. Busways
  3. Cable trays
  4. Cablebus
  5. Electrical metallic tubing (EMT)
  6. Flexible metal conduit (FMC)
  7. Intermediate metal conduit (IMC)
  8. Liquidtight flexible metal conduit (LFMC)
  9. Liquidtight flexible nonmetallic conduit (LFNC)
  10. Messenger-supported wiring
  11. Open wiring on insulators
  12. Reinforced thermosetting resin conduit (RTRC)
  13. Rigid metal conduit (RMC)
  14. Rigid polyvinyl chloride conduit (PVC)
  15. Type MC cable
  16. Type MI cable
  17. Type SE cable
  18. Type TC-ER cable
  19. Type UF cable
  20. Wireways
Circuits of over 1000 volts, nominal, shall be installed as provided in 300.37.
Feeder and branch-circuit conductors entering or exiting buildings or structures shall be installed in accordance with the requirements of 230.52. Overhead branch circuits and feeders attached to buildings or structures shall be installed in accordance with the requirements of 230.54.
Open conductors shall be supported on knobs, racks, brackets, or strain insulators, that are made of glass, porcelain, or other approved materials.
Conductors of 1000 volts, nominal, or less, shall comply with the spacings provided in Table 230.51(C).
Conductors of over 1000 volts, nominal, shall comply with the spacings provided in 110.36 and 490.24.
Open conductors shall be separated from open conductors of other circuits or systems by not less than 100 mm (4 in.).
Conductors on poles shall have a separation of not less than 300 mm (1 ft) where not placed on racks or brackets. Conductors supported on poles shall provide a horizontal climbing space not less than the following:
  1. Power conductors below communications conductors — 750 mm (30 in.)
  2. Power conductors alone or above communications conductors:
    1. 300 volts or less — 600 mm (24 in.)
    2. Over 300 volts — 750 mm (30 in.)
  3. Communications conductors below power conductors — same as power conductors
  4. Communications conductors alone — no requirement
Outside branch-circuit and feeder conductors passing over a building shall be securely supported.
The point of attachment to a building shall be in accordance with 230.26.
The means of attachment to a building shall be in accordance with 230.27.
Only feeder or branch-circuit conductors specified within this section shall be permitted to be attached to the feeder and/or branch-circuit mast. Masts used for the support of final spans of feeders or branch circuits shall be installed in accordance with 225.17(A) and (B).
The mast shall have adequate strength or be supported by braces or guy wires to safely withstand the strain imposed by the overhead feeder or branch-circuit conductors. Hubs intended for use with a conduit serving as a mast for support of feeder or branch-circuit conductors shall be identified for use with a mast.
Feeder and/or branch-circuit conductors shall not be attached to a mast where the connection is between a weatherhead or the end of the conduit and a coupling where the coupling is located above the last point of securement to the building or other structure, or where the coupling is located above the building or other structure.
Overhead spans of open conductors and open multiconductor cables of not over 1000 volts, nominal, shall have a clearance of not less than the following:
  1. 3.0 m (10 ft) — above finished grade, sidewalks, or from any platform or projection that will permit personal contact where the voltage does not exceed 150 volts to ground and accessible to pedestrians only
  2. 3.7 m (12 ft) — over residential property and driveways, and those commercial areas not subject to truck traffic where the voltage does not exceed 300 volts to ground
  3. 4.5 m (15 ft) — for those areas listed in the 3.7 m (12 ft) classification where the voltage exceeds 300 volts to ground
  4. 5.5 m (18 ft) — over public streets, alleys, roads, parking areas subject to truck traffic, driveways on other than residential property, and other land traversed by vehicles, such as cultivated, grazing, forest, and orchard
  5. 7.5 m (241/2 ft) — over track rails of railroads
Overhead spans of open conductors and open multiconductor cables shall comply with 225.19(A), (B), (C), and (D).
Overhead spans of open conductors and open multiconductor cables shall have a vertical clearance of not less than 2.7 m (8 ft 6 in.) above the roof surface. The vertical clearance above the roof level shall be maintained for a distance not less than 900 mm (3 ft) in all directions from the edge of the roof.
Exception No. 1: The area above a roof surface subject to pedestrian or vehicular traffic shall have a vertical clearance from the roof surface in accordance with the clearance requirements of 225.18.
Exception No. 2: Where the voltage between conductors does not exceed 300, and the roof has a slope of 100 mm in 300 mm (4 in. in 12 in.) or greater, a reduction in clearance to 900 mm (3 ft) shall be permitted.
Exception No. 3: Where the voltage between conductors does not exceed 300, a reduction in clearance above only the overhanging portion of the roof to not less than 450 mm (18 in.) shall be permitted if (1) not more than 1.8 m (6 ft) of the conductors, 1.2 m (4 ft) horizontally, pass above the roof overhang, and (2) they are terminated at a through-the-roof raceway or approved support.
Exception No. 4: The requirement for maintaining the vertical clearance 900 mm (3 ft) from the edge of the roof shall not apply to the final conductor span where the conductors are attached to the side of a building.
From signs, chimneys, radio and television antennas, tanks, and other nonbuilding or nonbridge structures, clearances — vertical, diagonal, and horizontal — shall not be less than 900 mm (3 ft).
Clearances shall not be less than 900 mm (3 ft).
Final spans of feeders or branch circuits shall comply with 225.19(D)(1), (D)(2), and (D)(3).
Final spans to the building they supply, or from which they are fed, shall be permitted to be attached to the building, but they shall be kept not less than 900 mm (3 ft) from windows that are designed to be opened, and from doors, porches, balconies, ladders, stairs, fire escapes, or similar locations.
Exception: Conductors run above the top level of a window shall be permitted to be less than the 900 mm (3 ft) requirement.
The vertical clearance of final spans above or within 900 mm (3 ft) measured horizontally of platforms, projections, or surfaces that will permit personal contact shall be maintained in accordance with 225.18.
The overhead branch-circuit and feeder conductors shall not be installed beneath openings through which materials may be moved, such as openings in farm and commercial buildings, and shall not be installed where they obstruct entrance to these openings.
Where buildings exceed three stories or 15 m (50 ft) in height, overhead lines shall be arranged, where practicable, so that a clear space (or zone) at least 1.8 m (6 ft) wide will be left either adjacent to the buildings or beginning not over 2.5 m (8 ft) from them to facilitate the raising of ladders when necessary for fire fighting.
Conductors installed on buildings, structures, or poles shall be protected against physical damage as provided for services in 230.50.
Supports for multiconductor cables on exterior surfaces of buildings (or other structures) shall be as provided in 230.51.
Raceways on exteriors of buildings or other structures shall be arranged to drain and shall be listed or approved for use in wet locations.
Where outdoor lampholders are attached as pendants, the connections to the circuit wires shall be staggered. Where such lampholders have terminals of a type that puncture the insulation and make contact with the conductors, they shall be attached only to conductors of the stranded type.
Locations of lamps for outdoor lighting shall be below all energized conductors, transformers, or other electric utilization equipment, unless either of the following apply:
  1. Clearances or other safeguards are provided for relamping operations.
  2. Equipment is controlled by a disconnecting means that is lockable open in accordance with 110.25.
Vegetation such as trees shall not be used for support of overhead conductor spans.
Where a raceway enters a building or structure from outside, it shall be sealed. Spare or unused raceways shall also be sealed. Sealants shall be identified for use with cable insulation, conductor insulation, bare conductor, shield, or other components.
A building or other structure that is served by a branch circuit or feeder on the load side of a service disconnecting means shall be supplied by only one feeder or branch circuit unless permitted in 225.30(A) through (F). For the purpose of this section, a multiwire branch circuit shall be considered a single circuit.
Where a branch circuit or feeder originates in these additional buildings or other structures, only one feeder or branch circuit shall be permitted to supply power back to the original building or structure, unless permitted in 225.30(A) through (F).
Additional feeders or branch circuits shall be permitted to supply the following:
  1. Fire pumps
  2. Emergency systems
  3. Legally required standby systems
  4. Optional standby systems
  5. Parallel power production systems
  6. Systems designed for connection to multiple sources of supply for the purpose of enhanced reliability
  7. Electric vehicle charging systems listed, labeled, and identified for more than a single branch circuit or feeder
  8. Docking facilities and piers
Where feeder conductors originate in the same panelboard, switchboard, or other distribution equipment, and each feeder terminates in a single disconnecting means, not more than six feeders shall be permitted. Where more than one feeder is installed in accordance with this section, all feeder disconnects supplying the building or structure shall be grouped in the same location, and the requirements of 225.33 shall not apply. Each disconnect shall be marked to indicate the load served.
By special permission, additional feeders or branch circuits shall be permitted for either of the following:
  1. Multiple-occupancy buildings where there is no space available for supply equipment accessible to all occupants
  2. A single building or other structure sufficiently large to make two or more supplies necessary
Additional feeders or branch circuits shall be permitted where the capacity requirements are in excess of 2000 amperes at a supply voltage of 1000 volts or less.
Additional feeders or branch circuits shall be permitted for different voltages, frequencies, or phases, or for different uses such as control of outside lighting from multiple locations.
Additional feeders or branch circuits shall be permitted to supply installations under single management where documented safe switching procedures are established and maintained for disconnection.
Means shall be provided for disconnecting all ungrounded conductors that supply or pass through the building or structure.
The disconnecting means shall be installed either inside or outside of the building or structure served or where the conductors pass through the building or structure. The disconnecting means shall be at a readily accessible location nearest the point of entrance of the conductors. For the purposes of this section, the requirements in 230.6 shall be utilized.
Exception No. 1: For installations under single management, where documented safe switching procedures are established and maintained for disconnection, and where the installation is monitored by qualified individuals, the disconnecting means shall be permitted to be located elsewhere on the premises.
Exception No. 2: For buildings or other structures qualifying under Article 685, the disconnecting means shall be permitted to be located elsewhere on the premises.
Exception No. 3: For towers or poles used as lighting standards, the disconnecting means shall be permitted to be located elsewhere on the premises.
Exception No. 4: For poles or similar structures used only for support of signs installed in accordance with Article 600, the disconnecting means shall be permitted to be located elsewhere on the premises.
The disconnecting means for each supply permitted by 225.30 shall consist of not more than six switches or six circuit breakers mounted in a single enclosure, in a group of separate enclosures, or in or on a switchboard or switchgear. There shall be no more than six disconnects per supply grouped in any one location.
Exception: For the purposes of this section, disconnecting means used solely for the control circuit of the ground-fault protection system, or the control circuit of the power-operated supply disconnecting means, installed as part of the listed equipment, shall not be considered a supply disconnecting means.
Two or three single-pole switches or breakers capable of individual operation shall be permitted on multiwire circuits, one pole for each ungrounded conductor, as one multipole disconnect, provided they are equipped with identified handle ties or a master handle to disconnect all ungrounded conductors with no more than six operations of the hand.
The two to six disconnects as permitted in 225.33 shall be grouped. Each disconnect shall be marked to indicate the load served.
Exception: One of the two to six disconnecting means permitted in 225.33, where used only for a water pump also intended to provide fire protection, shall be permitted to be located remote from the other disconnecting means.
The one or more additional disconnecting means for fire pumps or for emergency, legally required standby or optional standby system permitted by 225.30 shall be installed sufficiently remote from the one to six disconnecting means for normal supply to minimize the possibility of simultaneous interruption of supply.
In a multiple-occupancy building, each occupant shall have access to the occupant's supply disconnecting means.
Exception: In a multiple-occupancy building where electric supply and electrical maintenance are provided by the building management and where these are under continuous building management supervision, the supply disconnecting means supplying more than one occupancy shall be permitted to be accessible to authorized management personnel only.
The disconnecting means specified in 225.31 shall be comprised of a circuit breaker, molded case switch, general-use switch, snap switch, or other approved means. Where applied in accordance with 250.32(B), Exception No. 1, the disconnecting means shall be suitable for use as service equipment.
Where a building or structure has any combination of feeders, branch circuits, or services passing through it or supplying it, a permanent plaque or directory shall be installed at each feeder and branch-circuit disconnect location denoting all other services, feeders, or branch circuits supplying that building or structure or passing through that building or structure and the area served by each.
Exception No. 1: A plaque or directory shall not be required for large-capacity multibuilding industrial installations under single management, where it is ensured that disconnection can be accomplished by establishing and maintaining safe switching procedures.
Exception No. 2: This identification shall not be required for branch circuits installed from a dwelling unit to a second building or structure.
Disconnecting means shall meet the requirements of 225.38(A) through (D).
The disconnecting means shall consist of either (1) a manually operable switch or a circuit breaker equipped with a handle or other suitable operating means or (2) a power-operable switch or circuit breaker, provided the switch or circuit breaker can be opened by hand in the event of a power failure.
Each building or structure disconnecting means shall simultaneously disconnect all ungrounded supply conductors that it controls from the building or structure wiring system.
Where the building or structure disconnecting means does not disconnect the grounded conductor from the grounded conductors in the building or structure wiring, other means shall be provided for this purpose at the location of the disconnecting means. A terminal or bus to which all grounded conductors can be attached by means of pressure connectors shall be permitted for this purpose.
In a multisection switchboard or switchgear, disconnects for the grounded conductor shall be permitted to be in any section of the switchboard or switchgear, if the switchboard section or switchgear section is marked to indicate a grounded conductor disconnect is contained within the equipment.
The building or structure disconnecting means shall plainly indicate whether it is in the open or closed position.
The feeder or branch-circuit disconnecting means shall have a rating of not less than the calculated load to be supplied, determined in accordance with Parts I and II of Article 220 for branch circuits, Part III or IV of Article 220 for feeders, or Part V of Article 220 for farm loads. Where the branch circuit or feeder disconnecting means consists of more than one switch or circuit breaker, as permitted by 225.33, combining the ratings of all the switches or circuit breakers for determining the rating of the disconnecting means shall be permitted. In no case shall the rating be lower than specified in 225.39(A), (B), (C), or (D).
For installations to supply only limited loads of a single branch circuit, the branch circuit disconnecting means shall have a rating of not less than 15 amperes.
For installations consisting of not more than two 2-wire branch circuits, the feeder or branch-circuit disconnecting means shall have a rating of not less than 30 amperes.
For a one-family dwelling, the feeder disconnecting means shall have a rating of not less than 100 amperes, 3-wire.
For all other installations, the feeder or branch-circuit disconnecting means shall have a rating of not less than 60 amperes.
Where a feeder overcurrent device is not readily accessible, branch-circuit overcurrent devices shall be installed on the load side, shall be mounted in a readily accessible location, and shall be of a lower ampere rating than the feeder overcurrent device.
The sizing of conductors over 1000 volts shall be in accordance with 210.19(B) for branch circuits and 215.2(B) for feeders.
Where oil switches or air, oil, vacuum, or sulfur hexafluoride circuit breakers constitute a building disconnecting means, an isolating switch with visible break contacts and meeting the requirements of 230.204(B), (C), and (D) shall be installed on the supply side of the disconnecting means and all associated equipment.
Exception: The isolating switch shall not be required where the disconnecting means is mounted on removable truck panels or switchgear units that cannot be opened unless the circuit is disconnected and that, when removed from the normal operating position, automatically disconnect the circuit breaker or switch from all energized parts.
A building or structure disconnecting means shall be located in accordance with 225.32, or, if not readily accessible, it shall be operable by mechanical linkage from a readily accessible point. For multibuilding industrial installations under single management, it shall be permitted to be electrically operated by a readily accessible, remote-control device in a separate building or structure.
Each building or structure disconnect shall simultaneously disconnect all ungrounded supply conductors it controls and shall have a fault-closing rating not less than the available fault current at its supply terminals.
Exception: Where the individual disconnecting means consists of fused cutouts, the simultaneous disconnection of all ungrounded supply conductors shall not be required if there is a means to disconnect the load before opening the cutouts. A permanent legible sign shall be installed adjacent to the fused cutouts and shall read DISCONNECT LOAD BEFORE OPENING CUTOUTS.
Where fused switches or separately mounted fuses are installed, the fuse characteristics shall be permitted to contribute to the fault-closing rating of the disconnecting means.
Disconnecting means shall be lockable open in accordance with 110.25.
Exception: Where an individual disconnecting means consists of fused cutouts, a suitable enclosure capable of being locked and sized to contain all cutout fuse holders shall be installed at a convenient location to the fused cutouts.
Disconnecting means shall clearly indicate whether they are in the open "off" or closed "on" position.
Where disconnecting means handles are operated vertically, the "up" position of the handle shall be the "on" position.
Exception: A switching device having more than one "on" position, such as a double throw switch, shall not be required to comply with this requirement.
Where a building or structure has any combination of feeders, branch circuits, or services passing through or supplying it, a permanent plaque or directory shall be installed at each feeder and branch-circuit disconnect location that denotes all other services, feeders, or branch circuits supplying that building or structure or passing through that building or structure and the area served by each.
The complete electrical system design, including settings for protective, switching, and control circuits, shall be prepared in advance and made available on request to the authority having jurisdiction and shall be performance tested when first installed on-site. Each protective, switching, and control circuit shall be adjusted in accordance with the system design and tested by actual operation using current injection or equivalent methods as necessary to ensure that each and every such circuit operates correctly to the satisfaction of the authority having jurisdiction.
All instrument transformers shall be tested to verify correct polarity and burden.
Each protective relay shall be demonstrated to operate by injecting current or voltage, or both, at the associated instrument transformer output terminal and observing that the associated switching and signaling functions occur correctly and in proper time and sequence to accomplish the protective function intended.
Each switching circuit shall be observed to operate the associated equipment being switched.
Each control or signal circuit shall be observed to perform its proper control function or produce a correct signal output.
All metering circuits shall be verified to operate correctly from voltage and current sources in a similar manner to protective relay circuits.
Complete acceptance tests shall be performed, after the substation installation is completed, on all assemblies, equipment, conductors, and control and protective systems, as applicable, to verify the integrity of all the systems.
All relays and metering that use phase differences for operation shall be verified by measuring phase angles at the relay under actual load conditions after operation commences.
A test report covering the results of the tests required in 225.56(A) shall be delivered to the authority having jurisdiction prior to energization.
Informational Note: For an example of acceptance specifications, see ANSI/NETA ATS-2013, Acceptance Testing Specifications for Electrical Power Distribution Equipment and Systems, published by the InterNational Electrical Testing Association.
Table 225.60 Clearances over Roadways, Walkways, Rail, Water, and Open Land
Location Clearance
m ft
Open land subject to vehicles, cultivation, or grazing 5.6 18.5
Roadways, driveways, parking lots, and alleys 5.6 18.5
Walkways 4.1 13.5
Rails 8.1 26.5
Spaces and ways for pedestrians and restricted traffic 4.4 14.5
Water areas not suitable for boating 5.2 17.0
The clearances over roadways, walkways, rail, water, and open land for conductors and live parts up to 22 kV, nominal, to ground or less shall be not less than the values shown in Table 225.60.
Clearances for the categories shown in Table 225.60 shall be increased by 10 mm (0.4 in.) per kV above 22,000 volts.
For special cases, such as where crossings will be made over lakes, rivers, or areas using large vehicles such as mining operations, specific designs shall be engineered considering the special circumstances and shall be approved by the authority having jurisdiction.
Informational Note: For additional information, see ANSI/IEEE C2-2017, National Electrical Safety Code.
Table 225.61 Clearances over Buildings and Other Structures
Clearance from Conductors or Live Parts from: Horizontal Vertical
m ft m ft
Building walls, projections, and windows 2.3 7.5
Balconies, catwalks, and similar areas accessible to people 2.3 7.5 4.1 13.5
Over or under roofs or projections not readily accessible to people 3.8 12.5
Over roofs accessible to vehicles but not trucks 4.1 13.5
Over roofs accessible to trucks 5.6 18.5
Other structures 2.3 7.5
The clearances over buildings and other structures for conductors and live parts up to 22 kV, nominal, to ground or less shall be not less than the values shown in Table 225.61.
Clearances for the categories shown in Table 225.61 shall be increased by 10 mm (0.4 in.) per kV above 22,000 volts.
Informational Note: For additional information, see ANSI/IEEE C2-2017, National Electrical Safety Code.
This article covers service conductors and equipment for control and protection of services and their installation requirements.
Informational Note: See Figure 230.1.
 
General Part I
Overhead Service Conductors Part II
Underground Service Conductors Part III
Service-Entrance Conductors Part IV
Service Equipment—General Part V
Service EquipmentDisconnecting Means Part VI
Service EquipmentOvercurrent Protection Part VII
Services Exceeding 1000 Volts, Nominal Part VIII
FIGURE 230.1 Services.
A building or other structure served shall be supplied by only one service unless permitted in 230.2(A) through (D). For the purpose of 230.40, Exception No. 2 only, underground sets of conductors, 1/0 AWG and larger, running to the same location and connected together at their supply end but not connected together at their load end shall be considered to be supplying one service.
Additional services shall be permitted to supply the following:
  1. Fire pumps
  2. Emergency systems
  3. Legally required standby systems
  4. Optional standby systems
  5. Parallel power production systems
  6. Systems designed for connection to multiple sources of supply for the purpose of enhanced reliability
By special permission, additional services shall be permitted for either of the following:
  1. Multiple-occupancy buildings where there is no available space for service equipment accessible to all occupants
  2. A single building or other structure sufficiently large to make two or more services necessary
Additional services shall be permitted under any of the following:
  1. Where the capacity requirements are in excess of 2000 amperes at a supply voltage of 1000 volts or less
  2. Where the load requirements of a single-phase installation are greater than the serving agency normally supplies through one service
  3. By special permission
Additional services shall be permitted for different voltages, frequencies, or phases, or for different uses, such as for different rate schedules.
Where a building or structure is supplied by more than one service, or any combination of branch circuits, feeders, and services, a permanent plaque or directory shall be installed at each service disconnect location denoting all other services, feeders, and branch circuits supplying that building or structure and the area served by each. See 225.37.
Service conductors supplying a building or other structure shall not pass through the interior of another building or other structure.
Conductors shall be considered outside of a building or other structure under any of the following conditions:
  1. Where installed under not less than 50 mm (2 in.) of concrete beneath a building or other structure
  2. Where installed within a building or other structure in a raceway that is encased in concrete or brick not less than 50 mm (2 in.) thick
  3. Where installed in any vault that meets the construction requirements of Article 450, Part III
  4. Where installed in conduit and under not less than 450 mm (18 in.) of earth beneath a building or other structure
  5. Where installed within rigid metal conduit (Type RMC) or intermediate metal conduit (Type IMC) used to accommodate the clearance requirements in 230.24 and routed directly through an eave but not a wall of a building
Conductors other than service conductors shall not be installed in the same service raceway or service cable in which the service conductors are installed.
Exception No. 1: Grounding electrode conductors or supply side bonding jumpers or conductors shall be permitted within service raceways.
Exception No. 2: Load management control conductors having overcurrent protection shall be permitted within service raceways.
Where a service raceway enters a building or structure from an underground distribution system, it shall be sealed in accordance with 300.5(G). Spare or unused raceways shall also be sealed. Sealants shall be identified for use with the cable insulation, shield, or other components.
Service conductors and final spans shall comply with 230.9(A), (B), and (C).
Service conductors installed as open conductors or multiconductor cable without an overall outer jacket shall have a clearance of not less than 900 mm (3 ft) from windows that are designed to be opened, doors, porches, balconies, ladders, stairs, fire escapes, or similar locations.
Exception: Conductors run above the top level of a window shall be permitted to be less than the 900 mm (3 ft) requirement.
The vertical clearance of final spans above, or within 900 mm (3 ft) measured horizontally of platforms, projections, or surfaces that will permit personal contact shall be maintained in accordance with 230.24(B).
Overhead service conductors shall not be installed beneath openings through which materials may be moved, such as openings in farm and commercial buildings, and shall not be installed where they obstruct entrance to these building openings.
Vegetation such as trees shall not be used for support of overhead service conductors or service equipment.
Individual conductors shall be insulated or covered.
Exception: The grounded conductor of a multiconductor cable shall be permitted to be bare.
Conductors shall have sufficient ampacity to carry the current for the load as calculated in accordance with Article 220 and shall have adequate mechanical strength.
The conductors shall not be smaller than 8 AWG copper or 6 AWG aluminum or copper-clad aluminum.
Exception: Conductors supplying only limited loads of a single branch circuit — such as small polyphase power, controlled water heaters, and similar loads — shall not be smaller than 12 AWG hard-drawn copper or equivalent.
The grounded conductor shall not be less than the minimum size as required by 250.24(C).
Overhead service conductors shall not be readily accessible and shall comply with 230.24(A) through (E) for services not over 1000 volts, nominal.
Conductors shall have a vertical clearance of not less than 2.5 m (8 ft) above the roof surface. The vertical clearance above the roof level shall be maintained for a distance of not less than 900 mm (3 ft) in all directions from the edge of the roof.
Exception No. 1: The area above a roof surface subject to pedestrian or vehicular traffic shall have a vertical clearance from the roof surface in accordance with the clearance requirements of 230.24(B).
Exception No. 2: Where the voltage between conductors does not exceed 300 and the roof has a slope of 100 mm in 300 mm (4 in. in 12 in.) or greater, a reduction in clearance to 900 mm (3 ft) shall be permitted.
Exception No. 3: Where the voltage between conductors does not exceed 300, a reduction in clearance above only the overhanging portion of the roof to not less than 450 mm (18 in.) shall be permitted if (1) not more than 1.8 m (6 ft) of overhead service conductors, 1.2 m (4 ft) horizontally, pass above the roof overhang, and (2) they are terminated at a through-the-roof raceway or approved support.
Informational Note: See 230.28 for mast supports.
Exception No. 4: The requirement for maintaining the vertical clearance 900 mm (3 ft) from the edge of the roof shall not apply to the final conductor span where the service drop or overhead service conductors are attached to the side of a building.
Exception No. 5: Where the voltage between conductors does not exceed 300 and the roof area is guarded or isolated, a reduction in clearance to 900 mm (3 ft) shall be permitted.
Overhead service conductors, where not in excess of 1000 volts, nominal, shall have the following minimum clearance from final grade:
  1. 3.0 m (10 ft) — at the electrical service entrance to buildings, also at the lowest point of the drip loop of the building electrical entrance, and above areas or sidewalks accessible only to pedestrians, measured from final grade or other accessible surface only for overhead service conductors supported on and cabled together with a grounded bare messenger where the voltage does not exceed 150 volts to ground
  2. 3.7 m (12 ft) — over residential property and driveways, and those commercial areas not subject to truck traffic where the voltage does not exceed 300 volts to ground
  3. 4.5 m (15 ft) — for those areas listed in the 3.7 m (12 ft) classification where the voltage exceeds 300 volts to ground
  4. 5.5 m (18 ft) — over public streets, alleys, roads, parking areas subject to truck traffic, driveways on other than residential property, and other land such as cultivated, grazing, forest, and orchard
  5. 7.5 m (241/2 ft) over tracks of railroads
Clearance from communication wires and cables shall be in accordance with 800.44(A)(4).
The point of attachment of the overhead service conductors to a building or other structure shall provide the minimum clearances as specified in 230.9 and 230.24. In no case shall this point of attachment be less than 3.0 m (10 ft) above finished grade.
Multiconductor cables used for overhead service conductors shall be attached to buildings or other structures by fittings identified for use with service conductors. Open conductors shall be attached to fittings identified for use with service conductors or to noncombustible, nonabsorbent insulators securely attached to the building or other structure.
Only power service-drop or overhead service conductors shall be permitted to be attached to a service mast. Service masts used for the support of service-drop or overhead service conductors shall be installed in accordance with 230.28(A) and (B).
The service mast shall be of adequate strength or be supported by braces or guy wires to withstand safely the strain imposed by the service-drop or overhead service conductors. Hubs intended for use with a conduit that serves as a service mast shall be identified for use with service-entrance equipment.
Service-drop or overhead service conductors shall not be attached to a service mast between a weatherhead or the end of the conduit and a coupling, where the coupling is located above the last point of securement to the building or other structure or is located above the building or other structure.
Service conductors passing over a roof shall be securely supported by substantial structures. For a grounded system, where the substantial structure is metal, it shall be bonded by means of a bonding jumper and listed connector to the grounded overhead service conductor. Where practicable, such supports shall be independent of the building.
Underground service conductors shall be insulated for the applied voltage.
Exception: A grounded conductor shall be permitted to be uninsulated as follows:
  1. Bare copper used in a raceway
  2. Bare copper for direct burial where bare copper is approved for the soil conditions
  3. Bare copper for direct burial without regard to soil conditions where part of a cable assembly identified for underground use
  4. Aluminum or copper-clad aluminum without individual insulation or covering where part of a cable assembly identified for underground use in a raceway or for direct burial
Underground service conductors shall be installed in accordance with the applicable requirements of this Code covering the type of wiring method used and shall be limited to the following methods:
  1. Type RMC conduit
  2. Type IMC conduit
  3. Type NUCC conduit
  4. Type HDPE conduit
  5. Type PVC conduit
  6. Type RTRC conduit
  7. Type IGS cable
  8. Type USE conductors or cables
  9. Type MV or Type MC cable identified for direct burial applications
  10. Type MI cable, where suitably protected against physical damage and corrosive conditions
Underground service conductors shall have sufficient ampacity to carry the current for the load as calculated in accordance with Article 220 and shall have adequate mechanical strength.
The conductors shall not be smaller than 8 AWG copper or 6 AWG aluminum or copper-clad aluminum.
Exception: Conductors supplying only limited loads of a single branch circuit — such as small polyphase power, controlled water heaters, and similar loads — shall not be smaller than 12 AWG copper or 10 AWG aluminum or copper-clad aluminum.
The grounded conductor shall not be less than the minimum size required by 250.24(C).
Underground service conductors shall be protected against damage in accordance with 300.5. Service conductors entering a building or other structure shall be installed in accordance with 230.6 or protected by a raceway wiring method identified in 230.43.
Service conductors shall be permitted to be spliced or tapped in accordance with 110.14, 300.5(E), 300.13, and 300.15.
Each service drop, set of overhead service conductors, set of underground service conductors, or service lateral shall supply only one set of service-entrance conductors.
Exception No. 1: A building with more than one occupancy shall be permitted to have one set of service-entrance conductors for each service, as permitted in 230.2, run to each occupancy or group of occupancies. If the number of service disconnect locations for any given classification of service does not exceed six, the requirements of 230.2(E) shall apply at each location. If the number of service disconnect locations exceeds six for any given supply classification, all service disconnect locations for all supply characteristics, together with any branch circuit or feeder supply sources, if applicable, shall be clearly described using graphics or text, or both, on one or more plaques located in an approved, readily accessible location(s) on the building or structure served and as near as practicable to the point(s) of attachment or entry(ies) for each service drop or service lateral and for each set of overhead or underground service conductors.
Exception No. 2: Where two to six service disconnecting means in separate enclosures are grouped at one location and supply separate loads from one service drop, set of overhead service conductors, set of underground service conductors, or service lateral, one set of service-entrance conductors shall be permitted to supply each or several such service equipment enclosures.
Exception No. 3: A one-family dwelling unit and its accessory structures shall be permitted to have one set of service-entrance conductors run to each from a single service drop, set of overhead service conductors, set of underground service conductors, or service lateral.
Exception No. 4: Two-family dwellings, multifamily dwellings, and multiple occupancy buildings shall be permitted to have one set of service-entrance conductors installed to supply the circuits covered in 210.25.
Exception No. 5: One set of service-entrance conductors connected to the supply side of the normal service disconnecting means shall be permitted to supply each or several systems covered by 230.82(5) or 230.82(6).
Service-entrance conductors entering or on the exterior of buildings or other structures shall be insulated.
Exception: A grounded conductor shall be permitted to be uninsulated as follows:
  1. Bare copper used in a raceway or part of a service cable assembly
  2. Bare copper for direct burial where bare copper is approved for the soil conditions
  3. Bare copper for direct burial without regard to soil conditions where part of a cable assembly identified for underground use
  4. Aluminum or copper-clad aluminum without individual insulation or covering where part of a cable assembly or identified for underground use in a raceway, or for direct burial
  5. Bare conductors used in an auxiliary gutter
Service-entrance conductors shall have an ampacity of not less than the maximum load to be served. Conductors shall be sized not less than the largest of 230.42(A)(1) or (A)(2). Loads shall be determined in accordance with Part III, IV, or V of Article 220, as applicable. Ampacity shall be determined from 310.14 and shall comply with 110.14(C). The maximum current of busways shall be that value for which the busway has been listed or labeled.
Informational Note: For information on busways, see UL 857, Standard for Safety for Busways.
  1. Where the service-entrance conductors supply continuous loads or any combination of noncontinuous and continuous loads, the minimum service-entrance conductor size shall have an ampacity not less than the sum of the noncontinuous loads plus 125 percent of continuous loads.
    Exception No. 1: Grounded conductors that are not connected to an overcurrent device shall be permitted to be sized at 100 percent of the sum of the continuous and noncontinuous load.
    Exception No. 2: The sum of the noncontinuous load and the continuous load if the service-entrance conductors terminate in an overcurrent device where both the overcurrent device and its assembly are listed for operation at 100 percent of their rating shall be permitted.
  2. The minimum service-entrance conductor size shall have an ampacity not less than the maximum load to be served after the application of any adjustment or correction factors.
In addition to the requirements of 230.42(A), the minimum ampacity for ungrounded conductors for specific installations shall not be less than the rating of the service disconnecting means specified in 230.79(A) through (D).
The grounded conductor shall not be smaller than the minimum size as required by 250.24(C).
Service-entrance conductors shall be installed in accordance with the applicable requirements of this Code covering the type of wiring method used and shall be limited to the following methods:
  1. Open wiring on insulators
  2. Type IGS cable
  3. Rigid metal conduit (RMC)
  4. Intermediate metal conduit (IMC)
  5. Electrical metallic tubing (EMT)
  6. Electrical nonmetallic tubing
  7. Service-entrance cables
  8. Wireways
  9. Busways
  10. Auxiliary gutters
  11. Rigid polyvinyl chloride conduit (PVC)
  12. Cablebus
  13. Type MC cable
  14. Mineral-insulated, metal-sheathed cable, Type MI
  15. Flexible metal conduit (FMC) not over 1.8 m (6 ft) long or liquidtight flexible metal conduit (LFMC) not over 1.8 m (6 ft) long between a raceway, or between a raceway and service equipment, with a supply-side bonding jumper routed with the flexible metal conduit (FMC) or the liquidtight flexible metal conduit (LFMC) according to 250.102(A), (B), (C), and (E)
  16. Liquidtight flexible nonmetallic conduit (LFNC)
  17. High density polyethylene conduit (HDPE)
  18. Nonmetallic underground conduit with conductors (NUCC)
  19. Reinforced thermosetting resin conduit (RTRC)
  20. Type TC-ER cable
Cable tray systems shall be permitted to support service-entrance conductors. Cable trays used to support service-entrance conductors shall contain only service-entrance conductors and shall be limited to the following methods:
  1. Type SE cable
  2. Type MC cable
  3. Type MI cable
  4. Type IGS cable
  5. Single conductors 1/0 and larger that are listed for use in cable tray
  6. Type TC-ER cable
Such cable trays shall be identified with permanently affixed labels with the wording "Service-Entrance Conductors." The labels shall be located so as to be visible after installation with a spacing not to exceed 3 m (10 ft) so that the service-entrance conductors are able to be readily traced through the entire length of the cable tray.
Exception: Conductors, other than service-entrance conductors, shall be permitted to be installed in a cable tray with service-entrance conductors, provided a solid fixed barrier of a material compatible with the cable tray is installed to separate the service-entrance conductors from other conductors installed in the cable tray.
Service-entrance conductors shall be permitted to be spliced or tapped in accordance with 110.14, 300.5(E), 300.13, and 300.15. Power distribution blocks, pressure connectors, and devices for splices and taps shall be listed. Power distribution blocks installed on service conductors shall be marked "suitable for use on the line side of the service equipment" or equivalent.
Effective January 1, 2023, pressure connectors and devices for splices and taps installed on service conductors shall be marked "suitable for use on the line side of the service equipment" or equivalent.
Underground service-entrance conductors shall be protected against physical damage in accordance with 300.5.
All other service-entrance conductors, other than underground service entrance conductors, shall be protected against physical damage as specified in 230.50(B)(1) or (B)(2).
Service-entrance cables, where subject to physical damage, shall be protected by any of the following:
  1. Rigid metal conduit (RMC)
  2. Intermediate metal conduit (IMC)
  3. Schedule 80 PVC conduit
  4. Electrical metallic tubing (EMT)
  5. Reinforced thermosetting resin conduit (RTRC)
  6. Other approved means
Individual open conductors and cables, other than service-entrance cables, shall not be installed within 3.0 m (10 ft) of grade level or where exposed to physical damage.
Exception: Type MI and Type MC cable shall be permitted within 3.0 m (10 ft) of grade level where not exposed to physical damage or where protected in accordance with 300.5(D).
Service-entrance cables or individual open service-entrance conductors shall be supported as specified in 230.51(A), (B), or (C).
Service-entrance cables shall be supported by straps or other approved means within 300 mm (12 in.) of every service head, gooseneck, or connection to a raceway or enclosure and at intervals not exceeding 750 mm (30 in.).
Cables that are not approved for mounting in contact with a building or other structure shall be mounted on insulating supports installed at intervals not exceeding 4.5 m (15 ft) and in a manner that maintains a clearance of not less than 50 mm (2 in.) from the surface over which they pass.
Individual open conductors shall be installed in accordance with Table 230.51(C). Where exposed to the weather, the conductors shall be mounted on insulators or on insulating supports attached to racks, brackets, or other approved means. Where not exposed to the weather, the conductors shall be mounted on glass or porcelain knobs.
Table 230.51(C) Supports
Maximum Volts Maximum Distance Between Supports Minimum Clearance
Between Conductors From Surface
m ft mm in. mm in.
1000 2.7 9 150 6 50 2
1000 4.5 15 300 12 50 2
300 1.4 41/2 75 3 50 2
1000* 1.4* 41/2* 65* 21/2* 25* 1*
*Where not exposed to weather.
Where individual open conductors enter a building or other structure, they shall enter through roof bushings or through the wall in an upward slant through individual, noncombustible, nonabsorbent insulating tubes. Drip loops shall be formed on the conductors before they enter the tubes.
Where exposed to the weather, raceways enclosing service-entrance conductors shall be listed or approved for use in wet locations and arranged to drain. Where embedded in masonry, raceways shall be arranged to drain.
Service raceways shall be equipped with a service head at the point of connection to service-drop or overhead service conductors. The service head shall be listed for use in wet locations.
Service-entrance cables shall be equipped with a service head. The service head shall be listed for use in wet locations.
Exception: Type SE cable shall be permitted to be formed in a gooseneck and taped with a self-sealing weather-resistant thermoplastic.
Service heads on raceways or service-entrance cables and goosenecks in service-entrance cables shall be located above the point of attachment of the service-drop or overhead service conductors to the building or other structure.
Exception: Where it is impracticable to locate the service head or gooseneck above the point of attachment, the service head or gooseneck location shall be permitted not farther than 600 mm (24 in.) from the point of attachment.
Service-entrance cables shall be held securely in place.
Service heads shall have conductors of different potential brought out through separately bushed openings.
Exception: For jacketed multiconductor service-entrance cable without splice.
Drip loops shall be formed on individual conductors. To prevent the entrance of moisture, service-entrance conductors shall be connected to the service-drop or overhead service conductors either (1) below the level of the service head or (2) below the level of the termination of the service-entrance cable sheath.
On a 4-wire, delta-connected service where the midpoint of one phase winding is grounded, the service conductor having the higher phase voltage to ground shall be durably and permanently marked by an outer finish that is orange in color, or by other effective means, at each termination or junction point.
Energized parts shall be enclosed so that they will not be exposed to accidental contact or shall be guarded as in 230.62(B).
Energized parts that are not enclosed shall be installed on a switchboard, panelboard, or control board and guarded in accordance with 110.18 and 110.27. Where energized parts are guarded as provided in 110.27(A)(1) and (A)(2), a means for locking or sealing doors providing access to energized parts shall be provided.
Barriers shall be placed in service equipment such that no uninsulated, ungrounded service busbar or service terminal is exposed to inadvertent contact by persons or maintenance equipment while servicing load terminations.
Service equipment rated at 1000 volts or less shall be marked to identify it as being suitable for use as service equipment. All service equipment shall be listed or field evaluated.
Meter sockets shall not be considered service equipment but shall be listed and rated for the voltage and current rating of the service.
Exception: Meter sockets supplied by and under the exclusive control of an electric utility shall not be required to be listed.
The SPD shall be an integral part of the service equipment or shall be located immediately adjacent thereto.
Exception: The SPD shall not be required to be located in the service equipment as required in (B) if located at each next level distribution equipment downstream toward the load.
The SPD shall be a Type 1 or Type 2 SPD.
Where service equipment is replaced, all of the requirements of this section shall apply.
Means shall be provided to disconnect all ungrounded conductors in a building or other structure from the service conductors.
The service disconnecting means shall be installed in accordance with 230.70(A)(1), (A)(2), and (A)(3).
The service disconnecting means shall be installed at a readily accessible location either outside of a building or structure or inside nearest the point of entrance of the service conductors.
Where a remote control device(s) is used to actuate the service disconnecting means, the service disconnecting means shall be located in accordance with 230.70(A)(1).
Each service disconnect shall be permanently marked to identify it as a service disconnect.
Each service disconnecting means shall be suitable for the prevailing conditions. Service equipment installed in hazardous (classified) locations shall comply with the requirements of Articles 500 through 517.
Each service shall have only one disconnecting means unless the requirements of 230.71(B) are met.
For the purpose of this section, disconnecting means installed as part of listed equipment and used solely for the following shall not be considered a service disconnecting means:
  1. Power monitoring equipment
  2. Surge-protective device(s)
  3. Control circuit of the ground-fault protection system
  4. Power-operable service disconnecting means
Two to six service disconnects shall be permitted for each service permitted by 230.2 or for each set of service-entrance conductors permitted by 230.40, Exception No. 1, 3, 4, or 5. The two to six service disconnecting means shall be permitted to consist of a combination of any of the following:
  1. Separate enclosures with a main service disconnecting means in each enclosure
  2. Panelboards with a main service disconnecting means in each panelboard enclosure
  3. Switchboard(s) where there is only one service disconnect in each separate vertical section where there are barriers separating each vertical section
  4. Service disconnects in switchgear or metering centers where each disconnect is located in a separate compartment
Informational Note No. 1: Metering centers are addressed in UL 67, Standard for Panelboards.
Informational Note No. 2: Examples of separate enclosures with a main service disconnecting means in each enclosure include but are not limited to motor control centers, fused disconnects, circuit breaker enclosures, and transfer switches that are suitable for use as service equipment.
The two to six disconnects, if permitted in 230.71, shall be grouped. Each disconnect shall be marked to indicate the load served.
Exception: One of the two to six service disconnecting means permitted in 230.71, where used only for a water pump also intended to provide fire protection, shall be permitted to be located remote from the other disconnecting means. If remotely installed in accordance with this exception, a plaque shall be posted at the location of the remaining grouped disconnects denoting its location.
The one or more additional service disconnecting means for fire pumps, emergency systems, legally required standby, or optional standby services permitted by 230.2 shall be installed remote from the one to six service disconnecting means for normal service to minimize the possibility of simultaneous interruption of supply.
In a multiple-occupancy building, each occupant shall have access to the occupant's service disconnecting means.
Exception: In a multiple-occupancy building where electric service and electrical maintenance are provided by the building management and where these are under continuous building management supervision, the service disconnecting means supplying more than one occupancy shall be permitted to be accessible to authorized management personnel only.
Each service disconnect shall simultaneously disconnect all ungrounded service conductors that it controls from the premises wiring system.
Where the service disconnecting means does not disconnect the grounded conductor from the premises wiring, other means shall be provided for this purpose in the service equipment. A terminal or bus to which all grounded conductors can be attached by means of pressure connectors shall be permitted for this purpose. In a multisection switchboard or switchgear, disconnects for the grounded conductor shall be permitted to be in any section of the switchboard or switchgear.
Informational Note: In switchgear or multisection switchboards, the disconnecting means provided for the grounded conductor is typically identified as a neutral disconnect link and is typically located in the bus to which the service grounded conductor is connected.
The service disconnecting means for ungrounded service conductors shall consist of one of the following:
  1. A manually operable switch or circuit breaker equipped with a handle or other suitable operating means
  2. A power-operated switch or circuit breaker, provided the switch or circuit breaker can be opened by hand in the event of a power supply failure
The service disconnecting means shall plainly indicate whether it is in the open (off) or closed (on) position.
The service disconnecting means shall have a rating not less than the calculated load to be carried, determined in accordance with Part III, IV, or V of Article 220, as applicable. In no case shall the rating be lower than specified in 230.79(A), (B), (C), or (D).
For installations to supply only limited loads of a single branch circuit, the service disconnecting means shall have a rating of not less than 15 amperes.
For installations consisting of not more than two 2-wire branch circuits, the service disconnecting means shall have a rating of not less than 30 amperes.
For a one-family dwelling, the service disconnecting means shall have a rating of not less than 100 amperes, 3-wire.
For all other installations, the service disconnecting means shall have a rating of not less than 60 amperes.
Where the service disconnecting means consists of more than one switch or circuit breaker, as permitted by 230.71, the combined ratings of all the switches or circuit breakers used shall not be less than the rating required by 230.79.
The service conductors shall be connected to the service disconnecting means by pressure connectors, clamps, or other approved means. Connections that depend on solder shall not be used.
Only the following equipment shall be permitted to be connected to the supply side of the service disconnecting means:
  1. Cable limiters.
  2. Meters and meter sockets nominally rated not in excess of 1000 volts, if all metal housings and service enclosures are grounded in accordance with Part VII and bonded in accordance with Part V of Article 250.
  3. Meter disconnect switches nominally rated not in excess of 1000 volts that have a short-circuit current rating equal to or greater than the available fault current, if all metal housings and service enclosures are grounded in accordance with Part VII and bonded in accordance with Part V of Article 250. A meter disconnect switch shall be capable of interrupting the load served. A meter disconnect shall be legibly field marked on its exterior in a manner suitable for the environment as follows:
    METER DISCONNECT
    NOT SERVICE EQUIPMENT
  4. Instrument transformers (current and voltage), impedance shunts, load management devices, surge arresters, and Type 1 surge-protective devices.
  5. Conductors used to supply load management devices, circuits for standby power systems, fire pump equipment, and fire and sprinkler alarms, if provided with service equipment and installed in accordance with requirements for service-entrance conductors.
  6. Solar photovoltaic systems, fuel cell systems, wind electric systems, energy storage systems, or interconnected electric power production sources, if provided with a disconnecting means listed as suitable for use as service equipment, and overcurrent protection as specified in Part VII of Article 230.
  7. Control circuits for power-operable service disconnecting means, if suitable overcurrent protection and disconnecting means are provided.
  8. Ground-fault protection systems or Type 2 surge-protective devices, where installed as part of listed equipment, if suitable overcurrent protection and disconnecting means are provided.
  9. Connections used only to supply listed communications equipment under the exclusive control of the serving electric utility, if suitable overcurrent protection and disconnecting means are provided. For installations of equipment by the serving electric utility, a disconnecting means is not required if the supply is installed as part of a meter socket, such that access can only be gained with the meter removed.
  10. Emergency disconnects in accordance with 230.85, if all metal housings and service enclosures are grounded in accordance with Part VII and bonded in accordance with Part V of Article 250.
  11. Meter-mounted transfer switches nominally rated not in excess of 1000 volts that have a short-circuit current rating equal to or greater than the available fault current. A meter-mounted transfer switch shall be listed and be capable of transferring the load served. A meter-mounted transfer switch shall be marked on its exterior with both of the following:
    1. Meter-mounted transfer switch
    2. Not service equipment
For one- and two-family dwelling units, all service conductors shall terminate in disconnecting means having a short-circuit current rating equal to or greater than the available fault current, installed in a readily accessible outdoor location. If more than one disconnect is provided, they shall be grouped. Each disconnect shall be one of the following:
  1. Service disconnects marked as follows:
    EMERGENCY DISCONNECT,
    SERVICE DISCONNECT
  2. Meter disconnects installed per 230.82(3) and marked as follows:
    EMERGENCY DISCONNECT,
    METER DISCONNECT,
    NOT SERVICE EQUIPMENT
  3. Other listed disconnect switches or circuit breakers on the supply side of each service disconnect that are suitable for use as service equipment and marked as follows:
    EMERGENCY DISCONNECT,
    NOT SERVICE EQUIPMENT
Markings shall comply with 110.21(B).
Each ungrounded service conductor shall have overload protection.
Such protection shall be provided by an overcurrent device in series with each ungrounded service conductor that has a rating or setting not higher than the ampacity of the conductor. A set of fuses shall be considered all the fuses required to protect all the ungrounded conductors of a circuit. Single-pole circuit breakers, grouped in accordance with 230.71(B), shall be considered as one protective device.
Exception No. 1: For motor-starting currents, ratings that comply with 430.52, 430.62, and 430.63 shall be permitted.
Exception No. 2: Fuses and circuit breakers with a rating or setting that complies with 240.4(B) or (C) and 240.6 shall be permitted.
Exception No. 3: Two to six circuit breakers or sets of fuses shall be permitted as the overcurrent device to provide the overload protection. The sum of the ratings of the circuit breakers or fuses shall be permitted to exceed the ampacity of the service conductors, provided the calculated load does not exceed the ampacity of the service conductors.
Exception No. 4: Overload protection for fire pump supply conductors shall comply with 695.4(B)(2)(a).
Exception No. 5: Overload protection for 120/240-volt, 3-wire, single-phase dwelling services shall be permitted in accordance with the requirements of 310.12.
No overcurrent device shall be inserted in a grounded service conductor except a circuit breaker that simultaneously opens all conductors of the circuit.
The service overcurrent device shall be an integral part of the service disconnecting means or shall be located immediately adjacent thereto. Where fuses are used as the service overcurrent device, the disconnecting means shall be located ahead of the supply side of the fuses.
Where the service overcurrent devices are locked or sealed or are not readily accessible to the occupant, branch-circuit or feeder overcurrent devices shall be installed on the load side, shall be mounted in a readily accessible location, and shall be of lower ampere rating than the service overcurrent device.
Where necessary to prevent tampering, an automatic overcurrent device that protects service conductors supplying only a specific load, such as a water heater, shall be permitted to be locked or sealed where located so as to be accessible.
The overcurrent device shall protect all circuits and devices.
Exception No. 1: The service switch shall be permitted on the supply side.
Exception No. 2: High-impedance shunt circuits, surge arresters, Type 1 surge-protective devices, surge-protective capacitors, and instrument transformers (current and voltage) shall be permitted to be connected and installed on the supply side of the service disconnecting means as permitted by 230.82.
Exception No. 3: Circuits for load management devices shall be permitted to be connected on the supply side of the service overcurrent device where separately provided with overcurrent protection.
Exception No. 4: Circuits used only for the operation of fire alarm, other protective signaling systems, or the supply to fire pump equipment shall be permitted to be connected on the supply side of the service overcurrent device where separately provided with overcurrent protection.
Exception No. 5: Meters nominally rated not in excess of 600 volts shall be permitted, provided all metal housings and service enclosures are grounded.
Exception No. 6: Where service equipment is power operable, the control circuit shall be permitted to be connected ahead of the service equipment if suitable overcurrent protection and disconnecting means are provided.
Ground-fault protection of equipment shall be provided for solidly grounded wye electric services of more than 150 volts to ground but not exceeding 1000 volts phase-to-phase for each service disconnect rated 1000 amperes or more. The grounded conductor for the solidly grounded wye system shall be connected directly to ground through a grounding electrode system, as specified in 250.50, without inserting any resistor or impedance device.
The rating of the service disconnect shall be considered to be the rating of the largest fuse that can be installed or the highest continuous current trip setting for which the actual overcurrent device installed in a circuit breaker is rated or can be adjusted.
Exception: The ground-fault protection provisions of this section shall not apply to a service disconnect for a continuous industrial process where a nonorderly shutdown will introduce additional or increased hazards.
The ground-fault protection system shall operate to cause the service disconnect to open all ungrounded conductors of the faulted circuit. The maximum setting of the ground-fault protection shall be 1200 amperes, and the maximum time delay shall be one second for ground-fault currents equal to or greater than 3000 amperes.
If a switch and fuse combination is used, the fuses employed shall be capable of interrupting any current higher than the interrupting capacity of the switch during a time that the ground-fault protective system will not cause the switch to open.
The ground-fault protection system shall be performance tested when first installed on site. This testing shall be conducted by a qualified person(s) using a test process of primary current injection, in accordance with instructions that shall be provided with the equipment. A written record of this testing shall be made and shall be available to the authority having jurisdiction.
Informational Note No. 1: Ground-fault protection that functions to open the service disconnect affords no protection from faults on the line side of the protective element. It serves only to limit damage to conductors and equipment on the load side in the event of an arcing ground fault on the load side of the protective element.
Informational Note No. 2: This added protective equipment at the service equipment may make it necessary to review the overall wiring system for proper selective overcurrent protection coordination. Additional installations of ground-fault protective equipment may be needed on feeders and branch circuits where maximum continuity of electric service is necessary.
Informational Note No. 3: Where ground-fault protection is provided for the service disconnect and interconnection is made with another supply system by a transfer device, means or devices may be needed to ensure proper ground-fault sensing by the ground-fault protection equipment.
Informational Note No. 4: See 517.17(A) for information on where an additional step of ground-fault protection is required for hospitals and other buildings with critical areas or life support equipment.
Service conductors and equipment used on circuits exceeding 1000 volts, nominal, shall comply with all the applicable preceding sections of this article and with the following sections that supplement or modify the preceding sections. In no case shall the provisions of Part VIII apply to equipment on the supply side of the service point.
Informational Note: For clearances of conductors of over 1000 volts, nominal, see ANSI/IEEE C2-2017, National Electrical Safety Code.
Service-entrance conductors to buildings or enclosures shall be installed to conform to 230.202(A) and (B).
Service-entrance conductors shall not be smaller than 6 AWG unless in multiconductor cable. Multiconductor cable shall not be smaller than 8 AWG.
Service-entrance conductors shall be installed by one of the wiring methods covered in 300.37 and 300.50.
Where oil switches or air, oil, vacuum, or sulfur hexafluoride circuit breakers constitute the service disconnecting means, an isolating switch with visible break contacts shall be installed on the supply side of the disconnecting means and all associated service equipment.
Exception: An isolating switch shall not be required where the circuit breaker or switch is mounted on removable truck panels or switchgear units where both of the following conditions apply:
  1. Cannot be opened unless the circuit is disconnected
  2. Where all energized parts are automatically disconnected when the circuit breaker or switch is removed from the normal operating position
Where fuses are of the type that can be operated as a disconnecting switch, a set of such fuses shall be permitted as the isolating switch.
Isolating switches shall be provided with a means for readily connecting the load side conductors to a grounding electrode system, equipment ground busbar, or grounded steel structure when disconnected from the source of supply.
A means for grounding the load side conductors to a grounding electrode system, equipment grounding busbar, or grounded structural steel shall not be required for any duplicate isolating switch installed and maintained by the electric supply company.
The service disconnecting means shall be located in accordance with 230.70.
For either overhead or underground primary distribution systems on private property, the service disconnect shall be permitted to be located in a location that is not readily accessible, if the disconnecting means can be operated by mechanical linkage from a readily accessible point, or electronically in accordance with 230.205(C), where applicable.
Each service disconnect shall simultaneously disconnect all ungrounded service conductors that it controls and shall have a fault-closing rating that is not less than the available fault current at its supply terminals.
Where fused switches or separately mounted fuses are installed, the fuse characteristics shall be permitted to contribute to the fault-closing rating of the disconnecting means.
For multibuilding, industrial installations under single management, the service disconnecting means shall be permitted to be located at a separate building or structure. In such cases, the service disconnecting means shall be permitted to be electrically operated by a readily accessible, remote-control device.
Where the circuit breaker or alternative for it, as specified in 230.208 for service overcurrent devices, meets the requirements specified in 230.205, it shall constitute the service disconnecting means.
A short-circuit protective device shall be provided on the load side of, or as an integral part of, the service disconnect, and shall protect all ungrounded conductors that it supplies. The protective device shall be capable of detecting and interrupting all values of current, in excess of its trip setting or melting point, that can occur at its location. A fuse rated in continuous amperes not to exceed three times the ampacity of the conductor, or a circuit breaker with a trip setting of not more than six times the ampacity of the conductors, shall be considered as providing the required short-circuit protection.
Informational Note: See Table 311.60(C)(67) through Table 311.60(C)(86) for ampacities of conductors rated 2001 volts to 35,000 volts.
Overcurrent devices shall conform to 230.208(A) and (B).
Equipment used to protect service-entrance conductors shall meet the requirements of Article 490, Part II.
The restriction to 80 percent of the rating for an enclosed overcurrent device for continuous loads shall not apply to overcurrent devices installed in systems operating at over 1000 volts.
Surge arresters installed in accordance with the requirements of Article 242 shall be permitted on each ungrounded overhead service conductor.
Informational Note: Surge arresters may be referred to as lightning arresters in older documents.
Service equipment, including instrument transformers, shall conform to Article 490, Part I.
Switchgear shall consist of a substantial metal structure and a sheet metal enclosure. Where installed over a combustible floor, suitable protection thereto shall be provided.
Where the voltage exceeds 35,000 volts between conductors that enter a building, they shall terminate in a switchgear compartment or a vault conforming to the requirements of 450.41 through 450.48.
Parts I through VII of this article provide the general requirements for overcurrent protection and overcurrent protective devices not more than 1000 volts, nominal. Part VIII covers overcurrent protection for those portions of supervised industrial installations operating at voltages of not more than 1000 volts, nominal. Part IX covers overcurrent protection over 1000 volts, nominal.
Informational Note: Overcurrent protection for conductors and equipment is provided to open the circuit if the current reaches a value that will cause an excessive or dangerous temperature in conductors or conductor insulation. See also 110.9 for requirements for interrupting ratings and 110.10 for requirements for protection against fault currents.
The definitions in this section shall apply only within this article.
Current-Limiting Overcurrent Protective Device. A device that, when interrupting currents in its current-limiting range, reduces the current flowing in the faulted circuit to a magnitude substantially less than that obtainable in the same circuit if the device were replaced with a solid conductor having comparable impedance.
Supervised Industrial Installation. For the purposes of Part VIII, the industrial portions of a facility where all of the following conditions are met:
  1. Conditions of maintenance and engineering supervision ensure that only qualified persons monitor and service the system.
  2. The premises wiring system has 2500 kVA or greater of load used in industrial process(es), manufacturing activities, or both, as calculated in accordance with Article 220.
  3. The premises has at least one service or feeder that is more than 150 volts to ground and more than 300 volts phase-to-phase.
This definition excludes installations in buildings used by the industrial facility for offices, warehouses, garages, machine shops, and recreational facilities that are not an integral part of the industrial plant, substation, or control center.
Tap Conductor. A conductor, other than a service conductor, that has overcurrent protection ahead of its point of supply that exceeds the value permitted for similar conductors that are protected as described elsewhere in 240.4.
Equipment shall be protected against overcurrent in accordance with the article in this Code that covers the type of equipment specified in Table 240.3.
Table 240.3 Other Articles
Equipment Article
Air-conditioning and refrigerating equipment 440
Appliances 422
Assembly occupancies 518
Audio signal processing, amplification, and reproduction equipment 640
Branch circuits 210
Busways 368
Capacitors 460
Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3 remote-control, signaling, and power-limited circuits 725
Cranes and hoists 610
Electric signs and outline lighting 600
Electric welders 630
Electrolytic cells 668
Elevators, dumbwaiters, escalators, moving walks, wheelchair lifts, and stairway chairlifts 620
Emergency systems 700
Fire alarm systems 760
Fire pumps 695
Fixed electric heating equipment for pipelines and vessels 427
Fixed electric space-heating equipment 424
Fixed outdoor electric deicing and snow-melting equipment 426
Generators 445
Health care facilities 517
Induction and dielectric heating equipment 665
Industrial machinery 670
Luminaires, lampholders, and lamps 410
Motion picture and television studios and similar locations 530
Motors, motor circuits, and controllers 430
Phase converters 455
Pipe organs 650
Receptacles 406
Services 230
Solar photovoltaic systems 690
Switchboards and panelboards 408
Theaters, audience areas of motion picture and television studios, and similar locations 520
Transformers and transformer vaults 450
X-ray equipment 660
Conductors, other than flexible cords, flexible cables, and fixture wires, shall be protected against overcurrent in accordance with their ampacities specified in 310.14, unless otherwise permitted or required in 240.4(A) through (G).
Informational Note: See ICEA P-32-382-2007 (R2013), Short Circuit Characteristics of Insulated Cables, for information on allowable short-circuit currents for insulated copper and aluminum conductors.
Conductor overload protection shall not be required where the interruption of the circuit would create a hazard, such as in a material-handling magnet circuit or fire pump circuit. Short-circuit protection shall be provided.
Informational Note: See NFPA 20-2013, Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection.
The next higher standard overcurrent device rating (above the ampacity of the conductors being protected) shall be permitted to be used, provided all of the following conditions are met:
  1. The conductors being protected are not part of a branch circuit supplying more than one receptacle for cord-and-plug-connected portable loads.
  2. The ampacity of the conductors does not correspond with the standard ampere rating of a fuse or a circuit breaker without overload trip adjustments above its rating (but that shall be permitted to have other trip or rating adjustments).
  3. The next higher standard rating selected does not exceed 800 amperes.
Where the overcurrent device is rated over 800 amperes, the ampacity of the conductors it protects shall be equal to or greater than the rating of the overcurrent device defined in 240.6.
Unless specifically permitted in 240.4(E) or (G), the overcurrent protection shall not exceed that required by (D)(1) through (D)(7) after any correction factors for ambient temperature and number of conductors have been applied.
7 amperes, provided all the following conditions are met:
  1. Continuous loads do not exceed 5.6 amperes.
  2. Overcurrent protection is provided by one of the following:
    1. Branch-circuit-rated circuit breakers listed and marked for use with 18 AWG copper wire
    2. Branch-circuit-rated fuses listed and marked for use with 18 AWG copper wire
    3. Class CC, Class J, or Class T fuses
10 amperes, provided all the following conditions are met:
  1. Continuous loads do not exceed 8 amperes.
  2. Overcurrent protection is provided by one of the following:
    1. Branch-circuit-rated circuit breakers listed and marked for use with 16 AWG copper wire
    2. Branch-circuit-rated fuses listed and marked for use with 16 AWG copper wire
    3. Class CC, Class J, or Class T fuses
Tap conductors shall be permitted to be protected against overcurrent in accordance with the following:
  1. 210.19(A)(3) and (A)(4), Household Ranges and Cooking Appliances and Other Loads
  2. 240.5(B)(2), Fixture Wire
  3. 240.21, Location in Circuit
  4. 368.17(B), Reduction in Ampacity Size of Busway
  5. 368.17(C), Feeder or Branch Circuits (busway taps)
  6. 430.53(D), Single Motor Taps
Single-phase (other than 2-wire) and multiphase (other than delta-delta, 3-wire) transformer secondary conductors shall not be considered to be protected by the primary overcurrent protective device. Conductors supplied by the secondary side of a single-phase transformer having a 2-wire (single-voltage) secondary, or a three-phase, delta-delta connected transformer having a 3-wire (single-voltage) secondary, shall be permitted to be protected by overcurrent protection provided on the primary (supply) side of the transformer, provided this protection is in accordance with 450.3 and does not exceed the value determined by multiplying the secondary conductor ampacity by the secondary-to-primary transformer voltage ratio.
Overcurrent protection for the specific conductors shall be permitted to be provided as referenced in Table 240.4(G).
Table 240.4(G) Specific Conductor Applications
Conductor Article Section
Air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment circuit conductors 440, Parts III, VI
Capacitor circuit conductors 460 460.8(B) and 460.25
Control and instrumentation circuit conductors (Type ITC) 727 727.9
Electric welder circuit conductors 630 630.12 and 630.32
Fire alarm system circuit conductors 760 760.43, 760.45, 760.121, and Chapter 9, Tables 12(A) and 12(B)
Motor-operated appliance circuit conductors 422, Part II
Motor and motor-control circuit conductors 430, Parts II, III, IV, V, VI, VII
Phase converter supply conductors 455 455.7
Remote-control, signaling, and power-limited circuit conductors 725 725.43, 725.45, 725.121, and Chapter 9, Tables 11(A) and 11(B)
Secondary tie conductors 450 450.6
Flexible cord and flexible cable, including tinsel cord and extension cords, and fixture wires shall be protected against overcurrent by either 240.5(A) or (B).
Flexible cord and flexible cable shall be protected by an overcurrent device in accordance with their ampacity as specified in Table 400.5(A)(1) and Table 400.5(A)(2). Fixture wire shall be protected against overcurrent in accordance with its ampacity as specified in Table 402.5. Supplementary overcurrent protection, as covered in 240.10, shall be permitted to be an acceptable means for providing this protection.
Flexible cord shall be protected, where supplied by a branch circuit, in accordance with one of the methods described in 240.5(B)(1), (B)(3), or (B)(4). Fixture wire shall be protected, where supplied by a branch circuit, in accordance with 240.5(B)(2).
Where flexible cord or tinsel cord is approved for and used with a specific listed appliance or luminaire, it shall be considered to be protected when applied within the appliance or luminaire listing requirements. For the purposes of this section, a luminaire may be either portable or permanent.
Fixture wire shall be permitted to be tapped to the branch-circuit conductor of a branch circuit in accordance with the following:
  1. 15- or 20-ampere circuits — 18 AWG, up to 15 m (50 ft) of run length
  2. 15- or 20-ampere circuits — 16 AWG, up to 30 m (100 ft) of run length
  3. 20-ampere circuits — 14 AWG and larger
  4. 30-ampere circuits — 14 AWG and larger
  5. 40-ampere circuits — 12 AWG and larger
  6. 50-ampere circuits — 12 AWG and larger
Flexible cord used in listed extension cord sets shall be considered to be protected when applied within the extension cord listing requirements.
Flexible cord used in extension cords made with separately listed and installed components shall be permitted to be supplied by a branch circuit in accordance with the following:
20-ampere circuits — 16 AWG and larger
The standard ampere ratings for fuses and inverse time circuit breakers shall be considered as shown in Table 240.6(A). Additional standard ampere ratings for fuses shall be 1,3, 6, 10, and 601. The use of fuses and inverse time circuit breakers with nonstandard ampere ratings shall be permitted.
Table 240.6(A) Standard Ampere Ratings for Fuses and Inverse Time Circuit Breakers
Standard Ampere Ratings
15 20 25 30 35
40 45 50 60 70
80 90 100 110 125
150 175 200 225 250
300 350 400 450 500
600 700 800 1000 1200
1600 2000 2500 3000 4000
5000 6000
The rating of adjustable-trip circuit breakers having external means for adjusting the current setting (long-time pickup setting), not meeting the requirements of 240.6(C), shall be the maximum setting possible.
A circuit breaker(s) that has restricted access to the adjusting means shall be permitted to have an ampere rating(s) that is equal to the adjusted current setting (long-time pickup setting). Restricted access shall be achieved by one of the following methods:
  1. Located behind removable and sealable covers over the adjusting means
  2. Located behind bolted equipment enclosure doors
  3. Located behind locked doors accessible only to qualified personnel
  4. Password protected, with password accessible only to qualified personnel
Fuses and circuit breakers shall be permitted to be connected in parallel where they are factory assembled in parallel and listed as a unit. Individual fuses, circuit breakers, or combinations thereof shall not otherwise be connected in parallel.
Thermal relays and other devices not designed to open short circuits or ground faults shall not be used for the protection of conductors against overcurrent due to short circuits or ground faults, but the use of such devices shall be permitted to protect motor branch-circuit conductors from overload if protected in accordance with 430.40.
Where supplementary overcurrent protection is used for luminaires, appliances, and other equipment or for internal circuits and components of equipment, it shall not be used as a substitute for required branch-circuit overcurrent devices or in place of the required branch-circuit protection. Supplementary overcurrent devices shall not be required to be readily accessible.
Where an orderly shutdown is required to minimize the hazard(s) to personnel and equipment, a system of coordination based on the following two conditions shall be permitted:
  1. Coordinated short-circuit protection
  2. Overload indication based on monitoring systems or devices
Informational Note: The monitoring system may cause the condition to go to alarm, allowing corrective action or an orderly shutdown, thereby minimizing personnel hazard and equipment damage.
Ground-fault protection of equipment shall be provided in accordance with 230.95 for solidly grounded wye electrical systems of more than 150 volts to ground but not exceeding 1000 volts phase-to-phase for each individual device used as a building or structure main disconnecting means rated 1000 amperes or more.
This section shall not apply to the disconnecting means for the following:
  1. Continuous industrial processes where a nonorderly shutdown will introduce additional or increased hazards
  2. Installations where ground-fault protection is provided by other requirements for services or feeders
  3. Fire pumps
A fuse or an overcurrent trip unit of a circuit breaker shall be connected in series with each ungrounded conductor. A combination of a current transformer and overcurrent relay shall be considered equivalent to an overcurrent trip unit.
Informational Note: For motor circuits, see Parts III, IV, V, and XI of Article 430.
Circuit breakers shall open all ungrounded conductors of the circuit both manually and automatically unless otherwise permitted in 240.15(B)(1), (B)(2), (B)(3), and (B)(4).
Individual single-pole circuit breakers, with identified handle ties, shall be permitted as the protection for each ungrounded conductor of multiwire branch circuits that serve only single-phase line-to-neutral loads.